Araliaceae

Pate Schefflera digitata, photographed by Kahuroa.


Belongs within: Apiales.
Contains: Polyscias, Osmoxylon, Hydrocotyle, Xanthosia.

The Araliaceae are a family of plants found worldwide, with diversity particularly high in the tropics. The majority of Araliaceae are shrubs and trees, though the family also includes herbs and climbers. The basal genus Hydrocotyle includes aquatic and semi-aquatic herbaceous species, and was previously classified with other herbaceous genera, such as the Australasian genus Trachymene, as a subfamily of the closely related family Apiaceae. The genus Hedera is comprised of woody climbers, the best known of which is the garden ivy Hedera helix. Panax, the ginsengs, is a genus of stout-rooted herbs that have become known for their supposed medicinal uses. The Asian ginseng P. ginseng has, due to overharvesting, become less commercially significant than the American P. quinquefolius. The type genus Aralia, the spikenards, includes species with bipinnate leaves found in Asia and the Americas, varying from herbs to trees. Schefflera includes trees, shrubs and lianas with palmately compound leaves.

See also: Ginseng and ivy.

Characters (from Kårehed 2003): Mostly woody (sometimes herbaceous); leaves usually alternate (sometimes opposite or whorled), simple or compound, penninerved or palmatinerved, serrate or entire, domatia absent; stipules absent or present; petiole with or without sheathing base; stomata para-, aniso- or anomocytic; hypodermis present or absent. Inflorescences mostly simple umbels; flowers usually with articulated pedicels, unisexual or hermaphroditic, pentamerous (sometimes 3-12-merous, stamens and carpels sometimes twice that number or up to ca. 200), petals free (sometimes connate at base); petals single-veined; aestivation imbricate or valvate; disc present; style mostly with 3-4 free stylodia, sometimes connate into style; stylopodium mostly present; ovary inferior, 2-5-locular (occasionally plurilocular); fruit a drupe or berry. Chromosome number x=11-12+. Secretory canals present; nodes trilacunar (rarely unilacunar); perforation plates simple and/or scalariform; vessels mostly solitary or mainly in groups, sometimes with helical thickenings, with simple pits or pits with very narrow borders; axial parenchyma scanty, paratracheal; rays heterogeneous; fibres with simple pits, mostly septate. Pollen colporate; exine usually reticulate.

<==Araliaceae
    |--Hydrocotyloideae [Hydrocotyleae] HH00
    |    |--Hydrocotyle K03
    |    |--Xanthosia HH00
    |    |--Hemiphues Hooker 1847 A61
    |    |    `--H. suffocata Hooker 1847 [=Actinotus suffocata] A61
    |    |         |--H. s. var. suffocata A61
    |    |         `--H. s. var. novae-zelandiae (Petrie) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    `--Trachymene T00
    |         |--T. elachocarpa KM08
    |         |--T. ornata OS04
    |         |--T. pilosa KM08
    |         `--T. saniculifolia P88
    `--+--Hedera K03
       |    |--H. canariensis MH98
       |    |--H. helix K03
       |    `--H. nepalensis D07
       `--+--Panax K03
          |    |--P. ginseng K03
          |    |--P. pseudo-ginseng O88
          |    |    |--P. p. ssp. pseudo-ginseng O88
          |    |    `--P. p. ssp. himalaicus O88
          |    |         |--P. p. ssp. h. var. himalaicus O88
          |    |         `--P. p. ssp. h. var. bipinnatifidus O88
          |    |--P. quinquefolium K03
          |    `--P. trifolium K03
          `--+--Schefflera Forster & Forster 1776 K03, A61
             |    |--S. abyssinica DVC08
             |    |--S. arboricola K03
             |    |--S. digitata Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy) A61
             |    |--S. goetzenii K03
             |    `--S. waltheri JD05
             `--Aralia [Aralioideae] K03
                  |--A. bipinnata Blanco 1837 P95
                  |    |--A. b. var. bipinnata P95
                  |    `--A. b. var. apoensis P95
                  |--A. cachemirica K03
                  |--A. elata LO98
                  |--A. oxleyi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
                  |--A. prisca Ettingshausen 1886 F71
                  `--A. spinosa K03

Araliaceae incertae sedis:
  Pseudopanax Koch 1859 A61
    |--P. chathamicum Kirk 1899 A61
    |--P. crassifolium (Sol. ex Cunn.) Koch in Koch & Fint. 1859 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--P. discolor (Kirk) Harms 1894 [=Panax discolor Kirk 1871] A61
    |--P. ferox Kirk 1889 [=Panax ferox Kirk 1878] A61
    |--P. gilliesii Kirk 1899 [incl. Panax lessonii var. heterophylla Kirk 1878] A61
    |--P. laetevirens D03
    |--P. lessonii (DC.) Koch in Koch & Fint. 1859 (see below for synonymy) A61
    `--P. lineare (Hooker) Koch in Koch & Fint. 1859 (see below for synonymy) A61
  Tetraplesandra K03
    |--T. gymnocarpa K03
    `--T. kavaiensis K03
  Heptapleurum venulosum P03
  Kalopanax V02
    |--K. pictus T03
    `--K. septemlobus [incl. Acanthopanax ricinifolia] LO98
  Polyscias P95
  Osmoxylon P95
  Gastonia P95
    |--G. serratifolia (Miq.) Philipson 1979 (see below for synonymy) P95
    `--G. spectabilis (Harms) Philipson 1970 (see below for synonymy) P95
  Bonnierella YY22
  Tieghemopanax YY22
  Heteropanax YY22
  Brassaiopsis YY22
  Gumblea YY22
  Porospermum YY22
  Strobilopanax YY22
  Acanthopanax cissifolius O88
  Fatsia YY22
  Gilibertia trifida MH98
  Brassaia actinophylla SK02
  Oplopanax NS06
  Anakasia simplicifolia Philipson 1973 P95
  Harmsiopanax P95
    |--H. harmsii Sch. ex Sch. & Laut. 1905 P95
    `--H. ingens Philipson 1973 P95
         |--H. i. ssp. ingens P95
         `--H. i. ssp. moniliformis Philipson 1973 P95
  Plerandra P95
    |--P. brassii Philipson 1951 P95
    |--P. solomonensis Philipson 1951 P95
    `--P. stahliana Warb. 1894 P95
  Arthrophyllum P95
    |--A. macranthum Philipson 1951 P95
    |--A. pacificum Philipson 1977 P95
    `--A. proliferum Philipson 1977 P95
  Meryta Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |--M. colorata Bailey 1898 P95
    `--M. sinclairii (Hooker) Seem. 1862 [=Botryodendrum sinclairii Hooker 1853] A61
  Dendropanax J87
    |--D. arboreus J87
    `--D. selleanus J87
  Didymopanax J87
    |--D. morototoni SWK87
    |--D. tremulum J87
    `--D. vinosum MM96
  Oreopanax capitatum J87
  Raukaua H98
    |--R. anomalus H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |--R. edgerleyi (Hooker) Seem. 1866 H98, A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |--R. × parvus (Kirk) Heenan 1998 (see below for synonymy) H98
    |--R. × serratus (Kirk) Heenan 1998 (see below for synonymy) H98
    `--R. simplex H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--R. s. var. simplex H98
         `--R. s. var. sinclairii H98 (see below for synonymy)
  Neopanax Allan 1961 A61
    |--*N. arboreum (Murr.) Allan 1961 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |--N. colensoi (Hooker) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--N. c. var. colensoi A61
    |    `--N. v. var. montanum (Kirk) Allan 1961 [=Panax colensoi var. montanum Kirk 1899] A61
    |--N. kermadecense (Oliver) Allan 1961 [=Nothopanax kermadecensis Oliver 1926] A61
    |--N. laetum (Kirk) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    `--‘Nothopanax’ × macintyrei Cheeseman 1925 [Neopanax arboreum × Ne. simplex] A61
  Kirkophytum (Harms) Allan 1961 [=Stilbocarpa sect. Kirkophytum Harms 1894] A61
    |--*K. robustum (Kirk) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    `--K. lyallii (Armstrong) Allan 1961 [=Stilbocarpa lyallii Armstrong 1881, Aralia lyalli Kirk 1885] A61

Gastonia serratifolia (Miq.) Philipson 1979 [=Arthrophyllum serratifolium Miq. 1861; incl. G. papuana Miq. 1863, Polyscias papuana (Miq.) Seem. 1865, Tetraplasandra paucidens Miq. 1863, T. solomonensis Philipson 1951] P95

Gastonia spectabilis (Harms) Philipson 1970 [=Peekeliopanax spectabilis Harms 1926; incl. G. boridiana Harms 1938] P95

Hemiphues suffocata var. novae-zelandiae (Petrie) Allan 1961 [=H. novae-zelandiae Petrie 1880, Actinotus novae-zelandiae Petrie 1881] A61

*Kirkophytum robustum (Kirk) Allan 1961 [=Aralia lyallii var. robusta Kirk 1891, Stilbocarpa robusta (Kirk) Cockayne 1909; incl. S. bollonsii Cockayne ex Watson 1909 (n. n.)] A61

*Neopanax arboreum (Murr.) Allan 1961 A61 [=Panax arboreum Murr. 1774 A61, Nothopanax arboreum (Forster) Seem. 1866 A61, Pseudopanax arboreum B88]

Neopanax colensoi (Hooker) Allan 1961 [=Panax colensoi Hooker 1853, Nothopanax colensoi (Hooker) Seem. 1866] A61

Neopanax laetum (Kirk) Allan 1961 [=Panax arboreum var. laetum Kirk 1899, Nothopanax laetum (Kirk) Cheesem. 1923] A61

Pseudopanax crassifolium (Sol. ex Cunn.) Koch in Koch & Fint. 1859 [=Aralia crassifolia Sol. ex Cunn. 1839, Hedera crassifolia Gray 1854, Panax crassifolium (Sol.) Decne & Planch. 1854; incl. Pa. coriaceum Regel 1859, Pa. longissimum Hooker 1864, Pseudopanax crassifolium var. trifoliolatum] A61

Pseudopanax lessonii (DC.) Koch in Koch & Fint. 1859 [=Panax lessonii DC. 1830, Cussonia lessonii Rich. 1832, Hedera lessonii Gray 1854] A61

Pseudopanax lineare (Hooker) Koch in Koch & Fint. 1859 [=Panax linearis Hooker 1853, Nothopanax lineare (Hooker) Harms 1894] A61

Raukaua anomalus H98 [=Panax anomalum Hook. 1843 A61, Neopanax anomalum (Hook.) Allan 1961 A61, Nothopanax anomalum (Hook.) Seem. 1866 CA27, A61, Pseudopanax anomalus H98; incl. Panax microphylla Colenso 1884 A61]

Raukaua edgerleyi (Hooker) Seem. 1866 H98, A61 [=Panax edgerleyi Hooker 1853 A61, Nothopanax edgerleyi (Hooker) Harms 1894 A61, Pseudopanax edgerleyi (Hooker) Koch in Kich & Fint. 1859 A61]

Raukaua × parvus (Kirk) Heenan 1998 [R. anomalus × R. simplex; =Panax simplex var. parvus Kirk 1899, Nothopanax parvum (Kirk) Cockayne 1909; incl. N. × anomosimplex Allan 1927 (n. n.), N. × simpan Allan 1926 (n. n.), N. × simpanomalum Cockayne 1929 (n. n.)] H98

Raukaua × serratus (Kirk) Heenan 1998 [R. edgerleyi × R. simplex; =Panax edgerleyi var. serratus Kirk 1889, R. edgerleyi var. serratus (Kirk) Mitchell 1997] H98

Raukaua simplex H98 [=Panax simplex Forster 1786 A61, Neopanax simplex (Forster) Allan 1961 A61, Nothopanax simplex (Forster) Seem. 1866 CA27, A61, Pseudopanax simplex H98; incl. No. simplex var. quercifolium Kirk 1899 A61]

Raukaua simplex var. sinclairii H98 [=Panax sinclairii Hooker 1864 A61, Neopanax simplex var. sinclairii (Hooker) Allan 1961 A61, Nothopanax sinclairii (Hooker) Seem. 1866 A61]

Schefflera digitata Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. S. cunninghamii Miq. 1844, Aralia schefflera Spreng. 1813] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[DVC08] Darbyshire, I., K. Vollesen & H. M. Chapman. 2008. A remarkable range disjunction recorded in Metarungia pubinervia (Acanthaceae). Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 613-615.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[HH00] Hart, J. M., & M. J. Henwood. 2000. Systematics of the Xanthosia pilosa complex (Apiaceae: Hydrocotyloideae). Australian Systematic Botany 13 (2): 245-266.

[H98] Heenan, P. B. 1998. The status of Raukaua edgerleyi var. serratus and R. × parvus comb. nov. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36: 307-310.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1-24.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[NS06] Nie, Z.-L., H. Sun, H. Li & J. Wen. 2006. Intercontinental biogeography of subfamily Orontioideae (Symplocarpus, Lysichiton, and Orontium) of Araceae in eastern Asia and North America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 155-165.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P95] Philipson, W. R. 1995. Araliaceae (excluding Schefflera). In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 (B. J. Conn, ed.) pp. 1-48. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408-412.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[T03] Tsurusaki, N. 2003. Phenology and biology of harvestmen in and near Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, with some taxonomical notes on Nelima suzukii n. sp. and allies (Arachnida: Opiliones). Acta Arachnologica 52: 5-24.

[V02] Vánky, K. 2002. The smut fungi of the world. A survey. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 49 (2-3): 163-175.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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