Lipochromis

Male Lipochromis melanopterus, from african-cichlid.com.


Belongs within: Astatotilapia.

Lipochromis is a genus of cichlids found in Lake Victoria, characteristed by a thick-lipped, widely distensible and protractile mouth with small teeth deeply embedded in the oral mucosa (Greenwood 1980).

Lipochromis Regan 1920 G80
    |--L. (Cleptochromis Greenwood 1980) G80
    |    |--L. (*C.) parvidens (Boulenger 1911) G80 [=Paratilapia parvidens G80, Haplochromis parvidens G74]
    |    `--+--L. (C.) cryptodon (Greenwood 1959) G80 [=Haplochromis cryptodon G74]
    |       `--L. (C.) microdon (Boulenger 1906) G80 [=Haplochromis microdon G74]
    `--+--‘Haplochromis’ cronus Greenwood 1959 G74, G80
       `--L. (Lipochromis) G80
            |  i. s.: L. (L.) taurinus (Trewavas 1933) [=Haplochromis taurinus] G80
            |--*L. (L.) obesus (Boulenger 1906) G80 (see below for synonymy)
            `--+--L. (L.) maxillaris (Trewavas 1928) G80 [=Haplochromis maxillaris G74]
               `--L. (L.) melanopterus (Trewavas 1928) G80 [=Haplochromis melanopterus G74]

*Lipochromis (Lipochromis) obesus (Boulenger 1906) G80 [=Paratilapia obesus G80, Haplochromis obesus G74, Pelmatochromis obesus G80]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G74] Greenwood, P. H. 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Vistoria, East Africa: The biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Suppl. 6: 1–134.

[G80] Greenwood, P. H. 1980. Towards a phyletic classification of the ‘genus’ Haplochromis (Pisces, Cichlidae) and related taxa. Part II; the species from Lakes Victoria, Nabugabo, Edward, George and Kivu. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology 39: 1–101.

Sympycninae

Sympycnus colliepa, from Bickel (2013).


Belongs within: Dolichopodidae.

The Sympycninae are a group of long-legged flies in which the head is generally ovate in anterior view, distinctly higher than wide, and males have vein M reaching the wing margin near the apex (Bickel 2013).

<==Sympycninae B13
    |--Teuchophorus Loew 1857 B13
    |    `--T. signatus B09
    |--Chaetogonopteron de Meijere 1914 B13
    |    |--C. bartaki Olejníček & Kubík 2007 B13
    |    |--C. capricorne Bickel 2013 B13
    |    `--C. vexillum Bickel 2013 B13
    `--Sympycnus Loew 1857 B13
         |--S. allectorius CM91
         |--S. anomalipennis B13
         |--S. colliepa Bickel 2013 B13
         |--S. ephydroides Bickel 2013 B13
         |--S. hamulitarsus Bickel 2013 B13
         |--S. inornatus (Botosaneanu & Vaillant 1973) [=Campsicnemus inornatus] B09
         |--S. lacrimulus Bickel 2013 B13
         |--S. marginatus B13
         |--S. pistillus Bickel 2013 B13
         `--S. weano Bickel 2013 B13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B09] Bickel, D. J. 2009. Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 671–694. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[B13] Bickel, D. J. 2013. The family Dolichopodidae (Diptera) of the Pilbara region, Western Australia in its Australasian biogeographic context, with the description of 19 new species. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 291–348.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Syrphoidea

Paragus haemorrhous, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Contains: Pipunculinae, Microdon, Eristalini, Cerioidini, Syrphus.

The Syrphoidea are a group of flies including two distinctive families, the Syrphidae and Pipunculidae, that lack a ptilinal fissure and possess wings with a very long cell CuP (Colless & McAlpine 1991). The Syrphidae, hover flies, are often strikingly coloured flies, a number of which mimic bees or wasps in their appearance. Most visit flowers as adults and many are important pollinators (Thompson et al. 2010). The larvae of Syrphidae are predatory or detritivores; larvae of the Eristalinae are the 'rat-tailed maggots' that live in anoxic mud. Adults of Microdon and Eristalinae have the postpronota exposed behind the head and bearing at least a few suberect or appressed hairs whereas Syrphinae have the postpronota bare and hidden by the rear of the posteriorly concave, closely appressed head (Vockeroth & Thompson 1987).

The Pipunculidae, big-headed flies, are small flies with large compound eyes occupying most of the globose to semiglobose head. Their larvae develop as endoparasitoids, mostly of Auchenorrhyncha except Nephrocerus species that attack crane flies (Rafael & Skevington 2010).

<==Syrphoidea RS10
    |--Pipunculidae [Dorilaidae] RS10
    |    |  i. s.: Alloneura A71
    |    |         Collinias RS10
    |    |         Beckerias CM91
    |    |         Metanephrocerus P92
    |    |--Pipunculinae RS10
    |    |--Nephrocerinae [Nephrocerini] RS10
    |    |    |--Protonephrocerus collini RS10, H87
    |    |    `--Nephrocerus RS10
    |    |         |--N. daeckei H87
    |    |         `--N. slossonae RS10
    |    `--Chalarinae RS10
    |         |--Chalarus spurius H87
    |         |--Jassidophaga RS10
    |         `--Verrallia RS10
    |              |--V. aucta A71
    |              `--V. virginica RS10
    `--Syrphidae [Syrphiae] RS10
         |  i. s.: Helophilina Becker 1922 KS05
         |         Episyrphus balteatus WT11
         |         Syritta TRZ10
         |           |--S. flaviventris TRZ10
         |           `--S. pipiens VT87
         |         Eristalinus TRZ10
         |           |--E. aenus TRZ10
         |           `--E. punctulatus ZS10
         |         Metasyrphus nitens RD77
         |         Neocnemodon G84
         |         Eumerus TRZ10
         |           |--E. quadrimaculatus G89
         |           |--E. sabulonum K01
         |           `--E. strigatus TRZ10
         |         Volucella VT87
         |           |--V. bombylans VT87
         |           |--V. facialis C00
         |           |--V. inanis (Linnaeus 1758) RD77, L58 [=Musca inanis L02, Syrphus (Volucella) inanis G20]
         |           |--V. obesa BM76
         |           |--V. pellucens WJ18
         |           `--V. zonaria RD77
         |         Chrysogaster VT87
         |           |--C. antitheus VT87
         |           `--C. chalybeata K01
         |         Brachyopa VT87
         |           |--B. (Brachyopa) notata VT87
         |           `--B. (Hammerschmidtia) ferruginea VT87
         |         Ascia dispar K01
         |         Melithreptus K01
         |           |--M. scriptus K01
         |           `--M. strigatus K01
         |         Pipizella K01
         |           |--P. maculata K01
         |           `--P. virens K01
         |         Pipiza TRZ10
         |           |--P. noctiluca K01
         |           `--P. quadrimaculata VT87
         |         Lycastrirhyncha TRZ10
         |           |--L. nitens TRZ10
         |           `--L. willistoni TRZ10
         |         Cheilosia TRZ10
         |           |--C. antiqua K01
         |           |--C. capillata TRZ10
         |           |--C. sialia VT87
         |           |--C. velutina K01
         |           |--C. viduata K01
         |           `--C. zetterstedti K01
         |         Cepa alex [=Xela alex] TRZ10
         |         Nothomicrodon aztecarum Wheeler 1924 TRZ10
         |         Rhopalosyrphus TRZ10
         |           |--R. carolae VT87
         |           `--R. guentherii TRZ10
         |         Paramicrodon TRZ10
         |         Argentinomyia rugosonasus TRZ10
         |         Aristosyrphus TRZ10
         |         Mixogaster TRZ10
         |           |--M. conopsoides TRZ10
         |           |--M. delongi TRZ10
         |           |--M. mexicana TRZ10
         |           `--M. orpheus TRZ10
         |         Paragodon paragoides TRZ10
         |         Cacoceria cressoni TRZ10
         |         Mutillimyia auricaudata TRZ10
         |         Allobaccha CM91
         |         Simosyrphus CM91
         |         Temnostoma VT87
         |         Neoascia VT87
         |           |--N. distincta VT87
         |           `--N. metallica VT87
         |         Palumbia inflata VT87
         |         Hiatomyia VT87
         |         Hadromyia (Hadromyia) grandis VT87
         |         Psilota VT87
         |           |--P. rubra CM70
         |           `--P. thatuna VT87
         |         Pelecocera pergandei VT87
         |         Chamaesyrphus willistonii VT87
         |         Sphegina VT87
         |           |--S. (Sphegina) keeniana VT87
         |           `--S. (Asiosphegina) petiolata VT87
         |         Cynorhinella VT87
         |           |--C. bella VT87
         |           `--C. longinasus VT87
         |         Tropidia quadrata VT87
         |         Merapioidus villosus VT87
         |         Brachypalpus VT87
         |           |--B. (Brachypalpus) oarus VT87
         |           `--B. (Crioprora) femoratus VT87
         |         Somula decora VT87
         |         Pyritis kincaidii VT87
         |         Heringia [incl. Cnemodon] VT87
         |         Ferdinandea VT87
         |         Lejota VT87
         |         Blera badia VT87
         |         Sphecomyia VT87
         |         Pocota bomboides VT87
         |         Pterallastes thoracicus VT87
         |         Paramixogaster icariiformis R78
         |         Mesogramma polita RD77
         |         Henops leucomelas G20
         |         Astomella marginata G20
         |         Graptomyza GC99
         |         Cheilosialepta P92
         |         Doliomyia P92
         |         Eoxylota P92
         |         Megaxylota P92
         |         Palaeoascia P92
         |         Palaeopipiza P92
         |         Palaeosphegina P92
         |         Protorhingia P92
         |         Pseudosphegina P92
         |         Ptilocephala P92
         |         Spheginascia P92
         |--Microdon TRZ10
         |--Eristalinae TRZ10
         |    |  i. s.: Alipumilio TRZ10
         |    |           |--A. femoratus TRZ10
         |    |           `--A. nigrocoeruleus TRZ10
         |    |         Orthonevra pulchella TRZ10, VT87
         |    |         Myolepta varipes TRZ10, VT87
         |    |         Quichuana angustiventris TRZ10
         |    |         Chalcosyrphus TRZ10
         |    |           |--C. (Chalcosyrphus) depressus VT87
         |    |           `--C. (Neplas) TRZ10
         |    |                |--C. (N.) pauxillus VT87
         |    |                `--C. (N.) schildi TRZ10
         |    |         Criorhina TRZ10
         |    |         Nausigaster TRZ10
         |    |           |--N. meridionalis TRZ10
         |    |           `--N. punctulata TRZ10
         |    |         Callicera TRZ10
         |    |           |--C. aenea [=Syrphus (Callicera) aenea] G20
         |    |           |--C. erratica TRZ10
         |    |           `--C. poultoni TRZ10
         |    |         Milesia TRZ10
         |    |           |--M. (Aphritis) apiaria G20
         |    |           |--M. nigra TRZ10
         |    |           |--M. (Milesia) pipiens G20
         |    |           |--M. pulchra TRZ10
         |    |           `--M. virginiensis VT87
         |    |         Spilomyia TRZ10
         |    |         Ornidia TRZ10
         |    |           |--O. major TRZ10
         |    |           `--O. obesa TRZ10
         |    |         Copestylum TRZ10
         |    |         Sterphus (Sterphus) stimulans TRZ10
         |    |         Xylota barbata TRZ10, VT87
         |    |         Lepidomyia micheneri TRZ10
         |    |         Palpada TRZ10
         |    |           |--P. mexicana TRZ10
         |    |           `--P. scutellaris TRZ10
         |    |         Habromyia coeruleithorax TRZ10
         |    |         Meromacrus loewi TRZ10
         |    |         Lycopale TRZ10
         |    |           |--L. chrysotaenia TRZ10
         |    |           `--L. wygodzinskyi TRZ10
         |    |         Teuchocnemis lituratus VT87
         |    |--Eristalini KS05
         |    |--Cerioidini TRZ10
         |    |--Merodon [Merodontini] TRZ10
         |    |    |--M. clavipes [=Milesia (Merodon) clavipes] G20
         |    |    |--M. equestris VT87
         |    |    `--M. pumilus Macquart 1849 E12
         |    |--Rhingia [Rhingiini] TRZ10
         |    |    |--R. nasica VT87
         |    |    |--R. nigra TRZ10
         |    |    `--R. rostrata L02
         |    `--Sericomyia TRZ10 [Sericomyiina, Sericomyini KS05]
         |         |--S. (Sericomyia) lapponum [=Syrphus (S.) lapponum] G20
         |         `--S. (Arctophila) TRZ10
         |              |--S. (A.) fairmanorum TRZ10
         |              `--S. (A.) meyersi TRZ10
         `--Syrphinae TRZ10
              |--Syrphus TRZ10
              |--Trichopsomyia TRZ10
              |--Dasysyrphus tricinctus TRZ10, RD77
              |--Xanthandrus mexicanus TRZ10, VT87
              |--Pseudodoros clavatus TRZ10
              |--Ischiodon VT87
              |--Parasyrphus tarsatus VT87
              |--Meliscaeva cinctella VT87
              |--Leucopodella marmorata VT87
              |--Doros aequalis VT87
              |--Xanthogramma flavipes VT87
              |--Sphaerophoria contigua VT87, TRZ10
              |--Leucozona (Leucozona) lucorum VT87
              |--Scaeva pyrastri VT87
              |--Eriozona (Megasyrphus) erraticus VT87
              |--Toxomerus [Toxomerini] TRZ10
              |    |--T. geminatus TRZ10
              |    `--T. politus TRZ10
              |--Baccha VT87
              |    |--B. elongata VT87
              |    `--B. norina MM96
              |--Didea VT87
              |    |--D. alneti K01
              |    `--D. fuscipes VT87
              |--Epistrophe VT87
              |    |--E. (Epistrophe) grossulariae VT87
              |    `--E. (Epistrophella) emarginata VT87
              |--Melangyna VT87
              |    |--M. (Melangyna) lasiophthalma VT87
              |    `--M. (Austrosyrphus) novaezealandiae M83
              |--Dideomima VT87
              |    |--D. coquilletti VT87
              |    `--D. vockerothi TRZ10
              |--Melanostoma VT87
              |    |--M. bellum TRZ10
              |    |--M. fasciatum BWT03
              |    `--M. mellinum TRZ10
              |--Allograpta TRZ10
              |    |--A. (Allograpta) armillata TRZ10
              |    |--A. exotica TRZ10
              |    |--A. neotropica TRZ10
              |    `--A. obliqua TRZ10
              |--Eupeodes TRZ10
              |    |--E. (Eupeodes) VT87
              |    |    |--E. (E.) americanus VT87
              |    |    `--E. (E.) volucris VT87
              |    `--E. (Lapposyrphus) lapponicus VT87
              |--Ocyptamus TRZ10
              |    |  i. s.: O. wulpianus BR09
              |    `--O. (Mimocalla) TRZ10
              |         |--O. (M.) bonariensis TRZ10
              |         `--O. (M.) tristani TRZ10
              |--Chrysotoxum TRZ10
              |    |--C. bicinctum K01 [=Mulio bicinctus L02, Syrphus (Chrysotoxum) bicinctus G20]
              |    |--C. derivatum TRZ10
              |    |--C. festivum K01
              |    |--C. integre VT87
              |    `--C. sibiricum K01
              |--Platycheirus TRZ10
              |    |--P. brunnifrons Nielsen 2004 F05
              |    |--P. caesius Nielsen & Stuke 2004 F05
              |    |--P. clypeatus K01
              |    |--P. quadratus TRZ10
              |    `--P. stegnus VT87
              |--Salpingogaster VT87
              |    |--S. (Salpingogaster) TRZ10
              |    |    |--S. (S.) nigra TRZ10
              |    |    `--S. (S.) punctifrons TRZ10
              |    `--S. (Eosalpingogaster) TRZ10
              |         |--S. (E.) cochenillivorus TRZ10
              |         `--S. (E.) nepenthe VT87
              `--Paragus TRZ10
                   |--P. algirus Macquart 1847 E12
                   |--P. (Pandasyophthalmus) haemorrhous TRZ10
                   |--P. lacerus K01
                   |--P. numida Macquart 1847 E12
                   |--P. serratus TRZ10
                   |--P. (Paragus) thymastri [=Syrphus (P.) thymastri] G20
                   `--P. tibialis K01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR09] Borkent, A., & G. Rotheray. 2009. Key to Diptera families—larvae. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 157–191. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BWT03] Bowie, M., S. Wratten & J. Tylianakis. 2003. An introduction to entomological research on Kowhai Farm—the Heinz Wattie’s Organic Farm at Lincoln University. Weta 25: 18–23.

[C00] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1900. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 401–416.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GC99] Grimaldi, D., & J. Cumming. 1999. Brachyceran Diptera in Cretaceous ambers and Mesozoic diversification of the Eremoneura. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 239: 1–124.

[H87] Hardy, D. E. 1987. Pipunculidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 745–748. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KS05] Kotthoff, U., & U. Schmid. 2005. A new fossil hoverfly (Insecta, Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Randeck Maar (Early Miocene, south-west Germany). Palaeontology 48 (5): 1091–1096.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RS10] Rafael, J. A., & J. H. Skevington. 2010. Pipunculidae (big-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 793–803. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[VT87] Vockeroth, J. R., & F. C. Thompson. 1987. Syrphidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 713–743. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WJ18] Wahlberg, E., & K. A. Johanson. 2018. Molecular phylogenetics reveals novel relationships within Empidoidea (Diptera). Systematic Entomology 43: 619–636.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 12 July 2021.

Pyrgotidae

Sphecomyiella valida, copyright Carl Barrentine.


Belongs within: Tephritoidea.

The Pyrgotidae are a group of flies whose larvae are endoparasites of adult scarabaeid beetles. They may be divided between the subfamilies Pyrgotinae, in which sternites 1 and 2 are fused into a synsternite, and the Neotropical Teretrurinae, in which these sternites remain free (Hernández-Ortiz 2010).

Characters (from Hernández-Ortiz 2010): Medium to large-sized flies (body length 5–30 mm), body usually robust with long legs, wing pattern often spotted, banded or reticulated, rarely hyaline. Head spherical with frons large, antennal bases projecting anteriorly, pedicel elongate; arista setiform; ocelli often absent; frons weakly depressed, frontal bristles and vibrissa absent, face broad with deep antennal grooves; mouthparts of moderate size. Scutum mostly bare, setulose, or distinctly haired, sometimes black spotted, major bristles relatively short; scutellum short and broad with one to four pairs of marginal bristles. Legs long in both sexes, frequently without strong bristles, but covered in short setulae; hind tibia tapering to base or with strong constriction in basal third or near midlength. Wing with or without subcostal break, C weakening after vein R4+5; Sc complete to C or disappearing close to C; R1 dorsally setulose; R2+3 sometimes with stump vein at apical third; cell cup closed by CuA2 usually forming acute angle in lower apical corner, sometimes short. Preabdomen elongate, robust, more or less petiolate; lateral membrane broad; syntergite 1+2 elongate, usually with several long hairs on lateral sides near base. Female terminalia with syntergosternite 7 robust and strong basally forming conical tube turned ventrally, sometimes longer than rest of abdominal length. Apical margin of syntergosternite 7 sometimes provided with ventral hook-like sclerite or two apicolateral claw-like sclerites; aculeus usually shorter than length of syntergosternite 7. Male terminalia with epandrium globose, curved ventrally; lateral surstyli usually short and robust basally, medial surstyli without prensisetae developed; aedeagus coiled and elongated; glans more or less developed, sometimes partially sclerotised.

<==Pyrgotidae
    |--Teretrurinae [Teretrurini] H-O10
    |    |--Pyrgotosoma H-O10
    |    `--Teretrura H-O10
    `--Pyrgotinae H-O10
         |--Descoleia [Toxurinae, Toxurini] H-O10
         |    `--D. teretrura H-O10
         `--Pyrgotini H-O10
              |--Anapyrgota personta H-O10
              |--Idiopyrgota setiventris H-O10
              |--Carrerapyrgota H-O10
              |--Pyrgotella chagnoni S87
              |--Boreothrinax H-O10
              |    |--B. dichaetus H-O10
              |    `--B. shewelli S87
              |--Neopyrgota H-O10
              |    |--N. major H-O10
              |    `--N. picea H-O10
              |--Stenopyrgota H-O10
              |    |--S. crassitibia H-O10
              |    `--S. mexicana H-O10
              |--Pyrgota H-O10
              |    |--P. longipes H-O10
              |    |--P. lugens H-O10
              |    `--P. undata H-O10
              |--Leptopyrgota H-O10
              |    |--L. albitarsis H-O10
              |    |--L. amplipennis H-O10
              |    `--L. undulata H-O10
              `--Sphecomyiella [incl. Stirothrinax] H-O10
                   |--S. cribrata [=Stirothrinax cribratus] H-O10
                   |--S. knudseni [=Stirothrinax knudseni] H-O10
                   `--S. valida H-O10

Pyrgotidae incertae sedis:
  Cardiacera miliacea WT11
  Maenomenus ensifer H-O10
  Peltodasia flaviseta H-O10
  Lopadops H-O10
  Tropidothrinax H-O10
  Toxopyrgota K10
  Adapsilia O98
    |--A. aequalis O98
    `--A. illingworthana CM91
  Eumorphomyia CM74
  Campylocera robusta O98
  Tephritopyrgota O98
  Apyrgota O98
  Plectrobrachis O98
  Taeniomastix O98
  Trichopeltia O98
  Epice setifemur O98
  Euphya O98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H-O10] Hernández-Ortiz, V. 2010. Pyrgotidae (pyrgotid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 955–961. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[K10] Korneyev, V. A. 2010. Ctenostylidae (ctenostylid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 963–969. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[S87] Steyskal, G. C. 1987. Pyrgotidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 813–816. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 30 June 2021.

Bactrocera

Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, from the United States Department of Agriculture.


Belongs within: Tephritidae.

Bactrocera is a widespread genus of fruit flies, a number of species of which are significant horticultural pests. Members have wings with a broad cell bm, about twice as wide as cell cup, and the first antennal flagellomere is long, usually reaching the ventral margin of the face.

<==Bactrocera
    |--B. atrisetosa MHG04
    |--B. carambolae MHG04
    |--B. correcta MHG04
    |--B. cucurbitae (Coquillett 1899) [=Dacus cucurbitae, Zeugodacus cucurbitae] DK08
    |--B. decipiens MHG04
    |--B. dorsalis KP10
    |--B. kirki MHG04
    |--B. occipitalis MHG04
    |--B. oleae KP10
    |--B. papayae MHG04
    |--B. passiflorae MHG04
    |--B. philippinensis MHG04
    |--B. tau MHG04
    |--B. trilineola MHG04
    |--B. trivialis MHG04
    |--B. tryoni CM91 [=Dacus (Bactrocera) tryoni CM91, D. (Strumeta) tryoni CM70]
    |--B. umbrosa MHG04
    |--B. xanthodes MHG04
    `--B. zonata MHG04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.