Halammohydra

Specimen of Halammohydra, photographed by Allen G. Collins.


Belongs within: Hydrozoa.

Halammohydra is a genus of minute hydrozoans living interstitially between sand grains.

Characters (from Carlton 2007): Medusa only; polyp absent. Minute (0.5-2 mm), highly reduced; entirely ciliated; consisting mostly of a manubrium with two whorls of long, contractile tentacles; statocyst present between each pair of tentacles; aboral adhesive organ.

<==Halammohydra Remane 1927 [Halammohydridae] CS-P86
    |  i. s.: H. andamanensis Rao 1967 CS-P86
    |         H. intermedia Clausen 1967 CS-P86
    |         H. sagarensis Rao & Misra 1980 CS-P86
    |--H. (Halammohydra) CS-P86
    |    |--H. (H.) octopodides Remane 1927 CS-P86
    |    `--H. (H.) schulzei Remane 1927 CS-P86
    |--H. (Goulvenhydra Swedmark & Teissier 1967) CS-P86
    |    `--H. (*G.) vermiformis Swedmark & Teissier 1957 CS-P86
    `--H. (Skodenhydra Swedmark & Teissier 1967) CS-P86
         |--H. (*S.) adherens Swedmark & Teissier 1958 CS-P86
         |--H. (S.) cauhani Rao 1975 CS-P86
         `--H. (S.) coronata Clausen 1967 CS-P86

Nomina nuda: Halammohydra coronata var. reducta Clausen in Clausen &Salvini-Plawen 1986 CS-P86
             Halammohydra neglecta Clausen in Clausen & Salvini-Plawen 1986 CS-P86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Carlton, J. T. (ed.) 2007. The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon, 4th ed. University of California Press.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 33-42. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Codonophora

Diphyes dispar, photographed by R. Hopcroft.


Belongs within: Hydrozoa.

The Codonophora is a clade within the siphonophores characterised by the presence of nectosomes, bell-shaped zooids specialised for swimming, and gelatinous shield-like bracts (these latter lost in some subgroups) (Dunn et al. 2005).

<==Codonophora [Brachystelia, Physonectae]
    |  i. s.: Lychnagalma utricularia [incl. L. vesicularia] DPH05
    |--Apolemia DPH05
    `--+--Cordagalma cordiforme DPH05
       |--Erenna DPH05
       |--Stephalia [Rhodaliidae] DPH05
       |    `--S. dilata DPH05
       |--Bargmannia DPH05
       |    |--B. amoena DPH05
       |    `--B. elongata DPH05
       |--Stephanomia DPH05
       |    |--S. amphytridis [=Halistemma amphytridis, S. amphitridis (l. c.)] DPH05
       |    |--S. bijuga B26
       |    `--S. cara B26
       |--+--+--Physophora [Physophoridae] DPH05
       |  |  |    `--P. hydrostatica DPH05
       |  |  `--Forskalia DPH05
       |  |       |--F. tholoides DPH05
       |  |       `--+--F. edwardsi DPH05
       |  |          `--+--F. asymmetrica DPH05
       |  |             `--F. formosa DPH05
       |  `--Agalmatidae DPH05
       |       |--Nanomia DPH05
       |       |    |--N. bijuga DPH05
       |       |    `--N. cara IF02
       |       `--+--Halistemma rubrum DPH05
       |          `--Agalma DPH05
       |               |--A. clausi DPH05
       |               `--+--A. elegans DPH05
       |                  `--+--A. okeni DPH05
       |                     `--Athorybia [Athorybiidae] DPH05
       |                          `--A. rosacea DPH05
       `--Calycophorae DPH05
            |--+--Praya dubia DPH05
            |  `--+--Nectadamas diomedeae DPH05
            |     `--Nectopyramis natans DPH05
            `--+--Craseoa lathetica DPH05
               |--+--+--Gymnopraia lapislazula DPH05
               |  |  `--Rosacea flaccida DPH05
               |  `--Vogtia Kölliker 1853 DPH05
               |       |--V. pentacantha DPH05
               |       `--+--V. glabra DPH05
               |          `--Hippopodius Quoy & Gaimard 1827 DPH05
               |               `--H. hippopus DPH05
               `--+--+--Chuniphyes multidentata DPH05
                  |  `--Clausophyes ovata DPH05
                  `--+--Sphaeronectes gracilis DPH05
                     `--Diphyidae DPH05
                          |--+--Muggiaea atlantica DPH05
                          |  `--+--Lensia conoidea DPH05
                          |     `--Sulculeolaria quadrivalvis DPH05
                          `--+--Chelophyes appendiculata DPH05
                             `--+--Abylopsis [Abylidae] DPH05
                                |    `--A. tetragona DPH05
                                `--Diphyes DPH05
                                     |--D. appendiculata B26
                                     |--D. arctica B26
                                     |--D. bojani B26
                                     |--D. dispar DPH05
                                     |--D. spiralis B26
                                     `--D. truncata B26

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1-509.

[DPH05] Dunn, C. W., P. R. Pugh & S. H. D. Haddock. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of the Siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization. Systematic Biology 54 (6): 916-935.

[IF02] Ivantsov, A. Yu., & M. A. Fedonkin. 2002. Conulariid-like fossil from the Vendian of Russia: A metazoan clade across the Proterozoic/Palaeozoic boundary. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1219-1229.

Boreosphenida

Right upper molar of Kielantherium gobiensis in (a) occlusal, (b) anterior and (c) labial views, from Lopatin & Averianov (2006).


Belongs within: Trechnotheria.
Contains: Metatheria, Eutheria.

The Boreosphenida is the clade uniting modern marsupials and placentals with their immediate fossil relatives sharing ancestrally tribosphenic molars (with three cusps).

Synapomorphies (from Rougier et al. 1998): Protocone small with distinct trigon basin (inferred from talonid); lower molar talonid with multicuspidated basin.

<==Boreosphenida
    |  i. s.: Tribactonodon VG09
    |         Kermackia FP99
    |--Kielantherium gobiensis LC07, WR07
    `--+--Aegialodon LC07
       |--Potamolestes RWN98
       `--+--Slaughteria RWN98
          `--+--Pappotherium FP99
             `--Theria [Creophaga, Deltatheridia, Deltatheridioidea, Insectivora, Palaeoryctoidea, Sarcobora] WR07
                  |  i. s.: Chronozoon DeVis 1883 LA02
                  |           `--*C. australe DeVis 1883 LA02
                  |         Mixodectidae S35
                  |           |--Mixodectes S35
                  |           `--Eudaemonema Simpson 1935 S35
                  |                `--*E. cuspidata Simpson 1935 S35
                  |         Vulpavoides Matthes 1952 V66
                  |         Ziphacodon Marsh 1872 (n. d.) V66
                  |         Aethechinus algirus JP84
                  |         Miothen Cope 1873 M60
                  |           |--*M. crassigenus Cope 1873 M60
                  |           `--M. gracile Cope 1873 M60
                  |--Metatheria WR07
                  `--Eutheria WR07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FP99] Flynn, J. J., J. M. Parrish, B. Rakotosamimanana, W. F. Simpson & A. R. Wyss. 1999. A Middle Jurassic mammal from Madagascar. Nature 401: 57-60.

[JP84] Jolicoeur, P., P. Pirlot, G. Baron & H. Stephan. 1984. Brain structure and correlation patterns in Insectivora, Chiroptera, and Primates. Systematic Zoology 33 (1): 14-29.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Lopatin, A. V., & A. O. Averianov. 2006. An aegialodontid upper molar and the evolution of mammal dentition. Science 313: 1092.

[LC07] Luo, Z.-X., P. Chen, G. Li & M. Chen. 2007. A new eutriconodont mammal and evolutionary development in early mammals. Nature 446: 288-293.

[M60] McKenna, M. C. 1960. The Geolabidinae: a new subfamily of early Cenozoic erinaceoid insectivores. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 37 (2): 131-164.

[RWN98] Rougier, G. W., J. R. Wible & M. J. Novacek. 1998. Implications of Deltatheridium specimens for early marsupial history. Nature 396: 459-463.

[S35] Simpson, G. G. 1935. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221-244.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

[VG09] Vullo, R., E. Gheerbrant, C. De Muizon & D. Néraudeau. 2009. The oldest modern therian mammal from Europe and its bearing on stem marsupial paleobiogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (47): 19910-19915.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.

Gymnobathra

Male genitalia of Gymnobathra flavidella, from Philpott (1927). (A) Lateral view; (b) harpe, inner view; (c) juxta; (d) tegumen, obliquely dorsal view; (e) vinculum.


Belongs within: Gelechioidea.

Gymnobathra is a genus of moths endemic to New Zealand, with larvae feeding on dead wood.

Characters (from Hoare 2010): Uncus well developed and sclerotised; gnathos present; inner surface of valva with specialised patch of setae.

<==Gymnobathra Meyrick 1884 P27
    |--*G. flavidella P27
    |--G. bryaula Meyr. 1905 P27
    |--G. caliginosa Philpott 1927 P27
    |--G. calliploca P27
    |--G. cenchrias P27
    |--G. coarctatella [incl. G. sarcoxantha Meyr. 1883] P27
    |--G. habropis [incl. G. philadelpha Meyr. 1883] P27
    |--G. hamatella P27
    |--G. hyetodes P27
    |--G. omphalota P27
    |--G. parca (Butl. 1887) P27
    |--G. squamea P27
    |--G. thetodes Meyr. 1883 P27
    `--G. tholodella P27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Hoare, R. J. B. 2010. Izatha (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Oecophoridae). Fauna of New Zealand 65: 1-201.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The genitalia of the genus Gymnobathra (Oecophoridae: Lepidoptera). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 716-721.

Borkhausenia

Male genitalia of Borkhausenia paula, from Philpott (1927): (a) lateral view; (b) harpes, internal view.


Belongs within: Gelechioidea.

Borkhausenia is a genus of small moths, some of which can be storage pests.

Characters (from Philpott 1926): Head smooth, side-tufts loosely appressed; ocelli posterior: tongue developed. Antennae ¾, in male moderately or rather strongly ciliated, basal joint moderate, with pecten. Labial palpi moderate or long, curved, ascending, second joint usually nearly reaching base of antennae, with appressed scales, somewhat loose beneath, terminal joint shorter than second, moderate, acute. Maxillary palpi very short, filiform, appressed to tongue. Posterior tibiae c]othed with long fine hairs. Forewings with lA and 2A coalescing near base, Cu1b from or near angle, R5 and R4 stalked, R5 to costa, rf at ½. Rindwjngs under 1, elongate-ovate, cilia ⅔-1; Cu1a and M3 connate, M2, M1 and Rs nearly parallel.

<==Borkhausenia
    |--B. ancogramma M27
    |--B. armigerella L27
    |--B. basella P27b
    |--B. brachyacma P27a
    |--B. chloradelpha L27
    |--B. crotala L27
    |--B. hemisphaerica P27b
    |--B. innotella L27
    |--B. marcida Philpott 1927 P27a
    |--B. paula Philpott 1927 P27a
    `--B. pseudospretella P27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693-696.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697-702.

Philpott, A. 1926. List of New Zealand species of Borkhausenia (Oecophoridae: Lepidoptera), including new species. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 56: 399-413.

[P27a] Philpott, A. 1927a. New Zealand Lepidoptera: Notes and descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 703-709.

[P27b] Philpott, A. 1927b. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

Ethmiinae

Caterpillar of Ethmia bipunctella, photographed by Svdmolen.


Belongs within: Gelechioidea.

The Ethmiinae are a group of moths with larvae feeding on Boraginaceae. Infestation with Ethmia heliomela has been known to cause defoliation of its host Ehretia acuminata (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991, as Ethmiidae): Small to medium sized; head smooth scaled; ocelli absent; antennae usually without pecten on scape; maxillary palps usually four-segmented, folded over base of proboscis; labial palps recurved; epiphysis present; hind tibiae with long filiform scales; fore wing without pterostigma, R4 and R5 stalked, R5 to costa or apex, CuP present at least towards margind; hind wing with Rs and M1 well separated at base, divergent, M2 not arising nearer to M3 than M1, CuP present; frenulum in female with three bristles; abdomen not spined; male genitalia with uncus often bifurcate or reduced, gnathos sometimes absent, valva usually deeply divided. Larva usually with some secondary setae at least in SV groups, crochets in bi- or uniordinal circle, mesoseries or mesal penellipse; usually beneath light webbing on Boraginaceae. Pupa with a pair of ventral, leg-like processes on abdominal segment 9, each with a series of hooked apical setae.

<==Ethmiinae [Ethmiidae]
    |--Dasyethmia Danilevsky 1969 K07
    |    `--*D. hiemalis Danilevsky 1969 K07
    `--Ethmia K07
         |--E. afghana Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. bipunctella (Fabricius 1775) K07
         |--E. cirrhocnemia (Lederer 1870) K07
         |--E. clytodoxa NC91
         |--E. comitella K07
         |    |--E. c. comitella K07
         |    `--E. c. steppella Dubatolov & Ustjuzhanin 1997 K07
         |--E. defreinai Ganev 1984 K07
         |--E. derbendella Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. distigmatella K07
         |--E. elimatella Danilevsky 1975 [=E. simatalla Danilevsky 1980 (n. n.)] K07
         |--E. euphoria Kun 2007 K07
         |--E. hakkarica Koçak 1986 K07
         |--E. heliomela NC91
         |--E. hemadelpha NC91
         |--E. infelix Meyrick 1914 [incl. E. kurdistanella Amsel 1959] K07
         |--E. interposita Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. iranella (Zerny 1940) K07
         |--E. kabulica Amsel 1969 K07
         |--E. lecmima K07
         |    |--E. l. lecmima K07
         |    `--E. l. amsel Kemal & Koçak 2005 K07
         |--E. pagiopa Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. percisa Kun 2007 K07
         |--E. quadrinotella K07
         |    |--E. q. quadrinotella K07
         |    `--E. q. heratella Amsel 1969 K07
         |--E. sattleri Kun 2007 K07
         |--E. sibirica Danilevsky 1975 K07
         |--E. similis Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. soljanikovi Danilevsky & Zagulajev 1975 K07
         |--E. sphaerosticha NC91
         |--E. suspecta Sattler 1967 K07
         |--E. thoraea NC91
         |--E. turkmeniella Dubatolov & Ustjuzhanin 1997 K07
         |--E. vidua K07
         |    |--E. v. vidua K07
         |    `--E. v. flavilaterella Danilevsky 1975 K07
         `--E. wurtseri Amsel 1956 K07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K07] Kun, A. 2007. Studies on Palaearctic Ethmia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 101–114.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Last updated: 2 March 2021.

Gelechioidea

Eriogenes cossoides, copyright CSIRO.


Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Agapalsini, Blastobasinae, Borkhausenia, Gymnobathra, Oecophorinae, Xyloryctinae, Stathmopodinae, Depressaria, Gelechiidae, Cosmopteriginae, Ethmiinae.

The Gelechioidea is a hyperdiverse group of moths, generally characterised by the presence of a densely scaled proboscis. Approximately 16,500 species are known within the clade, with a correspondingly high diversity of lifestyles, with larvae being phytophagous, detritivorous or even parasitic (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Over half the species of gelechioids are included in the family Oecophoridae, larvae of which mostly tunnel in stems or other plant parts, or inhabit retreats constructed by joining leaves or among detritus. The Elachistidae, grass-miner moths, are mostly leaf or stem miners in Poales. The ecologically diverse Cosmopterigidae are commonly characterised by asymmetrical genitalia in the males. The Coleophoridae are very small moths with two longitudinal patches on spines on each abdominal tergite that are not obscured by scales (Nielsen & Common 1991).

See also: The butterflies get all the glory (Taxon of the Week: Gelechioidea).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata absent; scape often with pecten; proboscis with dense, imbricated scales towards base, rarely reduced; maxillary palps small, mostly 4-segmented, folded over base of proboscis, rarely reduced; labial palps usually recurved, apical segment often exceeding vertex, usually tapering, acute; epiphysis usually present; spurs 0-2-4; fore wing with M rarely present in discal cell, chorda vestigial or absent, retinaculum in female often subcubital; hind wing with venation sometimes reduced, CuA rarely with basal pecten of hairs, CuP often absent, female frenulum usually with three bristles; S2 of tineid type; abdomen often with prominent dorsal spines. Larva with 3 L setae on prothorax, crochets in a circle, penellipse, or rarely in two transverse rows, abdominal setae L1 and L2 approximated; concealed feeders, case-bearing, tunnelling in stems or fruits, gall-forming, leaf-ming, joining foliage, or feeding beneath silken shelter. Pupa usually with labial palps and fore femora concealed, without dorsal abdominal spines, usually segments 5-7 movable in male, 5-6 in female; usually in larval shelter, not protruded from shelter or cocoon at ecdysis.

<==Gelechioidea
    |--+--Depressariidae KP19
    |  |    |--Depressaria GE05
    |  |    `--Psilocorsis reflexella KP19
    |  `--+--Gelechiidae KP19
    |     `--+--Autostichinae [Autostichidae] KP19
    |        |    |--Autosticha KP19
    |        |    `--Procometis NC91
    |        |         |--P. bisculcata NC91
    |        |         `--P. hylonoma P27c
    |        `--Cosmopterigidae O94
    |             |  i. s.: Glaphyristis marmarea P27c
    |             |         Trachydora droserodes P27c
    |             |         Euclemensia GE05
    |             |         Morphotica mirifica ZS10
    |             |         Thectophila Meyrick 1927 M27
    |             |           `--*T. acmotypa Meyrick 1927 M27
    |             |--Antequerinae NC91
    |             |--Walshiinae C70
    |             |--Cosmopteriginae NC91
    |             `--Chrysopeleiinae NC91
    |                  |--Chalotis semnostola NC91
    |                  `--Ithome lassula NC91
    `--Elachistidae GE05
         |  i. s.: Cosmiotes NC91
         |           |--C. aphanta C70
         |           |--C. archaeonoma M83
         |           `--C. synethes NC91
         |         Elachista Treitschke 1833 BR17
         |           |--E. archaeonoma P27c
         |           |--E. exaula P27c
         |           |--E. megerleella F92
         |           |--E. ombrodoca P27c
         |           `--E. thallophora P27c
         |         Ptilochares Meyrick 1887 M87
         |           `--*P. trissodesma Meyrick 1887 M87
         |         Castorura Meyrick 1887 M87
         |           `--*C. chrysias Meyrick 1887 M87
         |         Elachistites inclusus RJ93
         |         Anybia P92
         |         Microperittia P92
         |         Palaeoelachista P92
         |         Praemendesia P92
         |--Ethmiinae K07
         `--Stenomatinae [Stenomatidae] E03
              |--Antaeotricha schlaegeri KP19
              |--Agriophara Rosenstock 1885 E03
              |    |--*A. cinerosa E03
              |    |--A. confertella P27c
              |    `--A. platyscia NC91
              `--Eriogenes Meyrick 1925 E03
                   |--*E. mesogypsa Meyrick 1925 E03
                   |--E. cossoides (Butler 1882) [=Phanaca cossoides; incl. E. meyricki Duckworth 1973] E03
                   `--E. nielseni Edwards 2003 E03

Gelechioidea incertae sedis:
  Metachandidae DS73
  Anomologidae DS73
  Pterolonchidae DS73
  Physoptila [Physoptilidae] C74
  Blastodacnidae NC91
  Symmocidae NC91
    |--Symmoca C70
    `--Oegoconiites borisjaki Kuznetsov 1941 P92
  Holcopogonidae NC91
  Mompha WRM02 [Momphidae NC91, Momphinae]
    `--M. cephalonthiella WRM02
  Agonoxena [Agonoxenidae] NC91
    |--A. argaula NC91
    `--A. phoenicia NC91
  Hypertrophidae NC91
    |--Eupselia satrapella NC91
    `--Hypertropha M87
         |--H. chlaenota Meyrick 1887 M87
         `--H. tortriciformis (see below for synonymy) M86
  Batrachedra [Batrachedridae] NC91
    |--B. agaura P27c
    |--B. arenosella NC91
    |--B. microtoma NC91
    |--B. psithyra L27
    `--B. stegodyphobius R13
  Lecithoceridae [Timyridae] NC91
    |--Lecithocera micromela NC91
    `--Crocanthes NC91
         |--C. perigrapta P27c
         |--C. prasinopis NC91
         `--C. sidonia ZS10
  Scythrididae NC91
    |--Scythropites balticella Rebel 1936 P92
    |--Eretmocera NC91
    |    |--E. dioctis NC91
    |    `--E. flavicincta P27c
    `--Scythris NC91
         |--S. epistrota P27c
         |--S. rhabducha NC91
         `--S. scopolella KP19
  Coleophoridae [Eupistidae] GE05
    |  i. s.: Coleophora YS10
    |           |--C. alcyonipennella NC91
    |           |--C. frischella B88
    |           |--C. laricella F62
    |           |--C. lusitanica Baldizzone & Corley 2004 F05
    |           |--C. malivorella G05
    |           |--C. ochroneura C70
    |           |--C. parthenica G05
    |           `--C. serinipennella NC91
    |         Multicoloria YS10
    |           |--M. eucoleos YS10
    |           `--M. singreni YS10
    |         Corythangela NC91
    |--Agapalsini F05
    |--Blastobasinae AH96
    `--Systrophoecini F05
         |--Systrophoeca Falkovitsh 1972 F05
         |--Orghidania F05
         `--Suireia F05
  Oecophoridae [Cryptolechiadae] GE05
    |  i. s.: Tingena DGH93
    |         Borkhausenia P27a
    |         Petalanthes M27
    |         Gymnobathra P27b
    |         Eulechria baryptera P27c
    |         Nymphostola galactina P27c
    |         Ochlogenes advectella P27c
    |         Machaeritis aegrella P27c
    |         Oxythecta acceptella P27c
    |         Coeranica isabella P27c
    |         Saropla philocala P27c
    |         Protomacha chalcaspis P27c
    |         Chezala conjunctella P27c
    |         Lophopepla igniferella P27c
    |         Zonopetala clerota P27c
    |         Callithauma pyrites P27c
    |         Eutorna pabulicola P27c
    |         Thudaca obliquella P27c
    |         Endorsis lactella P27c
    |         Schiffermuelleria orthopanes P27c
    |         Leptocroca meselectra P27c
    |         Euchersadaula lathriopa P27c
    |         Euthictis chloratma P27c
    |         Thamnosara sublitella P27c
    |         Telanepsia AY04
    |         Thyrocopa O94
    |         Opisina arnosella [incl. Nephantis serinopa] YS10
    |         Hoplomorpha abalienella ZS10
    |         Euchaetis ZS10
    |         Habroscopa iriodes ZS10
    |         Corocosma Meyrick 1927 M27
    |           `--*C. memorabilis Meyrick 1927 M27
    |         Agonopterix P04
    |           |--A. alstromeriana P04
    |           |--A. arenella I92
    |           |--A. heracliana RD77
    |           |--A. muricolorella (Busck 1902) [=Depressaria muricolorella] C52
    |           |--A. oregonensis Clarke 1941 C52
    |           `--A. rosaciliella (Busck 1904) [=Depressaria rosaciliella; incl. A. r. echinopanacis] C52
    |         Piloprepes ZS10
    |           |--P. antidoxa ZS10
    |           `--P. lophoptera P27c
    |         Hierodoris H04
    |           |--H. atychioides H04
    |           `--H. frigida P27c
    |         Proteodes M27
    |           |--P. carnifex P27c
    |           `--P. melagrapha Meyrick 1927 M27
    |         Lathicrossa M27
    |           |--L. leucocentra P27c
    |           `--L. prophetica Meyrick 1927 M27
    |         Machimia P27c
    |           |--M. carnea P27c
    |           `--M. zatrephes P27c
    |         Cryptolechia P27c
    |           |--C. liochroa P27c
    |           |--C. radiosella P27c
    |           `--C. tentoriferella RD77
    |         Coesyra P27c
    |           |--C. apora P27c
    |           |--C. dichroella P27c
    |           `--C. paulinella P27c
    |         Atomotricha P27c
    |           |--A. chloronota P27c
    |           |--A. exsomnis P27c
    |           `--A. ommatias L27
    |         Trachypepla M27
    |           |--T. anastrella L27
    |           |--T. aspidephora L27
    |           |--T. conspicuella L27
    |           |--T. contritella P27c
    |           |--T. euryleucota T27
    |           |--T. indolescens Meyrick 1927 M27
    |           `--T. photinella M27
    |         Izatha P27c
    |           |--I. attactella L27
    |           |--I. convulsella L27
    |           |--I. epiphanes P27c
    |           |--I. mira L27
    |           |--I. peroneanella L27
    |           |--I. picarella L27
    |           `--I. planetella L27
    |         Peritornenta circulatella NC91
    |         Pedois NC91
    |         Tonica effractella NC91
    |         Enchocrates glaucopis NC91
    |         Placocosma resumptella [=Oecophora resumptella; incl. P. hephaestea Meyr. 1883] M86
    |         Antidica pilipes (Butl. 1882) [=Latometus pilipes; incl. A. eriophora Meyr. 1883] M86
    |         Gonionota pyrobola Meyrick 1887 M87
    |         Peritorneuta C70
    |         Cormotypa fascialis C70
    |         Sphaerelictis hepialella C70
    |         Borkhausenites bachofeni RJ93
    |         Depressarites P92
    |         Epiborkhausenites P92
    |         Glesseumeyickia P92
    |         Microsymmocites P92
    |         Neoborkhausenites P92
    |         Palaeodepressaria P92
    |         Paraborkhausenites P92
    |         Symmocites P92
    |         Tubuliferola P92
    |--Oecophorinae NC91
    |--Xyloryctinae NC91
    `--Stathmopodinae NC91

Hypertropha tortriciformis [=Heliodes tortriciformis; incl. Orosana desumptana, Anthoecia divitiosa, Hypertropha thesaurella Meyr. 1880] M86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AH96] Adamski, D., & R. W. Hodges. 1996. An annotated list of North American Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Coleophorinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 708–740.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C52] Clarke, J. F. G. 1952. Host relationships of moths of the genera Depressaria and Agonopterix, with descriptions of new species. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (7): 1–20.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C74] Common, I. F. B. 1974. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 98–107. Melbourne University Press.

[DGH93] Daugherty, C. H., G. W. Gibbs & R. A. Hitchmough. 1993. Mega-island or micro-continent? New Zealand and its fauna. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (12): 437–442.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[E03] Edwards, E. D. 2003. A review of the genus Eriogenes Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae: Stenomatinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 67–73.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F62] Flanders, S. E. 1962. Did the caterpillar exterminate the giant reptile? Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 1 (1): 85–88.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[H04] Harris, A. C. 2004. Range extensions of Ancistrocerus gazella (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) and Myomantis caffra (Mantodea: Mantidae). Weta 27: 31–32.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[K07] Kun, A. 2007. Studies on Palaearctic Ethmia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 101–114.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. Notes on synonymy of Australian micro-Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 803–806.

[M87] Meyrick, E. 1887. Descriptions of new Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1037–1048.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697–702.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P04] Patrick, B. 2004. Parsnip moth established in New Zealand. Weta 27: 8–12.

[P27a] Philpott, A. 1927a. New Zealand Lepidoptera: notes and descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 703–709.

[P27b] Philpott, A. 1927b. The genitalia of the genus Gymnobathra (Oecophoridae: Lepidoptera). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 716–721.

[P27c] Philpott, A. 1927c. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67–81.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 2 March 2021.

Yponomeutoidea

Sedge moth Glyphipteryx chrysoplanetis, photographed by Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Ditrysia.

The Yponomeutoidea are a group of mostly small moths, the larvae of which bore in stems or leaves of plants. Ocelli are present in Plutellidae and Glyphipterygidae but absent in Argyresthiidae and Yponomeutidae (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Very small to medium sized, ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata usually absent; scape sometimes with pecten; proboscis naked; maxillary palps small, 1-4-segmented; labial palps short, drooping or moderately ascending; epiphysis present; spurs 0-2-4, rarely 0-2-0; fore wing with M rarely retained in discal cell, chorda and pterostigma often present, R5 usually to termen, venation sometimes reduced; retinaculum in female sometimes a subcostal scale-tuft; hind tibiae usually smooth, abdomen sometimes with inconspicuous dorsal spining, S2 of tineid type and usually with transverse rim near anterior margin, male segment 8 with pleural lobes present and often with paired coremata. Larva with 3 (sometimes 2) prespiracular setae on prothorax, crochets in a uniordinal, uniserial to multiserial circle, occasionally in transverse band or absent; boring in stems, mining in leaves, feeding beneath a slight webbing, or in a more extensive webbing. Pupa without dorsal abdominal spines, or rarely with dorsal transverse ridges; in larval gallery or in fusiform or oval, silken, sometimes network cocoon or exposed, usually not protruded from cocoon or shelter at ecdysis.

<==Yponomeutoidea
    |--Ypsolophidae NC91
    |--Acrolepiidae M03
    |--Argyresthiidae [Argyresthiinae] NC91
    |    |--Argyresthia notoleuca NC91
    |    `--Argyresthites P92
    |--Aegeriidae C70
    |    |--Diapyra igniflua C70
    |    |--Paradoxecia pieli Lieu 1935 H38
    |    `--Scoliomima insigna B28
    |--Plutellidae [Plutellinae] M03
    |    |--Dolichernis chloroleuca P27
    |    |--Protosynaemis eratopis P27
    |    |--Chrysorthenches AY04
    |    |--Chrysoteuches AY04
    |    |--Leuroperna sera NC91
    |    |--Epinomeuta truncatipennella RJ93
    |    |--Acmosara Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |    `--*A. polyxena Meyrick 1887 M87
    |    |--Proditrix M03
    |    |    |--P. nielseni McQuillan 2003 M03
    |    |    `--P. tetragona M03
    |    |--Orthenches P27
    |    |    |--O. glyphtarcha L27
    |    |    `--O. similis P27
    |    `--Plutella Schrank 1802 B07
    |         |--P. antiphona L27
    |         |--P. maculipennis P27
    |         |--P. sera L27
    |         `--P. xylostella GE05 [=Cerostoma xylostella H04]
    |--Glyphipterygidae M03
    |    |--Heliostibes M27
    |    |    |--H. electrica P27
    |    |    `--H. vibratrix Meyrick 1927 M27
    |    |--Simaethis P27
    |    |    |--S. albifasciata P27
    |    |    |--S. analoga P27
    |    |    |--S. chionodesma C70
    |    |    |--S. combinatana P27
    |    |    |--S. ophiosema C70
    |    |    `--S. taprobanes Z. 1877 M86
    |    `--Glyphipterix NC91
    |         |--G. achlyoessa P27
    |         |--G. acronoma P27
    |         |--G. ataracta P27
    |         |--G. chrysoplanetis P27
    |         |--G. cometophora P27
    |         |--G. condonias L27
    |         |--G. gemmipunctella NC91
    |         |--G. octonaria P27
    |         |--G. transversella P27
    |         `--G. zelota P27
    `--Yponomeutidae YS10
         |  i. s.: Tonza purella P27
         |         Urodus parvula GE05
         |         Enaemia M87
         |           |--E. caminaea Meyrick 1887 M87
         |           |--E. erythractis Meyrick 1887 M87
         |           `--E. pyrilampis Meyrick 1886 M86
         |         Mieza M86
         |         Ceratophysetis Meyrick 1887 M87
         |           `--*C. sphaerosticha Meyrick 1887 M87
         |--Atteva GE05 [Attevinae NC91]
         |    |--A. aurea KP19
         |    |--A. exquisita MF68
         |    |--A. niphocosma NC91
         |    `--A. niveiguttella [=Corinea niveiguttella] WM66
         |--Prays YS10 [Praydinae NC91]
         |    |--P. citri RC91
         |    |--P. nephelomima NC91
         |    |--P. oleellus YS10
         |    `--P. parilis NC91
         `--Yponomeutinae NC91
              |--Zelleria NC91
              |    |--Z. copidota P27
              |    `--Z. euthysema C70
              `--Yponomeuta Latreille 1802 L02
                   |--*Y. evonymellus L02, KP19 [=Tinea evonymella L02]
                   |--Y. cognatella F92
                   |--Y. interellus P27
                   |--Y. malinella YS10
                   |--Y. padella G84
                   |--Y. paurodes NC91
                   |--Y. pustulellus C70
                   |--Y. rorellus F92
                   `--Y. vigintipunctanta F92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[B07] Blakemore, R. J. 2007. Origin and means of dispersal of cosmopolitan Pontodrilus litoralis (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae). European Journal of Soil Biology 43: S3–S8.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H38] Heinrich, C. 1938. An important mulberry insect. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 249–250.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[M03] McQuillan, P. B. 2003. The giant Tasmanian ‘pandani’ moth Proditrix nielseni, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae s. l.) Invertebrate Systematics 17: 59–66.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[M87] Meyrick, E. 1887. Descriptions of new Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1037–1048.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697–702.

[MF68] Moran, R., & R. Felger. 1968. Castela polyandra, a new species in a new section; union of Holacantha with Castela (Simaroubaceae). Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 15 (4): 31–40.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RC91] Ragusa Di Chiara, S. 1991. Using native phytoseiids in agricultural cropping systems. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 159–166. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

Last updated: 2 March 2021.

Limacodidae

Caterpillar of mottled cup moth Doratifera vulnerans, photographed by Chris Greenaway.


Belongs within: Zygaenoidea.

The Limacodidae are a widespread family of moths with reduced proboscids, with most species found in the tropics. Larvae of a number of species bear toxic needle-like setae, giving them the name of 'nettle caterpillars' (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Eggs are scale-like and laid in overlapping batches or singly (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to medium sized; head with rather smooth vestiture of piliform or lamellar scales; ocelli and chaetosemata absent; antenna bipectinate in male, at least in basal half, dentate or filiform in female; proboscis and maxillary palps minute or absent; labial palps short, 2- or 3-segmented; epiphysis absent; spurs 0-2-2 or 0-2-4, rarely absent; femora and tibiae often woolly; fore wing broad triangular, apex rounded, chorda absent, M present in cell, R3, R4 and R5 stalked, CuP present; hind wing with three frenular bristles in female, M present in cell, Sc+R1 fused with Rs near base or Sc is connected to Rs by R1, CuP present; female abdomen with lateral projections from segment 8. Eggs scale-like, in overlapping batches or singly. Larva heteromorphic; 1st instar larva broad and flattened, with four spines on each segment; later instar larvae slug-like, with head retracted, antennae long, thoracic legs reduced, prolegs absent, sometimes with ventral suckers on abdominal segments 1-7, setae often modified, with stinging hairs or reduced; feed exposed. Pupa in oval or pyriform cocoon, with circular, lid-like opening at one end.

<==Limacodidae [Cochlidiidae, Eucleidae, Heterogenidae]
    |--Adoneta spinuloides P27
    |--Prolimacodes scapha P27
    |--Lithacodes fasciola P27
    |--Cochlidion biguttata P27
    |--Pseudanapaea denotata NC91, ZS10
    |--Mecytha fasciata NC91
    |--Scopelodes NC91
    |--Altha rufipuncta Hampson 1901 H01
    |--Thosea bhaga Swinhoe 1901 S01
    |--Contheyla chara Swinhoe 1901 S01
    |--Heuretes picticornis [incl. Monoleuca albicollis] E96
    |--Phobetron E96
    |--Talima E96
    |--Demonarosa rufotessellata KP19
    |--Heterogenea RD77
    |--Empretia stimulea RD77
    |--Monema flavescens RD77, A71
    |--Apoda Haworth 1809 [=Cochlidium Hübner 1822, Limacodes Berthold in Latreille 1827] P08
    |    `--*A. limacodes (Hufnagel 1766) [=*Cochlidium limacodes, *Limacodes limacodes] P08
    |--Euprosterna Dyar 1905 [incl. Epiclea Dyar 1905] E96
    |    `--E. elaea (Druce 1887) [=Perola elaea, *Epiclea elaea; incl. Euprosterna elaeasa Dyar 1905] E96
    |--Susica P27
    |    |--S. humeralis P27
    |    `--S. sinensis (Walker 1856) [=Tadema sinensis] S01
    |--Baria Karsch 1896 O08
    |    |--*B. elsa (Druce 1888) [=Natada elsa] O08
    |    `--B. transversata Karsch 1899 O08
    |--Miresa S01
    |    |--M. scotopipla S01
    |    `--M. sola Swinhoe 1901 S01
    |--Narosa S01
    |    |--N. concinna Swinhoe 1901 S01
    |    `--N. conspersa S01
    |--Monoleuca E96
    |    |--M. longifascia Epstein 1996 E96
    |    |--M. occidentalis E96
    |    `--M. semifascia P27
    |--Parasa MHG04
    |    |--P. consocia F92
    |    |--P. lepida MHG04
    |    `--P. sinica F92
    |--Comana NC91
    |    |--C. corones C91
    |    |--C. fasciata B88
    |    `--C. miltocosma C70
    |--Doratifera NC91
    |    |--D. casta N70
    |    |--D. oxleyi NC91
    |    `--D. vulnerans NC91 [=D. longerans (l. c.) B88]
    `--Euclea GE05
         |--E. byrne E96
         |--E. indetermina RD77
         |--E. paenulata P27
         `--E. punctata Druce 1901 D01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D01] Druce, H. 1901. Descriptions of some new species of Lepidoptera from east Africa and tropical America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 432–444.

[E96] Epstein, M. E. 1996. A new species and generic placement for the misidentified type species of Epiclea Dyar, 1905 (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 812–817.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[O08] Özdikmen, H. 2008. Nomenclatural changes for some preoccupied harvestman genus group names (Arachnida: Opiliones). Turkish Journal of Arachnology 1 (1): 37–43.

[P08] Paclt, J. 2008. On the triple usage of the family name Apodidae in zoology (Aves; Crustacea; Insecta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 49–52.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S01] Swinhoe, C. 1901. New genera and species of eastern and Australian moths. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 463–473.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 21 February 2021.

Punctidae

Paralaoma caputspinulae, from here.


Belongs within: Stylommatophora.

The Punctidae are a cosmopolitan (except South America) family of minute to small snails, most diverse in cool, moist upland habitats (Stanisic et al. 2010).

<==Punctidae [Polyplacognatha, Punctinae] BR05
    |--Patulastra Pfeiffer 1879 [Patulastridae] BR05
    |--Afropunctum seminium (Morelet 1873) FGN07
    |--Punctum Morse 1864 BR05
    |    |--P. minutissimum G59
    |    `--P. pygmaeum (Draparnaud 1805) CC06
    |--Hydrophrea Climo 1974 BV86
    |    `--H. academica (Climo 1970) BV86
    |--Laoma Gray 1850 [Laomidae, Laominae] BR05
    |    `--L. subantarctica (Suter 1909) [=Phenacohelix subantarctica] G01
    `--Paralaoma Iredale 1913 [Paralaomidae] BR05
         |--P. caputspinulae (Reeve 1852) S88
         `--P. retinodes (Tate 1894) [=Charopa retinodes, Flammulina retinodes] S88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BV86] Bole, J., & F. Velkovrh. 1986. Mollusca from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 177-208. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[CC06] Cameron, R. A. D., L. M. Cook, G. A. Goodfriend & M. B. Seddon. 2006. Fossil land snails of Porto Santo, Madeiran archipelago: change and stasis in Pleistocene to Recent times. Malacologia 49 (1): 25-59.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313-338.

[G01] Goulstone, J. F. 2001. A revision of the genus Phenacohelix Suter, 1892 (Mollusca: Pulmonata) with descriptions of four new species and reassignment of Thalassohelix ziczag (Gould, 1846). Records of the Auckland Museum 38: 39-82.

[G59] Grimm, W. 1959. Land snails of Carroll County, Maryland. Nautilus 72 (4): 122-127.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455-604.

Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.