Diptera

Mating pair of Nymphomyia, from here.


Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Neoneura, Tipulidae, Trichoceridae.

The Diptera, flies, are a diverse group of insects characterised by the reduction of the hind pair of wings to small sensory knobs called halteres. Molecular analysis supports recognition of the genus Deuterophlebia, the mountain midges, as sister taxon to the remaining flies (Wiegmann et al. 2011). Deuterophlebia species live as larvae in fast-flowing streams in western North America; the adult males are characterised by the possession of remarkably long antennae. Also associated with fast-flowing streams are the Nymphomyiidae, whose species have strap-like wings with reduced venation and a long fringe. These wings are shed after mating, allowing the coupled individuals to crawl underwater so the females can lay. Similar habits have been inferred for the Jurassic Strashilidae, which have been found in the fossil record as both alate and coupled dealate individuals (Huang et al. 2013).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pro- and metathorax reduced; hind wings reduced to halteres; labial palps fused into labellum; mandibles reduced; male abdominal spiracle 8 lost; sperm pump present.

<==Diptera [Archidiptera, Blephariceroidea, Blephariceromorpha, Muscida, Nematocera, Tipulariae]
    |--Deuterophlebia [Deuterophlebiidae, Deuterophlebioidea] WT11
    |    |--D. coloradensis WT11
    |    |--D. inyoensis K81
    |    |--D. nielsoni M81
    |    `--D. nipponica Kitakami 1938 Iw92
    `--+--+--+--Psychotipinae BLM02
       |  |  `--Neoneura WT11
       |  `--Tipulomorpha WT11
       |       |--Vladiptera [Vladipteridae] BLM02
       |       |    `--V. kovalevi BLM02
       |       `--+--Tipulidae WT11
       |          `--+--Gnomuscidae GE05
       |             `--Trichoceridae WT11
       `--+--Strashilidae [Nakridletia, Vosilidae] HN13
          |    |--Vosila sinensis Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010 [incl. Parazila saurica Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010] HN13
          |    `--Strashila Rasnitsyn 1992 HN13
          |         |--*S. incredibilis HN13
          |         `--S. daohugouensis Huang, Nel et al. 2013 HN13
          `--Nymphomyiidae [Nymphomyioidea, Nymphomyiomorpha] WT11
               |--Palaeodipteron walkeri M81
               |--Felicitomyia KC81
               `--Nymphomyia WT11
                    |--*N. alba KC81
                    |--N. dolichopeza WT11
                    |--N. levanidovae KC81
                    |--N. succina GE05
                    `--N. walkeri HN13

Diptera incertae sedis:
  Parapsocus R02
  Protendipes O81 [Protendipedidae BLM02]
  Gracilitipulidae BLM02
  Zhangobiidae BLM02
  Eretmopodites A71
  Odontosoma Townsend 1916 C92
  Dasyneura mali H74
  Arocera longirostris T27
  Antiopa Meigen 1800 BR05
  Purpurella Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 BR05
  Volvula Gistl 1848 BR05
  Pycnosoma rufifacies B88
  ‘Eatonia’ Meunier 1905 nec Hall 1857 nec Smith 1875 S61
  Megathon zwicki GE05
  Ansorgius GE05 [Ansorgiidae BLM02]
  Sinotendipedidae BLM02
  Speiserella Kishida 1931 TYM08
  Sericocera E12
    |--S. algira Macquart 1849 E12
    `--S. fuscipennis Macquart 1849 E12
  Psilopus algirus Macquart 1849 E12
  Physegaster Macquart 1849 E12
    `--P. maculatus Macquart 1849 E12
  Amictus pulchellus Macquart 1849 E12
  Bayeriola salicariae MB93
  Scopeuma stercorarium Im92
  Oscinosoma frit S94
  Dicranophora Macquart 1834 LT61
  Aphaereta aotea N91
  Platyptera Meigen 1803 H27
  ‘Helea’ Meigen 1800 (nom. rej.) non Latreille 1804 MB08
  Camptorhynchus Fischer 1808 Z94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H27] Herre, A. W. 1927. Gobies of the Philippines and the China Sea. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[HN13] Huang, D., A. Nel, C. Cai, Q. Lin & M. S. Engel. 2013. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period. Nature 495: 94–97.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K81] Kennedy, H. D. 1981. Deuterophlebiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 199–202. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KC81] Kevan, D. K. McE., & F. E. A. Cutten. 1981. Nymphomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 203–207. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[MB93] Malecki, R. A., B. Blossey, S. D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L. T. Kok & J. R. Coulson. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43 (10): 680–686.

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[O81] Oliver, D. R. 1981. Chironomidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 423–458. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 125–133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Leptoceroidea

Larva and case of Triaenodes reuteri, from Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.


Belongs within: Integripalpia.
Contains: Sericostomatoidea.

The Leptoceroidea are a group of caddisflies with the base of vein 2A in the forewing anal loop separated by a jugal fold (Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002). Leptoceroidea may be paraphyletic with regard to the Sericostomatoidea.

Synapomorphies (from Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002, for Leptoceroidea + Sericostomatoidea): Larva with forked lamellae only on segment 8; Gilson glands reduced on prosternum, hind legs adopting sensory function and turned upwards.

<==Leptoceroidea
    |--+--+--Tasimiidae GE05
    |  |  `--Odontocerum Lach 1815 BZ-M04 [Odontoceridae GE05, Odontocerinae]
    |  |       `--O. albicorne (Scopoli 1763) BZ-M04
    |  `--+--Atriplectididae GE05
    |     `--Philorheithridae GE05
    `--+--Sericostomatoidea GE05
       `--+--Limnocentropodidae IS02
          `--+--Molannidae GE05
             `--+--Calamoceras Brauer 1865 BZ-M04 [Calamoceratidae GE05, Calamoceratinae]
                |    `--C. marsupus Brauer 1865 BZ-M04
                `--Leptoceridae GE05
                     |  i. s.: Erotesis IS02
                     |         Oligoplectrum IS02
                     |         Triplectides PC66
                     |           |--T. australicus TDC06
                     |           |--T. cephalotes PC66
                     |           `--T. obsoleta PC66
                     `--Leptocerinae BZ-M04
                          |  i. s.: Leptocerus A71
                          |--Athripsodini BZ-M04
                          |    |--Athripsodes Billberg 1820 BZ-M04
                          |    |    |--A. albifrons (Linnaeus 1758) BZ-M04
                          |    |    `--A. taounate BZ-M04
                          |    `--Ceraclea Stephens 1829 BZ-M04
                          |         `--C. sobradieli (Navás 1917) BZ-M04
                          |--Mystacides Berthold 1827 [Mysacidini] BZ-M04
                          |    `--M. azurea (Linnaeus 1761) BZ-M04
                          |--Oecetis McLachlan 1877 [Oecetini] BZ-M04
                          |    `--O. grazalemae BZ-M04
                          |--Setodes Rambur 1842 [Setodini] BZ-M04
                          |    |--S. argentipunctellus McLachlan 1877 BZ-M04
                          |    `--S. portionalis S02
                          `--Triaenodini BZ-M04
                               |--Triaenodes
                               |    |--T. detruncatus Martynov 1924
                               |    |--T. reuteri
                               |    `--T. simulans Tjeder 1929 [incl. T. forsslundi Tjeder 1941]
                               `--Adicella McLachlan 1877 BZ-M04
                                    `--A. reducta (McLachlan 1865) BZ-M04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BZ-M04] Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat. 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60 (1): 41-69.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IS02] Ivanov, V. D., & I. D. Sukatsheva. 2002. Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813. The caddisflies (=Phryganeida Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 199-220. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175-183.

[T76] Tobias, W. 1976. Köcherfliegen und Steinfliegen einiger Gewässer in Sör Varanger (Nord-Norwegen) (Trichoptera, Plecoptera). IV. Triaenodes detruncatus Martynov neu für Norwegen. Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 49-53.

Ditomyiidae

Symmerus annulatus, photographed by J. K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.

The Ditomyiidae are a group of fungus gnats characterised by wings with the media and cubitus connected, and vein R4 relatively long (Tonnoir & Edwards 1927). An incomplete eye bridge may be present above the antennae in some genera; the eyes are almost touching in Symmerus (Vockeroth 1981).

Characters (from Tonnoir & Edwards 1927, as Ditomyiinae): R4 present and rather long, generally half or more than half as long as Rs; Sc short and ending free; posterior divisions of pronotum with one or more longish bristles.

<==Ditomyiidae [Ditomyiinae]
    |--Ditomyia potomaca V81
    |--Rhipidita [incl. Calliceratomyia] V09
    |--Celebesomyia inocellata O98
    |--Australosymmerus [incl. Austrosymmerus] V09
    |    `--A. acutus V09
    |--Symmerus WT11
    |    |--S. annulatus WT11
    |    |--S. coqulus V81
    |    |--S. (Symmerus) lautus V81
    |    `--S. vockerothi V81
    |--Centrocnemis TE27
    |    |--C. basalis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--C. fumipennis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--C. nitida Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--C. tillyardi Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--C. trivittata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    `--Nervijuncta Marshall 1896 (see below for synonymy) TE27
         |--*N. nigrescens Marshall 1896 TE27
         |--N. bicolor Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. flavoscutellata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. harrisi Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. hexachaeta Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. hudsoni (Marshall 1896) [=*Cyrtoneura hudsoni, *Arctoneura hudsoni] TE27
         |--N. longicauda Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. marshalli Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. nigricornis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. nigricoxa Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. ostensackeni Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. parvicauda Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 (see below for synonymy) TE27
         |--N. pilicornis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. pulchella Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. punctata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 (see below for synonymy) TE27
         |--N. ruficeps Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 [incl. N. ruficeps var. continua Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27
         |--N. tridens (Hutton 1881) [=Platyura tridens, *Casa tridens, *Huttonia tridens] TE27
         `--N. wakefieldi (Edwards 1921) (see below for synonymy) TE27

Nervijuncta Marshall 1896 [incl. Cyrtoneura Marshall 1896 (preoc.), Arctoneura Hutton 1901, Huttonia Marshall 1896 nec Pickard-Cambridge 1879 nec Kirk 1882, Casa Hutton 1901] TE27

Nervijuncta parvicauda Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 [incl. N. parvicauda var. suffusa Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27

Nervijuncta punctata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 [incl. N. punctata var. robusta Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27

Nervijuncta wakefieldi (Edwards 1921) [=Arctoneura wakefieldi; incl. N. wakefieldi var. abbreviata Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[V81] Vockeroth, J. R. 1981. Mycetophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 223–246. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[V09] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009. Ditomyiidae (ditomyiid fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 253–255. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 18 June 2018.

Sciaroidea

Female Bolitophila, photographed by Kevin Hall.


Belongs within: Bibionomorpha.
Contains: Ditomyiidae, Mycetophilidae, Keroplatidae, Sciaridae, Cecidomyiidae.

The Sciaroidea are a diverse clade of mostly lightly built flies, including the fungus gnats and related taxa. Many of its constituent taxa previously combined in the family Mycetophilidae have been divided into separate families on the basis of the latter family's non-monophyly. These include the genus Manota, characterised by having the head inserted at the anterior end of the thorax and with a row of strong posteriorly directed bristles behind the eye, and wing with the stem of M absent and branches of M present as detached veins on the distal part of the wing (Vockeroth 1981).

Synapomorphies (from Amorim & Rindal 2007, as Mycetophiliformia): Wings with r-m directed obliquely backwards; bM absent; width of basal radial (br) + basal medial (bm) combined cells smaller than medial fork width; first sector of M3+4 longitudinal; m-cu longitudinal, with basal angle; M4 parallel to CuA along its basal one-third; A1 incomplete or absent; male sternite 9 reduced to slender strip.

<==Sciaroidea [Fungivoroidea, Mycetophiliformia, Mycetophiloidea]
    |--Eoditomyia [Eoditomyiidae] GE05
    `--+--+--Ditomyiidae WT11
       |  `--Manota V81 [Manotidae WT11, Manotinae]
       |       |--M. coxata TE27
       |       |--M. defecta TE27
       |       |--M. flavipes TE27
       |       |--M. maorica Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
       |       |--M. orientalis TE27
       |       `--M. unuifurcata TE27
       `--+--Diadocidiidae [Diadocidiinae] WT11
          |    |--Paleoheterotricha TE27
          |    |--Pterogymnus V09a
          |    `--Diadocidia V09a
          |         |--D. ferruginosa V81
          |         |--D. nigripalpus V09a
          |         `--D. spinosula P76
          `--+--+--Mycetophilidae WT11
             |  `--+--Keroplatidae WT11
             |     `--Bolitophila Meigen 1818 P86 [Bolitophilidae WT11, Bolitophilinae]
             |          |--B. aperta P76
             |          |--B. basicornis (Mayer 1951) P86
             |          |--B. (Bolitophila) caspersi Plassmann 1986 P86
             |          |--B. cinerea V81
             |          |--B. dubia P76
             |          |--B. glabratella P76
             |          |--B. hybrida JP76
             |          |--B. (Cliopisa) mayeri Plassmann 1986 [=B. tarsata Mayer 1951 non Odaka 1935] P86
             |          |--B. tarsata Odaka 1935 P86
             |          |--B. tasmaniensis G60
             |          `--B. tenella Winnertz 1863 P86
             `--+--Sciaridae WT11
                `--+--+--Cecidomyiidae WT11
                   |  `--+--Rangomaramidae GE05
                   |     `--Archizelmiridae GE05
                   |          |--Burmazelmira aristica GE05
                   |          `--Zelmiarcha lebanensis GE05
                   `--Lygistorrhinidae [Lygistorrhininae] WT11
                        |--Lebanognoriste prima GE05
                        |--Archeognoriste primitiva GE05
                        `--+--Leptognoriste GE05
                           |    |--L. davisi GE05
                           |    `--L. microstoma GE05
                           |--+--Plesiognoriste GE05
                           |  |    |--P. carpenteri GE05
                           |  |    `--P. zherikhini GE05
                           |  `--Protognoriste GE05
                           |       |--P. amplicauda GE05
                           |       |--P. goeleti GE05
                           |       `--P. nascifoa GE05
                           `--+--Palaeognoriste GE05
                              |--+--Loyugesa khuati GE05
                              |  `--Seguyola GE05
                              `--Lygistorrhina GE05
                                   |--L. asiatica GE05
                                   |--L. cincticornis O98
                                   |--L. sanctaecatherinae V81
                                   `--L. singularis V09b

Sciaroidea incertae sedis:
  Pleciofungivora [Pleciofungivoridae] BLM02
  Antefungivoridae BLM02
  Mesosciophilidae BLM02
  Ohakuneinae J09
    |--*Rogambara dentata J09
    |--*Cabamofa mira J09
    |--Ohakunea Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--*O. bicolor Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--O. australiensis TC04
    `--Colonomyia J09
         |--C. albicaulis J09
         `--C. borea J09
  Paramanota O98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Amorim, D. de S., & E. Rindal. 2007. Phylogeny of the Mycetophiliformia, with proposal of the subfamilies Heterotrichinae, Ohakuneinae, and Chiletrichinae for the Rangomaramidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha). Zootaxa 1535: 1-92.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577–593.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[J09] Jaschhof, M. 2009. Ohakunea group (Sciaroidea, unassigned to family; no common name). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 315–317. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 67–68.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 77–79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143–150.

[TC04] Toft, R. J., & P. J. Chandler. 2004. Three introduced species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea) established in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 43–49.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[V81] Vockeroth, J. R. 1981. Mycetophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 223–246. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[V09a] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009a. Diadocidiidae (diadocidiid fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 257–258. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[V09b] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009b. Lygistorrhinidae (long-beaked fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 265–266. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 18 June 2018.

Mycetophilidae

Mycetophilid larvae, probably Epicypta, with a protective covering of faecal material, photographed by Kim Fleming.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Sciophilini, Tetragoneurini, Gnoristini, Mycomya, Mycetophila, Zygomyia, Exechia, Allodia.

The Mycetophilidae are a family of fungus gnats characterised by having the wing veins M and CuA connected, if at all, near the level of crossvein h (Vockeroth 2009). They may be divided between the subfamilies Sciophilinae, in which the wings (if developed) have microtrichia irregularly arranged or absent, and Mycetophilinae, in which wings have microtrichia arranged in more or less regular longitudinal lines (Vockeroth 1981).

Characters (from Vockeroth 2009): Body length 1.8–8.7 mm. Colour yellow to brown or black, often patterned. Ocelli usually three, middle ocellus sometimes small or absent. Antenna no longer than body, with scape, pedicel and usually 14 flagellomeres. Palpus usually with basal palpifer and four palpal segments, the latter sometimes 1–3 in number. Hairs and bristles present on pronotum, scutum and scutellum; pleural sclerites and prosternum bare or with varied vestiture. Wing membrane with either or both macrotrichia and microtrichia. Male and female terminalia various, but with sclerites generally as in other nematocerous families. Female with tergite 10 sometimes weak or absent; cercus articulated with last sclerotised tergite, one- or two-segmented; two unsclerotised spermathecae apparently always present.

<==Mycetophilidae [Fungivoridae]
    |--Sciophilinae [Sciophilide] V81
    |    |  i. s.: Docosia Winnertz 1863 V81, P86
    |    |           |--D. dichroa V81
    |    |           |--D. moravica P76c
    |    |           |--D. muelleri Plassmann 1986 P86
    |    |           |--D. nigra Landrock 1928 P86
    |    |           `--D. setosa Landrock 1916 P86
    |    |         Aphrastomyia V81
    |    |         Boletina Staeger 1840 V81, P86
    |    |           |--B. dissipata Plassmann 1986 P86
    |    |           |--B. flaviventris P76c
    |    |           |--B. joosti Plassmann 1986 P86
    |    |           |--B. nigrofusca P76c
    |    |           |--B. oviducta V81
    |    |           |--B. plana Walker 1856 P86
    |    |           |--B. polaris P76c
    |    |           `--B. trivittata (Meigen 1818) P86
    |    |         Adicroneura biocellata V81
    |    |         Coelophthinia curta V81
    |    |         Coelosia Winnertz 1863 V81, P86
    |    |           |--C. bicornis Stackelberg 1969 P86
    |    |           |--C. limpida Plassmann 1986 P86
    |    |           |--C. tenella V81
    |    |           `--C. truncata Lundstroem 1909 P86
    |    |         Garrettella shermani V81
    |    |         Drepanocercus ensifer V81
    |    |         Aglaomyia gatineau V81
    |    |         Acomoptera plexipus V81
    |    |         Saigusaia cincta V81
    |    |         Dziedzickia V81
    |    |           |--D. marginata P76c
    |    |           `--D. vittata V81
    |    |         Speolepta leptogaster V81, P76c
    |    |         Apolephthisa subincana V81, JP76
    |    |         Rondaniella dimidiata V81
    |    |         Greenomyia joculator V81
    |    |         Megophthalmidia occidentalis V81
    |    |         Acadia polypori V81
    |    |         Hadroneura rutila V81
    |    |         Procycloneura V09
    |    |         Leiella V09
    |    |         Allactoneura CM70
    |    |--Sciophilini V81
    |    |--Tetragoneurini V81
    |    |--Gnoristini V81
    |    `--Mycomyini V81
    |         |--Mycomya V81
    |         `--Neoempheria V81
    |              |--N. balioptera V81
    |              `--N. stubbsi Chandler & Ribeiro 2003 F05
    `--Mycetophilinae V81
         |  i. s.: Neallodia V09
         |--Mycetophilini V81
         |    |--Mycetophila P86
         |    |--Dynatosoma V81
         |    |--Macrobrachius productus V81
         |    |--Zygomyia V81
         |    |--Sceptonia johannseni V81
         |    |--Epicypta V81 [incl. Delopsis CM91, Neoaphelomera V09, Platurocypta V81]
         |    |    |--E. dilatata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |    |--E. immaculata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |    `--E. scatophora V81
         |    |--Trichonta V81
         |    |    |--T. conjugens P76c
         |    |    |--T. falcata P76c
         |    |    |--T. mediastinalis P76c
         |    |    `--T. vulcani V81
         |    `--Phronia V81
         |         |--P. braueri V81
         |         |--P. cordata V81
         |         |--P. cornuta P76c
         |         |--P. egregia P76c
         |         |--P. mutabilis P76c
         |         `--P. tenuis JP76
         `--Exechiini V81
              |--Exechia V81
              |--Stigmatomeria crassicornis V81
              |--Pseudobrachypeza bulbosa V81
              |--Brachypeza radiata V81, G60
              |--Allodiopsis V81
              |--Tarnania tarnanii V81
              |--Brevicornu Marshall 1896 V81, TE27
              |--Allodia V81
              |--Cordyla V81
              |    |--C. fusca P76c
              |    `--C. sixi P76c
              |--Anatella V81
              |    |--A. ciliata V81
              |    |--A. dampfi P76c
              |    |--A. novata P76c
              |    |--A. simpatica P76c
              |    `--A. turi P76c
              `--Rymosia Winnertz 1863 V81, P86
                   |--R. (Rymosia) adventicia Plassmann 1986 P86
                   |--R. bifida Edwards 1924 P86
                   |--R. caucasia Plassmann 1976 P76a
                   |--R. cretensis P76c
                   |--R. dziedzickii P76c
                   |--R. guttata P76c
                   |--R. sagulata Plassmann 1976 P76b
                   |--R. spinipes Winnertz 1863 P86
                   `--R. triangularis V81

Mycetophilidae incertae sedis:
  Platyroptilon TE27
  Messala JP76
    |--M. cinerea JP76
    `--M. tenella JP76
  Parallodia lugens JP76
  Syndocosia V81
  Antlemon V81
  Paramorganiella V81
  Rhynchoplatyura V81
  Metanepsia V81
  Echinopodium V81
  Dolichodactyla V81
  Palaeodocosia V81
  Neoantlemon CM91
  Antriadophila CM91
  Nicholsonomyia CM91
  Pseudalyssiinia CM91
  Eumanota CM91
  Stenophragma CM91
  Paraleia CM70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577–593.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 67–68.

[P76a] Plassmann, E. 1976a. Zwei neue Pilzmücken aus dem Kaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 69–70.

[P76b] Plassmann, E. 1976b. Vier neue Mycetophiliden aus der ökologischen Station Messaure/Schweden (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 73–76.

[P76c] Plassmann, E. 1976c. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 77–79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143–150.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[V81] Vockeroth, J. R. 1981. Mycetophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 223–246. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[V09] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009. Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 267–278. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Last updated: 18 June 2018.

Keroplatidae

Male fungus gnat, probably Macrocera, photographed by Tony DeSantis.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Platyura.

The Keroplatidae is a group of fungus gnats whose larvae live in webs. Larvae of at least some species feed on small animals caught in the web; notable examples include the glowworms Arachnocampa of Australia and New Zealand which produce light to lure prey.

Characters (from Vockeroth 2009): Body length 2.3–8.8 mm. Colour yellow to brown or black, often patterned. Usually three ocelli, middle ocellus small or rarely absent. Antenna with fourteen flagellomeres. Scutum uniformly setose or with bare longitudinal stripes; scutellum with posterior row of setae or with dorsal surface extensively setose. Scutellum sometimes with large membranous triangular basal area. Mediotergite bare. Pleural sclerites and prosternum variously haired or bare. Wing with Sc ending in C; R2+3 present, ending in R1 or C; base of M strong, weak or absent; Rs and M briefly fused at about one-third wing length. Foretibia with one apical spur, other tibiae with one or two spurs.

<==Keroplatidae
    |--Arachnocampa Edwards 1924 TE27 [Arachnocampinae V09]
    |    |--*A. luminosa (Skuse 1891) [=Bolitophila luminosa] TE27
    |    |--A. flava WT11
    |    `--A. tasmaniensis N70
    |--Macrocerinae GE05
    |    |--Paramacrocera Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |    `--*P. brevicornis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--Macrocera V81
    |         |--M. annulata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. antennalis Marshall 1894 TE27
    |         |--M. campbelli Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. centralis JP76
    |         |--M. fenestrata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. fusca Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. glabrata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. gourlayi Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. hudsoni Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. inconspicua Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. magna P76
    |         |--M. mastersi O98
    |         |--M. milligani Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. montana Marshall 1896 [incl. M. howletti Marshall 1896] TE27
    |         |--M. ngaireae Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. obsoleta Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. parva P76
    |         |--M. pulchra Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. ruficollis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. scoparia Marshall 1896 TE27
    |         |--M. unipunctata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         `--M. variola V81
    `--Keroplatinae [Ceroplatinae] V81
         |  i. s.: Planarivora insignis V81
         |         Euceroplatus V81
         |           |--E. gressitti O98
         |           `--E. incolumis V81
         |         Hesperodes johnsoni V81
         |         Robsonomyia reducta V81
         |         Macrorrhyncha coxalis V81
         |         Asindulum montanum V81
         |         Paleoplatyura johnsoni V81
         |         Cerotelion V81
         |           |--C. bimaculatus Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |           |--C. dendyi (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus dendyi] TE27
         |           |--C. hudsoni (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus hudsoni] TE27
         |           |--C. johannseni V81
         |           |--C. leucoceras (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus leucoceras] TE27
         |           |--C. niger Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |           |--C. tapleyi Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |           `--C. vitripennis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |         Platyura V81
         |--Keroplatini V09
         |    |--Placoceratias V09
         |    |--Setostylus V09
         |    |--Ctenoceridion V09
         |    |--Heteropterna cressoni V09, V81
         |    |--Neoceroplatus V09
         |    `--Keroplatus V81
         |         |--K. clausus V81
         |         |--K. mangalorensis Edwards 1929 G60
         |         |--K. mastersi Skuse 1888 G60
         |         `--K. tipuloides L02
         `--Orfeliini V09
              |--Micrapemon V09
              |--Lapyruta V09
              |--Proceroplatus V09
              |--Pseudoplatyura truncata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 V09, TE27
              |--Isoneuromyia V09
              |--Neoplatyura V09
              |--Pyrtaula fenestralis V09, O98
              |--Xenoplatyura V09
              |--Plautyra V09
              |--Lyprauta V09
              |--Apyrtula V09
              |--Orfelia V81
              |    |--O. fenestralis CM91
              |    |--O. genualis V81
              |    `--O. nemoralis TC04 [=Platyura nemoralis M83]
              `--Neoditomyia V09
                   |--N. spinosa L88
                   `--+--N. andina L88
                      `--N. troglophila L88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577–593.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 67–68.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 77–79.

[TC04] Toft, R. J., & P. J. Chandler. 2004. Three introduced species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea) established in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 43–49.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747–878.

[V81] Vockeroth, J. R. 1981. Mycetophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 223–246. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[V09] Vockeroth, J. R. 2009. Keroplatidae (predaceous fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 259–263. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 18 June 2018.

Mitrocystitida

Mitrocystites styloideus, from here.


Belongs within: Ankyroida.

Mitrocystitida was identified by Parsley (1997) as a paraphyletic group with the Anomalocystitida and Lagynocystis nested within it. Members of this clade mostly have moderately to only slightly asymmetrical thecae (Ubaghs 1967).

<==Mitrocystitida [Mitrocystida]
    |  i. s.: Spermacystis Ubaghs 1967 [=Anomocystis Jaekel 1918 non Haeckel 1896] U67
    |           `--*S. ensifer (Barrande 1887) [=Anomalocystites ensifer, *Anomocystis ensifer] U67
    |         Vizcainocarpus L03
    |           |--V. dentiger L03
    |           `--V. rutai L03
    |         Promitrocystites L03
    |--Paranacystis Caster 1954 [Paranacystidae] U67
    |    `--*P. petrii Caster 1954 U67
    `--Mitrocystitidae [Mitrocystidae] U67
         |--Ovocarpus moncereti P97, L03
         `--+--Chauvelia P97
            `--+--Aspidocarpus P97
               |    |--A. bohemicus L03
               |    `--A. discoidalis L03
               `--+--Mitrocystites Barrande 1887 P97, U67 [=Mitrocystis Bather 1889 U67]
                  |    |--*M. mitra Barrande 1887 U67 [incl. M. latus Jaekel 1918 U67, J18]
                  |    |    |--M. m. mitra U67
                  |    |    `--M. m. hanusi U67
                  |    |--M. riadanensis U67
                  |    `--M. styloideus U67
                  `--+--Mitrocystella Jaekel 1901 P97, U67
                     |    |--*M. incipiens (Barrande 1887) [=Anomalocystites incipiens] U67
                     |    |    |--M. i. incipiens U67
                     |    |    `--M. i. miloni U67
                     |    `--M. barrandei U67
                     `--+--Eumitrocystella savilli Beisswenger 1994 P97, L03
                        `--+--Barrandeocarpus jaekeli Ubaghs 1979 P97, L03
                           `--+--+--Diamphidiocystis drepanon Kolata & Guensburg 1979 P97, L03
                              |  `--Lagynocystis Jaekel 1918 P97, U67 [Lagynocystidae]
                              |       `--*L. pyramidalis (Barrande 1887) U67 (see below for synonymy)
                              `--Anomalocystitida [Anomalocystida, Placocystida] U67
                                   |--Australocystidae [Australocystinae] U67
                                   |    |--Australocystis Caster 1954 U67
                                   |    |    `--*A. langei Caster 1954 U67
                                   |    `--Placocystella Rennie 1936 U67
                                   |         `--*P. capensis Rennie 1936 U67
                                   `--Anomalocystitidae (see below for synonymy) U67
                                        |  i. s.: Basslerocystis Caster 1952 U67
                                        |           `--*B. disparilis (Hall 1859) [=Anomalocystites disparilis] U67
                                        |         Victoriacystis Gill & Caster 1960 U67
                                        |           `--*V. wilkinsi Gill & Caster 1960 U67
                                        |--+--Anomalocystites Hall 1859 P97, U67 (see below for synonymy)
                                        |  |    |--*A. cornutus Hall 1859 (see below for synonymy) U67
                                        |  |    `--A. bohemicus U67
                                        |  `--Enoploura Wetherby 1879 P97, U67 [=Enopleura Springer 1913 K67]
                                        |       |--*E. balanoides (Meek 1872) (see below for synonymy) U67
                                        |       |--E. popei U67
                                        |       |--E. punctata U67
                                        |       `--E. wetherbyi U67
                                        `--+--+--Allanicytidium Caster & Gill in Ubaghs 1967 P97, U67 [Allanicytidiidae]
                                           |  |    `--*A. flemingi Caster & Gill in Ubaghs 1967 U67
                                           |  `--+--Notocarpos P97
                                           |     `--Tasmancytidium P97
                                           `--+--Ateleocystites Billings 1838 P67, U67 (see below for synonymy)
                                              |    |--*A. huxleyi Billings 1838 (see below for synonymy) U67
                                              |    `--A. guttenbergensis Kolata & Jollie 1982 L03
                                              `--+--Rhenocystis Dehm 1932 P97, U67
                                                 |    `--*R. latipedunculata Dehm 1932 U67
                                                 `--Placocystites de Koninck 1869 P97, U67 (see below for synonymy)
                                                      |--*P. forbesianus de Koninck 1869 [=*Placocystis forbesianus] U67
                                                      `--P. africanus U67

Anomalocystites Hall 1859 P97, U67 [=Anomalocystis Bather 1889 U67, Anomocystis Haeckel 1896 U67]

*Anomalocystites cornutus Hall 1859 [=*Anomalocystis cornuta, *Anomocystis cornuta] U67

Anomalocystitidae [Anomalocystidae, Anomocystida, Atelocystida, Basslerocystinae, Enoplourinae, Placocystidae, Placocystinae, Placocystitidae] U67

Ateleocystites Billings 1838 P97, U67 [=Atelecystis Bather 1889 U67, Ateleocystis Lindström 1888 U67, Atelocystis Haeckel 1896 U67]

*Ateleocystites huxleyi Billings 1838 [=*Atelecystis huxleyi, *Ateleocystis husleyi, *Atelocystis huxleyi] U67

*Enoploura balanoides (Meek 1872) [=Anomalocystites (Ateleocystites) balanoides] U67

*Lagynocystis pyramidalis (Barrande 1887) U67 [=Anomalocystites pyramidalis U67, Anomalocystis pyramidalis J18]

Placocystites de Koninck 1869 P97, U67 [=Placocystis Haeckel 1896 U67]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[J18] Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3: 1-128.

[K67] Kesling, R. V. 1967. Cystoids. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa-Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) (R. C. Moore, ed.) vol. 1 pp. S85-S267. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[L03] Lefebvre, B. 2003. Funtional morphology of stylophoran echinoderms. Palaeontology 46 (3): 511-555.

[P97] Parsley, R. L. 1997. The echinoderm classes Stylophora and Homoiostelea: Non Calcichordata. Paleontological Society Papers 3: 225-248.

[U67] Ubaghs, G. 1967. Stylophora. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa-Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) (R. C. Moore, ed.) vol. 2 pp. S495-S565. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).