Xysticus

Xysticus cristatus, copyright Philippe Garcelon.


Belongs within: Thomisidae.

Xysticus, ground crab spiders, is a genus of crab spiders with a generally flattened abdomen, carapace with the front distinctly higher than the back, and the two pairs of lateral eyes on incompletely joined tubercles.

<==Xysticus
    |--X. altaicus Simon 1895 S95
    |--X. audax R14
    |--X. bifasciatus CM07
    |--X. bliteus (Simon 1875) PO08
    |--X. calenzanae Kraus 1955 K55
    |--X. canadensis Gertsch 1934 PS08
    |--X. caperatus Simon 1875 PO08
    |--X. connectens Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |--X. cristatus (Clerck 1757) PO08
    |--X. cunctator MC02
    |--X. edax (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    |--X. elegans JVHN90
    |--X. elongatus (Stoliczka 1869) [=Thomisus (Xysticus) elongatus] S69
    |--X. emertoni Keyserling 1880 M01
    |--X. erraticus (Blackwall 1834) BBM02
    |--X. fienae JD-S07
    |--X. fucatus [incl. X. albimanus] K01
    |--X. grallator Simon 1932 K55
    |--X. inaequalis Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |--X. kempeleni Thorell 1872 PO08
    |--X. kochii Thorell 1872 K55
    |--X. lanio Koch 1835 MF11
    |--X. lateralis K01
    |--X. lineatus (Westring 1851) PO08
    |--X. luctator K01
    |--X. luctuosus K01
    |--X. ninni BV00
    |--X. nubilus Simon 1875 K55
    |--X. obscurus Collett 1887 PS08
    |--X. pini K01
    |--X. promiscuus Pickard-Cambridge 1876 PO08
    |--X. pugilis (Stoliczka 1869) [=Thomisus (Xysticus) pugilis] S69
    |--X. punctatus JDW90
    |--X. sabulosus (Hahn 1832) BBM02
    |--X. secedens BV00
    |--X. striatipes K01
    |--X. ulmi (Hahn 1831) K55
    |--X. viaticus CM07
    `--X. xerodermus Strand 1913 PO08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BV00] Bayram, A., & M. İ. Varol. 2000. Spiders active on snow in eastern Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 133–137.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[JDW90] Jennings, D. T., J. B. Dimond & B. A. Watt. 1990. Population densities of spiders (Araneae) and spruce budworms (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on foliage of balsam fir and red spruce in east-central Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 181–194.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MF11] Mąkol, J., & M. Felska. 2011. New records of spiders (Araneae) as hosts of terrestrial Parasitengona mites (Acari: Actinotrichida: Prostigmata). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 352–354.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[M01] Morse, D. H. 2001. Harvestmen as commensals of crab spiders. Journal of Arachnology 29: 273–275.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” [Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg], Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest Connochaetes gnou, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Alcephalinae.

Connochaetes, the gnus or wildebeest, is a genus of cattle-like grazing antelopes found in grasslands and open woodland of southern and eastern Africa.

Characters (from Murray 1984): Head massive, both sexes horned. Mane present on neck and shoulders, beard under throat. Tail long, reaching nearly to ground.

Connochaetes [incl. Pultiphagonides Hopwood 1934] G78
    |--+--C. africanus (Hopwood 1934) [=*Pultiphagonides africanus] G78
    |  `--C. gnou G78
    |       |--C. g. gnou G78
    |       |--C. g. antiquus Broom 1913 G78
    |       `--C. g. laticornutus (van Hoepen 1932) G78
    `--C. taurinus G78
         |--C. t. taurinus G78
         |--C. t. cooksoni M84
         |--C. t. mearnsi M84
         |--C. t. olduvaiensis G78
         `--C. t. prognu G78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G78] Gentry, A. W. 1978. Bovidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 540–572. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[M84] Murray, M. G. 1984. Grazing antelopes. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals pp. 120–131. Torstar Books: New York.

Thomisus

Female Thomisus onustus, copyright Lucarelli.


Belongs within: Thomisidae.

Thomisus is a genus of crab spiders, a number of species of which are brightly coloured to match flowers on which they wait to ambush visiting insects.

<==Thomisus Walckenaer 1805 [Thomisinae] JD-S07
    |--T. albens S95
    |--T. albus K01 [incl. T. albidus S95]
    |--T. amboinensis Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--T. annulipes Lucas 1846 E12
    |--T. anthobius P01
    |--T. argentatus [=Aranea argentata, Heteropoda argentata] C01
    |--T. aureolus [=Aranea aureola, Heteropoda aureola] C01
    |--T. bilineatus [=Aranea bilineata, Heteropoda bilineata] C01
    |--T. calycinus (Linnaeus 1758) C01, L58 [=Aranea calycina C01, Heteropoda calycina C01]
    |--T. cespitum [=Aranea cespitum, Heteropoda cespitum] C01
    |--T. cinerascens Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. cristatus [=Aranea cristata, Heteropoda cristata] C01
    |--T. daradioides JD-S07
    |--T. dauci [=Aranea dauci, Heteropoda dauci] C01
    |--T. delicatulus [=Aranea delicatula, Heteropoda delicatula] C01
    |--T. diana [=Aranea diana, Heteropoda diana] C01
    |--T. dilatatus Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. dissimilis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. facatus [=Aranea facata, Heteropoda facata] C01
    |--T. ferox K18
    |--T. floricola [=Aranea floricola, Heteropoda floricola] C01
    |--T. grubei Simon 1895 S95
    |--T. numida Lucas 1846 E12
    |--T. oblongus [=Aranea oblonga, Heteropoda oblonga] C01
    |--T. onustus Walckenaer 1805 K55
    |--T. peelianus Stoliczka 1869 S69
    |--T. piger [=Aranea pigra, Heteropoda pigra] C01
    |--T. rhomboicus [=Aranea rhomboica, Heteropoda rhomboica] C01
    |--T. rotundatus [=Aranea rotundata, Heteropoda rotundata] C01
    |--T. spectabilis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. spiculosus Pocock 1901 P01
    |--T. stellifer Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. tigrinus [=Aranea tigrina, Heteropoda tigrina] C01
    |--T. truncatus [=Aranea truncata, Heteropoda truncata] C01
    |--T. tuberosus S69
    |--T. violaceus [=Aranea violacea, Heteropoda violacea] C01
    `--T. vulcanicus Doleschall 1859 D59

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. A revision of the genera of the Araneae or spiders with reference to their type species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 51–65.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe "Sphecinae". IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[P01] Pocock, R. I. 1901. Diagnoses of some new species of spiders from Mashonaland. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 337–340.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876-1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” [Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg], Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

Corinnidae

Corinna sp., copyright Célio Moura Neto.


Belongs within: Dionycha.

The Corinnidae are a group of actively hunting spiders commonly found among leaf litter (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Synapomorphies (from Ramírez 2014): Tarsal cuticle texture smooth; distal plate of trichobothria with distal ridge continuous in a closed alveolus; dorsal scutum present on male abdomen; embolus attachment fixed; median apophysis absent; epigynum lobes forming an undivided plate with suture not visible.

<==Corinnidae JD-S07
    |  i. s.: Arushina R14
    |         Cycais R14
    |         Scorteccia R14
    |--Corinninae R14
    |    |  i. s.: Abapeba rioclaro Bonaldo 2000 FM11
    |    |         Attacobius R14
    |    |         Ecitocobius R14
    |    |         Erendira R14
    |    |         Megalostrata R14
    |    |         Methesis R14
    |    |         Parachemmis R14
    |    |         Septentrinna R14
    |    |         Simonestus R14
    |    |         Stethorrhagus R14
    |    |         Tapixaua R14
    |    |         Tupirinna R14
    |    |         Xeropigo R14
    |    |           |--X. camilae De Souza & Bonaldo 2007 FM11
    |    |           `--X. tridentiger (Pickard-Cambridge 1869) FM11
    |    |--Creugas gulosus R14
    |    `--+--+--Falconina gracilis (Keyserling 1891) R14, FM11
    |       |  `--Paradiestus R14
    |       |       |--P. giganteus (Karsch 1880) FM11
    |       |       `--P. penicillatus R14
    |       `--Corinna Koch 1841 R14, JD-S07
    |            |--C. brunneipeltula Strand 1910 S10
    |            |--C. bulbula R14
    |            |--C. capito (Lucas 1856) FM11
    |            |--C. ducke R14
    |            |--C. natalis R14
    |            `--C. nitens R14
    `--Castianeirinae R14
         |  i. s.: Aetius R14
         |         Apochinomma R14
         |         Cambalida R14
         |         Castanilla R14
         |         Castoponera R14
         |         Coenoptychus R14
         |         Corinnomma R14
         |         Echinax R14
         |         Graptartia R14
         |         Humua R14
         |         Mazax R14
         |         Merenius R14
         |         Messapus R14
         |         Myrmecium R14
         |         Myrmecotypus R14
         |         Poecilipta R14
         |         Pranburia R14
         |         Psellocoptus R14
         |         Serendib R14
         |         Sphecotypus R14
         |         Supunna Simon 1897 R14, PVD10
         |           |--S. funerea Simon 1896 PVD10
         |           `--S. picta (Koch 1873) B96
         |--Medmassa semiaurantiaca R14
         `--+--Copa flavoplumosa R14
            `--Castianeira R14
                 |--C. descripta R14
                 |--C. longipalpa R14
                 `--C. trilineata R14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S10] Strand, E. 1910. Spinnentiere aus Neuguinea (Opiliones, Psechridae und Clubionidae) gesammelt von Dr. Schlaginhaufen. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 13 (5): 1–16.

Salticidae

Male Plexippus paykulli, copyright Vengolis.


Belongs within: Dionycha.
Contains: Maratus, Salticus.

The Salticidae, jumping spiders, are a group of actively hunting spiders with well developed vision, characterised by large and anteriorly directed anterior median eyes.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to large; two tarsal claws; ecribellate; entelegyne; eight eyes; carapace square-fronted with four forwardly directed eyes of which the anterior median eyes are very large.

<==Salticidae [Attidae, Salticoidae, Salticoidea, Saltigradae]
    |--Lyssomanes [Lyssomaninae] R14
    |    |--L. portoricensis R14
    |    `--L. viridis E95
    `--+--Spartaeinae JD-S07
       |    |--Spartaeus wildtrackii R14
       |    |--Portia Karsch 1878 R14, B08
       |    |    |--P. fimbriata E95
       |    |    `--P. schultzi R14
       |    `--Holcolaetis [Holcolaetinae] R14
       |         |--H. vellerea R14
       |         `--H. zuluensis R14
       `--+--Cocalodes R14
          |    |--C. innotabilis R14
          |    |--C. longicornis R14
          |    `--C. papuans R14
          `--+--Hispo [Hisponinae] R14
             |    `--H. inermis R14
             `--Salticoida R14
                  |--Salticus B02
                  `--Plexippus Koch 1846 R14, T94
                       |--P. albolineatus Koch 1846 K92
                       |--P. culicivorus (Doleschall 1859) [=Salticus culicivorus, Menemerus culicivorus] T94
                       |--P. cumulatus Karsch 1892 K92
                       |--P. daemeli S99
                       |--P. paykulli (Aud. in Sav. 1827) [=Attus paykulli, Menemerus paykulli] K92
                       |--P. stridulator Poc. 1898 R13
                       |--P. sylvarus Urquhart 1892 PVD10
                       `--P. validus M-RL88

Salticidae incertae sedis:
  Simaetha A02
    |--S. knowlesi Żabka 1994 DH10
    |--S. paetula (Keyserling 1882) A02
    `--S. tenuior (Keyserling 1882) T13
  Yllenus B08
    |--Y. arenarius Menge 1868 B08
    |--Y. elegans [=Attus elegans] S95
    |--Y. flavociliatus Simon 1895 S95
    `--Y. hamifer Simon 1895 S95
  Sitticus D90
    |--S. finschi (Koch 1879) PS08
    |--S. pubescens V09 [=Aranea pubescens C01, Attus pubescens V09, Salticus pubescens C01]
    |--S. saltator (Cambridge 1868) BBM02
    `--S. truncorum (Linnaeus 1758) K55
  Eris militaris (Walckenaer 1837) TF98a
  Phanias MC02
  Menemerus K55
    |--M. albocinctus Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
    |--M. confusus M-RL88
    `--M. taeniatus (Koch 1867) K55
  Marpissa Koch 1846 PVD10
    |--M. arenaria Urquhart 1888 PVD10
    |--M. armifera Urquhart 1892 PVD10
    |--M. cineracea Urquhart 1891 PVD10
    |--M. leucophaea Urquhart 1888 PVD10
    |--M. marina (Goyen 1892) PVD10
    |--M. muscosa E95
    |--M. nemoralis Urquhart 1892 PVD10
    |--M. nivoyi E95
    `--M. undata M57
  Holoplatys Simon 1885 W09
    |--H. appressus (Powell 1873) PVD10
    |--H. desertina MC13
    `--H. planissima (Koch 1879) PVD10
  Opisthoncus necator B96
  Mopsus mormon (Keyserling 1881) B96
  Cosmophasis Simon 1901 PVD10
    |--C. archeyi Berland 1931 PVD10 [=Clynotis archeyi F64]
    |--C. baehrae T13
    |--C. bitaeniata B96
    `--C. micarioides (K. 1880) [=Amycus micarioides] R13
  Trite Simon 1885 PVD10
    |--*T. pennata S99
    |--T. auricoma (Urquhart 1886) PVD10
    |--T. binotata Simon 1899 S99
    |--T. herbigrada (Urquhart 1889) PVD10
    |--T. mustilina (Powell 1873) PVD10
    |--T. parvula (Bryant 1935) PVD10
    |--T. planiceps Simon 1899 [incl. T. minax (Powell 1873)] PVD10
    `--T. urvillei (de Dalmas 1917) PVD10
  Neon D90
    |--N. reticulatus RKD02
    `--N. valentulus Falconer 1912 K02
  Heliophanus K55
    |--H. apiatus Simon 1868 K55
    |--H. corsicus Simon 1871 K55
    |--H. cupreus (Walckenaer 1802) K55
    |--H. dubius K01
    |--H. flavipes (Hahn 1832) BBM02
    |--H. lineiventris Simon 1868 K55
    |--H. patagiatus [incl. H. patagiatus var. albolineata Kulczyński 1901] K01
    `--H. rufithorax Simon 1868 K55
  Pelegrina PS08
    |--P. aeneola MC02
    |--P. flaviceps (Kaston 1973) PS08
    `--P. flavipes (Peckham & Peckham 1888) PS08
  Phidippus B08
    |--P. audax MC02
    |--P. clarus MC02
    |--P. comatus MC02
    |--P. femoratus E95
    |--P. johnsoni (Peckham & Peckham 1883) B02
    |--P. regius Koch 1846 B08
    |--P. rufus K18
    `--P. tripunctatus K18
  Homalattus White 1841 K92
    |--H. cingulatus Karsch 1892 K92
    |--H. laminatus Karsch 1892 K92
    `--H. reductus Karsch 1892 K92
  Linus Peckh. 1885 K92
    |--L. alticeps Poc. 1898 R13
    `--L. fimbriatus (Doleschall 1859) K92, D59 [=Salticus fimbriatus K92, Sinis fimbriatus K92]
  Dischiropus Karsch 1892 K92
    |--D. alticinctus Karsch 1892 K92
    `--D. calcaratus [=Plexippus calcaratus] K92
  Maevia K92
    |--M. albozonata K92
    `--M. inclemens R96
  Icius Simon 1873 K92
    |--I. discatus Karsch 1892 K92
    |--I. hamatus (Koch 1846) K55
    |--I. hartii K62
    |--I. nebulosus (Simon 1868) K55
    `--I. notabilis (Simon 1871) K55
  Hasarius Simon 1871 PVD10
    |--H. adansoni (Audouin 1826) PVD10 [=Attus adansonii K92]
    |--H. arcigerus Karsch 1892 K92
    |--H. garetti K. 1881 R13
    `--H. paykulli V09
  Leptorchestes mutilliodes (Lucas 1846) K55
  Evarcha B08
    |--E. arcuata (Clerk 1757) K55
    |--E. culicivora (Wesolowska & Jackson 2003) B08
    |--E. falcata RKD02
    |--E. jucunda (Lucas 1846) K55
    `--E. laetabunda RKD02
  Carrhotus K55
    |--C. oscitans (Poc. 1898) [=Eustirognathus oscitans] R13
    `--C. xanthogramma (Walckenaer 1825) K55
  Saitis Simon 1876 W08
    `--S. barbipes (Simon 1868) K55
  Thyene imperialis (Rossi 1846) JD-S07, K55
  Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas 1846) K55
  Neaetha membranosa (Simon 1868) K55
  Aelurillus K55
    |--A. aeruginosus (Simon 1871) PO08
    |--A. concolor Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |--A. conveniens (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    |--A. festivus K01
    |--A. litera K55
    |    |--A. l. litera K55
    |    `--A. l. v-insignitus (Clerck 1757) K55
    `--A. politiventris (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
  Bianor Peckham & Peckham 1885 PVD10
    |--*B. maculatus (Keyserling 1883) PVD10
    |--B. albobimaculatus (Lucas 1846) K55
    `--B. compactus (Urquhart 1885) PVD10
  Metaphidippus flaviceps JVHN90
  Corythalia canosa TF98b
  Araneotanna Özdikman & Kury 2006 [=Tanna Berland 1938 non Distant 1905] OK06
    `--*A. ornatipes (Berland 1938) [=*Tanna ornatipes] OK06
  Zenodorus R13
    |--Z. orbiculatus (Keyserling 1881) DH10
    `--Z. variatus Poc. 1898 R13
  Bathippus macroprotopus Poc. 1898 R13
  Athamus whitmei Cambr. 1877 R13
  Sigytes diloris (K. 1881) [=Hasarius diloris] R13
  Euryattus nigriventris (K. 1881) [=Hasarius nigriventris] R13
  *Synemosyna formica Hentz 1846 [incl. Janus gibberosus Koch 1846] T94
  Ascalus Thorell 1894 T94
    |--*A. laeta [=Synemosyna laeta] T94
    |--A. niger [=Synemosyna nigra] T94
    `--A. pygmaeus Thorell 1894 T94
  Janigena melanocephala [=Janus melanocephalus] T94
  Toxeus T94
    |--T. mandibularis T94
    `--T. maxillosus [incl. Synemosyna procera, T. procerus] T94
  Pergasus Thorell 1894 T94
    `--*P. formosus [=Salticus formosus] T94
  Herilus Thorell 1894 T94
    |--*H. pectorosus [=Salticus pectorosus] T94
    |--H. alticeps [=Salticus alticeps] T94
    `--H. radiatus Thorell 1894 T94
  Sphasus S69
    |--S. gracilipes White 1849 W49
    |--S. indicus S69
    |--S. lepidus Blackw. 1864 S69
    |--‘Spasus’ signifer Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--S. similaris Stoliczka 1869 S69
    |--S. striatus Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--S. striolatus Doleschall 1859 D59
    `--S. viridanus Stoliczka 1869 S69
  Myrmarachne McLeay 1835 C08
    |--M. assimilis Banks 1930 C08
    |--M. lupata E95
    `--M. providens B03
  Psecas chapoda OMM08
  Coryphasia OMM08
  Eustiromastix nativo OMM08
  Paraplatoides Żabka 1992 W09
    |--*P. tenerrima (Koch 1879) [=Marptusa tenerrima] W09
    |--P. caledonica (Berland 1932) [=Holoplatys caledonica] W09
    `--P. darwini Waldock 2009 W09
  Zebraplatys Żabka 1992 W09
    |--Z. fractivittata (Simon 1909) DH10
    `--Z. keyserlingi Żabka 1992 DH10
  Paraphidippus aurantius BS09
  Xenocytaea Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--*X. triramosa Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--X. anomala Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--X. daviesae Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--X. maddisoni Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--X. stanislawi Patoleta 2011 P11
    |--X. taveuniensis Patoleta 2011 P11
    |--X. victoriensis Patoleta 2011 P11
    |--X. vonavonensis Patoleta 2011 P11
    `--X. zabkai Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
  Cytaea P11
  Chalcotropis P11
  Donoessus P11
  Panysinus nicholsoni [=Hasarius nicholsoni] V09
  Peckhamia D90
  Habronattus D90
  Talavera petrensis D90, RKD02
  Pseudoeuophrys lanigera [=Euophrys lanigera] V09
  Cobanus mandibularis E95
  Pachyballus JD-S07
  Bacelarella Berland & Millot 1941 JD-S07, J02
    |--B. conjugans J02
    |--B. pavida Szûts & Jocqué 2001 J02
    `--B. tentativa Szûts & Jocqué 2001 J02
  Orsima JD-S07
  Viciria pavesii JD-S07
  Grayenulla MC13
    |--G. australensis Żabka 1992 DH10
    |--G. spinimana Żabka & Gray 1992 DH10
    `--G. waldockae Żabka 1992 DH10
  Asemonea tenuipes E95
  Goleba puella E95
  Jacksonoides queenslandica E95
  Pseudicius E95
  Thorellia ensifera E95
  Astieae Z95
    |--Megaloastia Żabka 1995 Z95
    |    `--*M. mainae Żabka 1995 Z95
    |--Arasia Z95
    |--Sondra Z95
    `--Helpis Simon 1901 Z95, PVD10
         `--*H. minitabunda (Koch 1880) PVD10
  Philaeus chrysops K01
  Oedipus aenescens K01
  Marptusa K01
    |--M. muscosa K01
    `--M. radiata K01
  Clynotis Simon 1901 F64
    |--C. albobarbatus MC13
    |--C. barresi Hogg 1909 F64
    |--C. knoxi Forster 1964 F64
    |--C. saxatilis (Urquhart 1886) PVD10
    `--C. severus DH10
  Ergane K01
    |--E. arcuata K01
    |--E. falcata K01
    |--E. laetabunda K01
    `--E. signata Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
  Adoxotoma Simon 1909 PVD10
    `--A. forsteri Żabka 2004 PVD10
  Hinewaia Żabka & Pollard 2002 PVD10
    `--*H. embolica Żabka & Pollard 2002 PVD10
  Hypoblemum Peckham & Peckham 1885 PVD10
    `--H. albovittatum (Keyserling 1882) PVD10
  Jotus Koch 1881 PVD10
    `--J. ravus (Urquhart 1893) PVD10
  Laufeia Simon 1889 PVD10
    `--L. aerihirta (Urquhart 1888) PVD10
  Ocrisiona Simon 1901 PVD10
    |--*O. leucocomis (Koch 1879) PVD10
    |--O. cinerea (Koch 1879) PVD10
    `--O. yakatunyae Żabka 1990 DH10
  Cyrba DH10
  Damoetas DH10
  Gangus DH10
  Simaethula DH10
  Attoides eresiformis Brongniart 1877 S93
  Massagrinae JD-S07
  Marenginae JD-S07
  Mogrinae JD-S07
  Dendryphantes K01 [Dendryphantinae JD-S07]
    |--D. militaris K18
    `--D. thorellii K01
  Euophryinae W13
    |--Maratus W13
    `--Euophrys V09
         |--E. frontalis (Walckenaer 1802) BH02
         |--E. parvula FF99
         `--E. westringi RKD02
  Pelleninae M54
    |--Habrocestum Simon 1876 M54
    |    `--H. punctiventris Keyserling 1883 M54
    `--Pellenes K55
         |--P. arcigerus (Walckenaer 1837) K55
         |--P. bitaeniata (Keyserling 1882) DH10
         `--P. simoni Koch 1882 PO08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[B02] Bartos, M. 2002. The sub-sand nests of Yllenus arenarius (Araneae, Salticidae): structure, function and construction behavior. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 275–280.

[B08] Bartos, M. 2008. Alternative predatory tactics in a juvenile jumping spider. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 300–305.

[BH02] Bell, J. R., A. J. Haughton, N. D. Boatman & A. Wilcox. 2002. Do incremental increases of the herbicide glyphosate have indirect consequences for spider communities? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 288–297.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. A revision of the genera of the Araneae or spiders with reference to their type species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 51–65.

[C08] Ceccarelli, F. S. 2008. Behavioral mimicry in Myrmarachne species (Araneae, Salticidae) from north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 344–351.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[DH10] Durrant, B. J., M. S. Harvey, V. W. Framenau, R. Ott & J. M. Waldock. 2010. Patterns in the composition of ground-dwelling spider communities in the Pilbara bioregion, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 185–204.

[E95] Elgar, M. A. 1995. The duration of copulation in spiders: comparative patterns. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 1–11.

[F64] Forster, R. R. 1964. The Araneae and Opiliones of the subantarctic islands of New Zealand. Pacific Insects Monograph 7: 58–115.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[J02] Jocqué, R. 2002. Genitalic polymorphism—a challenge for taxonomy. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 298–306.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe "Sphecinae". IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XIII. Descriptions of new wasps from Plummers Island, Maryland, (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 1–18.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M-RL88] Meyer-Rochow, V. B., & A. R. Liddle. 1988. Structure and function of the eyes of two species of opilionid from New Zealand glow-worm caves (Megalopsalis tumida: Palpatores, and Hendea myersi cavernicola: Laniatores). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 233: 293–319.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[M57] Mockford, E. L. 1957. Life history studies on some Florida insects of the genus Archipsocus (Psocoptera). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 1 (5): 253–274.

[OMM08] Osses, F., E. G. Martins & G. Machado. 2008. Oviposition site selection by the bromeliad-dweller harvestman Bourguyia hamata (Arachnida: Opiliones). Journal of Ethology 26 (2): 233–241.

[OK06] Özdikmen, H., & A. B. Kury. 2006. Three homonymous generic names in Araneae and Opiliones. Journal of Arachnology 34 (1): 279–280.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P11] Patoleta, B. M. 2011. New species of Xenocytaea Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 (Araneae: Salticidae) from Fiji and the Solomon Islands. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 273–279.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

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[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

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[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

[TF98a] Townsend, V. R., Jr & B. E. Felgenhauer. 1998a. The cuticular scales of lynx spiders (Araneae, Oxyopidae). Journal of Morphology 236: 223–231.

[TF98b] Townsend, V. R., Jr & B. E. Felgenhauer. 1998b. Ontogenetic changes in the cuticular scales of a jumping spider. Microscopy Research and Technique 40: 79–80.

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Gnaphosoidea

Broad-faced sac spiders Trachelas tranquillus, copyright Judy Gallagher.


Belongs within: Dionycha.
Contains: Lamponidae, Liocranidae, Micaria, Gnaphosidae, Prodidomidae, Phrurolithidae, Gallieniellidae.

The Gnaphosoidea are a clade of spiders that mostly have flat posterior median eyes whose tapeta have the middle dark lines orthogonal to each other, allowing the tapeta to function as a polarised light compass (Ramírez 2014).

Synapomorphies (from Ramírez 2014, as Oblique Median Tapetum clade): Claw tuft seta with thick base; female with shaft of anterior major ampullate spigot much smaller than posterior; male with two major ampullates; major ampullate and piriform fields separated by deep furrow male and female; posterior median spinneret with four or five cylindrical gland spigots, forming isolated posterior group.

<==Gnaphosoidea JD-S07
    |  i. s.: Sphingius R14
    |         Sudharmia R14
    |         Koppe R14
    |--Trochanteriidae R14
    |    |  i. s.: Trochanteria Karsch 1878 [Trochanteriinae] JD-S07
    |    |         Morebilus T13 [Morebilinae JD-S07]
    |    |           `--M. diversus (Koch 1875) T13
    |    |         Plator [Platoridae] R14
    |    |           |--P. indicus Sim. 1897 K01
    |    |           `--P. insolens Simon 1880 K01
    |    |--Fissarena R14
    |    |    |--F. barrow Platnick 2002 T13
    |    |    `--F. castanea R14
    |    `--+--Desognaphosa yabbra R14
    |       `--Trachycosmus [Trachycosminae] R14
    |            `--T. sculptilis R14
    `--+--+--Galianoella Goloboff 2000 WJ02
       |  |    `--G. leucostigma R14
       |  `--+--Jacaena R14
       |     `--+--Teutamus R14
       |        `--+--Sesieutes R14
       |           `--Oedignatha [Oedignathae] R14
       |                |--O. jocquei R14
       |                `--O. scrobiculata R14
       `--+--Lamponidae R14
          `--+--+--Austrachelas pondoensis R14
             |  `--Liocranidae R14
             `--+--Trachelidae [Tracheleae, Trachelinae] R14
                |    |  i. s.: Poachelas R14
                |    |         Spinotrachelas capensis Haddad 2006 R14
                |    |         Fuchiba R14
                |    |         Fuchibotulus R14
                |    |         Afroceto R14
                |    |         Cetonana laticeps R14
                |    |         Metatrachelas R14
                |    |         Paratrachelas R14
                |    |         Patelloceto R14
                |    |         Planochelas R14
                |    |         Thysanina R14
                |    |         Utivarachna R14
                |    |--Trachelas Koch 1872 R14
                |    |    |--T. minor R14
                |    |    |--T. tranquillus R14
                |    |    `--T. volutus R14
                |    `--+--Meriola R14
                |       |    |--M. barrosi R14
                |       |    `--M. cetiformis (Strand 1908) [=Trachelas cetiformis] J98
                |       `--+--Paccius scharffi R14
                |          `--+--‘Trachelas’ mexicanus R14
                |             `--Trachelopachys ammobates R14
                `--+--+--Toxoniella Warui & Jocqué 2002 R14, WJ02
                   |  |    |--*T. taitensis Warui & Jocqué 2002 WJ02
                   |  |    `--T. rogoae Warui & Jocqué 2002 WJ02
                   |  `--+--+--Micaria R14
                   |     |  `--+--Gnaphosidae R14
                   |     |     `--Prodidomidae R14
                   |     `--+--Platyoides R14
                   |        |    |--P. pictus JD-S07
                   |        |    `--P. walteri JD-S07
                   |        `--+--Doliomalus cimicoides R14
                   |           `--Vectius niger R14
                   `--+--Legendrena Platnick 1984 R14, WJ02
                      |    `--L. perinet R14
                      `--+--Xenoplectus armatus R14
                         `--+--+--Phrurolithidae R14
                            |  `--Rastellus Platnick & Griffin 1990 R14, JD-S07
                            |       `--R. florisbad R14
                            `--+--Gallieniellidae R14
                               `--+--Cithaeronidae JD-S07
                                  |    |--Inthaeron Platnick 1991 JD-S07
                                  |    `--Cithaeron P.-Cambridge 1872 R14, JD-S07
                                  |         `--C. delimbatus R14
                                  `--Ammoxenidae JD-S07
                                       |--Austrammo Platnick 2002 JD-S07
                                       |--Barrowammo Platnick 2002 JD-S07
                                       |    `--B. waldockae Platnick 2002 T13
                                       `--Ammoxenus Simon 1893 R14, JD-S07
                                            |--A. amphalodes Dippenaar & Meyer 1980 HD-S02
                                            `--A. coccineus R14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[HD-S02] Haddad, C. R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. The influence of mound structure on the diversity of spiders (Araneae) inhabiting the abandoned mounds of the snouted harvester termite Trinervitermes trinervoides. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 403–408.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[WJ02] Warui, C., & R. Jocqué. 2002. The first Gallieniellidae (Araneae) from eastern Africa. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 307–315.

Araneoidea

Pirate spider Ero furcata, copyright Tone Killick.


Belongs within: Neocribellatae.
Contains: Nesticidae, Theridiidae, Synotaxidae, Cyatholipidae, Nephilidae, Araneidae, Theridiosomatidae, Symphytognathidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, Linyphiidae, Tetragnathidae.

The Araneoidea are a clade of spiders that commonly construct elaborate webs for capturing prey such as orb or cob webs.

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Cribellum absent; posterior lateral spinnerets with two aciniform gland spigots flanking flagelliform gland spigot; setae serrate; labium short; lateral eyes juxtaposed at least in males.

<==Araneoidea [Extentae]
    |--+--+--Theridioidea JD-S07
    |  |  |    |--Nesticidae JD-S07
    |  |  |    `--Theridiidae BS09
    |  |  `--Cyatholipoidea JD-S07
    |  |       |--Synotaxidae JD-S07
    |  |       `--Cyatholipidae JD-S07
    |  `--+--Nephilidae BS09
    |     `--+--Araneidae BS09
    |        `--+--Theridiosomatidae S03
    |           `--+--+--Symphytognathidae S03
    |              |  `--Mysmenidae S03
    |              `--+--Anapidae BS09
    |                 `--Synaphridae S03
    |                      |--Crassignatha Wunderlich 1994 S03
    |                      |--Iardinus Simon 1899 S03
    |                      |--Synaphris Simon 1894 S03
    |                      `--Cepheia Simon 1894 S03
    |                           `--C. longiseta Simon 1881 S03
    `--+--Linyphioidea JD-S07
       |    |--Linyphiidae BS09
       |    `--Pimoidae JD-S07
       |         |--Weintrauboa Hormiga 2003 JD-S07
       |         |--Nanoa Hormiga, Buckle & Scharff 2005 JD-S07
       |         `--Pimoa Chamberin & Ivie 1943 JD-S07
       |              |--P. altioculata Chamberlin & Ivie 1943 SC97
       |              `--P. laurae JD-S07
       `--+--Tetragnathidae BS09
          `--+--Malkaridae JD-S07
             |    |--Malkara Davies 1980 [Malkarinae] RRH09
             |    |    `--M. loricata FF99
             |    `--Sternoidinae [Sternodidae, Sternoidini] RRH09
             |         |--Carathea Moran 1986 RRH09
             |         |--Chilenodes Platnick & Forster 1987 RRH09
             |         `--Perissopmeros Butler 1932 (see below for synonymy) RRH09
             |              |--*P. castaneous Butler 1932 RRH09
             |              |--P. darwini Rix, Roberts & Harvey 2009 RRH09
             |              |--*Sternodes’ foraminatus Butler 1929 [=*Sternoides foraminatus] RRH09
             |              `--‘Sternodes’ mullawerringi JD-S07
             `--Mimetidae FF99
                  |--Mimetarchaea gintaras Eskov 1992 SHR08
                  |--Gnolus [Gnoleae, Oarciinae] SC97
                  |--Mimetus Hentz 1832 BS09, JD-S07
                  |    |--M. hesperus R14
                  |    `--M. notius R14
                  |--Australomimetus Heimer 1989 PVD10
                  |    |--A. mendicus (Pickard-Cambridge 1879) PVD10
                  |    `--A. sennio (Urquhart 1891) PVD10
                  `--Ero FF99
                       |--E. aberrans Petrunckevitch 1958 S93
                       |--E. cambridgei Kulczynski 1911 BBM02
                       |--E. carboneana Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
                       |--E. furcata (Villers 1789) BBM02
                       `--E. permunda Petrunkevitch 1942 S93

Araneoidea incertae sedis:
  Hypopthalma E90
  Juraraneus [Juraraneidae] SHR08
    `--J. rasnitsyni Eskov 1984 SHR08
  Cretaraneus vilaltae Selden 1990 S93
  Acrometidae S93
    |--Pseudoacrometa gracilipes Wunderlich 1986 S93
    |--Cornuanandrus maior Wunderlich 1986 S93
    |--Anandrus S93
    |    |--A. inermis (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
    |    |--A. quaesitus (Petrunkevitch 1958) S93
    |    `--A. redemptus (Petrunkevitch 1958) S93
    `--Acrometa S93
         |--A. cristata Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
         |--A. minutum (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. robustum (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. samlandica (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. setosus (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         `--A. succini Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Adjutoridae S93
    |--Ajunctor similis Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    |--Admissor aculeatus Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    `--Adjutor S93
         |--A. deformis Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
         `--A. mirabilis Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Ephalmator [Ephalmatoridae] S93
    |--E. eximius Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
    `--E. fossilis Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
  Zarqaraneidae W19
  Cretamysmenidae W19

Perissopmeros Butler 1932 [incl. Sternodes Butler 1929 (preoc.), Sternoides Platnick 1998] RRH09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[E90] Eberhard, W. G. 1990. Early stages of orb construction by Philoponella vicinia, Leucauge mariana, and Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Uloboridae and Tetragnathidae), and their phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 18: 205–234.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[RRH09] Rix, M. G., J. D. Roberts & M. S. Harvey. 2009. The spider families Synotaxidae and Malkaridae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea) in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 295–304.

[SC97] Scharff, N., & J. A. Coddington. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 355–434.

[S03] Schütt, K. 2003. Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae s.l. (Araneae, Araneoidea). Zoologica Scripta 32 (2): 129–151.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SHR08] Selden, P. A., Huang D. & Ren D. 2008. Palpimanoid spiders from the Jurassic of China. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 306–321.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

Synotaxidae

Nomaua repanga, copyright Te Papa Tongarewa.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.

The Synotaxidae are a group of small spiders found in Australasia and South America.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Very small to small; three tarsal claws; ecribellate; entelegyne; eight eyes; paracymbium small, basal, dorsally excavate; cymbium with longitudinal incision on retrolateral margin; male palp with thickened macrosetae dorsally on femur and sometimes patella and tibia; femora basally thickened.

<==Synotaxidae
    |  i. s.: Calcarsynotaxus Wunderlich 1994 RRH09
    |           |--*C. longipes Wunderlich 1994 RRH09
    |           `--C. benrobertsi Rix, Roberts & Harvey 2009 RRH09
    |         Microsynotaxus RRH09
    |           |--M. calliope Wunderlich 2008 RRH09
    |           `--M. insolens Wunderlich 2008 RRH09
    |         Chileotaxus RRH09
    |--Synotaxus Simon 1894 [Synotaxinae] JD-S07
    |    `--S. monoceros JD-S07
    |--Physogleninae RRH09
    |    |--Physoglenes FF99
    |    |--Tupua RRH09
    |    |--Paratupua RRH09
    |    |--Zeatupua Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
    |    |    `--*Z. forsteri Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
    |    |--Meringa Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--*M. otago Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. australis Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. borealis Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. centralis Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. conway Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. hinaka Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. leith Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. nelson Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    `--M. tetragyna Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    `--Mangua Forster in Forster et al. 1990 FF99, PVD10
    |         |--*M. gunni Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. caswell Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. convoluta Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. flora Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. forsteri (Brignoli 1983) PVD10
    |         |--M. hughsoni Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. kapiti Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. makarora Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. medialis Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. oparara Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. otira Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. paringa Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. sana Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         `--M. secunda Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    `--Pahorinae RRH09
         |--Pahoroides Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--*P. whangarei Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    `--P. courti Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |--Runga Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--*R. nina Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--R. akaroa Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--R. flora Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--R. moana Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    `--R. raroa Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |--Pahora Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--*P. murihiku Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. cantuaria Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. graminicola Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. kaituna Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. media Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. montana Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. rakiura Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. taranaki Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    `--P. wiltoni Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         `--Nomaua Forster in Forster et al. 1990 [incl. Wairua] PVD10
              |--*N. crinifrons (Urquhart 1891) PVD10
              |--N. arborea Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
              |--N. cauda Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
              |--N. nelson Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
              |--N. perdita Forster in Forster et al. 1990 [incl. Nomaua reinga (Forster in Forster et al. 1990)] PVD10
              |--N. rakiura Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. repanga Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. rimutaka Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. taranga Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. urquharti Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. waikanae (Forster in Forster et al. 1990) PVD10
              `--N. waikaremoana Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[RRH09] Rix, M. G., J. D. Roberts & M. S. Harvey. 2009. The spider families Synotaxidae and Malkaridae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea) in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 295–304.