Xysticus

Xysticus cristatus, copyright Philippe Garcelon.


Belongs within: Thomisidae.

Xysticus, ground crab spiders, is a genus of crab spiders with a generally flattened abdomen, carapace with the front distinctly higher than the back, and the two pairs of lateral eyes on incompletely joined tubercles.

<==Xysticus
    |--X. altaicus Simon 1895 S95
    |--X. audax R14
    |--X. bifasciatus CM07
    |--X. bliteus (Simon 1875) PO08
    |--X. calenzanae Kraus 1955 K55
    |--X. canadensis Gertsch 1934 PS08
    |--X. caperatus Simon 1875 PO08
    |--X. connectens Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |--X. cristatus (Clerck 1757) PO08
    |--X. cunctator MC02
    |--X. edax (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    |--X. elegans JVHN90
    |--X. elongatus (Stoliczka 1869) [=Thomisus (Xysticus) elongatus] S69
    |--X. emertoni Keyserling 1880 M01
    |--X. erraticus (Blackwall 1834) BBM02
    |--X. fienae JD-S07
    |--X. fucatus [incl. X. albimanus] K01
    |--X. grallator Simon 1932 K55
    |--X. inaequalis Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |--X. kempeleni Thorell 1872 PO08
    |--X. kochii Thorell 1872 K55
    |--X. lanio Koch 1835 MF11
    |--X. lateralis K01
    |--X. lineatus (Westring 1851) PO08
    |--X. luctator K01
    |--X. luctuosus K01
    |--X. ninni BV00
    |--X. nubilus Simon 1875 K55
    |--X. obscurus Collett 1887 PS08
    |--X. pini K01
    |--X. promiscuus Pickard-Cambridge 1876 PO08
    |--X. pugilis (Stoliczka 1869) [=Thomisus (Xysticus) pugilis] S69
    |--X. punctatus JDW90
    |--X. sabulosus (Hahn 1832) BBM02
    |--X. secedens BV00
    |--X. striatipes K01
    |--X. ulmi (Hahn 1831) K55
    |--X. viaticus CM07
    `--X. xerodermus Strand 1913 PO08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BV00] Bayram, A., & M. İ. Varol. 2000. Spiders active on snow in eastern Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 133–137.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[JDW90] Jennings, D. T., J. B. Dimond & B. A. Watt. 1990. Population densities of spiders (Araneae) and spruce budworms (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on foliage of balsam fir and red spruce in east-central Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 181–194.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MF11] Mąkol, J., & M. Felska. 2011. New records of spiders (Araneae) as hosts of terrestrial Parasitengona mites (Acari: Actinotrichida: Prostigmata). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 352–354.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[M01] Morse, D. H. 2001. Harvestmen as commensals of crab spiders. Journal of Arachnology 29: 273–275.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” [Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg], Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest Connochaetes gnou, copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Alcephalinae.

Connochaetes, the gnus or wildebeest, is a genus of cattle-like grazing antelopes found in grasslands and open woodland of southern and eastern Africa.

Characters (from Murray 1984): Head massive, both sexes horned. Mane present on neck and shoulders, beard under throat. Tail long, reaching nearly to ground.

Connochaetes [incl. Pultiphagonides Hopwood 1934] G78
    |--+--C. africanus (Hopwood 1934) [=*Pultiphagonides africanus] G78
    |  `--C. gnou G78
    |       |--C. g. gnou G78
    |       |--C. g. antiquus Broom 1913 G78
    |       `--C. g. laticornutus (van Hoepen 1932) G78
    `--C. taurinus G78
         |--C. t. taurinus G78
         |--C. t. cooksoni M84
         |--C. t. mearnsi M84
         |--C. t. olduvaiensis G78
         `--C. t. prognu G78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G78] Gentry, A. W. 1978. Bovidae. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 540–572. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[M84] Murray, M. G. 1984. Grazing antelopes. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals pp. 120–131. Torstar Books: New York.

Thomisus

Female Thomisus onustus, copyright Lucarelli.


Belongs within: Thomisidae.

Thomisus is a genus of crab spiders, a number of species of which are brightly coloured to match flowers on which they wait to ambush visiting insects.

<==Thomisus Walckenaer 1805 [Thomisinae] JD-S07
    |--T. albens S95
    |--T. albus K01 [incl. T. albidus S95]
    |--T. amboinensis Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--T. annulipes Lucas 1846 E12
    |--T. anthobius P01
    |--T. argentatus [=Aranea argentata, Heteropoda argentata] C01
    |--T. aureolus [=Aranea aureola, Heteropoda aureola] C01
    |--T. bilineatus [=Aranea bilineata, Heteropoda bilineata] C01
    |--T. calycinus (Linnaeus 1758) C01, L58 [=Aranea calycina C01, Heteropoda calycina C01]
    |--T. cespitum [=Aranea cespitum, Heteropoda cespitum] C01
    |--T. cinerascens Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. cristatus [=Aranea cristata, Heteropoda cristata] C01
    |--T. daradioides JD-S07
    |--T. dauci [=Aranea dauci, Heteropoda dauci] C01
    |--T. delicatulus [=Aranea delicatula, Heteropoda delicatula] C01
    |--T. diana [=Aranea diana, Heteropoda diana] C01
    |--T. dilatatus Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. dissimilis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. facatus [=Aranea facata, Heteropoda facata] C01
    |--T. ferox K18
    |--T. floricola [=Aranea floricola, Heteropoda floricola] C01
    |--T. grubei Simon 1895 S95
    |--T. numida Lucas 1846 E12
    |--T. oblongus [=Aranea oblonga, Heteropoda oblonga] C01
    |--T. onustus Walckenaer 1805 K55
    |--T. peelianus Stoliczka 1869 S69
    |--T. piger [=Aranea pigra, Heteropoda pigra] C01
    |--T. rhomboicus [=Aranea rhomboica, Heteropoda rhomboica] C01
    |--T. rotundatus [=Aranea rotundata, Heteropoda rotundata] C01
    |--T. spectabilis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. spiculosus Pocock 1901 P01
    |--T. stellifer Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--T. tigrinus [=Aranea tigrina, Heteropoda tigrina] C01
    |--T. truncatus [=Aranea truncata, Heteropoda truncata] C01
    |--T. tuberosus S69
    |--T. violaceus [=Aranea violacea, Heteropoda violacea] C01
    `--T. vulcanicus Doleschall 1859 D59

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. A revision of the genera of the Araneae or spiders with reference to their type species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 51–65.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe "Sphecinae". IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[P01] Pocock, R. I. 1901. Diagnoses of some new species of spiders from Mashonaland. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 337–340.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876-1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” [Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg], Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

Corinnidae

Corinna sp., copyright Célio Moura Neto.


Belongs within: Dionycha.

The Corinnidae are a group of actively hunting spiders commonly found among leaf litter (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Synapomorphies (from Ramírez 2014): Tarsal cuticle texture smooth; distal plate of trichobothria with distal ridge continuous in a closed alveolus; dorsal scutum present on male abdomen; embolus attachment fixed; median apophysis absent; epigynum lobes forming an undivided plate with suture not visible.

<==Corinnidae [Myrmeciidae] JD-S07
    |  i. s.: Arushina R14
    |         Cycais R14
    |         Scorteccia R14
    |         Chemmisomma P92
    |--Corinninae R14
    |    |  i. s.: Abapeba rioclaro Bonaldo 2000 FM11
    |    |         Attacobius R14
    |    |         Ecitocobius R14
    |    |         Erendira R14
    |    |         Megalostrata R14
    |    |         Methesis R14
    |    |         Parachemmis R14
    |    |         Septentrinna R14
    |    |         Simonestus R14
    |    |         Stethorrhagus R14
    |    |         Tapixaua R14
    |    |         Tupirinna R14
    |    |         Xeropigo R14
    |    |           |--X. camilae De Souza & Bonaldo 2007 FM11
    |    |           `--X. tridentiger (Pickard-Cambridge 1869) FM11
    |    |--Creugas gulosus R14
    |    `--+--+--Falconina gracilis (Keyserling 1891) R14, FM11
    |       |  `--Paradiestus R14
    |       |       |--P. giganteus (Karsch 1880) FM11
    |       |       `--P. penicillatus R14
    |       `--Corinna Koch 1841 R14, JD-S07
    |            |--C. brunneipeltula Strand 1910 S10
    |            |--C. bulbula R14
    |            |--C. capito (Lucas 1856) FM11
    |            |--C. ducke R14
    |            |--C. natalis R14
    |            `--C. nitens R14
    `--Castianeirinae R14
         |  i. s.: Aetius R14
         |         Apochinomma R14
         |         Cambalida R14
         |         Castanilla R14
         |         Castoponera R14
         |         Coenoptychus R14
         |         Corinnomma R14
         |         Echinax R14
         |         Graptartia R14
         |         Humua R14
         |         Mazax R14
         |         Merenius R14
         |         Messapus R14
         |         Myrmecium R14
         |         Myrmecotypus R14
         |         Poecilipta R14
         |         Pranburia R14
         |         Psellocoptus R14
         |         Serendib R14
         |         Sphecotypus R14
         |         Supunna Simon 1897 R14, PVD10
         |           |--S. funerea Simon 1896 PVD10
         |           `--S. picta (Koch 1873) PVD10
         |--Medmassa semiaurantiaca R14
         `--+--Copa flavoplumosa R14
            `--Castianeira R14
                 |--C. descripta R14
                 |--C. longipalpa R14
                 `--C. trilineata R14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S10] Strand, E. 1910. Spinnentiere aus Neuguinea (Opiliones, Psechridae und Clubionidae) gesammelt von Dr. Schlaginhaufen. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 13 (5): 1–16.

Salticidae

Male Plexippus paykulli, copyright Vengolis.


Belongs within: Dionycha.
Contains: Maratus, Salticus.

The Salticidae, jumping spiders, are a group of actively hunting spiders with well developed vision, characterised by large and anteriorly directed anterior median eyes.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to large; two tarsal claws; ecribellate; entelegyne; eight eyes; carapace square-fronted with four forwardly directed eyes of which the anterior median eyes are very large.

<==Salticidae [Attidae, Salticoidae, Salticoidea, Saltigradae]
    |--Lyssomanes [Lyssomaninae] R14
    |    |--L. portoricensis R14
    |    `--L. viridis E95
    `--+--Spartaeinae JD-S07
       |    |--Spartaeus wildtrackii R14
       |    |--Portia Karsch 1878 R14, B08
       |    |    |--P. fimbriata E95
       |    |    `--P. schultzi R14
       |    `--Holcolaetis [Holcolaetinae] R14
       |         |--H. vellerea R14
       |         `--H. zuluensis R14
       `--+--Cocalodes R14
          |    |--C. innotabilis R14
          |    |--C. longicornis R14
          |    `--C. papuans R14
          `--+--Hispo [Hisponinae] R14
             |    `--H. inermis R14
             `--Salticoida R14
                  |--Salticus B02
                  `--Plexippus Koch 1846 R14, PVD10
                       |--P. albolineatus Koch 1846 K92
                       |--P. culicivorus (Doleschall 1859) [=Salticus culicivorus, Menemerus culicivorus] T94
                       |--P. cumulatus Karsch 1892 K92
                       |--P. daemeli S99
                       |--P. paykulli (Aud. in Sav. 1827) [=Attus paykulli, Menemerus paykulli] K92
                       |--P. stridulator Poc. 1898 R13
                       |--P. sylvarus Urquhart 1892 PVD10
                       `--P. validus M-RL88

Salticidae incertae sedis:
  Simaetha T13
    |--S. knowlesi Żabka 1994 DH10
    |--S. paetula (Keyserling 1882) A02
    `--S. tenuior (Keyserling 1882) T13
  Yllenus B08
    |--Y. arenarius Menge 1868 B08
    |--Y. elegans [=Attus elegans] S95
    |--Y. flavociliatus Simon 1895 S95
    `--Y. hamifer Simon 1895 S95
  Sitticus D90
    |--S. finschi (Koch 1879) PS08
    |--S. pubescens V09 [=Aranea pubescens C01, Attus pubescens V09, Salticus pubescens C01]
    |--S. saltator (Cambridge 1868) BBM02
    `--S. truncorum (Linnaeus 1758) K55
  Eris militaris (Walckenaer 1837) TF98a
  Phanias MC02
  Menemerus K55
    |--M. albocinctus Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
    |--M. confusus M-RL88
    `--M. taeniatus (Koch 1867) K55
  Marpissa Koch 1846 PVD10
    |--M. arenaria Urquhart 1888 PVD10
    |--M. armifera Urquhart 1892 PVD10
    |--M. cineracea Urquhart 1891 PVD10
    |--M. leucophaea Urquhart 1888 PVD10
    |--M. marina (Goyen 1892) PVD10
    |--M. muscosa E95
    |--M. nemoralis Urquhart 1892 PVD10
    |--M. nivoyi E95
    `--M. undata M57
  Holoplatys Simon 1885 W09
    |--H. appressus (Powell 1873) PVD10
    |--H. desertina MC13
    `--H. planissima (Koch 1879) PVD10
  Opisthoncus necator MC13, B96
  Mopsus mormon (Keyserling 1881) B96
  Cosmophasis Simon 1901 PVD10
    |--C. archeyi Berland 1931 PVD10 [=Clynotis archeyi F64]
    |--C. baehrae T13
    |--C. bitaeniata B96
    `--C. micarioides (K. 1880) [=Amycus micarioides] R13
  Trite Simon 1885 PVD10
    |--*T. pennata S99
    |--T. auricoma (Urquhart 1886) PVD10
    |--T. binotata Simon 1899 S99
    |--T. herbigrada (Urquhart 1889) PVD10
    |--T. mustilina (Powell 1873) PVD10
    |--T. parvula (Bryant 1935) PVD10
    |--T. planiceps Simon 1899 [incl. T. minax (Powell 1873)] PVD10
    `--T. urvillei (de Dalmas 1917) PVD10
  Neon D90
    |--N. reticulatus RKD02
    `--N. valentulus Falconer 1912 K02
  Heliophanus K55
    |--H. apiatus Simon 1868 K55
    |--H. corsicus Simon 1871 K55
    |--H. cupreus (Walckenaer 1802) K55
    |--H. dubius K01
    |--H. flavipes (Hahn 1832) BBM02
    |--H. lineiventris Simon 1868 K55
    |--H. patagiatus [incl. H. patagiatus var. albolineata Kulczyński 1901] K01
    `--H. rufithorax Simon 1868 K55
  Pelegrina PS08
    |--P. aeneola MC02
    |--P. flaviceps (Kaston 1973) PS08
    `--P. flavipes (Peckham & Peckham 1888) PS08
  Phidippus B08
    |--P. audax MC02
    |--P. clarus MC02
    |--P. comatus MC02
    |--P. femoratus E95
    |--P. johnsoni (Peckham & Peckham 1883) B02
    |--P. regius Koch 1846 B08
    |--P. rufus K18
    `--P. tripunctatus K18
  Homalattus White 1841 K92
    |--H. cingulatus Karsch 1892 K92
    |--H. laminatus Karsch 1892 K92
    `--H. reductus Karsch 1892 K92
  Linus Peckh. 1885 K92
    |--L. alticeps Poc. 1898 R13
    `--L. fimbriatus (Doleschall 1859) K92, D59 [=Salticus fimbriatus K92, Sinis fimbriatus K92]
  Dischiropus Karsch 1892 K92
    |--D. alticinctus Karsch 1892 K92
    `--D. calcaratus [=Plexippus calcaratus] K92
  Maevia K92
    |--M. albozonata K92
    `--M. inclemens R96
  Icius Simon 1873 K92
    |--I. discatus Karsch 1892 K92
    |--I. hamatus (Koch 1846) K55
    |--I. hartii K62
    |--I. nebulosus (Simon 1868) K55
    `--I. notabilis (Simon 1871) K55
  Hasarius Simon 1871 PVD10
    |--H. adansoni (Audouin 1826) PVD10 [=Attus adansonii K92]
    |--H. arcigerus Karsch 1892 K92
    |--H. garetti K. 1881 R13
    `--H. paykulli V09
  Leptorchestes K55
    |--L. cognatus R96
    |--L. mutilliodes (Lucas 1846) K55
    `--L. striatipes R96
  Evarcha B08
    |--E. arcuata (Clerk 1757) K55
    |--E. culicivora (Wesolowska & Jackson 2003) B08
    |--E. falcata RKD02
    |--E. jucunda (Lucas 1846) K55
    `--E. laetabunda RKD02
  Carrhotus K55
    |--C. oscitans (Poc. 1898) [=Eustirognathus oscitans] R13
    `--C. xanthogramma (Walckenaer 1825) K55
  Saitis Simon 1876 W08
    `--S. barbipes (Simon 1868) K55
  Thyene imperialis (Rossi 1846) JD-S07, K55
  Phlegra bresnieri (Lucas 1846) K55
  Neaetha membranosa (Simon 1868) K55
  Aelurillus K55
    |--A. aeruginosus (Simon 1871) PO08
    |--A. concolor Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |--A. conveniens (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    |--A. festivus K01
    |--A. litera K55
    |    |--A. l. litera K55
    |    `--A. l. v-insignitus (Clerck 1757) K55
    `--A. politiventris (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
  Bianor Peckham & Peckham 1885 PVD10
    |--*B. maculatus (Keyserling 1883) PVD10
    |--B. albobimaculatus (Lucas 1846) K55
    `--B. compactus (Urquhart 1885) PVD10
  Metaphidippus flaviceps JVHN90
  Corythalia canosa TF98b
  Araneotanna Özdikman & Kury 2006 [=Tanna Berland 1938 non Distant 1905] OK06
    `--*A. ornatipes (Berland 1938) [=*Tanna ornatipes] OK06
  Zenodorus R13
    |--Z. orbiculatus (Keyserling 1881) DH10
    `--Z. variatus Poc. 1898 R13
  Bathippus macroprotopus Poc. 1898 R13
  Athamus whitmei Cambr. 1877 R13
  Sigytes diloris (K. 1881) [=Hasarius diloris] R13
  Euryattus nigriventris (K. 1881) [=Hasarius nigriventris] R13
  Synemosyna T94
    |--*S. formica Hentz 1846 [incl. Janus gibberosus Koch 1846] T94
    `--S. lupata R96
  Ascalus Thorell 1894 T94
    |--*A. laeta [=Synemosyna laeta] T94
    |--A. niger [=Synemosyna nigra] T94
    `--A. pygmaeus Thorell 1894 T94
  Janigena melanocephala [=Janus melanocephalus] T94
  Toxeus T94
    |--T. mandibularis T94
    `--T. maxillosus [incl. Synemosyna procera, T. procerus] T94
  Pergasus Thorell 1894 T94
    `--*P. formosus [=Salticus formosus] T94
  Herilus Thorell 1894 T94
    |--*H. pectorosus [=Salticus pectorosus] T94
    |--H. alticeps [=Salticus alticeps] T94
    `--H. radiatus Thorell 1894 T94
  Sphasus S69
    |--S. gracilipes White 1849 W49
    |--S. indicus S69
    |--S. lepidus Blackw. 1864 S69
    |--‘Spasus’ signifer Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--S. similaris Stoliczka 1869 S69
    |--S. striatus Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--S. striolatus Doleschall 1859 D59
    `--S. viridanus Stoliczka 1869 S69
  Myrmarachne McLeay 1835 C08
    |--M. assimilis Banks 1930 C08
    |--M. lupata E95
    `--M. providens B03
  Psecas chapoda OMM08
  Coryphasia OMM08
  Eustiromastix nativo OMM08
  Paraplatoides Żabka 1992 W09
    |--*P. tenerrima (Koch 1879) [=Marptusa tenerrima] W09
    |--P. caledonica (Berland 1932) [=Holoplatys caledonica] W09
    `--P. darwini Waldock 2009 W09
  Zebraplatys Żabka 1992 W09
    |--Z. fractivittata (Simon 1909) DH10
    `--Z. keyserlingi Żabka 1992 DH10
  Paraphidippus aurantius BS09
  Xenocytaea Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--*X. triramosa Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--X. anomala Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--X. daviesae Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--X. maddisoni Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
    |--X. stanislawi Patoleta 2011 P11
    |--X. taveuniensis Patoleta 2011 P11
    |--X. victoriensis Patoleta 2011 P11
    |--X. vonavonensis Patoleta 2011 P11
    `--X. zabkai Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 P11
  Cytaea P11
  Chalcotropis P11
  Donoessus P11
  Panysinus nicholsoni [=Hasarius nicholsoni] V09
  Peckhamia D90
  Habronattus oregonensis D90, H06
  Talavera petrensis D90, RKD02
  Pseudoeuophrys lanigera [=Euophrys lanigera] V09
  Cobanus mandibularis S09, E95
  Pachyballus JD-S07
  Bacelarella Berland & Millot 1941 JD-S07, J02
    |--B. conjugans J02
    |--B. pavida Szûts & Jocqué 2001 J02
    `--B. tentativa Szûts & Jocqué 2001 J02
  Orsima JD-S07
  Viciria pavesii JD-S07
  Grayenulla MC13
    |--G. australensis Żabka 1992 DH10
    |--G. spinimana Żabka & Gray 1992 DH10
    `--G. waldockae Żabka 1992 DH10
  Asemonea tenuipes E95
  Goleba puella E95
  Jacksonoides queenslandica E95
  Pseudicius E95
  Thorellia ensifera E95
  Astieae Z95
    |--Megaloastia Żabka 1995 Z95
    |    `--*M. mainae Żabka 1995 Z95
    |--Arasia Z95
    |--Sondra Z95
    `--Helpis Simon 1901 Z95, PVD10
         `--*H. minitabunda (Koch 1880) PVD10
  Philaeus chrysops K01
  Oedipus aenescens K01
  Marptusa K01
    |--M. muscosa K01
    `--M. radiata K01
  Clynotis Simon 1901 PVD10
    |--C. albobarbatus MC13
    |--C. barresi Hogg 1909 PVD10
    |--C. knoxi Forster 1964 PVD10
    |--C. saxatilis (Urquhart 1886) PVD10
    `--C. severus DH10
  Ergane K01
    |--E. arcuata K01
    |--E. falcata K01
    |--E. laetabunda K01
    `--E. signata Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
  Adoxotoma Simon 1909 PVD10
    `--A. forsteri Żabka 2004 PVD10
  Hinewaia Żabka & Pollard 2002 PVD10
    `--*H. embolica Żabka & Pollard 2002 PVD10
  Hypoblemum Peckham & Peckham 1885 PVD10
    `--H. albovittatum (Keyserling 1882) PVD10
  Jotus Koch 1881 PVD10
    `--J. ravus (Urquhart 1893) PVD10
  Laufeia Simon 1889 PVD10
    `--L. aerihirta (Urquhart 1888) PVD10
  Ocrisiona Simon 1901 PVD10
    |--*O. leucocomis (Koch 1879) PVD10
    |--O. cinerea (Koch 1879) PVD10
    `--O. yakatunyae Żabka 1990 DH10
  Cyrba DH10
  Damoetas DH10
  Gangus DH10
  Simaethula DH10
  Attoides eresiformis Brongniart 1877 S93
  Massagrinae JD-S07
  Marenginae JD-S07
  Mogrinae JD-S07
  Dendryphantes K01 [Dendryphantinae JD-S07]
    |--D. militaris K18
    `--D. thorellii K01
  Euophryinae W13
    |--Maratus W13
    `--Euophrys V09
         |--E. frontalis (Walckenaer 1802) BH02
         |--E. parvula FF99
         `--E. westringi RKD02
  Pelleninae M54
    |--Habrocestum Simon 1876 M54
    |    `--H. punctiventris Keyserling 1883 M54
    `--Pellenes K55
         |--P. arcigerus (Walckenaer 1837) K55
         |--P. bitaeniata (Keyserling 1882) DH10
         `--P. simoni Koch 1882 PO08
  Almolinus P92
  Cenattus P92
  Eolinus P92
  Gorgopsina P92
  Paralinus P92
  Parevophrys P92
  Prolinus P92
  Propetes P92
  Steneattus P92
  Descangeles P92
  Descanso P92
  Nebridia P92
  Pensacolatus P92
  Phlegrata P92
  Thiodina P92
  Synageles picata R96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe "Sphecinae". IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

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[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

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[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M-RL88] Meyer-Rochow, V. B., & A. R. Liddle. 1988. Structure and function of the eyes of two species of opilionid from New Zealand glow-worm caves (Megalopsalis tumida: Palpatores, and Hendea myersi cavernicola: Laniatores). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 233: 293–319.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[M57] Mockford, E. L. 1957. Life history studies on some Florida insects of the genus Archipsocus (Psocoptera). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 1 (5): 253–274.

[OMM08] Osses, F., E. G. Martins & G. Machado. 2008. Oviposition site selection by the bromeliad-dweller harvestman Bourguyia hamata (Arachnida: Opiliones). Journal of Ethology 26 (2): 233–241.

[OK06] Özdikmen, H., & A. B. Kury. 2006. Three homonymous generic names in Araneae and Opiliones. Journal of Arachnology 34 (1): 279–280.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P11] Patoleta, B. M. 2011. New species of Xenocytaea Berry, Beatty & Prószyński 1998 (Araneae: Salticidae) from Fiji and the Solomon Islands. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 273–279.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

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Gnaphosoidea

Broad-faced sac spiders Trachelas tranquillus, copyright Judy Gallagher.


Belongs within: Dionycha.
Contains: Lamponidae, Liocranidae, Micaria, Gnaphosidae, Prodidomidae, Phrurolithidae, Gallieniellidae.

The Gnaphosoidea are a clade of spiders that mostly have flat posterior median eyes whose tapeta have the middle dark lines orthogonal to each other, allowing the tapeta to function as a polarised light compass (Ramírez 2014).

Synapomorphies (from Ramírez 2014, as Oblique Median Tapetum clade): Claw tuft seta with thick base; female with shaft of anterior major ampullate spigot much smaller than posterior; male with two major ampullates; major ampullate and piriform fields separated by deep furrow male and female; posterior median spinneret with four or five cylindrical gland spigots, forming isolated posterior group.

<==Gnaphosoidea JD-S07
    |  i. s.: Sphingius R14
    |         Sudharmia R14
    |         Koppe R14
    |--Trochanteriidae R14
    |    |  i. s.: Trochanteria Karsch 1878 [Trochanteriinae] JD-S07
    |    |         Morebilus T13 [Morebilinae JD-S07]
    |    |           `--M. diversus (Koch 1875) T13
    |    |         Plator [Platoridae] R14
    |    |           |--P. indicus Sim. 1897 K01
    |    |           `--P. insolens Simon 1880 K01
    |    |--Fissarena R14
    |    |    |--F. barrow Platnick 2002 T13
    |    |    `--F. castanea R14
    |    `--+--Desognaphosa yabbra R14
    |       `--Trachycosmus [Trachycosminae] R14
    |            `--T. sculptilis R14
    `--+--+--Galianoella Goloboff 2000 WJ02
       |  |    `--G. leucostigma R14
       |  `--+--Jacaena R14
       |     `--+--Teutamus R14
       |        `--+--Sesieutes R14
       |           `--Oedignatha [Oedignathae] R14
       |                |--O. jocquei R14
       |                `--O. scrobiculata R14
       `--+--Lamponidae R14
          `--+--+--Austrachelas pondoensis R14
             |  `--Liocranidae R14
             `--+--Trachelidae [Tracheleae, Trachelinae] R14
                |    |  i. s.: Poachelas R14
                |    |         Spinotrachelas capensis Haddad 2006 R14
                |    |         Fuchiba R14
                |    |         Fuchibotulus R14
                |    |         Afroceto R14
                |    |         Cetonana laticeps R14
                |    |         Metatrachelas R14
                |    |         Paratrachelas R14
                |    |         Patelloceto R14
                |    |         Planochelas R14
                |    |         Thysanina R14
                |    |         Utivarachna R14
                |    |--Trachelas Koch 1872 R14
                |    |    |--T. minor R14
                |    |    |--T. tranquillus R14
                |    |    `--T. volutus R14
                |    `--+--Meriola R14
                |       |    |--M. barrosi R14
                |       |    `--M. cetiformis (Strand 1908) [=Trachelas cetiformis] J98
                |       `--+--Paccius scharffi R14
                |          `--+--‘Trachelas’ mexicanus R14
                |             `--Trachelopachys ammobates R14
                `--+--+--Toxoniella Warui & Jocqué 2002 R14, WJ02
                   |  |    |--*T. taitensis Warui & Jocqué 2002 WJ02
                   |  |    `--T. rogoae Warui & Jocqué 2002 WJ02
                   |  `--+--+--Micaria R14
                   |     |  `--+--Gnaphosidae R14
                   |     |     `--Prodidomidae R14
                   |     `--+--Platyoides R14
                   |        |    |--P. pictus JD-S07
                   |        |    `--P. walteri JD-S07
                   |        `--+--Doliomalus cimicoides R14
                   |           `--Vectius niger R14
                   `--+--Legendrena Platnick 1984 R14, WJ02
                      |    `--L. perinet R14
                      `--+--Xenoplectus armatus R14
                         `--+--+--Phrurolithidae R14
                            |  `--Rastellus Platnick & Griffin 1990 R14, JD-S07
                            |       `--R. florisbad R14
                            `--+--Gallieniellidae R14
                               `--+--Cithaeronidae JD-S07
                                  |    |--Inthaeron Platnick 1991 JD-S07
                                  |    `--Cithaeron P.-Cambridge 1872 R14, JD-S07
                                  |         `--C. delimbatus R14
                                  `--Ammoxenidae JD-S07
                                       |--Austrammo Platnick 2002 JD-S07
                                       |--Barrowammo Platnick 2002 JD-S07
                                       |    `--B. waldockae Platnick 2002 T13
                                       `--Ammoxenus Simon 1893 R14, JD-S07
                                            |--A. amphalodes Dippenaar & Meyer 1980 HD-S02
                                            `--A. coccineus R14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[HD-S02] Haddad, C. R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. The influence of mound structure on the diversity of spiders (Araneae) inhabiting the abandoned mounds of the snouted harvester termite Trinervitermes trinervoides. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 403–408.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[WJ02] Warui, C., & R. Jocqué. 2002. The first Gallieniellidae (Araneae) from eastern Africa. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 307–315.

Araneoidea

Pirate spider Ero furcata, copyright Tone Killick.


Belongs within: Neocribellatae.
Contains: Nesticidae, Theridiidae, Synotaxidae, Cyatholipidae, Nephilidae, Araneidae, Theridiosomatidae, Symphytognathidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, Linyphiidae, Tetragnathidae.

The Araneoidea are a clade of spiders that commonly construct elaborate webs for capturing prey such as orb or cob webs. Members include the Mimetidae, pirate spiders, which are small spiders with peg teeth on the chelicerae and prolateral rows of interspersed large and small spines on the first two tibiae and metatarsi; members of this family are typically araneophagous and do not construct a web (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Cribellum absent; posterior lateral spinnerets with two aciniform gland spigots flanking flagelliform gland spigot; setae serrate; labium short; lateral eyes juxtaposed at least in males.

<==Araneoidea [Extentae]
    |--+--+--Theridioidea JD-S07
    |  |  |    |--Nesticidae JD-S07
    |  |  |    `--Theridiidae BS09
    |  |  `--Cyatholipoidea JD-S07
    |  |       |--Synotaxidae JD-S07
    |  |       `--Cyatholipidae PVD10
    |  `--+--Nephilidae BS09
    |     `--+--Araneidae BS09
    |        `--+--Theridiosomatidae S03
    |           `--+--+--Symphytognathidae S03
    |              |  `--Mysmenidae S03
    |              `--+--Anapidae BS09
    |                 `--Synaphridae S03
    |                      |--Crassignatha Wunderlich 1994 S03
    |                      |--Iardinus Simon 1899 S03
    |                      |--Synaphris Simon 1894 S03
    |                      `--Cepheia Simon 1894 S03
    |                           `--C. longiseta Simon 1881 S03
    `--+--Linyphioidea JD-S07
       |    |--Linyphiidae BS09
       |    `--Pimoidae JD-S07
       |         |--Weintrauboa Hormiga 2003 JD-S07
       |         |--Nanoa Hormiga, Buckle & Scharff 2005 JD-S07
       |         `--Pimoa Chamberin & Ivie 1943 JD-S07
       |              |--P. altioculata Chamberlin & Ivie 1943 SC97
       |              `--P. laurae JD-S07
       `--+--Tetragnathidae BS09
          `--+--Malkaridae JD-S07
             |    |--Malkara Davies 1980 [Malkarinae] RRH09
             |    |    `--M. loricata FF99
             |    `--Sternoidinae [Sternodidae, Sternoidini] RRH09
             |         |--Carathea Moran 1986 RRH09
             |         |--Chilenodes Platnick & Forster 1987 RRH09
             |         `--Perissopmeros Butler 1932 (see below for synonymy) RRH09
             |              |--*P. castaneous Butler 1932 RRH09
             |              |--P. darwini Rix, Roberts & Harvey 2009 RRH09
             |              |--*Sternodes’ foraminatus Butler 1929 [=*Sternoides foraminatus] RRH09
             |              `--‘Sternodes’ mullawerringi JD-S07
             `--Mimetidae BS09
                  |--Mimetarchaea gintaras Eskov 1992 SHR08
                  |--Gnolus [Gnoleae, Oarciinae] SC97
                  |--Mimetus Hentz 1832 JD-S07
                  |    |--M. biturberculatus P92
                  |    |--M. hesperus R14
                  |    `--M. notius R14
                  |--Australomimetus Heimer 1989 PVD10
                  |    |--A. mendicus (Pickard-Cambridge 1879) PVD10
                  |    `--A. sennio (Urquhart 1891) PVD10
                  `--Ero FF99
                       |--E. aberrans Petrunckevitch 1958 S93
                       |--E. cambridgei Kulczynski 1911 BBM02
                       |--E. carboneana Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
                       |--E. furcata (Villers 1789) BBM02
                       `--E. permunda Petrunkevitch 1942 S93

Araneoidea incertae sedis:
  Hypopthalma E90
  Juraraneus [Juraraneidae] SHR08
    `--J. rasnitsyni Eskov 1984 SHR08
  Cretaraneus vilaltae Selden 1990 S93
  Acrometidae S93
    |--Pseudoacrometa Wunderlich 1986 P92
    |    `--P. gracilipes Wunderlich 1986 S93
    |--Cornuanandrus Wunderlich 1986 P92
    |    `--C. maior Wunderlich 1986 S93
    |--Anandrus S93
    |    |--A. inermis (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
    |    |--A. quaesitus (Petrunkevitch 1958) S93
    |    `--A. redemptus (Petrunkevitch 1958) S93
    `--Acrometa S93
         |--A. cristata Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
         |--A. minutum (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. robustum (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. samlandica (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         |--A. setosus (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         `--A. succini Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Adjutoridae S93
    |--Ajunctor similis Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    |--Admissor aculeatus Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
    `--Adjutor S93
         |--A. deformis Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
         `--A. mirabilis Petrunkevitch 1942 S93
  Ephalmator [Ephalmatoridae] S93
    |--E. eximius Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
    `--E. fossilis Petrunkevitch 1958 S93
  Zarqaraneidae W19
  Cretamysmenidae W19

Perissopmeros Butler 1932 [incl. Sternodes Butler 1929 (preoc.), Sternoides Platnick 1998] RRH09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[E90] Eberhard, W. G. 1990. Early stages of orb construction by Philoponella vicinia, Leucauge mariana, and Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Uloboridae and Tetragnathidae), and their phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 18: 205–234.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[RRH09] Rix, M. G., J. D. Roberts & M. S. Harvey. 2009. The spider families Synotaxidae and Malkaridae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea) in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 295–304.

[SC97] Scharff, N., & J. A. Coddington. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 355–434.

[S03] Schütt, K. 2003. Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae s.l. (Araneae, Araneoidea). Zoologica Scripta 32 (2): 129–151.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SHR08] Selden, P. A., Huang D. & Ren D. 2008. Palpimanoid spiders from the Jurassic of China. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 306–321.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

Last updated: 17 January 2022.

Synotaxidae

Nomaua repanga, copyright Te Papa Tongarewa.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.

The Synotaxidae are a group of small spiders found in Australasia and South America. They construct webs that vary from irregular sheets to an inverted bowl or lattice-like structure (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Very small to small; three tarsal claws; ecribellate; entelegyne; eight eyes; paracymbium small, basal, dorsally excavate; cymbium with longitudinal incision on retrolateral margin; male palp with thickened macrosetae dorsally on femur and sometimes patella and tibia; femora basally thickened.

<==Synotaxidae
    |  i. s.: Calcarsynotaxus Wunderlich 1994 RRH09
    |           |--*C. longipes Wunderlich 1994 RRH09
    |           `--C. benrobertsi Rix, Roberts & Harvey 2009 RRH09
    |         Microsynotaxus RRH09
    |           |--M. calliope Wunderlich 2008 RRH09
    |           `--M. insolens Wunderlich 2008 RRH09
    |         Chileotaxus RRH09
    |--Synotaxus Simon 1894 [Synotaxinae] JD-S07
    |    `--S. monoceros JD-S07
    |--Physogleninae RRH09
    |    |--Physoglenes FF99
    |    |--Tupua RRH09
    |    |--Paratupua RRH09
    |    |--Zeatupua Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
    |    |    `--*Z. forsteri Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
    |    |--Meringa Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--*M. otago Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. australis Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. borealis Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. centralis Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. conway Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. hinaka Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. leith Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    |--M. nelson Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    |    `--M. tetragyna Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |    `--Mangua Forster in Forster et al. 1990 FF99, PVD10
    |         |--*M. gunni Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. caswell Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. convoluta Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. flora Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. forsteri (Brignoli 1983) PVD10
    |         |--M. hughsoni Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. kapiti Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. makarora Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. medialis Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. oparara Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. otira Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. paringa Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         |--M. sana Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    |         `--M. secunda Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
    `--Pahorinae RRH09
         |--Pahoroides Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--*P. whangarei Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    `--P. courti Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |--Runga Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--*R. nina Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--R. akaroa Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--R. flora Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--R. moana Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    `--R. raroa Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |--Pahora Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--*P. murihiku Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. cantuaria Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. graminicola Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. kaituna Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. media Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. montana Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. rakiura Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    |--P. taranaki Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         |    `--P. wiltoni Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
         `--Nomaua Forster in Forster et al. 1990 [incl. Wairua] PVD10
              |--*N. crinifrons (Urquhart 1891) PVD10
              |--N. arborea Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
              |--N. cauda Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
              |--N. nelson Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10
              |--N. perdita Forster in Forster et al. 1990 [incl. Nomaua reinga (Forster in Forster et al. 1990)] PVD10
              |--N. rakiura Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. repanga Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. rimutaka Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. taranga Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. urquharti Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2009 PVD10
              |--N. waikanae (Forster in Forster et al. 1990) PVD10
              `--N. waikaremoana Forster in Forster et al. 1990 PVD10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[RRH09] Rix, M. G., J. D. Roberts & M. S. Harvey. 2009. The spider families Synotaxidae and Malkaridae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea) in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 295–304.

Last updated: 14 January 2022.