Trapezium oblongum, copyright www.seashellhub.com.

Belongs within: Bivalvia.
Contains: Hippuritacea, Psammobia, Neomiodontidae, Carditoidea, Crassatelloidea, Anomalodesmata, Panopea, Gastrochaenidae, Tellinoidea, Cardiidae, Chama, Lasaeidae, Lucinidae, Galeommatidae, Pholadoidea, Solenoidea, Mactroidea, Dreissenidae, Myoidea, Sphaeriidae, Corbiculidae, Veneridae.

The Heterodonta are one of the major living clades of bivalves, with their earliest representatives appearing in the Ordovician. In the past, the living members of the clade were divided between the orders Veneroida and Myoida (the latter including burrowing forms with thin shells and reduced dentition), but molecular analyses have indicated that the myoidans are polyphyletic (Giribet & Wheeler 2002). Instead, a clade containing the Carditoidea and Crassatelloidea appears to be the first group to have separated from the remaining heterodonts, followed by the Anomalodesmata (previously regarded as distinct from the Heterodonta).

Other groups within the Heterodonta include the Hiatellidae, a family of small, quadrate to trapezoidal, burrowing or nestling clams. The Galeommatoidea are burrowing clams with the shell commonly thin and more or less covered externally by the mantle.

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969, excluding Anomalodesmata in which many characters have become altered): Mantle lobes more or less joined and usually possessing developed siphons; cardinal area commonly present, prosodetic or divided into lunule and escutcheon; ligament opisthodetic, with or without separate resilium; without lithodesma and rarely with external accessory shelly pieces; nepionic stage usually without taxodont provinculum or adult byssus; generally possessing hinge plate and teeth differentiated into distinct cardinals and laterals; shell structure crossed lamellar, complex, or prismatic, never nacreous; gills eulamellibranchiate.

<==Heterodonta [Arcticacea, Arcticoidea, Corbiculacea, Corbiculoidea, Eulamellibranchia, Gastropempta, Myoida, Veneroida]
    |--+--Carditoidea GW02
    |  `--Crassatelloidea GW02
    `--+--Anomalodesmata GW02
       `--+--Hiatellidae [Hiatelloidea] GW02
          |    |--Panopea S98
          |    `--Hiatella Daudin in Bosc 1801 P61
          |         |--*H. arctica (Linnaeus 1767) P61, GO78 [=Mya arctica P61, Saxicava arctica F27]
          |         |--H. antarctica (Philippi 1845) P61
          |         |--H. australis (Lamarck 1818) P61
          |         |--H. gallicana (Lamarck 1818) GO78
          |         `--H. solida (Sowerby 1834) GO78
          `--+--+--+--Gastrochaenidae GW02
             |  |  `--+--Tellinoidea GW02
             |  |     `--+--Cardiidae GW02
             |  |        `--Chamidae [Chamoidea] GW02
             |  |             |--Chama MG-H11
             |  |             `--Pseudochama MG-H11
             |  |                  |--P. cornucopia (Reeve 1846) BD86
             |  |                  `--P. janus (Reeve 1847) PP78
             |  `--Galeommatoidea GW02
             |       |  i. s.: Erycinidae GW02
             |       |           |--Parabornia squillina C73
             |       |           |--Mylitta deshayesii M54
             |       |           `--Kellia Turton 1822 F27
             |       |                |--K. antiqua Marwick 1926 F27
             |       |                |--K. cycladiformis Deshayes 1850 H09
             |       |                |--K. japonica KBC03
             |       |                |--K. physema Melvill & Standen 1899 H09
             |       |                `--K. suborbicularis (Montagu 1804) [=Mya suborbicularis] H09
             |       |         Chlamydoconcha [Chlamydoconchoidea] M12
             |       |           `--C. orcutti Dall 1884 M12
             |       |--Lasaeidae GW02
             |       `--+--Lucinidae GW02
             |          `--+--Galeommatidae GW02
             |             `--Pholadoidea GW02
             `--+--Solenoidea GW02
                `--+--+--Mactroidea GW02
                   |  `--+--Dreissenidae GW02
                   |     `--Myoidea GW02
                   `--+--Sphaeriidae GW02
                      `--+--Calyptogena [Vesicomyidae] GW02
                         |    |--C. elongata SM80
                         |    `--C. magnifica GW02
                         `--+--Corbiculidae GW02
                            `--+--Veneroidea [Veneracea] GW02
                               |    |  i. s.: Tivela P98
                               |    |         Turtonia Alder 1848 M12, BR05
                               |    |           `--T. minuta (Fabricius 1780) M12
                               |    |--Veneridae GW02
                               |    `--Glauconome [Glauconimidae] G88
                               |         `--G. rugosa G88
                               `--Arcticidae GW02
                                    |--Arctica islandica GW02
                                    `--Trapezium GW02
                                         |--T. angulatum (Lamarck 1819) [=Cypricardia angulata] H09
                                         |--T. obesa (Reeve 1843) BW09
                                         |--T. oblongum (Linnaeus 1758) BW09 [=Chama oblonga BD86]
                                         |--T. sublaevigatum GW02
                                         `--T. vellicatum (Reeve 1843) [=Cypricardia vellicata] H09

Heterodonta incertae sedis:
  Hippuritacea P98
  Phaxas pellucidus GO06
  Psammobiidae MG-H11
    |--Psammobia H09
    |--Flavomala biradiata M54
    |--Soletellina Blainville 1824 BD86, P61
    |    |--*S. radiata (Linnaeus 1758) P61, L58 [=Solen radiatus P61]
    |    |--S. biradiata (Wood 1815) F27
    |    |--S. nitida (Gray 1843) P61
    |    |--S. rubra (Schroeter 1788) (see below for synonymy) BD86
    |    |--S. siliqua Reeve 1857 P61
    |    `--S. subradiata (Reeve 1857) [=Psammotella subradiata] BD86
    `--Gari Schumacher 1817 MG-H11, P61
         |--*G. gari (Linnaeus 1758) P61, L58 [=Tellina gari P61]
         |--G. convexa HS01
         |--G. (Gobraeus) helenae Olsson 1961 PP78
         |--G. lineolata (Gray 1835) P61
         |--G. pallida (Deshayes 1855) MG-H11
         |--G. pulcherrima (Deshayes 1855) MG-H11
         `--G. stangeri (Gray 1843) P61
  Glossidae MG-H11
    |--Glossus (Meiocardia) moltkiana (Spengler 1783) MG-H11
    `--Veniella Stoliczska 1870 W77
         `--V. goniophora Meek 1875 W77
  Ungulinidae MG-H11
    |--Felaniella zelandica MG-H11, HS01
    `--Phlyctiderma (Phlyctiderma) discrepans (Carpenter 1857) PP78
  Cyrenoida [Cyrenoidacea, Cyrenoididae] G88
  Neomiodontidae G88

Soletellina rubra (Schroeter 1788) [=Solen ruber; incl. Solen roseus Gmelin 1791, Soletellina rosea, Psammotella rueppelliana Reeve 1857, Soletellina rueppelliana] BD86

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C73] Camp, D. K. 1973. Stomatopod Crustacea. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 3 (2): 1–100.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M12] Morton, B. 2012. The biology and functional morphology of Nucula pusilla (Bivalvia: Protobranchia: Nuculidae) from Western Australia, Australia: primitive or miniature simplicity? Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 85–100.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[SM80] Spiess, F. N., K. C. Macdonald, T. Atwater, R. Ballard, A. Carranza, D. Cordoba, C. Cox, V. M. Diaz Garcia, J. Francheteau, J. Guerrero, J. Hawkins, R. Haymon, R. Hessler, T. Juteau, M. Kastner, R. Larson, B. Luyendyk, J. D. Macdougall, S. Miller, W. Normark, J. Orcutt & C. Rangin. 1980. East Pacific Rise: hot springs and geophysical experiments. Science 207: 1421–1433.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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