Anomalodesmata

Myoconcha crassa, from Bajocien 14.


Belongs within: Heterodonta.
Contains: Myadora, Clavagelloidea, Verticordioidea, Pandoroidea, Thracioidea, Cuspidariidae.

The Anomalodesmata are a clade of bivalves characterised by a reduced hinge dentition. Despite not being among the most speciose groups of bivalves, anomalodesmatans encompass a surprising amount of ecological and morphological diversity, including (among others) endolithic rock-borers, some of which form rather un-bivalve-like tubes, and active predators. Among the latter are the Poromyidae, which capture prey by means of a large inhalant siphon. Recent anomalodesmatans are classified in a single order, the Pholadomyoida, but it is possible that the Palaeozoic order Modiomorphoida also includes stem-anomalodesmatans. Modiomorphoids are somewhat similar in appearance to modern mussels, to which they have alternatively been suggested to be related (Cox et al. 1969). The early Ordovician Ucumaris conradoi may be seen as morphologically intermediate between the two orders, with a pustulate surface texture resembling some Pholadomyoida and a flattened posterodorsal slope like that of some Modiomorphoida (Sánchez & Vaccari 2003).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Relatively short to elongate, nestling to fossorial forms with ventrally fused mantle lobes; equivalve to subequivalve; generally approximately isomyarian; hinge margin characteristically thickened or enrolled, edentulous, or with one amorphous tooth and corresponding socket in one or each valve, lateral teeth absent; ligament opisthodetic or absent, where present associated in many genera with separate resilium and lithodesma; living forms eulamellibranchiate; a few, septibranchiate.

<==Anomalodesmata [Conocardiiformii]
    |--Modiomorphoida SV03
    |    |--Modiomorphidae [Modiomorphoidea] SV03
    |    |    |--Modiomorpha G88
    |    |    `--Goniophorina Isberg 1934 SV03
    |    |         `--G. (Cosmogoniophorina Isberg 1934) SV03
    |    |              |--G. (*C.) carinata (Isberg 1934) [=Cosmogoniophorina carinata] SV03
    |    |              `--G. (C.) tenuicostata Harrington 1938 SV03
    |    `--Permophoridae [Kalenteroidea] H00
    |         |--Neocypricardinia Liu 1976 ZP86
    |         |    |--N. simplex Zhang & Pojeta 1986 ZP86
    |         |    |--N. sinensis ZP86
    |         |    `--N. subelegans ZP86
    |         `--Myoconcha Sowerby 1824 [Myoconchinae] H00
    |              |--M. (Myoconcha) [incl. Labayophorus Likharev 1939] H00
    |              |    |--*M. (M.) crassa Sowerby 1824 H00
    |              |    |--*Labayophorus’ magnus Likharev 1939 H00
    |              |    `--M. (M.) psilonoti Quenstedt 1856 (see below for synonymy) H00
    |              `--M. (Modiolina Müller 1851) H00
    |                  |--‘Lithodomus’ discrepans Müller 1847 [incl. *Modiolina bosqueti Müller 1851] H00
    |                  `--M. (M.) decorata (Münster in Goldfuss 1837) (see below for synonymy) H00
    `--Pholadomyoida SV03
         |  i. s.: Pholadomya F71 [Pholadomyidae SV03]
         |           |--P. arenosa (Hedley 1904) [=Thraciopsis arenosa] H09
         |           |--P. candida CG99
         |           |--P. gigantea F71
         |           |--P. haddoni Melvill & Standen 1899 H09
         |           `--P. terrareginae Etheridge 1902 F71
         |         Ucumaris Sánchez & Vaccari 2003 [Ucumariidae] SV03
         |           `--*U. conradoi Sánchez & Vaccari 2003 SV03
         |         Laternula [Laternulidae] MG-H11
         |           |--L. elliptica KC11
         |           |--L. limicola GW02
         |           |--L. subrostrata (Lamarck 1818) BD86
         |           `--L. truncata GW02
         |         Lyonsiella [Lyonsiellidae] MG-H11
         |           `--L. formosa (Jeffreys 1881) MG-H11
         |--Clavagelloidea M06
         |--Verticordioidea GW02
         |--Pandoroidea GW02
         |--Thracioidea GW02
         |--Cuspidariidae GW02
         `--Poromyidae [Poromyoida, Poromyoidea, Septibranchia, Septibranchida] GW02
              |--Cetoconcha gloriosa (Prashad 1932) MG-H11
              |--Ectorisma Tate 1892 P61
              |    |--*E. granulata P61
              |    `--E. neozelanica Dell 1956 P61
              |--Questimya Iredale 1930 P61
              |    |--*Q. undosa [=Poromya undosa] P61
              |    `--Q. galatheae Dell 1956 P61
              `--Poromya MG-H11
                   |--P. australis Smith 1885 H09
                   |--P. illevis Hedley 1913 MG-H11
                   `--P. laevis Smith 1885 MG-H11

Anomalodesmata incertae sedis:
  Grammysiidae SV03
    |--Cuneamya SV03
    |--Rhytimya SV03
    |--Arenigomya carinata Cope 1996 SV03
    |--Palaeocosmomya Fletcher 1946 ZP86
    |--Glyptoconcha Zhang & Pojeta 1986 ZP86
    |    `--*G. elegans Zhang & Pojeta 1986 ZP86
    `--Grammysia F71
         |--G. ampla Sherrard 1959 F71
         `--G. obliqua F71
  Cleidothaerus Stutchbury 1830 P61 [Cleidothaeridae M03]
    |--*C. chamoides P61
    |--‘Chamostrea’ albida (Lamarck 1819) F27
    `--C. maorianus Finlay 1927 F27
  Myochamidae M03
    |--Myadora P61
    |--Myochama M03
    |    |--M. anomioides Stutchbury 1830 H09
    |    `--M. tasmanica (Tenison Woods 1877) HS01
    `--Hunkydora Fleming 1948 P61
         `--H. australica P61
              |--H. a. australica P61
              `--H. a. novozelandica (Reeve 1859) [incl. Thracia transenna, *H. transenna] P61
  Offadesma Iredale 1930 P61 [Periplomatidae M03]
    `--*O. angasi (Crosse & Fischer 1864) [=Periploma angasi] P61
  Parilimyidae M03

Myoconcha (Modiolina) decorata (Münster in Goldfuss 1837) [=Mytilus decoratus; incl. Modiola lithodomus Koch & Dunker 1837, Myoconcha oxynoti Quenstedt 1856] H00

Myoconcha (Myoconcha) psilonoti Quenstedt 1856 [incl. M. scabra Terquem & Piette 1865, M. scalprum d’Orbigny 1849 (n. d.)] H00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H00] Hodges, P. 2000. The Early Jurassic Bivalvia from the Hettangian and Lower Sinemurian of south-west Britain. Part. 1. Monograph of the Paleontographical Society 614: 1–64.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M03] Morton, B. 2003. The biology and funtional morphology of Dianadema gen. nov. multangularis (Tate, 1887) (Bivalvia: Anomalodesmata: Clavagellidae). Journal of Zoology 259: 389–401.

[M06] Morton, B. 2006. The functional morphology of Penicillus philippinensis (Anomalodesmata: Clavagelloidea: Penicillidae) and the evolution of an unique muscular system in the Bivalvia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 175–192.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SV03] Sánchez, T. M., & N. E. Vaccari. 2003. Ucumariidae new family (Bivalvia, Anomalodesmata) and other bivalves from the Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) of northwestern Argentina. Ameghiniana 40 (3): 415–424.

[ZP86] Zhang, R., & J. Pojeta, Jr. 1986. New bivalves from the Datang Stage, Lower Carboniferous, Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Paleontology 60 (3): 669–679.

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