Indian pond turtles Melanochelys trijuga, photographed by Manoj Sindagi.

Belongs within: Procoelocryptodira.
Contains: Batagurinae, Testudinidae, Geoemyda.

The Testudinoidae is a proposed clade uniting the land tortoises of the Testudinidae with the Asian pond turtles of the paraphyletic 'Bataguridae'. The monophyly of this clade is unsettled, as proposed synapomorphies are also found in other testudinates, and are not universal within testudinoidaens. (Gaffney & Meylan 1988).

Synapomorphies (from Gaffney & Meylan 1988): (Including Echmatemys) Axillary and inguinal musk duct foramina enclosed within peripheral plates or between peripherals and plastral buttresses. (Excluding Echmatemys) Sixth marginal scute often reaching third pleural scute; postorbital-squamosal contact absent.

<==Testudinoidae [Bataguridae, Geoemydidae]
    |  i. s.: Annamemys annamensis CP03
    |--Echmatemys GM88
    `--+--Batagurinae GM88
       `--Geoemydinae GM88
            |  i. s.: Rhinoclemmys GM88
            |           |--R. annulata GM88
            |           |--R. areolata CP03
            |           |--R. diademata CP03
            |           |--R. funerea CP03
            |           |--R. melanosterna CP03
            |           |--R. nasuta CP03
            |           |--R. pulcherrima CP03
            |           |--R. punctularia CP03
            |           `--R. rubida GM88
            |--Mauremys GM88
            |    |--M. annamensis D03
            |    |--M. caspica CP03
            |    |--M. japonica GM88
            |    |--M. leprosa CP03
            |    `--M. mutica GM88
            `--+--+--Notochelys platynota GM88, D03
               |  `--Sacalia GM88
               |       |--S. beali CP03
               |       `--S. quadriocellata D03
               `--+--+--Heosemys GM88
                  |  |    |--H. depressa CP03
                  |  |    |--H. grandis CP03
                  |  |    `--H. spinosa CP03
                  |  `--Cyclemys GM88
                  |       |--C. dentata D03
                  |       |--C. oldhamii D03
                  |       |--C. pulchristriata [incl. C. atripons Iverson & McCord 1997] D03
                  |       `--C. tcheponensis CP03
                  `--+--Melanochelys trijuga GM88, CP03
                     `--+--+--Testudinidae GM88
                        |  `--+--Cistoclemmys GM88
                        |     |    |--C. flavomarginata GM88
                        |     |    `--C. galbinifrons GM88
                        |     `--+--Geoemyda GM88
                        |        `--Pyxidea mouhotii GM88, CP03
                        `--Cuora GM88
                             |--C. amboinensis CP03
                             |--C. aurocapitata CP03
                             |--C. flavomarginata (Gray 1863) I92
                             |--C. galbinifrons D03
                             |--C. mccordi Ernst 1988 D03
                             |--C. pani [incl. C. chriskarannarum Ernst & McCord 1987] D03
                             |--C. trifasciata GM88
                             `--C. zhoui [incl. C. pallidicephala McCord & Iverson 1991] D03

Hybrids: Cuora serrata Iverson & McCord 1992 [Pyxidea mouhotii × Cuora galbinifrons] D03
         Mauremys iversoni Pritchard & McCord 1991 [M. mutica × Cuora trifasciata] D03
         Mauremys pritchardi McCord 1997 [M. mutica × Chinemys reevesii] D03
         Sacalia pseudocellata Iverson & McCord 1992 [Cuora trifasciata × S. quadriocellata] D03


[CP03] Claude, J., E. Paradis, H. Tong & J.-C. Auffray. 2003. A geometric morphometric assessment of the effects of environment and cladogenesis on the evolution of the turtle shell. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 485-501.

[D03] Dalton, R. 2003. Mock turtles. Nature 423: 219-220.

[GM88] Gaffney, E. S., & P. A. Meylan. 1988. A phylogeny of turtles. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 157-219. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

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