Mysmenidae

Trogloneta granulum, from Pavouci.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.

The Mysmenidae are minute spiders found in crevices or leaf litter in very humid habitats (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Very small; eight eyes; three tarsal claws; ecribellate; entelegyne; male with mating spine on metatarsus I (occasionally also on tibia I); cymbium of male palp with lobes or apophyses; female and sometimes males with sclerotised subdistal ventral spot on anterior femora.

Mysmenidae [Mysmeninae]
    |--Isela okuncana Griswold 1985 JD-S07, A02
    |--Kilifina JD-S07
    |--Maymena JD-S07
    |--Microdipoena Banks 1895 S03
    |    `--M. nyungwe Baert 1989 S03
    |--Mysmenella Brignoli 1980 MG03
    |    `--M. jobi (Kraus 1967) [=Mysmena jobi] MG03
    |--Mysmenopsis Simon 1897 S03
    |    |--M. pachacutec JD-S07
    |    `--M. viracocha JD-S07
    |--Trogloneta Simon 1922 S03
    |    |--T. granulum Simon 1922 S03
    |    `--T. madeirensis Wunderlich 1987 S03
    `--Mysmena Simon 1894 JD-S07
         |--M. leucoplagiata (Simon 1879) MG03
         |--M. succini (Petrunkevitch 1942) S93
         `--M. tasmaniae FF99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[S03] Schütt, K. 2003. Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae s.l. (Araneae, Araneoidea). Zoologica Scripta 32 (2): 129–151.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

Apodinae

Mariana swiftlet Aerodromus bartschi, copyright Jack Jeffrey.


Belongs within: Apodi.
Contains: Apodini, Collocalia.

The Apodinae includes the spine-tailed swifts, typical swifts and swiftlets. Members of this group have eutaxic wings, i.e. wings with the full complement of secondary flight feathers, in contrast to the diastataxic wings of the Cypseloidinae. In the spine-tailed swifts of the genera Hirundapus and Chaetura, the tail feathers have the ends of the shafts extending past the vanes as sharp needles.

<==Apodinae [Chaetureae, Chaeturinae, Chaeturini] CC10
    |  i. s.: Mearnsia MPA77
    |           |--M. novaeguineae JT12
    |           `--M. picina JT12
    |         Zoonavena MPA77
    |           |--Z. grandidieri JT12
    |           |--Z. sylvatica JT12
    |           `--Z. thomensis JT12
    |--Hirundapus Hodgson 1837 BKB15, CC10
    |    |--H. caudacutus (Latham 1802) [=Hirundo caudacuta, Chaetura caudacuta, Choetura (l. c.) caudacuta] CC10
    |    |    |--H. c. caudacutus CC10
    |    |    `--*H. c. nudipes CC10
    |    |--H. celebensis JT12
    |    |--H. cochinchinensis JT12
    |    `--H. giganteus JT12
    `--+--+--Apodini MPA77
       |  `--+--Collocalia JT12
       |     `--+--Hydrochous gigas BKB15
       |        `--Aerodramus BKB15
       |             |--A. papuensis BKB15
       |             `--+--A. vulcanorum BKB15
       |                `--+--+--+--A. brevirostris BKB15
       |                   |  |  `--A. maximus BKB15
       |                   |  `--+--A. terraereginae BKB15 [=A. spodiopygius terraereginae M03]
       |                   |     `--A. whiteheadi BKB15
       |                   `--+--+--A. vanikorensis BKB15
       |                      |  `--+--A. bartschi BKB15 [=A. vanikorensis bartschi FR98]
       |                      |     `--A. sawtelli BKB15
       |                      `--+--A. spodiopygius BKB15
       |                         |    |--A. s. spodiopygius M03
       |                         |    `--A. s. chillagoensis M03
       |                         `--+--A. mearnsi BKB15
       |                            `--+--+--A. elaphrus BKB15
       |                               |  `--A. francicus BKB15
       |                               `--+--A. fuciphagus BKB15
       |                                  `--A. salangana BKB15
       `--+--Neafrapus BKB15
          |    |--N. boehmi JT12
          |    `--N. cassini JT12
          `--+--Rhaphidura BKB15
             |    |--R. leucopygialis JT12
             |    `--R. sabini JT12
             `--Chaetura Stephens 1826 BKB15, CC10
                  |  i. s.: C. baconica Jánossy 1977 M02
                  |         C. brachyura JT12 [incl. C. cinereicauda Cassin 1895 S18]
                  |         C. egregia JT12
                  |         C. fumosa JT12 [=C. cinereiventris fumosa S18]
                  |         C. gigantea FP64
                  |         C. grandidieri S66
                  |         C. martinica JT12
                  |         C. melanopygia FP64
                  |         C. meridionalis JT12
                  |         C. spinicaudus JT12
                  |         C. viridipennis JT12
                  |--C. cinereiventris JT12
                  `--+--+--C. andrei BKB15
                     |  `--C. chapmani Hellmayr 1907 JT12, S18
                     `--+--C. pelagica JT12
                        `--C. vauxi JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FR98] Fritts, T. H., & G. H. Rodda. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: a case history of Guam. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 113–140.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[MPA77] Moss, W. W., P. C. Peterson & W. T. Atyeo. 1977. A multivariate assessment of phenetic relationships within the feather mite family Eustathiidae (Acari). Systematic Zoology 26 (4): 386–409.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

Last updated: 23 August 2019.

Streptopelia

Red-eyed dove Streptopelia semitorquata, copyright Atamari.


Belongs within: Columbidae.

Streptopelia, the turtledoves, is a genus of pigeons found in Africa and southern Asia. Members of this genus generally have pinkish underparts and a distinctive collar of black or black and white patterning around the nape. The Barbary dove S. risoria is a domesticated derivative of either the Eurasian collared dove S. decaocto or the African collared dove S. roseogrisea.

See also: The voice of the turtle.

<==Streptopelia Bonaparte 1855 CC10 [incl. Turtur Selby 1835 non Boddaert 1783 T62]
    |  i. s.: *S. risoria (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Columba risoria CC10, S. decaocto risoria FP64, Turtur risorius CC10]
    |         S. lugens (Rüppell 1837) S05 [=Columba lugens S05, Turtur lugens T62]
    |           |--S. l. lugens T62
    |           `--S. l. funebrea T62
    |         S. reichenowi JT12
    |--+--S. capicola JT12
    |  |    |--S. c. capicola T62
    |  |    |--S. c. anceps T62
    |  |    |--S. c. bailundensis T62
    |  |    |--S. c. damarensis T62
    |  |    |--S. c. dryas T62
    |  |    |--S. c. electa T62
    |  |    |--S. c. hilgerti T62
    |  |    |--S. c. somalica T62
    |  |    `--S. c. tropica T62
    |  `--S. vinacea JT12
    |       |--S. v. vinacea T62
    |       |--S. v. barbaru T62
    |       |--S. v. erythreae T62
    |       |--S. v. grotei T62
    |       |--S. v. savannae T62
    |       `--S. v. schoana T62
    `--+--+--S. semitorquata JT12
       |  |    |--S. s. semitorquata T62
       |  |    |--S. s. erythrophrys T62
       |  |    |--S. s. maxima T62
       |  |    `--S. s. minor T62
       |  `--+--S. decipiens JT12
       |     |    |--S. d. decipiens T62
       |     |    |--S. d. ambigua T62
       |     |    |--S. d. elegans T62
       |     |    |--S. d. griseiventris T62
       |     |    |--S. d. logonensis T62
       |     |    |--S. d. permista T62
       |     |    |--S. d. perspicillata T62
       |     |    `--S. d. shelleyi T62
       |     `--+--S. decaocto (Frivaldszky 1838) JT12, I92
       |        |    |--S. d. decaocto T62
       |        |    |--S. d. stoliczkae T62
       |        |    `--S. d. xanthocyclus T62
       |        `--S. roseogrisea (Sundevall 1857) JT12, CC10 [=Columba roseogrisea CC10]
       `--+--S. tranquebarica BKB15 [=Oenopopelia tranquebarica T62]
          |    |--S. t. tranquebarica T62
          |    |--S. t. humilis T62
          |    `--S. t. murmensis T62
          `--+--S. bitorquata (Temminck in Knip 1811) BKB15, CC10 [=Columba bitorquata CC10]
             |    |--S. b. bitorquata L81
             |    `--S. b. dusumieri L81
             `--+--S. orientalis JT12 [=Turtur orientalis T62]
                |    |--S. o. orientalis T62
                |    |--S. o. agricola [=Columba agricola] T62
                |    |--S. o. meena T62
                |    |--S. o. orii T62
                |    `--S. o. stimpsoni T62
                `--+--S. hypopyrrha JT12 [=S. lugens hypopyrrha T62]
                   `--S. turtur (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 [=Columba turtur CC10, Turtur turtur CC10]
                        |--S. t. turtur S05
                        |--S. t. arenicola T62
                        |--S. t. hoggara T62
                        |--S. t. isabellina (Bonaparte 1856) S05 [=Turtur isabellinus T62]
                        `--S. t. loei T62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

Last updated: 23 August 2019.

Ploceidae

Male red fody Foudia madagascariensis, copyright Spacebirdy.


Belongs within: Passeroidea.
Contains: Malimbus, Ploceus, Euplectes.

The Ploceidae, weavers, are a group of granivorous birds found in Africa and southern Asia. Many species nest communally, with nests placed close together or sometimes conjoined into large unified structures that may house hundreds of birds.

<==Ploceidae [Alectuinae, Bubalornithinae, Ploceinae, Plocepasserinae, Textorinae]
    |  i. s.: Pyromelana orix A61
    |         Hyphanturgus ocularis A61
    |         Anaplectes rubriceps JT12
    |         Brachycope anomala JT12
    |         Malimbus JF06
    |--+--Ploceus BKB15
    |  `--+--‘Euplectes’ afer JT12
    |     `--+--‘Euplectes’ ardens BKB15 [=Ploceus ardens S05]
    |        |    |--E. a. ardens S05
    |        |    `--E. a. laticauda (Lichtenstein 1823) (see below for synonymy) S05
    |        `--‘Euplectes’ hordeaceus BKB15
    `--+--Amblyospiza Sundevall 1850 BKB15, B94 [Amblyospizinae]
       |    `--A. albifrons FP64
       `--+--+--+--‘Ploceus’ hypoxanthus JT12
          |  |  `--+--‘Ploceus’ manyar JT12
          |  |     `--‘Ploceus’ philippinus JT12
          |  `--+--Philetairus Smith 1837 BKB15, B94 [Philetairinae]
          |     |    `--P. socius JF06
          |     `--Plocepasser Smith 1836 JT12, B94
          |          |--P. donaldsoni JT12
          |          |--P. mahali JF06
          |          |    |--P. m. mahali S05
          |          |    `--P. m. melanorhynchus Rüppell 1845 S05
          |          |--P. rufoscapulatus JT12
          |          `--P. superciliosus (Cretzschmar 1827) [=Ploceus superciliosus] S05
          `--+--+--Dinemellia dinemelli (Rüppell 1845) BKB15, S05 (see below for synonymy)
             |  `--Bubalornis Smith 1836 BKB15, B94 [incl. Alecto Lesson 1831 non Leach 1815 B94]
             |       |--B. albirostris FP64
             |       `--B. niger JT12
             `--+--Sporopipes Cabanis 1847 BKB15, B94 [Sporopipinae]
                |    |--S. frontalis JF06
                |    `--S. squamifrons JF06
                `--+--+--+--‘Ploceus’ luteolus BKB15
                   |  |  `--‘Ploceus’ velatus BKB15 [incl. P. velatus inustus Clancey 1959 B93]
                   |  `--+--‘Ploceus’ intermedius Rüppell 1845 BKB15, S05
                   |     `--+--‘Ploceus’ melanocephalus JT12
                   |        |    |--P. m. melanocephalus L81
                   |        |    `--P. m. capitalis L81
                   |        `--‘Ploceus’ taeniopterus JT12
                   `--+--+--Quelea JT12
                      |  |    |--Q. cardinalis JF06
                      |  |    |--Q. erythrops JT12
                      |  |    `--Q. quelea JF06
                      |  `--Foudia JT12
                      |       |--F. bruante FP64
                      |       |--F. eminentissima S66
                      |       |--F. erythrops D66
                      |       |--F. flavicans JT12 [=Ploceus flavicans S66]
                      |       |--F. madagascariensis L81
                      |       |--F. omissa JT12
                      |       |--F. rubra JT12
                      |       `--F. sechellarum L81
                      `--Euplectes JT12

Dinemellia dinemelli (Rüppell 1845) BKB15, S05 [=Textor dinemelli S05; incl. T. leucocephalus Rüppell 1845 S05, Ploceuspasser leucocephalus S05]

‘Euplectes’ ardens laticauda (Lichtenstein 1823) [incl. Fringilla rufitorques ms, Coliuspasser torquatus Rüppell 1840] S05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324–332.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

Estrilda

Orange-cheeked waxbill Estrilda melpoda, copyright Rainbirder.


Belongs within: Estrildidae.

Estrilda, the waxbills, is a genus of finch-like birds found in Africa and Arabia. Most species have bright red bills whose waxy appearance gives them their vernacular name.

<==Estrilda Swainson 1827 [=Astrilda (l. c.), Estrelda (l. c.)] B94
    |--+--E. caerulescens BKB15
    |  `--E. erythronotos JF06
    `--+--E. perreini BKB15
       `--+--+--E. melpoda BKB15
          |  `--E. rhodopyga BKB15
          `--+--E. nonnula BKB15
             `--+--+--E. astrild BKB15
                |  |    |--E. a. astrild L81
                |  |    |--E. a. jagoensis L81
                |  |    `--E. a. sanctaehelenae L81
                |  `--E. atricapilla BKB15
                `--+--E. paludicola BKB15
                   `--E. troglodytes BKB15

Estrilda incertae sedis:
  E. amandava A61
  E. formosa A61
  E. charmosyna JT12
  E. kandti JT12
  E. locustella FP64
  E. nigriloris JT12
  E. nitidula A61
  E. poliopareia JT12
  E. rufibarba JT12
  E. thomensis JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

Euphonia

Male chestnut-bellied euphonia Euphonia pectoralis, copyright Dario Sanches.


Belongs within: Fringillidae.

Euphonia is a Neotropical genus of frugivorous birds. They are small and dumpy, with a short tail and stubby bill. Males are commonly patterned in dark and yellow whereas females are olive-green (Austin 1961).

<==Euphonia Desmarest 1806 [incl. Tanagra Linnaeus 1764 (nom. rej.); Euphoniinae, Tanagrinae] B94
    |--+--E. pectoralis BKB15
    |  `--+--E. affinis JT12
    |     `--+--E. chlorotica JT12
    |        `--E. finschi JT12
    `--+--E. cyanocephala BKB15
       `--+--+--E. fulvicrissa BKB15
          |  `--E. gouldi JT12
          `--+--E. musica BKB15 [=Tanagra musica SWK87]
             |    |--E. m. musica L81
             |    `--E. m. sclateri L81
             `--+--E. hirundinacea BKB15
                `--E. laniirostris JT12

Euphonia incertae sedis:
  E. anneae JT12
  E. cayennensis JT12
  E. chalybea JT12
  E. chrysopasta JT12
  ‘Tanagra’ coelestis SS66
  E. concinna JT12
  ‘Tanagra’ crassirostris S18
  ‘Tanagra’ darwini [incl. T. frugilegus] Sc66
  E. elegantissima JT12
  ‘Tanagra’ fulvicrissa S18
  E. gracilis Sa66
  E. imitans JT12
  E. jamaica JT12
  E. luteicapilla JT12 [=Tanagra luteicapilla A61]
  ‘Tanagra’ melanoptera SS66
  E. melanura SS66
  E. mesochrysa JT12
  E. minuta SS66 [=Tanagra minuta S18]
    |--E. m. minuta S18
    `--‘Tanagra’ m. humilis S18
  E. plumbea JT12
  E. ruficeps Sa66
  E. rufiventris JT12
  E. rufivertex Salvin 1866 Sa66
  E. saturata JT12
  ‘Tanagra’ striata Sc66
  E. trinitatis JT12
  E. violacea SS66
  E. xanthogaster JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[Sa66] Salvin, O. 1866. Descriptions of eight new species of birds from Veragua. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 67–76.

[Sc66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. On the birds in the vicinity of Lima, Peru. With notes on their habits, by Prof. W. Nation, of Lima, C. M. Z. S. (Part I.) Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 96–100.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

Carduelinae

Yellow canaries Serinus flaviventris, copyright Jaffles.


Belongs within: Fringillidae.
Contains: Drepaninini, Carpodacus, Pyrrhula, Loxia, Acanthis, Carduelis, Serinus, Spinus, Chloris.

The Carduelinae are a group of finches found in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas. They have upper bills that are generally distinctly longer than the lower bill, and a well-developed crop that is used to store food. Nestlings are fed on regurgitated seeds rather than on insects. Notable members include the hawfinches and grosbeaks of the genus Coccothraustes which have a particularly heavy beak used for cracking seeds and fruit kernels.

<==Carduelinae [Carduelidae, Carduelina, Carduelini] SA82
    |--+--+--Eophona JT12
    |  |  |    |--E. migratoria JF06
    |  |  |    `--E. personata JF06 [=Coccothraustes personatus T89]
    |  |  `--Mycerobas JT12
    |  |       |--M. affinis JF06
    |  |       |--M. carnipes JF06
    |  |       |--M. icterioides JT12
    |  |       `--M. melanozanthos JT12
    |  `--+--‘Emberiza’ affinis Heuglin 1867 BKB15, RJ11
    |     |    |--E. a. affinis RJ11
    |     |    |--E. a. nigeriae Bannerman & Bates 1926 RJ11
    |     |    |--E. a. omoensis Neumann 1905 RJ11
    |     |    `--E. a. vulpecula Grote 1921 RJ11
    |     `--Coccothraustes Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 [Coccothraustinae]
    |          |--C. abeillei JT12
    |          |--C. balcanicus Boev 1998 M02
    |          |--C. coccothraustes (Linnaeus 1758) [=Loxia coccothraustes] M02
    |          |--C. japonicus Temm. & Schl. 1850 M01 [=C. vulgaris japonicus M01, C. coccothraustes japonicus VP89]
    |          |--C. simeonovi Boev 1998 M02
    |          `--C. vespertinus JT12 [=Hesperiphona vespertinus JF06]
    `--+--+--Drepanidini BKB15
       |  `--+--Bucanetes githagineus BKB15
       |     `--Eremopsaltria mongolicus JT12
       `--+--+--Carpodacus BKB15
          |  `--+--Bucanetes mongolicus BKB15
          |     `--+--+--Pyrrhula BKB15
          |        |  `--Pinicola BKB15
          |        |       |--P. enucleator JT12
          |        |       `--P. subhimachala JT12
          |        `--+--Pyrrhoplectes epauletta BKB15
          |           `--Leucosticte BKB15
          |                |  i. s.: L. sillemi JT12
          |                |--+--L. nemoricola BKB15
          |                |  `--‘Carpodacus’ nipalensis BKB15
          |                `--+--L. brandti JT12
          |                   `--+--L. arctoa JT12
          |                      `--+--L. tephrocotis JT12
          |                         `--+--L. atrata JT12
          |                            `--L. australis JT12
          `--+--+--‘Carpodacus’ mexicanus BKB15
             |  |    |--C. m. mexicanus L81
             |  |    |--C. m. amplus MS55
             |  |    `--C. m. frontalis L81
             |  `--+--‘Carpodacus’ cassinii BKB15
             |     `--‘Carpodacus’ purpureus JT12
             `--+--Rhodospiza obsoleta BKB15
                `--+--+--+--Loxia BKB15
                   |  |  `--Acanthis BKB15
                   |  `--+--+--Carduelis BKB15
                   |     |  `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinella BKB15
                   |     |     `--‘Serinus’ corsicanus BKB15
                   |     `--+--‘Serinus’ thibetanus BKB15
                   |        `--+--Serinus BKB15
                   |           `--+--Spinus BKB15
                   |              `--Linota Bonaparte 1838 [Linotinae] CC10
                   |                   |--*L. cannabina (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   |                   `--L. flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                   `--+--+--Linurgus olivaceus BKB15
                      |  `--+--Chloris BKB15
                      |     `--Rhodopechys JT12
                      |          |--R. obsoletus JT12
                      |          `--R. sanguineus JT12
                      `--+--+--+--‘Serinus’ burtoni BKB15
                         |  |  `--+--Pseudochloroptila totta BKB15 [=Serinus totta JT12]
                         |  |     `--+--‘Serinus’ striolatus (Rüppell 1840) JT12, S05 [=Pyrrhula striolata S05]
                         |  |        `--‘Serinus’ whytii JT12
                         |  `--+--‘Serinus’ albogularis BKB15
                         |     `--+--+--‘Serinus’ gularis BKB15
                         |        |  `--‘Serinus’ reichardi BKB15
                         |        `--+--‘Serinus’ mennelli BKB15
                         |           `--+--‘Serinus’ flaviventris BKB15
                         |              |    |--S. f. flaviventris B93
                         |              |    |--S. f. marshalli L81
                         |              |    `--S. f. quintoni Winterbottom 1959 B93
                         |              `--‘Serinus’ sulphuratus JT12
                         `--+--+--‘Serinus’ scotops BKB15
                            |  `--+--‘Serinus’ capistratus JT12
                            |     `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinelloides Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 (see below for synonymy)
                            |        `--‘Serinus’ hypostictus JT12
                            `--+--‘Serinus’ dorsostriatus BKB15
                               `--+--‘Serinus’ mozambicus BKB15
                                  |    |--S. m. mozambicus L81
                                  |    `--S. m. tando L81
                                  `--+--‘Serinus’ citrinipectus BKB15
                                     `--+--‘Serinus’ atrogularis JT12
                                        |    |--S. a. atrogularis B93
                                        |    `--S. a. lwenarum White 1944 B93
                                        `--‘Serinus’ leucopygius JT12

*Linota cannabina (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Fringilla cannabina CC10, Carduelis cannabina BKB15]

Linota flavirostris (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Fringilla flavirostris CC10, Carduelis flavirostris BKB15]

‘Serinus’ citrinelloides Rüppell 1840 JT12, S05 [incl. Fringilla chrysola ms S05, F. serina S05]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130–140.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Last updated: 7 July 2019.

Icteridae

Yellow-hooded blackbird Chrysomus icterocephalus bogotensis, copyright Nick Athanas.


Belongs within: Emberizoidea.
Contains: Sturnella, Cacicus, Icterus, Agelaius, Molothrus, Quiscalus, Agelasticus.

The Icteridae, sometimes referred to as New World Orioles or New World blackbirds, are a family of small to large passerine birds found in North and South America. Icterids have pointed bills and generally dark, often glossy plumage, often also with brightly-coloured patches (Internet Bird Collection). Recent phylogenetic studies have lead some authors to include the yellow-breasted chat Icteria virens, a warbler-like bird found over much of North America, as a basal member of this family.

Icteridae [Icterinae, Icterini]
    |--Icteria Vieillot 1808 OF19, B94 [Icteriidae]
    |    `--I. virens OF19
    `--+--+--Sturnella JT12
       |  `--+--Xanthocephalus Bonaparte 1850 JT12, F11
       |     |    `--X. xanthocephalus (Bonaparte 1826) [=Icterus xanthocephalus] F11
       |     `--Dolichonyx Swainson 1827 JT12, B94 [Dolichonychinae]
       |          `--D. oryzivorus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Fringilla oryzivora] F11
       `--+--Cacicus JT12
          `--+--Icterus JT12
             `--+--Amblycercus Cabanis 1851 JT12, F11
                |    `--A. holosericeus (Deppe 1830) [=Sturnus holosericeus] F11
                |         |--A. h. holosericeus F11
                |         |--A. h. australis Chapman 1919 F11
                |         `--A. h. flavirostris Chapman 1915 F11
                `--+--Nesopsar Sclater 1859 BKB15, F11
                   |    `--N. nigerrimus (Osburn 1859) [=Icterus nigerrimus] F11
                   `--+--Dives Cassin 1867 BKB15, F11 [incl. Ptiloxena Chapman 1892 F11]
                      |    |--D. atroviolaceus (d’Orbigny 1839) JT12, F11 (see below for synonymy)
                      |    |--D. dives (Deppe 1830) [=Icterus dives] F11
                      |    `--D. warszewiczi (Cabanis 1861) [=Lampropsar warszewiczi] F11
                      |         |--D. w. warszewiczi F11
                      |         `--D. kalinowskii Berlepsch & Stolzmann 1892 F11
                      `--+--Agelaius BKB15
                         `--+--Molothrus BKB15
                            `--+--+--Quiscalus BKB15
                               |  `--Euphagus Cassin 1867 JT12, F11
                               |       |--E. carolinus (Statius Müller 1776) [=Turdus carolinus] F11
                               |       |    |--E. c. carolinus F11
                               |       |    `--E. c. nigrans Burleigh & Peters 1948 F11
                               |       |--E. cyanocephalus (Wagler 1829) [=Psarocolius cyanocephalus] F11
                               |       `--E. magnirostris FP64
                               `--+--Macroagelaius Cassin 1866 BKB15, F11
                                  |    `--M. subalaris (Boissonneau 1840) [=Quiscalus subalaris] F11
                                  `--+--+--‘Macroagelaius’ imthurni (Sclater 1881) BKB15, F11 [=Agelaeus imthurni F11]
                                     |  `--+--Gymnomystax Reichenbach 1850 BKB15, F11
                                     |     |    |--G. melanicterus SS66
                                     |     |    `--G. mexicanus (Linnaeus 1766) [=Oriolus mexicanus] F11
                                     |     `--+--Hypopyrrhus Bonaparte 1850 JT12, F11
                                     |        |    `--H. pyrohypogaster (de Tarragon 1847) (see below for synonymy) F11
                                     |        `--Lampropsar Cabanis 1847 BKB15, F11
                                     |             `--L. tanagrinus (Spix 1824) [=Icterus tanagrinus] F11
                                     |                  |--L. t. tanagrinus F11
                                     |                  |--L. t. boliviensis Gyldenstolpe 1941 F11
                                     |                  |--L. t. guianensis Cabanis 1848 F11
                                     |                  |--L. t. macropterus Gyldenstolpe 1945 F11
                                     |                  `--L. t. violaceus Hellmayr 1906 F11
                                     `--+--+--Amblyramphus Leach 1814 BKB15, F11
                                        |  |    `--A. holosericeus (Scopoli 1786) [=Xanthornus holosericeus] F11
                                        |  `--Curaeus Sclater 1862 JT12, F11
                                        |       |--C. curaeus (Molina 1782) (see below for synonymy) F11
                                        |       |    |--C. c. curaeus F11
                                        |       |    `--C. c. reynoldsi Sclater 1939 F11
                                        |       `--C. forbesi (Sclater 1886) (see below for synonymy) F11
                                        `--+--Agelasticus BKB15
                                           `--+--+--Gnorimopsar Richmond 1908 BKB15, F11
                                              |  |    `--G. chopi (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius chopi] F11
                                              |  |         |--G. c. chopi F11
                                              |  |         |--G. c megistus (Leverkühn 1889) F11
                                              |  |         `--G. c. sulcirostris (Spix 1824) F11
                                              |  `--Chrysomus Swainson 1837 BKB15, F11
                                              |       |--C. icterocephalus (Linnaeus 1766) (see below for synonymy) F11
                                              |       |    |--C. i. icterocephalus F11
                                              |       |    `--C. i. bogotensis (Chapman 1914) F11
                                              |       `--C. ruficapillus (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius ruficapillus] F11
                                              |            |--C. r. ruficapillus F11
                                              |            `--C. r. frontalis (Vieillot 1819) F11
                                              `--+--+--Xanthopsar Ridgway 1901 BKB15, F11
                                                 |  |    `--X. flavus (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy) F11
                                                 |  `--Pseudoleistes Sclater 1862 JT12, F11
                                                 |       |--P. guirahuro (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius guirahuro] F11
                                                 |       `--P. virescens (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius virescens] F11
                                                 `--+--Oreopsar Sclater 1939 JT12, F11
                                                    |    `--O. bolivianus Sclater 1939 [incl. Agelaioides oreopsar] F11
                                                    `--Agelaioides Cassin 1866 BKB15, F11
                                                         |--A. badius (Vieillot 1819) (see below for synonymy) F11
                                                         |    |--A. b. badius F11
                                                         |    `--A. b. bolivianus (Hellmayr 1917) F11
                                                         `--A. fringillarius (Spix 1824) [=Icterus fringillarius] F11

Icteridae incertae sedis:
  Tangavius armenti FP64
  Cassiculus Swainson 1827 F11
    `--C. solitarius [incl. C. nigerrimus] SS66
  Ostinops SS66
    |--O. angustifrons SS66
    |--O. atrovirens SS66
    |--O. cristatus SS66
    `--O. yuracarium SS66
  Xanthosomus icterocephalus SS66
  Megaquiscalus major S18
    |--M. m. major S18
    `--M. m. macrourus S18
  Cremaster tytthus Brodkorb 1959 U93
  Pandanaris F11
    |--P. convexa F11
    `--P. floridana Brodkorb 1957 U93
  Pyelorhamphus molothroides F11
  ‘Colinus’ eatoni Shufeldt 1915 U93

Agelaioides badius (Vieillot 1819) [=Agelaius badius, Molothrus badius] F11

Chrysomus icterocephalus (Linnaeus 1766) [=Oriolus icterocephalus, Agelaius icterocephalus] F11

Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782) [=Turdus curaeus; incl. C. curaeus recurvirostris] F11

Curaeus forbesi (Sclater 1886) [=Agelaius forbesi, Gnorimopsar forbesi] F11

Dives atroviolaceus (d’Orbigny 1839) JT12, F11 [=Quiscalus atroviolaceus F11, Ptiloxena atroviolacea F11]

Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster (de Tarragon 1847) [=Cassicus pyrohypogaster] F11

Xanthopsar flavus (Gmelin 1788) [=Oriolus flavus, Agelaius flavus; incl. Icterus xantholemus] F11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[OF19] Oliveros, C. H., D. J. Field, D. T. Ksepka, F. K. Barker, A. Aleixo, M. J. Andersen, P. Alström, B. W. Benz, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, G. A. Bravo, R. T. Brumfield, R. T. Chesser, S. Claramunt, J. Cracraft, A. M. Cuervo, E. P. Derryberry, T. C. Glenn, M. G. Harvey, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, R. T. Kimball, A. L. Mack, C. M. Miskelly, A. T. Peterson, M. B. Robbins, F. H. Sheldon, L. F. Silveira, B. T. Smith, N. D. White, R. G. Moyle & B. C. Faircloth. 2019. Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (16): 7916–7925.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 5 July 2019.