Allothrombiinae

Allothrombium sp., photographed by Jesse Rorabaugh.


Belongs within: Trombidiidae.

The Allothrombiinae are a cosmopolitan group of trombidiid mites with large, colourful adults, characterised by the present of a brush-like empodium in association with the tarsal claws.

Characters (from Thor 1935): Adult large, with strong shoulders, rounded, with bristle-like plumose, rarely branched, setae. Two eyes each side of prosoma on long movable stalks. Crista tripartite, broadened at or behind the middle, pitcher or heart-shaped, with large lateral areoles for the two sensilla. Palpi large, with large tibial claw, without secondary claw or comb. Legs short or medium length, brush-like empodium on tarsus, either a pulvillus between the claws or brush-like bristles adjacent to the claws.

<==Allothrombiinae WL09
    |--Dinothrombium Oudemans 1910 Z94, S94 [incl. Angelothrombium Newell & Tevis 1960 F91, Isothrombium André 1949 F91]
    |    |--*D. tinctorium (L. 1767) [=Acarus tinctorius] F91
    |    |--D. dugesi (Trouessart 1894) [=Thrombidium dugesi] H07
    |    |--D. magnificum WP99
    |    |--D. oparbellae (André 1949) [=*Isothrombium oparbellae] F91
    |    |--D. pandorae Newell & Tevis 1958 Z94 [=*Angelothrombium pandorae F91]
    |    |--D. purpureum (Koch 1837) S94 [=Trombidium purpureum S94, Camerotrombidium purpureum T36]
    |    `--D. southcotti Fain 1991 F91
    `--+--Clinotrombium Southcott 1986 Z94, ZF05
       |    |--C. antares Southcott 1986 H98
       |    |--C. bellator Southcott 1986 H98
       |    |--C. commoni Southcott 1986 Z94
       |    `--C. metae (Boshell & Kerr 1942) WY88, M46 [=Allotrombidium metae M46, Allothrombium metae WY88]
       `--Allothrombium Berlese 1903 Z94, S94 [incl. Mesothrombium W34]
            |--*A. fuliginosum (Hermann 1804) [=Trombidium fuliginosum] SB63
            |--A. aequinoctiale Oudemans 1927 O28
            |--A. antipodianum Hirst 1926 H98 (see below for synonymy)
            |--‘Trombidium’ aphidis S61
            |--A. chanaanense CM07
            |--‘Eutrombidium’ corticis WY88
            |--A. cursorium Berlese 1916 B16
            |--A. delicatulum Womersley 1934 H98
            |--A. epiphyllus Shiba 1976 S76
            |--A. gracile Berlese 1910 SB63
            |--A. guttatum Hirst 1928 [incl. A. ornatum Hirst 1928, A. guttatum var. ornatum] H98
            |--A. ignotum Willmann 1956 M62
            |--A. lerouxi Moss 1960 M62
            |--A. meridionale Berlese 1910 GF11
            |--A. mitchelli WL09
            |--A. monspessulanum Z91
            |--A. neapolitum Oudemans 1910 M62
            |--A. ovatum Zhang & Xin 1992 Z94
            |--A. pergrande Berlese 1903 SB63
            |--A. pulvinum Ewing 1917 M62
            |--A. recki S76
            |--A. strigosum O28
            |--A. succinctum Berlese 1916 B16
            |--A. terraereginae Hirst 1926 H98
            |--A. watanabei Shiba 1976 S76
            `--A. wyandrae Hirst 1928 H98

Allothrombiinae incertae sedis:
  Apithrombium Z91
  Austrothrombium Womersley 1934 WL09, H98
    |--A. australiense (Hirst 1929) H98 [=Allothrombium (Mesothrombium) australiense H98, W34]
    |--A. hirsutum (Womersley 1937) [=Xenothrombium hirsutum] H98
    |--A. insigne (Hirst 1928) [=Allothrombium (Mesothrombium) insigne] W34
    |--A. kondininum (Hirst 1928) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--A. mullewaense Southcott 1986 H98
    |--A. porongorense Southcott 1986 H98
    `--A. scaurum Southcott 1986 H98
  Corethrothrombium Oudemans 1928 T35
  Dolichothrombium Feider 1945 SB63
    |--D. alpinum (Schweizer 1951) [=Dinothrombium alpinum] SB63
    |--D. borceai A91
    `--D. longulum (Willmann 1950) [=Dinothrombium longulum] SB63

Allothrombium antipodianum Hirst 1926 H98 [=A. (*Mesothrombium) antipodianum W34; incl. A. (M.) antipodianum var. olorinum Hirst 1926 W34, A. antipodianum var. olorina H98, A. parvulum Hirst 1929 H98, A. wasseli Hirst 1931 H98]

Austrothrombium kondininum (Hirst 1928) H98 [=Allothrombium antipodianum var. kondininum H98, Al. (Mesothrombium) antipodianum var. kondinium (l. c.) W34, Austrothrombium kondinium (l. c.) H98] H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A91] Alberti, G. 1991. Spermatology in the Acari: systematic and functional implications. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 77–105. Chapman & Hall: London.

[B16] Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. Redia 12: 289–338.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F91] Fain, A. 1991. Notes on mites parasitic or phoretic on Australian centipedes, spiders and scorpion. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15: 69–82.

[GF11] Gabryś, G., M. Felska, A. Kłosińska, W. Staręga & J. Mąkol. 2011. Harvestmen (Opiliones) as hosts of Parasitengona (Acari: Actinotrichida, Prostigmata) larvae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 349–351.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H07] Hoffmann, A. 2007. Acarology in Mexico: prehispanic to modern times. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 21–26. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[M46] Michener, C. D. 1946. The taxonomy and bionomics of some Panamanian trombidiid mites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 39: 349–380.

[M62] Moss, W. W. 1962. The immature stages of the red velvet mite Allothrombium lerouxi (Acari: Trombidiidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55: 295–303.

[O28] Oudemans, A. C. 1928. Fauna Buruana. Acari. Treubia 7 (Suppl. 2): 37–100.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[T35] Thor, S. 1935. Übersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in Unterfamilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 109 (5–6): 107–112.

[T36] Thor, S. 1936. Neue Gattungen in der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814. Zoologischer Anzeiger 114: 29–32.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WY88] Welbourn, W. C., & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

[W34] Womersley, H. 1934. A revision of the trombid and erythraeid mites of Australia with descriptions of new genera and species. Records of the South Australian Museum 5 (2): 179–254.

[Z91] Zhang, Z. Q. 1991. Biology of mites of Allothrombiinae (Acari: Trombidiidae) and their potential role in pest control. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 513–520. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205–237.

[ZF05] Zhang, Z.-Q., & Q.-H. Fan. 2005. A new genus of Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) from New Zealand. Systematic and Applied Acarology 10: 155–162.

Eutrombidium

Eutrombidium sp., copyright Roman.


Belongs within: Microtrombidiidae.

Eutrombidium is a widespread genus of parasitengonine mites recorded from Eurasia, North America and Australia (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Schweizer & Bader 1963): Adult with crista enlarged at midpoint around fine, hair-like sensilla; two eyes on each side, raised only slightly above the body surface on small basal plates; small, pointed naso present anterior to crista; idiosoma wide anteriorly, forming "shoulders", tapered posteriorly with well-developed, oval opisthosomal plate; plumose idiosomal hairs all alike; palps strong, tibia with lateral claws and strong spines, tarsus long; legs densely hairy.

<==Eutrombidium Verdun 1909 WY88
    |--*E. trigonum (Hermann 1804) WY88 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. australiense Southcott 1993 H98
    |--E. canestrinii SB63
    |    |--E. c. canestrinii SB63
    |    `--E. c. minor Schweizer 1951 SB63
    |--E. frigidum Berlese 1910 SB63
    |    |--E. f. frigidum SB63
    |    `--E. f. quadrispinum Schweizer 1951 SB63
    |--E. lebaroni WL09
    |--E. lockleii Welbourn & Young 1988 WY88
    |--E. locustarum WY88
    |--E. magnum WY88
    |--E. orientale WL09
    `--E. trombidioides [=Ottonia trombidioides] WY88

*Eutrombidium trigonum (Hermann 1804) WY88 [=Trombidium trigonum WY88, Ottonia trigona K01; incl. Pediculus rostratus Scopoli 1763 SB63]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WY88] Welbourn, W. C., & O. P. Young. 1988. Mites parasitic on spiders, with a description of a new species of Eutrombidium (Acari, Eutrombidiidae). Journal of Arachnology 16: 373–385.

Camerotrombidium

Adult Camerotrombidium simile, with close-ups of setae, from Southcott (1994).


Belongs within: Microtrombidiidae.

Camerotrombidium is an Old World genus of microtrombidiid mites with distinctive cup-shaped idiosomal setae in the adult (Southcott 1994).

Characters (from Southcott 1994): Adult middle-sized with well-developed crista, extending only a little behind the sensillary enlargement. Eyes two on each side, subequal, each pair on a small ocular plate. Idiosomal setae arising from well-developed papillae, generally short, chambered, spherical or ovoid, finely setulose, with the extremity an open chamber, hence cup-shaped, not bent over. Palpal tibia with odontus, paradont (one or more), one or more ctenidia, and additional spinisetae. Legs of middling length; tarsi often enlarged, particularly of leg I. Larva with two scuta on dorsum of idiosoma, both with fine longitudinal striations. Anterior scutum with six scutalae and two sensillary setae; lateral border slightly concave. Eyes subequal, each lateral pair on a small ocular plate. Posterior dorsal scutum with two scutalae. Four dorsal idiosomal setae behind posterior dorsal scutum arise from small oval plates; other dorsal idiosomal setae with unexpanded annuli. Coxalae 2, 1, 1; formula BB, B, B. Tarsal claws 3, 3, deformed; claws of I and II simple, without subterminal spurs. Hypostomala short, expanding, with several terminal blunted digitations.

<==Camerotrombidium Thor 1936 H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. pexatum (Koch 1837) S94 [=Trombidium pexatum S94, *Ottonia pexata T35]
    |--C. carduum Womersley 1945 H98
    |--C. clavodigitatum (Berlese 1916) T36
    |--C. collinum (Hirst 1928) H98 [=Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) collinum H98, W34, Camerothrombium collinum H98]
    |--C. coniferum (George 1910) (n. d.) [=Ottonia conifera, Microtrombidium coniferum] S94
    |--C. curtulum (Berlese 1910) T36
    |--C. diversum (Berlese 1910) T36
    |--C. kervillei (André 1932) [incl. C. kervillei var. diversipalpis (André 1932)] T36
    |--C. opulentum Womersley 1945 H98
    |--C. rasum (Berlese 1910) H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. sanguineum (Koch 1837) T36
    |--C. simile (Hirst 1928) H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. tectocervix (Oudemans 1903) [=Hydrachna tectocervix, Allothrombidium tectocervix] S94
    |--C. vaginatum Womersley 1945 H98
    |--C. vesiculosum (Thor 1900) T36
    `--C. wyandrae (Hirst 1928) H98 [=Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) wyandrae H98, W34, Camerothrombium wyandrae H98]

Camerotrombidium Thor 1936 H98 [=Camerothrombidium André 1958 S94, Camerothrombium Womersley 1937 S94, Ottonia Kramer 1877 non Gistl 1848 T35]

Camerotrombidium rasum (Berlese 1910) H98 [=Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) rasum H98, G96; incl. C. rasum var. robensis Womersley 1945 H98, C. robense S94]

Camerotrombidium simile (Hirst 1928) H98 [=Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) simile S94, Camerothrombium simile H98; incl. M. (E.) hirsti Womersley 1934 S94, Camerothrombium hirsti H98, Camerotrombidium hirsti H98]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G96] Gabrys, G. 1996. Does Enemothrombium Berlese, 1910 (Microtrombidiidae) have the right to exist? In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 363–365. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[T35] Thor, S. 1935. Übersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in Unterfamilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 109 (5–6): 107–112.

[T36] Thor, S. 1936. Neue Gattungen in der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814. Zoologischer Anzeiger 114: 29–32.

[W34] Womersley, H. 1934. A revision of the trombid and erythraeid mites of Australia with descriptions of new genera and species. Records of the South Australian Museum 5 (2): 179–254.

Eutrombicula

Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on anole dewlap, from Parasite of the Day.


Belongs within: Trombiculidae.

Eutrombicula is a genus of chigger mites in which larvae have a roughly rectangular scutum with all scutal setae branched or plumose (Gould 1956).

Characters (from Gould 1956): Larvae with scutum roughly rectangular, often with rounded posterior margin, all scutal setae branched or plumose; palpal claw bifurcate, axial prong external to smaller accessory prong; leg III usually with one or more mastitarsalae.

<==Eutrombicula Ewing 1938 H98 [incl. Acariscus Ewing 1943 G56, Siseca Audy 1956 H98, Trombiculoides Jacot 1938 G56]
    |--E. alfreddugesi (Oudemans 1920) L07 [=Microtrombidium alfreddugesi H07]
    |--E. batatas (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) G56
    |--E. belkini (Gould 1950) [=Trombicula (Eutrombicula) belkini] G56
    |--E. goeldii K06
    |--E. hirsti (Sambon 1927) [=Trombicula hirsti] H98
    |--E. macropus (Womersley 1936) [=Trombicula macropus] H98
    |--E. microps Lawrence 1951 L51
    |--E. montensis L51
    |--E. rara (Walch 1924) [=Trombicula rara, Siseca rara] H98
    |--E. samboni (Womersley 1939) [=Trombicula samboni] H98
    |--E. sarcina (Womersley 1944) [=Trombicula sarcina] H98
    |--E. southcotti (Womersley & Audy 1957) [=Siseca southcotti] H98
    |--E. splendens WL09
    |--E. thori (Womersley 1952) [=Trombicula thori, Siseca thori] H98
    |--E. tovelli (Womersley 1952) [=Trombicula tovelli; incl. T. ablephara Womersley 1952, Eutrombicula ablephara] H98
    |--E. vandiemeni (Domrow 1962) [=Siseca vandiemeni] H98
    `--E. wichmanni (Oudemans 1905) [=Thrombidium wichmanni, Trombicula wichmanni] H98

Eutrombicula batatas (Linnaeus 1758) [=Acarus batatas, Leptus batatas, Microthrombidium batatas, Otonyssus batatas, Thrombidium batatas, Trombicula (Eutrombicula) batatas; incl. Tr. brasiliensis Ewing 1925, Tr. flui Van Thiel 1930, Acariscus flui, Eutrombicula flui, Trombicula hominis Ewing 1933, Acariscus hominis, Eutrombicula hominis, Trombicula pastorae Boshell & Kerr 1942] G56

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G56] Gould, D. J. 1956. The larval trombiculid mites of California (Acarina: Trombiculidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 11 (1): 1–116.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H07] Hoffmann, A. 2007. Acarology in Mexico: prehispanic to modern times. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 21–26. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[L07] Lareschi, M. 2007. Seasonal occurrence of ectoparasites associated with the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Muridae, Sigmodontinae) from Punta Lara, Argentina. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 233–240. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[L51] Lawrence, R. F. 1951. New parasitic mites form South African lizards. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 31 (4): 447–459.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Trombicula

Trombicula autumnalis, copyright Alan R. Walker.


Belongs within: Trombiculidae.

Trombicula is a genus of chigger mites in which larvae bear flagelliform sensillae and five scutal setae (Gould 1956).

Characters (from Gould 1956): Larva with sensillae flagelliform, nude or branched; scutal setae 5; cheliceral blade unmodified, lacking teeth other than the tricuspid cap; coxae usually with single seta each, occasionally more on coxa III; empodia claw-like; caudal plate absent.

<==Trombicula Berlese 1905 [incl. Cotrombicula Vercammen-Grandjean 1960, Womersleyna Vercammen-Grandjean 1960] H98
    |--*T. minor Berlese 1905 G56
    |--T. agamae André 1929 L35
    |--T. alfreddugesi G56
    |--T. aplodontiae Brennan 1946 G56
    |--T. autumnalis S61
    |--T. carmenae K06
    |--T. chiroptera Womersley & Heaslip 1943 H98
    |--T. cynos Ewing 1937 G56
    |--T. dasyphloea Domrow 1959 H98
    |--T. dewae Domrow 1964 H98
    |--T. elegans Womersley 1942 H98
    |--T. geckobia (Womersley 1952) [=Tragardhula geckobia, Womersleyna geckobia] H98
    |--T. giroudi L55
    |--T. goldii G56
    |--T. imperfecta Brennan & Jones 1954 G56
    |--T. jessiemae Gould 1956 G56
    |--T. lukoschusi (Goff 1983) [=Cotrombicula lukoschusi] H98
    |--T. mitchellensis (Goff 1983) [=Cotrombicula mitchellensis] H98
    |--T. montanensis Brennan 1946 G56
    |--T. naultini Dumbleton 1947 SL71
    |--T. quadriensis Womersley & Heaslip 1943 [=T. quadriense, T. quandriensis (l. c.)] H98
    |--T. rugosa (Goff 1979) [=Cotrombicula rugosa] H98
    |--T. scottae Brennan 1952 G56
    |--T. signata Womersley 1934 H98
    |--T. sola Gould 1956 G56
    |--T. southcotti Womersley 1952 H98
    |--T. splendens G56
    |--T. thomsoni Womersley 1954 H98
    |--T. trisetica Loomis & Crossley 1953 G56
    |--T. victoriensis Audy & Womersley 1957 H98
    `--T. willmanni KK54

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G56] Gould, D. J. 1956. The larval trombiculid mites of California (Acarina: Trombiculidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 11 (1): 1–116.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3–4): 121–135.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[L55] Lavoipierre, M. M. J. 1955. On two new species and new records of Acarina mainly from the Ethiopian region. Parasitology 45 (1–2): 121–127.

[L35] Lawrence, R. F. 1935. The prostigmatic mites of South African lizards. Parasitology 27 (1): 1–45.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

Guntheria

Selected features of Guntheria kallipygos, from Goff (1980).


Belongs within: Trombiculidae.

Guntheria is a genus of chiggers most commonly parasitic on mammals, more rarely on birds or reptiles, in which larvae have five barbed setae on the palptarsus.

<==Guntheria Womersley 1939 (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. agnewi (Domrow 1964) [=Guntherana agnewi] H98
    |--G. alpina (Domrow 1964) [=Guntherana alpina] H98
    |--G. andromeda (Womersley 1954) [=Euschongastia andromeda, Euschoengastia andromeda, Guntherana andromeda] H98
    |--G. antipodianum (Hirst 1929) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. arguri (Goff 1979) [=Zyzomyacarus arguri] H98
    |--G. bamaga Domrow 1978 H98
    |--G. cassiope (Womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia cassiope, Euschoengastia cassiope, Guntherana cassiope] H98
    |--G. coorongensis (Hirst 1929) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. daniae Domrow 1971 H98
    |--G. dasycerci (Hirst 1929) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. derricki (Womersley 1939) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. domrowi (Brennan 1965) [=Guntherana domrowi] H98
    |--G. dumosa (Womersley 1952) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. echymipera (Womersley & Kohls 1947) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. falx Domrow 1971 H98
    |--G. heaslipi (Womersley & Heaslip 1943) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. innisfailensis (Womersley & Heaslip 1943) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. insueta Lester 1984 H98
    |--G. kallipygos (Gunther 1939) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. kethleyi Goff 1979 H98
    |--G. kowanyama Domrow 1978 H98
    |--G. lappacea (Womersley 1952) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. mackerrasae (womersley 1952) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. megale Domrow 1972 H98
    |--G. miles Domrow 1978 H98
    |--G. napierensis (Goff 1979) [=Zyzomyacarus napierensis] H98
    |--G. newmani (Womersley 1952) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. pannosa (Domrow 1960) [=Guntherana pannosa] H98
    |--G. parana (Womersley 1944) [=Guntherana parana] H98
    |--G. parva (Womersley 1954) [=Euschongastia parva, Euschoengastia parva, Guntherana parva] H98
    |--G. perameles (Womersley 1939) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. peregrina (Womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia peregrina, Euschoengastia peregrina, Guntherana peregrina] H98
    |--G. pertinax Domrow 1972 H98
    |--G. petrogale (Womersley 1934) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. petulans (Domrow 1960) [=Guntherana petulans] H98
    |--G. philippensis (Philip & Woodward 1946) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. platalea Domrow 1984 H98
    |--G. pseudomys (Womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia pseudomys, Euschoengastia pseudomys, Guntherana pseudomys] H98
    |--G. quatuor Domrow 1972 [incl. G. weedunnarti Goff 1980] H98
    |--G. queenslandica (Womersley 1939) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. raui (Womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia raui, Ascoschoengastia raui] H98
    |--G. salmleni Domrow 1984 H98
    |--G. scaevola (Domrow 1960) [=Ascoschoengastia scaevola, Guntherana scaevola] H98
    |--G. shareli Domrow 1984 H98
    |--G. shieldsi (Gunther 1941) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. smithi (Womersley 1939) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. sphinx Domrow 1972 H98
    |--G. taylorae (Domrow 1962) [=Guntherana taylorae] H98
    |--G. tessares Domrow 1971 H98
    |--G. tindalei (Womersley 1936) (n. d.) [=Trombicula tindalei, Guntherana tindalei] H98
    |--G. translucens (Womersley 1944) (n. d.) [=Trombicula translucens, Guntherana translucens] H98
    |--G. trichosuri (Womersley 1939) (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--G. vegrandis Domrow 1974 H98
    `--G. wongabelensis (Womersley 1952) (see below for synonymy) H98

Guntheria Womersley 1939 [incl. Derrickiella Audy & Domrow 1957, Domrowella Vercammen-Grandjean 1960, Guntherana Womersley & Heaslip 1943, Zyzomyacarus Goff 1979] H98

Guntheria antipodianum (Hirst 1929) [=Schoengastia antipodianum, Euschoengastia antipodiana, E. antipodianum, Guntherana antipodiana, Neoschoengastia antipodianum] H98

Guntheria coorongensis (Hirst 1929) [=Schoengastia coorongense, Euschoengastia coorongense, E. coorongensis, Guntherana coorongensis, Neoschoengastia coorongensis, Schoengastia coorongensis; incl. Neoschoengastia cairnsensis Womersley & Heaslip 1943, Ascoschoengastia cairnsensis, Euschoengastia cairnsensis, Guntherana cairnsensis, Schoengastia cairnsensis, Neoschoengastia cairnsensis var. gateri Womersley & Heaslip 1943, Euschoengastia cairnensis var. gateri, Euschongastia popei Womersley 1954, Euschoengastia popei, Guntherana waterhousei Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston 1971] H98

Guntheria dasycerci (Hirst 1929) [=Schoengastia dasycerci, Ascoschoengastia dasycerci, Euschoengastia dascycerci, Guntherana dasycerci, Neoschoengastia dasycerci] H98

Guntheria derricki (Womersley 1939) [=Neoschoengastia derricki, Euschoengastia derricki, Schoengastia derricki; incl. Guntherana rex Domrow 1960, Neoschoengastia similis Womersley & Heaslip 1943, Euschoengastia similis, Guntherana similis] H98

Guntheria dumosa (Womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia dumosa, Euschoengastia dumosa, Guntherana dumosa; incl. Euschongastia procana Womersley 1954] H98

Guntheria echymipera (Womersley & Kohls 1947) [=Ascoschoengastia echymipera, Euschoengastia echymipera, Guntherana echymipera, Neoschoengastia echymipera, Schoengastia echymipera] H98

Guntheria heaslipi (Womersley & Heaslip 1943) [=Neoschoengastia heaslipi, Euschoengastia heaslipi, Guntherana heaslipi, Schoengastia heaslipi] H98

Guntheria innisfailensis (Womersley & Heaslip 1943) [=Neoschoengastia innisfailensis, Euschoengastia innisfailensis, Guntherana innisfailensis, Schoengastia innisfailensis; incl. Ascoschoengastia bushlandi Philip 1947, Neoschoengastia bushlandi, N. melomys Womersley & Heaslip 1943] H98

Guntheria kallipygos (Gunther 1939) [=Neoschoengastia kallipygos, Guntherana kallipygos; incl. N. bipygalis Gunther 1939, Guntherana bipygalis, Guntherana cowanenis Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston 1971, Guntheria cowanensis, Guntherana ditrichia Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston 1971, Guntheria ditrichia, Guntherana heterotrichia Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston 1971, Guntheria heterotrichia] H98

Guntheria lappacea (Womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia lappacea, Euschoengastia lappacea, Guntherana lappacea; incl. Guntherana mena Vercammen-grandjean & Langston 1971] H98

Guntheria mackerrasae (womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia mackerrasae, Euschoengastia mackerrasae, Guntherana mackerrasae] H98

Guntheria newmani (Womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia newmani, Euschoengastia newmani, Guntherana newmani; incl. Schoengastia westraliense Womersley 1934 (preoc.), Ascoschoengastia westraliensis, Neoschoengastia westraliense, N. westraliensis, Schoengastia westraliensis] H98

Guntheria perameles (Womersley 1939) [=Neoschoengastia perameles, Ascoschoengastia peramelis (l. c.), Euschoengastia perameles, Guntherana perameles, Schoengastia perameles; incl. Neoschoengastia isoodon Derrick et al. 1939 (n. n.)] H98

Guntheria petrogale (Womersley 1934) [=Schoengastia petrogale, Euschoengastia petrogale, Guntherana petrogale, Neoschoengastia petrogale] H98

Guntheria philippensis (Philip & Woodward 1946) [=Neoschoengastia philippensis, Ascoschoengastia philippinensis (l. c.), Euschoengastia philippensis, Guntherana philippensis, Schoengastia philippensis, S. philippinensis (l. c.)] H98

Guntheria queenslandica (Womersley 1939) [=Neoschoengastia queenslandica, Euschoengastia queenslandica, Guntherana queenslandica, Schoengastia queenslandica; incl. Guntherana podiana Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston 1971] H98

Guntheria shieldsi (Gunther 1941) [=Neoschoengastia shieldsi, Euschoengastia shieldsi, Guntherana shieldsi; incl. Guntherana davidleei Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston 1971, Neoschoengastia hirsti Womersley & Heaslip 1943, Euschoengastia hirsti, Schoengastia hirsti] H98

Guntheria smithi (Womersley 1939) [=Neoschoengastia smithi, Euschoengastia smithi, Guntherana smithi, Schoengastia smithi; incl. Neoschoengastia guntheri Womersley & Heaslip 1943, Schoengastia lawrencei Womersley 1952, Euschoengastia lawrencei, Guntherana lawrencei, Neoschoengastia phascogale Womersley & Heaslip 1943, Ascoschoengastia phascogale, Euschoengastia phascogale, Guntherana phascogale, Schoengastia phascogale] H98

Guntheria trichosuri (Womersley 1939) [=Neoschoengastia westraliense var. trichosuri, Euschoengastia trichosuri, Guntherana trichosuri, Schoengastia trichosuri] H98

Guntheria wongabelensis (Womersley 1952) [=Schoengastia wongabelensis, Euschoengastia wongabelensis, Guntherana wongabelensis; incl. Guntherana athertoni Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston 1971] H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

Neotrombicula

Neotrombicula autumnalis, copyright M. Klimes.


Belongs within: Trombiculidae.

Neotrombicula is a genus of chiggers in which larvae bear a roughly pentagonal scutum and flagelliform sensillae (Gould 1956).

Characters (from Gould 1956): Scutum roughly pentagonal; palpal claws usually trifurcate, axial prong internal; all coxae with a single seta each; leg III with mastitarsalae and mastifemoralae often present.

<==Neotrombicula Hirst 1925 H98
    |--*N. autumnalis (Shaw 1790) [=Acarus autumnalis] SB63
    |--N. antechinus (Womersley 1954) [=Trombicula antechinus] H98
    |--N. brennani (Gould 1956) [=Trombicula (Neotrombicula) brennani] G56
    |--N. browni [=Trombicula (Neotrombicula) browni] G56
    |--N. californica (Ewing 1942) [=Trombicula californica] G56
    |--N. cavicola (Ewing 1931) [=Trombicula cavicola, Eutrombicula cavicola] G56
    |--N. comata Domrow 1961 H98
    |--N. derricki (Womersley 1954) [=Trombicula derricki] H98
    |--N. dinehartae (Brennan & Wharton 1950) [=Trombicula (Neotrombicula) dinehartae] G56
    |--N. faghini Kudryashova in Kudryashova, Neronov & Farhang-Azad 1981 KNF-A81
    |--N. gemini Domrow 1971 H98
    |--N. greenlyi Domrow 1984 [incl. Trombicula gymnodactyla McCulloch 1946 (n. n.), Tragardhula gymnodactyla] H98
    |--N. harperi (Ewing 1928) (see below for synonymy) G56
    |--N. heptneri Kudryashova in Kudryashova, Neronov & Farhang-Azad 1981 KNF-A81
    |--N. jewetti (Brennan & Wharton 1950) [=Trombicula (Neotrombicula) jewetti] G56
    |--N. llogorensis KNF-A81
    |--N. mackayensis (Womersley 1954) [=Trombicula mackayensis] H98
    |--N. mofidii Kudryashova in Kudryashova, Neronov & Farhang-Azad 1981 KNF-A81
    |--N. novaehollandiae (Hirst 1929) [=Trombicula novaehollandiae] H98
    |--N. pentagona (Womersley 1952) [=Tragardhula pentagona, Trombicula pentagona] H98
    |--N. pomeranzevi S91
    |--N. pseudoautumnalis (Gould 1956) [=Trombicula (Neotrombicula) pseudoautumnalis] G56
    |--N. scorpionis WL09
    |--N. subsignata (Brennan & Wharton 1950) [=Trombicula (Neotrombicula) subsignata] G56
    |--N. subtilis Schluger & Kudryashova 1969 KNF-A81
    |--N. taimiensis Schluger 1955 KNF-A81
    |--N. thylogale (Womersley 1954) [=Trombicula thylogale] H98
    |--N. valenti Kudryashova in Kudryashova, Neronov & Farhang-Azad 1981 KNF-A81
    `--N. zachvatkini BC91

Neotrombicula harperi (Ewing 1928) [=Trombicula harperi, Eutrombicula harperi; incl. T. microti Ewing 1928, T. parkeri Radford 1942] G56

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC91] Baker, G. T., & A. Chandrapatya. 1991. Fine structure of the chorion of the broak mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 325–328. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G56] Gould, D. J. 1956. The larval trombiculid mites of California (Acarina: Trombiculidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 11 (1): 1–116.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[KNF-A81] Kudryashova, N. I., V. M. Neronov & A. Farhang-Azad. 1981. Chidders of genus Neotrombicula (Acariformes, Trombiculidae) from Iran. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 52 (1): 130–136.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S91] Shatrov, A. B. 1991. The alveolar salivary glands of the active phases of trombiculid mites (Trombiculidae). In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 377–378. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Eleutherengonides

Hoplocheylus sp., from Walter et al. (2009).


Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Raphignathoidea, Tetranychoidea, Cheyletoidea, Pterygosomatidae, Dolichocyboidea, Pygmephoroidea, Pyemotoidea, Tarsonemidae, Podapolipidae.

The Eleutherengonides are a group of mites in which the chelicerae have the fixed digit reduced or absent, with the movable digit hook-like or stylet;like and inserted apically or subapically on the closely contiguous or fused cheliceral bases. A palpal thumb-claw process is commonly present and the solenidia on leg tarsus I, if present, are erect (Walter et al. 2009).

<==Eleutherengonides [Eleutherengona, Eleutherengonina] DPD16
    |--Raphignathina [Raphignathae] WL09
    |    |--+--Raphignathoidea OW01
    |    |  `--+--Tetranychoidea OW01
    |    |     `--Cheyletoidea OW01
    |    `--Pterygosomatidae OW01
    `--Heterostigmata [Heterostigmae, Heterostigmatina, Tarsocheylina, Tarsonemida, Trachelostigmata] ZF11
         |  i. s.: Nasutiacarus Sidorchuk & Lindquist in Sidorchuk, Perrichot & Lindquist 2016 (see below for synonymy) SPL16
         |           `--*N. perplexus Sidorchuk & Lindquist in Sidorchuk, Perrichot & Lindquist 2016 SPL16
         |--Tarsocheylidae [Tarsocheyloidea] L86
         |    |--Tarsocheylus paradoxus WL09
         |    `--Hoplocheylus Atyeo & Baker 1964 S76
         |         |--H. atomarius NK94
         |         |--H. discalis Atyeo & Baker 1964 S76
         |         `--H. pickardi WL09
         `--+--Heterocheylus Lombardini 1926 H98 [Heterocheyletinae, Heterocheylidae L86, Heterocheyloidea]
            |    `--H. lombardinii Womersley 1960 H98
            `--Tarsonemina L86
                 |--Dolichocyboidea L86
                 `--+--+--Pygmephoroidea L86
                    |  `--+--Pyemotoidea L86
                    |     `--Tarsonemoidea WL09
                    |          |--Tarsonemidae L86
                    |          `--Podapolipidae WL09
                    `--Trochometridioidea WL09
                         |--Trochometridium Cross 1965 [Trochometridiidae] L86
                         |    |--T. chinensis WL09
                         |    `--T. tribulatum WP99
                         `--Athyreacaridae WL09
                              |--Athyreacarus pleiotretus WL09
                              `--Bembidiacarus [Bembidiacaridae] WL09

Eleutherengonides incertae sedis:
  Cloacaroidea ZF11
    |--Epimyodex WL09 [Epimyodicidae ZF11, Epimyodicinae]
    |    `--E. soricis WL09
    `--Cloacaridae ZF11
         |--Pneumophagus bubonis WP99
         |--Caminacarus theodori WL09
         |--Theodoracarus testudinis WL09
         |--Cloacarus faini WL09
         `--Emyduracarus Fain 1968 H98
              `--E. australis Fain 1968 H98

Nasutiacarus Sidorchuk & Lindquist in Sidorchuk, Perrichot & Lindquist 2016 [Nasutiacaridae, Nastuiacaroidea] SPL16

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[L86] Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): a morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 118 (S136): 1–517.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 100–109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[SPL16] Sidorchuk, E. A., V. Perrichot & E. E. Lindquist. 2016. A new fossil mite from French Cretaceous amber (Acari: Heterostigmata: Nasutiacaroidea superfam. nov.), testing evolutionary concepts within the Eleutherengona (Acariformes). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 14 (4): 297–317.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[ZF11] Zhang, Z.-Q., Q.-H. Fan, V. Pesic, H. Smit, A. V. Bochkov, A. A. Khaustov, A. Baker, A. Wohltmann, T. Wen, J. W. Amrine, P. Beron, J. Lin, G. Gabryś & R. Husband. 2011. Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 129–138.

Johnstonianidae

Johnstoniana sp., copyright Joanna Mąkol.


Belongs within: Parasitengonina.

The Johnstonianidae are a group of relatively large parasitengonine mites found in moist litter habitats, characterised by nude or sparsely barbed idionotal setae and the presence of a large ventral or lateral spine on the palptibia (Walter et al. 2009).

Johnstonianidae
    |  i. s.: Crossothrombium Womersley 1939 H98
    |           `--C. parkhousei Womersley 1939 H98
    |         Hirstithrombium Oudemans in Thor & Willmann 1947 H98
    |           `--H. australiense (Hirst 1928) [=Diplothrombium australiense, Johnstoniana australiense] H98
    |--Charadracarus K90 [Charadracarinae We91]
    |--Polydiscus [Polydiscinae] K90
    `--Johnstonianinae We91
         |--Centrotrombidium Kramer 1896 SB63
         |    |--*C. schneideri Kramer 1896 [incl. Diplothrombium walteri Schweizer 1922, C. walteri] SB63
         |    `--C. australasiae Womersley 1942 H98
         |--Diplothrombium Berlese 1910 SB63
         |    |--*D. longipalpe (Berlese 1887) [=Trombidium longipalpe] SB63
         |    |--D. eximium S22
         |    |--D. micidium WL09
         |    `--D. monoense WL09
         `--Johnstoniana George 1909 H98 [incl. Rohaultia Oudemans 1911 SB63]
              |--*J. errans (Johnston 1852) [=Rhyncholophus errans] SB63
              |--‘Rohaultia’ biungulum AL37
              |--J. dubiosa Schweizer 1951 SB63
              |--J. insignia (Berlese 1916) [=Diplothrombium eximium insignius; incl. D. longipes Schweizer 1922] SB63
              |--J. parva WWO01
              |--J. rapax WWO01
              |--J. tuberculata Schweizer 1951 [=J. tuberculatua] SB63
              |--J. ventripilosa Wi91
              `--J. vitzthumi Womersley 1939 H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AL37] André, M., & É. Lamy. 1937. Les Idées actuelles sur la Phylogénie des Acariens. Published by the author: Paris.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K90] Kethley, J. 1990. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 667–756. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[SB63] Schweizer, J. & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[We91] Welbourn, W. C. 1991. Phylogenetic studies of the terrestrial Parasitengona. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 163–170. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Wi91] Witte, H. 1991. The phylogenetic relationships within the Parasitengonae. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 171–182. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WWO01] Wohltmann, A., H. Witte & R. Olomski. 2001. Organismal patterns causing high potential for adaptive radiation in Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 83–99. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Myobiidae

Myobia murismusculi, copyright Daktaridudu.


Belongs within: Cheyletoidea.

The Myobiidae are a group of mites ectoparasitic on mammals, adapted for clinging to the hair of their host.

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Soft-bodied, dorsoventrally flattened mites with legs I with or without claws, shortened and modified for grasping hairs, immatures with ventral unpaired clasping organ on tarsus; legs II–IV with claws, but without empodia or tenent hairs; immatures with femora and genua fused on all legs; coxal seta 2a present; coxal fields vestigial. Prodorsum with four pairs of non-trichobothrial setae (vi, ve, si, se), idiosomatic shield and eyes absent. Chelicerae styliform, retractile within the gnathosomatic capsule, fused basally with each other and with the subcapitulum except at hypostomatic apex, remnant cheliceral seta (chb) or its alveolus present dorsally on capsule; palpi 2-segmented in adults, absent in immatures; gnathosoma of immatures proboscidiform. Female anal opening dorsal, separate from genital opening; male genito-anal opening dorsal, aedeagus typically elongate and generally directed forward. Dorsal lyrifissures (cupules) absent. With 5 active postembryonic instars: larva, protonymph, deutonymph, tritonymph, and adult.

<==Myobiidae [Myobioidea] WL09
    |--Xenomyobia [Xenomyobiinae] WL09
    |    `--X. hirsuta WL09
    |--Archemyobia [Archemyobiinae] WL09
    |    `--A. philander WL09
    |--Australomyobia Fain 1973 H98 [Australomyobiinae WL09]
    |    |--A. dasycercus Fain 1973 H98
    |    |    |--A. d. dasycercus H98
    |    |    `--A. d. antechinus Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
    |    |--A. dasyurus Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
    |    |--A. necopina (Domrow 1973) [=Archemyobia necopina] H98
    |    `--A. phascogale Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
    `--Myobiinae WL09
         |  i. s.: Radfordia Ewing 1938 E38
         |           |--*R. ensifera (Poppe 1896) [=Myobia ensifera; incl. M. ratti Skidmore 1934] E38
         |           |--R. affinis (Poppe 1896) [=Myobia affinis] H98
         |           |--R. australiana Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |           |--R. chiropteralis [=Myobia chiropteralis] E38
         |           |--R. ewingi (Fox 1937) E38, F37 [=Myobia ewingi E38]
         |           |--R. fanningi Domrow 1963 H98
         |           |--R. floridensis Ewing 1938 E38
         |           |--R. hornerae Domrow 1963 H98
         |           |--R. hydromys Fain 1991 H98
         |           |--R. inaequalis Ewing 1938 E38
         |           |--R. ingens [=Myobia ingens] E38
         |           |--R. latior Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |           |--R. lemnina (Koch 1841) [=Dermaleichus lemninus, Myobia lemnina] E38
         |           |--R. mastacomys Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |           |--R. notomys Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |           |--R. pseudomys Fain 1974 H98
         |           |--R. rollinati [=Myobia rollinati] E38
         |           |--R. subuliger Ewing 1938 E38
         |           |--R. trouessarti [=Myobia trouessarti] E38
         |           |--R. vesca Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |           `--R. zyzomys Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
         |         Amorphacarus Ewing 1938 E38
         |           `--*A. elongatus (Poppe 1896) [=Myobia elongata] E38
         |--Elephantulobiini WL09
         |--Protomyobia Ewing 1938 E38 [Protomyobiini WL09]
         |    `--*P. claparedei (Poppe 1896) [=Myobia claparedei] E38
         |--Myobia von Heyden 1826 H98 [Myobiini WL09]
         |    |--M. murismusculi (Schrank 1781) H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--M. brevihamata E38
         |    |--M. caudata Banks 1909 [incl. M. canadensis Banks 1909] E38
         |    |--M. longa Ewing 1938 E38
         |    |--M. otomyia Lawrence 1951 S69
         |    |--M. poppei E38
         |    `--M. simplex Ewing 1938 E38
         `--Acanthophthirius Perkins 1925 H98 [Acanthophthiriini WL09]
              |--A. acinipus Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
              |--A. alatus Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
              |--A. clarus (Womersley 1941) (see below for synonymy) H98
              |--A. intercalatus Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
              |--A. minimus (Womersley 1941) [=Myobia minima] H98
              `--A. womersleyi Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98

Myobiidae incertae sedis:
  Eudusbabekia phyllostomi K06
  Acrobatobia Fain & Lukoschus 1976 H98
    `--A. queenslandica Fain & Lukoschus 1976 H98
  Binuncus Radford 1954 H98
    |--B. fortis Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
    `--B. magnus (Radford 1934) [=Myobia magna, Neomyobia magna] H98
  Calcarmyobia Radford 1948 H98
    |--C. australasiae Fain & Lukoschus 1980 H98
    |--C. miniopteris (Womersley 1941) [=Myobia miniopteris] H98
    `--C. orianae Uchikawa 1985 H98
  Ewingana Radford 1952 H98
    `--E. bispinosa Radford 1952 H98
         |--E. b. bispinosa H98
         `--E. b. longispina Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
  Hipposiderobia Dusbábek 1968 H98
    |--H. ateri Uchikawa 1993 H98
    |--H. belli Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
    |--H. brevisetosa Uchikawa 1993 H98
    `--H. semoni Uchikawa 1993 H98
  Metabinuncus Fain 1972 H98
    `--M. ateri Uchikawa 1992 H98
  Pteracarus Jameson & Chow 1952 H98
    |--P. chalinolobus (Womersley 1941) [=Myobia chalinolobus, Radfordia chalinolobus] H98
    |--P. elegans BVP96
    |--P. microdorsalis Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
    `--P. miniopteri Uchikawa 1978 H98
  Pteropimyobia Fain 1973 H98
    `--P. pahangensis Fain 1973 H98
         |--P. p. pahangensis H98
         `--P. p. quinquedens Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98
  Ugandobia Dusbábek 1968 H98
    `--U. australiensis Fain & Lukoschus 1979 H98

Acanthophthirius clarus (Womersley 1941) [=Myobia clara, Binuncus clarus, Neomyobia clara, Radfordia clara] H98

Myobia murismusculi (Schrank 1781) H98 [=Pediculus murismusculi H98, *Myobia musculi E38, H98; incl. M. coarctata Heyden 1826 E38, M. musculina Gervais 1844 E38]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BVP96] Batalla, I. B., M. Vargas & O. J. Polaco. 1996. Arthropods associated with Myotis thysanodes Müller 1897, in San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Léon, México. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 109–111. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[E38] Ewing, H. E. 1938. North American mites of the subfamily Myobiinae, new subfamily (Arachnida). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (7): 180–197.

[F37] Fox, I. 1937. A new cheyletid mite (Acarina) parasitic on the Carolina jumping mouse, Zapus hudsonius americanus (Barton). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (8): 227–230.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Agistemus

Agistemus collyerae, from PaDIL.


Belongs within: Raphignathoidea.

Agistemus is a genus of predatory stigmaeid mites with five shields, three unpaired and two paired, on the dorsum.

Characters (from Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002): Dorsum covered with two paired and three unpaired shields. Prodorsum with three pairs of setae and two pairs of eyes; median opisthosomal shield with five pairs of setae.

<==Agistemus Summers 1960 KU02
    |--*A. terminalis (Quale 1912) [=Caligonus terminalis] KU02
    |--A. africanus P01
    |--A. collyerae González-Rodríguez 1963 H98
    |--A. congolensis Gonzalez-Rodriguez 1965 S96
    |--A. denotatus WD91
    |--A. divisus WD91
    |--A. exsertus R01
    |--A. fleschneri G01
    |--A. floridanus VC07
    |--A. industani H07
    |--A. longisetus González-Rodrígiez 1963 H98
    |--A. macrommatus Gonzalez 1965 KU02
    `--A. novazelandiscus W99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H07] Haq, M. A. 2007. Coconut mite tragedy in peninsular India. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 427–432. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[KU02] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2002. The stigmaeid mites of Iran (Acari: Stigmaeidae). International Journal of Acarology 28 (4): 317–339.

[P01] Pringle, K. L. 2001. Biological control of tetranychid mites in South African apple orchards. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 429–435. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R01] Rezk, H. A. 2001. The false spider mite, Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): host-related biology, seasonal abundance, and control. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 291–294. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S96] Swift, S. F. 1996. Biodiversity of raphignathoid mites in the Hawaiian islands (Acariformes: Prostigmata). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 339–341. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[VC07] Villanueva, R. T., & C. C. Childers. 2007. Insect predators of eriophyids on Florida citrus including a new predacious Lepidoptera and two cecidomyiids. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 391–395. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197–200.

[WD91] Walter, D. E., & H. A. Denmark. 1991. Use of leaf domatia on wild grape (Vitis munsoniana) by arthropods in central Florida. Florida Entomologist 74 (3): 440–446.

Sycocrinitidae

Reconstruction of Monobrachiocrinus granulatus, from Moore et al. (1978).


Belongs within: Cyathocrinida.

The Sycocrinitidae are a group of crinoids with a globular theca bearing a single arm, known from the Carboniferous and Permian periods (Moore et al. 1978).

Characters (from Moore et al. 1978): Theca with one arm-bearing radial; other radials present or absent, commonly unequal and reduced in size; infrabasals three; anal X plate absent; anal opening bounded by basals and radials, or by radials. Orals small, commonly not preserved.

Sycocrinitidae
    |--Sycocrinites Austin & Austin 1842 [=Sycocrinus Morris 1843] ML78
    |    `--*S. anapeptamenus Austin & Austin 1842 [=*Sycocrinus anapeptamenus] ML78
    |--Allosycocrinus Wanner 1924 ML78
    |    `--*A. pusillus Wanner 1924 ML78
    |--Metasycocrinus Wanner 1920 ML78
    |    `--*M. pyriformis (Rothpletz 1892) [=Hypocrinus pyriformis] ML78
    |--Parasycocrinus Marez Oyens 1940 ML78
    |    `--*P. fastigatepileatus Marez Oyens 1940 ML78
    `--Monobrachiocrinus Wanner 1916 ML78
         |--*M. ficiformis Wanner 1916 ML78
         |--M. granulatus ML78 [=M. ficiformis granulatus U78]
         `--M. oviformis BLWR78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLWR78] Brower, J. C., N. G. Lane & H. Wienberg Rasmussen. 1978. Postlarval ontogeny of fossil crinoids. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 1 pp. T244–T274. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[ML78] Moore, R. C., N. G. Lane, H. L. Strimple, J. Sprinkle & R. O. Fay. 1978. Inadunata. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 2 pp. T520–T759. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[U78] Ubaghs, G. 1978. Skeletal morphology of fossil crinoids. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 1 pp. T58–T216. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Streblocrinidae

Posterior (above) and aboral views of Tytthocrinus inconsuetus, from Peck & Connelly (1951).


Belongs within: Cyathocrinida.

The Streblocrinidae are a group of armless crinoids known from the Middle Devonian to the Upper Permian (Moore et al. 1978).

Characters (from Moore et al. 1978): Theca typically composed of infrabasals, basals, and orals; abrachiate; radials and anal plate absent in all but most primitive genera; posterior oral commonly with hydropore and separating BC and DE orals; orals primitively above basals in interradial position, and anal opening on lower right side of posterior oral and upper right shoulder of CD basal.

Streblocrinidae
    |--Pentececrininae [Acariaiocrininae, Lageniocrininae] ML78
    |    |--Pentececrinus Koenig & Niewoehner 1959 ML78
    |    |    `--*P. parvus Koenig & Niewoehner 1959 ML78
    |    |--Clistocrinus Kirk 1937 [=Clithrocrinus Kirk 1937] ML78
    |    |    `--*C. pyriformis Kirk 1937 [=*Clithrocrinus pyriformis] ML78
    |    |--Lampadosocrinus Strimple & Koenig 1956 ML78
    |    |    `--*L. minutus (Peck 1936) [=Dichostreblocrinus minutus] ML78
    |    |--Neolageniocrinus Arendt 1970 ML78
    |    |    `--*N. shichanensis Arendt 1970 ML78
    |    |--Lageniocrinus deKoninck in deKoninck & LeHon 1854 ML78
    |    |    |--*L. seminulum deKoninck in deKoninck & LeHon 1854 ML78
    |    |    `--L. jacksoni ML78
    |    `--Acariaiocrinus Wanner 1924 [incl. Streptostomocrinus Yakovlev 1927] ML78
    |         |--*A. clavulus Wanner 1924 ML78
    |         `--‘*Streptostomocrinus’ caryophylloides Yakovlev 1927 ML78
    `--Streblocrininae [Pilidiocrininae] ML78
         |--Streblocrinus Koenig & Meyer 1965 ML78
         |    `--*S. brachiatus Koenig & Meyer 1965 ML78
         |--Atremacrinus Wanner 1929 ML78
         |    `--*A. calyculus Wanner 1929 ML78
         |--Coenocystis Girty 1908 [=Coencystis (l. c.)] ML78
         |    `--*C. richardsoni Girty 1908 ML78
         |--Dichostreblocrinus Weller 1930 ML78
         |    `--*D. scrobiculus Weller 1930 ML78
         |--Hemistreptacron Yakovlev 1926 ML78
         |    `--*H. abrachiatum Yakovlev 1926 ML78
         |--Pilidiocrinus Wanner 1937 ML78
         |    |--*P. permicus Wanner 1937 ML78
         |    `--P. hackeri U78
         `--Tytthocrinus Weller 1930 [incl. Octocrinus Peck 1936] ML78
              |--*T. comptus Weller 1930 ML78
              `--T. inconsuetus (Peck 1936) [=*Octocrinus inconsuetus] ML78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ML78] Moore, R. C., N. G. Lane, H. L. Strimple, J. Sprinkle & R. O. Fay. 1978. Inadunata. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 2 pp. T520–T759. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[U78] Ubaghs, G. 1978. Skeletal morphology of fossil crinoids. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 1 pp. T58–T216. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).