Wrinkled rock borer Hiatella arctica, copyright FWC Fish and Wildlife Research Institute.

Belongs within: Bivalvia.
Contains: Hippuritacea, Neomiodontidae, Cyamiidae, Gastrochaenidae, Montacutidae, Lasaeidae, Sportellidae, Thyasira, Lucinidae, Solenoidea, Tellinoidea, Neoheterodontei, Cardiidae, Panope.

The Heterodonta are one of the major living clades of bivalves, with their earliest representatives appearing in the Ordovician. In the past, the living members of the clade were divided between the orders Veneroida and Myoida (the latter including burrowing forms with thin shells and reduced dentition) but molecular analyses have indicated that the myoidans are polyphyletic (Giribet & Wheeler 2002). Previous authors have also included the clades Carditoida and/or Anomalodesmata within their concept of Heterodonta but recent molecular analyses support their exclusion (Plazzi et al. 2011). The Hippuritoida are a fossil group known from the Silurian to the Cretaceous, primitively with a hinge of a few thick and amorphous teeth, that have been recognised as a third order of heterodonts.

Modern representatives of the Heterodonta include the Hiatellidae, a family of small, quadrate to trapezoidal, burrowing or nestling clams. They have more or less gaping valves and only one or two weak teeth in the hinge. The Galeommatoidea are burrowing clams with the shell commonly thin and more or less covered externally by the mantle. A number of species of this group live in association with other invertebrates, either attached to their body surface or within their burrows. The Thyasiridae are a group of thin-shelled clams with a distinct dorsal anterior depression near the hinge.

<==Heterodonta (see below for synonymy) PC11
    |--Thyasiridae [Thyasiroidea] TW07
    |    |--Axinopsida Cram96
    |    |    |--A. bongraini N65
    |    |    |--A. magellanica N65
    |    |    `--A. subquadrata GAS03
    |    |--Thyasira P61
    |    |--Storthodon Giebel 1856 TW07
    |    |    `--S. liscaviensis Giebel 1856 SB93
    |    |--Maorithyas Fleming 1950 P61
    |    |    |--*M. marama Fleming 1950 P61
    |    |    `--M. flemingi Powell 1955 P61
    |    `--Genaxinus Iredale 1930 P61
    |         |--*G. albigena [=Thyasira albigena] P61
    |         |--G. cookianus Fleming 1950 P61
    |         `--G. otagoensis (Suter 1913) P61
    `--+--Lucinacea PB27
       |    |--Lucinidae TW07
       |    `--Cyrenoida de Joannis 1835 PB27 (see below for synonymy)
       |         |--*C. dupontia de Joannis 1835 (see below for synonymy) PB27
       |         |--C. rhodopyga v. Martens 1891 [=Cyrenoidea rhodopyga] PB27
       |         |--C. rosea (d’Ailly 1896) [=Cyrenella rosea] PB27
       |         |    |--C. r. rosea PB27
       |         |    `--C. r. brevidentata Pilsbry & Bequaert 1927 PB27
       |         `--C. senegalensis (Deshayes 1854) [=Cyrenella senegalensis] PB27
       `--+--Solenoidea PC11
          |--Tellinoidea PC11
          |--Neoheterodontei PC11
          `--Cardiidaa PC11
               |--Cardiidae PC11
               `--Hiatellidae [Hiatelloidea] PC11
                    |--Panope S98
                    |--Cyrtodaria siliqua JB12, N79
                    `--Hiatella Daudin in Bosc 1801 P61
                         |--*H. arctica (Linnaeus 1767) P61, GO78 (see below for synonymy)
                         |--H. antarctica (Philippi 1845) P61
                         |--H. australis (Lamarck 1818) P61
                         |--H. gallicana (Lamarck 1818) GO78
                         |--H. minuta G20
                         `--H. solida (Sowerby 1834) GO78

Heterodonta incertae sedis:
  Hippuritoida JB12
    |  i. s.: Plagioptychidae SB93
    |           |--Coralliochama JB12
    |           `--Plagioptychus SB93
    |                |--P. arnaudi Douvillé 1888 SB93
    |                |--P. paradoxus Matheron 1843 SB93
    |                `--P. toucasianus Matheron 1843 SB93
    |         Antillocaprina [Antillocaprinidae] SB93
    |           `--A. occidentalis (Whitfield 1897) SB93
    |         Dictyoptychidae [Trechmannellinae] SB93
    |           |--Eodictyoptychus arumaensis Skelton & El-Asa’ad 1992 SB93
    |           `--Dictyoptychus morgani (Douvillé 1904) SB93
    |--Hippuritacea P98
    `--Pachyrisma SB93 [Megalodontidae, Megalodontoidea JB12]
         `--P. grande Morris & Lycett 1853 SB93
  Phaxas pellucidus GO06
  Neomiodontidae G88
  Cyamiidae M96
  Coralliophaga JB12
  Cardiniidae SB93
    |--Balantioselena gairi Speden 1962 SB93
    |--Nidarica slatteri (Wilson & Crick 1889) SB93
    `--Cardinia F71
         |--C. attenuata Stutchbury 1842 SB93
         |--C. concinna (Sowerby 1817) SB93
         |--C. cuneata Dana 1849 [=Stutchburia cuneata] F71
         `--C. exilis M’Coy 1847 F71
  Potamomya [Erodonidae] SB93
    `--P. plana (Sowerby 1814) SB93
  Raetomyidae SB93
    |--Amotapus arbolensis (Woods 1922) SB93
    `--Raetomya schweinfurthi (Mayer-Eymar 1887) SB93
  Anatellidae SB93
  Cardiliide SB93
    |--Cardilia semisulcata (Lamarck 1819) [=Isocardia semisulcata] H09
    |--Hemicyclonosta michelini Deshayes 1850 SB93
    `--Cardilona bensoni Marwick 1943 SB93
  Sowerbya [Sowerbyidae] SB93
    `--S. triangularis (Phillips 1848) SB93
  Quenstedtia [Quenstedtiidae] SB93
    `--Q. laevigata (Phillips 1848) SB93
  Unicardiopsis [Unicardiopsidae] SB93
    |--U. aceste (d’Orbigny 1850) SB93
    `--U. incertum (Phillips 1848) SB93
  Icanotiidae SB93
    |--Scittila nasuta Casey 1961 SB93
    `--Icanotia SB93
  Bernardinidae SB93
  Euloxidae SB93
    |--Euloxa latisulcata (Conrad 1840) SB93
    `--Cabralista schmitzi (Böhm 1899) SB93
  Pollicidae SB93
    |--Pollex obesus Stephenson 1953 SB93
    `--Neritra polliciformis Stephenson 1954 SB93
  Dicerocardiidae SB93
    |--Agelasina plenodonta Riedel 1932 SB93
    `--Dicerocardium SB93
         |--D. curionii Stoppani 1865 SB93
         |--D. dolomiticum SB93
         `--D. jani Stoliczka 1871 SB93
  Lajonkairia [Cooperellidae] SB93
    `--L. rupestris (Brocchi 1814) SB93
  Rzehakiidae SB93
    |--Ergenica cimlanica (Popov 1959) SB93
    |--Urbnisia lata Goncharova 1981 SB93
    `--Rzehakia dubiosa (Hörnes 1859) SB93
  Pleurodesma [Pleurodesmatidae] SB93
    |--P. mayeri Hörnes 1859 SB93
    `--P. moulinsi (Potiez & Michaud 1844) SB93
  Spheniopsis [Spheniopsidae] SB93
    `--S. scalaris (Braun 1851) SB93
  Tancrediidae TW07
    |--Tancredia JB12
    `--Sakawanella triadica Ichikawa 1950 SB93
  Gastrochaenoidea M96
    |  i. s.: Eufistulana M96
    `--Gastrochaenidae TW07
  Galeommatoidea TW07
    |  i. s.: Planktomya hensoni Crag96
    |--Montacutidae TW07
    |--Lasaeidae GW02
    |--Sportellidae TW07
    `--Erycinidae GW02
         |--Parabornia squillina Boss 1965 MB66
         |--Mylitta deshayesii M54
         |--Erycina (Erycina) pellucida Lamarck 1805 SB93
         `--Semierycina (Erycinopsis) semipecten (Cossmann 1887) SB93
  Fistulana G20
    |--F. clavata [=Teredo (Fistulana) clavata] G20
    `--F. mumia (Spengler 1783) [=Gastrochaena mumia] H09
  Byssomya pholadis G20
  Corbis G20
    |--C. elegans H09
    `--C. fimbriata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Venus fimbriata] H09
  Capsa rugosa G20
  Isocardia cor [=Chama (Isocardia) cor] G20
  Tellidora G79
    |--T. burneti C64
    `--T. schrammi G79
  Lucinopsis Forbes 1848 G79
    |--L. tenuis G79
    `--L. undata [=Venus undata] J64

Cyrenoida de Joannis 1835 PB27 [=Cyrenella Deshayes 1836 PB27, Cyrenodonta Adams & Adams 1858 PB27, Cyrenoidea (l. c.) PB27, Cyrenoides (l. c.) PB27; Cyrenoidacea, Cyrenoididae G88]

*Cyrenoida dupontia de Joannis 1835 [=*Cyrenella (*Cyrenoida) dupontiae d’Ailly 1896, Cyrenoides dupontii Woodward 1854] PB27

Heterodonta [Arcticacea, Arcticoidea, Cardiacea, Corbiculacea, Corbiculoidea, Euheterodonta, Gastropempta, Lucinina, Myacea, Myoida, Teleodesmacea] PC11

*Hiatella arctica (Linnaeus 1767) P61, GO78 [=Mya arctica P61, Saxicava arctica F26; incl. M. byssifera J64, S. groenlandica J64, S. arctica var. uddevallensis J64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[Cram96] Crame, J. A. 1996. Evolution of high-latitude molluscan faunas. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 119–131. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

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[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MB66] Moore, D. R., & K. J. Boss. 1966. Records for Parabornia squillina. Nautilus 80 (1): 34–35.

[M96] Morton, B. 1996. The evolutionary history of the Bivalvia. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 337–359. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[N65] Nicol, D. 1965. A new Thyasira (Pelecypoda) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Nautilus 78 (3): 79–80.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

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[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

Last updated: 6 March 2022.

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