California fuchsia Epilobium canum, copyright Don McCulley.

Belongs within: Myrtales.
Contains: Gayophytum, Camissonia section Camissonia, Camissonia section Chylismia, Camissonia section Eremothera, Camissonia section Holostigma, Oenothera section Oenothera, Clarkia, Lopezia section Lopezia, Epilobium section Epilobium, Epilobium section Lysimachion.

The Onagraceae is a family of more than 600 species of flowering plant around the world. Some species, such as members of the genus Fuchsia, are popular garden plants. Nearly half the species of Onagraceae are placed in the genus Epilobium, the fireweeds and willowherbs, a group of perennial herbs of which many are rapid colonisers of disturbed ground. Circaea, enchanter's nightshade, are perennial herbs growing from tuber-tipped rhizomes or stolons, with flowers bearing two petals and bur-like fruits covered with hooked hairs. Oenothera, evening primroses, bear radial, four-petaled flowers with a deeply lobed stigma (Hickman 1993). Ludwigia, the primrose-willows, is a pantropical genus of aquatic to subaquatic plants that may grow rooted in the soil or floating at the water surface.

See also: I said primrose-willows, darling.

Characters (from Kerenga 1995): Prostrate or erect, annual or perennial herbs (most commonly), shrubs or trees. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, occasionally whorled; stipules minute or absent. Flowers mostly solitary in axils, or in spikes, racemes or panicles, hermaphroditic, regular or somewhat zygomorphic, (2-)4(or 5)-merous. Perianth adnate to ovary. Calyx with lobes mostly 4-6, valvate. Petals mostly 4 or 5, sessile or clawed, usually valvate. Stamens inserted at apex of calyx tube, (1 or 2) 4 or 8-12, usually as many as petals. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, 2- or 4-6-locular (rarely unilocular); placentation axile; ovules many or 1-4. Style usually long, stigma capitate or clavate, often 4-lobed. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by 4-8 valves, or a berry or nutlet. Seeds many or 1-4, with tuft of long silky hairs or glabrous; endosperm absent.

<==Onagraceae [Oenotheraceae, Onagrarieae]
    |--Onagreae RM65
    |--Circaea [Circaeeae] PT01
    |    |--C. alpina O88
    |    |    |--C. a. ssp. alpina H93
    |    |    `--C. a. ssp. pacifica H93
    |    `--C. lutetiana PT01
    |--Fuchsia Linnaeus 1753 [Fuchsieae] A61
    |    |  i. s.: F. boliviana Carr. 1876 R77
    |    |         F. coccinea D03
    |    |         F. denticulata PT01
    |    |         F. magellanica D03
    |    |           |--F. m. var. magellanica R77
    |    |           `--F. m. var. gracilis R77
    |    |         F. pringsheimii J87
    |    |         F. thymifoliae BT87
    |    |         F. triphylla J87
    |    `--F. sect. Skinnera (Forster & Forster) DC. 1828 [=Skinnera Forster & Forster 1776] A61
    |         |--F. colensoi Hooker 1867 A61
    |         |--F. cyrtandroides A61
    |         |--F. excorticata (Forster & Forster) Linn. f. 1781 [=Skinnera excorticata Forster & Forster 1776] A61
    |         |--F. perscandens Cockayne & Allan 1927 A61
    |         `--F. procumbens Cunn. 1839 [incl. F. kirkii Kirk 1869] A61
    |--Lopezia Cav. 1791 [incl. Pisaura Bonato 1793; Lopezieae] PRB73
    |    |  i. s.: L. bracteata Rafin. 1840 (n. d.) PRB73
    |    |--L. sect. Diplandra (Hook. & Arn.) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=Diplandra Hook. & Arn. 1836] PRB73
    |    |    `--L. lopezioides (Hook. & Arn.) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 (see below for synonymy) PRB73
    |    `--+--L. sect. Riesenbachia (Presl) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 (see below for synonymy) PRB73
    |       |    |--L. riesenbachia Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=*Riesenbachia racemosa Presl 1831] PRB73
    |       |    `--L. semeiandra Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=*Semeiandra grandiflora Hook. & Arn. 1836] PRB73
    |       `--+--L. sect. Lopezia PRB73
    |          |--L. sect. Jehlia (Rose) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 (see below for synonymy) PRB73
    |          |    |--L. longiflora Decaisne 1854 (see below for synonymy) PRB73
    |          |    `--+--L. grandiflora Zucc. 1832 [=Jehlia grandiflora (Zucc.) Rose 1909] PRB73
    |          |       |    |--L. g. ssp. grandiflora (see below for synonymy) PRB73
    |          |       |    `--L. g. ssp. macrophylla (Benth.) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 (see below for synonymy) PRB73
    |          |       `--L. langmaniae Miranda 1953 PRB73
    |          |--L. sect. Nannolopezia Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 PRB73
    |          |    `--L. (sect. *Nannolopezia) gracilis Wats. 1886 PRB73
    |          `--L. sect. Pelozia (Rose) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=Pelozia Rose 1909] PRB73
    |               |--L. laciniata (Rose) Jones 1929 [=*Pelozia laciniata Rose 1909] PRB73
    |               |    |--L. l. ssp. laciniata PRB73
    |               |    `--L. l. ssp. ovata Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 PRB73
    |               |--L. clavata Brandegee 1889 [=Pelozia clavata (Brandegee) Rose 1909] PRB73
    |               |--L. gentryi (Munz) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=L. laciniata ssp. gentryi Munz 1961] PRB73
    |               `--L. sinaloensis Munz 1961 PRB73
    |--Ludwigia Linné 1753 [incl. Jussiaea Linné 1754, Nematopyxis Miq. 1855; Jussiaeeae] R77
    |    |  i. s.: L. adscendens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953 K95 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         L. decurrens Walt. 1788 [=Jussiaea decurrens (Walt.) DC. 1828] L95
    |    |         L. erecta (L.) Hara 1953 (see below for synonymy) L95
    |    |         'Jussiaea’ grandiflora C55
    |    |         L. helminthorrhiza R77
    |    |         L. hyssopifolia (Don) Exell 1957 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |         L. leptocarpa (Nutt.) Hara 1953 (see below for synonymy) L95
    |    |         L. octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven 1926 K95 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |           |--L. o. ssp. octovalvis K95
    |    |           `--L. o. ssp. sessiliflora (Mich.) Raven 1963 K95, R77
    |    |         L. perennis Linnaeus 1753 K95 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         L. prostrata Roxb. 1814 (see below for synonymy) R77
    |    |         L. stolonifera GC05
    |    |--L. sect. Dantia H93
    |    |    |--L. palustris (L.) Ell. 1817 H93, L95 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--L. repens Forster 1771 H93, K95 [incl. L. natans var. stipitata H93]
    |    |--L. (sect. Myrtocarpus) peruviana (Linné) Hara 1953 (see below for synonymy) R77
    |    `--L. sect. Oligospermum non Oligospermum Hong 1984 H93
    |         |--L. hexapetala [incl. Jussiaea uruguayensis] H93
    |         `--L. peploides (HBK.) Raven 1963 H93, L95 (see below for synonymy)
    |              |--L. p. ssp. peploides H93
    |              `--L. p. ssp. montevidensis [=Jussiaea repens var. montevidensis] H93
    `--Epilobieae RM65
         |--Boisduvalia Spach 1835 (see below for synonymy) RM65
         |    |--B. sect. Boisduvalia (see below for synonymy)RM65
         |    |    `--B. subulata (Ruiz & Pav.) Raimann in Engl. & Prantl 1893 (see below for synonymy) RM65
         |    |--B. sect. Currania Munz 1941 RM65
         |    |    |--B. (sect. *C.) cleistogama Curran 1884 RM65 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    `--B. glabella (Nutt.) Walp. 1843 RM65 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--B. sect. Pachydium (Fisch. & Mey.) Endl. 1840 [=Oenothera sect. Pachydium Fisch. & Mey. 1835] RM65
         |         |--B. (sect. *P.) densiflora (Lindl.) Wats. 1876 RM65 (see below for synonymy)
         |         |--B. macrantha Heller 1905 RM65 (see below for synonymy)
         |         `--B. stricta (Gray) Greene 1891 RM65 (see below for synonymy)
         `--Epilobium Linnaeus 1753 A61
              |  i. s.: E. coloratum J87
              |         E. conspersum O88
              |         E. curtisiae Raven 1963 [incl. Boisduvalia tasmanica (Hook. f.) Munz 1941] RM65
              |         E. cylindricum O88
              |         E. denticulatum Ruiz & Pav. 1798-1802 [incl. E. pedicellare Presl 1831] A61
              |         E. dodonaei P93
              |         E. glaucum D03
              |         E. hirsutum Y98
              |         E. montanum BBO01
              |         E. nankotaizanese CP02
              |         E. obscurum Y98
              |         E. royleanum O88
              |         E. sikkimense O88
              |           |--E. s. ssp. sikkimense O88
              |           `--E. s. ssp. ludlowianum O88
              |         E. spicatum C74
              |         E. williamsii O88
              |--E. sect. Epilobium H93
              |--E. sect. Lysimachion A61
              `--E. sect. Zauschneria H93
                   |--E. canum H93 [=Zauschneria cana D51]
                   |    |--E. c. ssp. canum [incl. Zauschneria californica] H93
                   |    |--E. c. ssp. garrettii H93
                   |    `--E. c. ssp. latifolium non E. latifolium [=Zauschneria californica ssp. latifolia] H93
                   `--E. septentrionale [=E. canum ssp. septentrionale, Zauschneria septentrionalis] H93

Onagraceae incertae sedis:
  Gongylocarpus PRB73
  Palaeeucharidium cellulare Reid & Chandler 1933 CBH93
  Trivestibulopollenites CBH93
  Jussitriporites CBH93
  Kneiffia Spach 1835 KC01
  Phaeostoma Spach 1835 KC01
  Godetia C06
    |--G. amoena D37
    `--G. whitneyi D51
  Gaura H93
    |--G. (sect. Campogaura) coccinea [incl. G. coccinea var. glabra] H93
    |--G. (sect. Schizocarya) parviflora [incl. G. parviflora var. lachnocarpa] H93
    |--G. (sect. Stipogaura) sinuata [incl. G. sinuata var. mckelveyae] H93
    `--G. (sect. Xenogaura) drummondii H93
  Chamerion HS98 [incl. Epilobium sect. Chamaenerion H93]
    |--C. angustifolium [=Epilobium angustifolium] HS98
    |    |--C. a. ssp. angustifolium H93
    |    `--‘Epilobium’ a. ssp. circumvagum H93
    `--‘Epilobium’ latifolium H93 [=Chamaenerium latifolium H44]
         |--E. l. ssp. latifolium O88
         `--E. l. ssp. speciosum O88
  Gayophytum H93
  Camissonia PRB73
    |  i. s.: C. angelorum MF68
    |         C. dentata [=Oenothera dentata] RM65
    |--C. sect. Camissonia H93
    |--C. (sect. Chlismiella) pterosperma [=Oenothera pterosperma] H93
    |--C. sect. Chylismia H93
    |--C. sect. Eremothera H93
    |--C. (sect. Eulobus) californica [=Eulobus californicus; incl. Oenothera leptocarpa] H93
    |--C. sect. Holostigma H93
    |--C. sect. Lignothera H93
    |    |--C. arenaria [=Oenothera arenaria] H93
    |    `--C. cardiophylla [=Oenothera cardiophylla] H93
    |         |--C. c. ssp. cardiophylla H93
    |         `--C. c. ssp. robusta non C. robusta [=Oenothera cardiophylla ssp. robusta] H93
    |--C. (sect. Nematocaulis) andina [=Oenothera andina] H93
    `--C. sect. Tetrapteron H93
         |--C. graciliflora [=Oenothera graciliflora] H93
         |--C. ovata [=Oenothera ovata] H93
         |--C. palmeri [=Oenothera palmeri] H93
         |--C. subacaulis [=Oenothera subacaulis; incl. O. subacaulis var. taraxacifolia] H93
         `--C. tanacetifolia [=Oenothera tanacetifolia] H93
              |--C. t. ssp. tanacetifolia H93
              `--C. t. ssp. quadriperforata H93
  Oenothera WM09
    |  i. s.: O. blandina D51
    |         O. cambrica V09
    |         O. drummondii PRB73
    |         O. grandiflora KSM06
    |         O. × issleri BO08
    |         O. jamesii H06
    |         O. lamarckiana C96
    |         O. muricata C55
    |         O. odorata C06
    |         O. organensis D51
    |         O. tetraptera C06
    |         O. × vigeneri BO08
    |--O. sect. Oenothera H93
    |--O. sect. Anogra H93
    |    |--O. californica H93
    |    |    |--O. c. ssp. californica [incl. O. californica var. glabrata] H93
    |    |    |--O. c. ssp. avita H93
    |    |    `--O. c. ssp. eurekensis [=O. avita ssp. eurekensis] H93
    |    `--O. deltoides H93
    |         |--O. d. ssp. deltoides KIW98
    |         |--O. d. ssp. cognata H93
    |         |--O. d. ssp. howellii KIW98
    |         `--O. d. ssp. piperi H93
    |--O. (sect. Contortae) xylocarpa H93
    |--O. (sect. Eremia) primiveris H93
    |    |--O. p. ssp. primiveris H93
    |    `--O. p. ssp. bufonis H93
    |--O. (sect. Hartmannia) rosea H93
    |--O. (sect. Lauvaxia) flava H93
    |--O. (sect. Pachylophus) caespitosa H93
    |    |--O. c. ssp. caespitosa H93
    |    |--O. c. ssp. crinita H93
    |    `--O. c. ssp. marginata H93
    `--O. (sect. Xylopleurum) speciosa [incl. O. speciosa var. childsii] H93
  Clarkia SDZ97

Boisduvalia Spach 1835 [=Oenothera group Boisduvalia (Spach) Lév. 1908, O. sect. Boisduvalia (Spach) Torr. & Gray 1840; incl. Cratericarpium Spach 1835] RM65

Boisduvalia sect. Boisduvalia [=Oenothera sect. Dictyopetalum Fisch. & Mey. 1835, B. sect. Dictyopetalum (Fisch. & Mey.) Endl. 1840, B. sect. Euboisduvalia Munz 1941] RM65

Boisduvalia densiflora (Lindl.) Wats. 1876 RM65 [=Oenothera densiflora Lindl. 1833 RM65, Epilobium densiflorum H93, Boisduvalia douglasii Spach 1835 RM65; incl. B. bipartita Greene 1895 RM65, B. densiflora var. bipartita (Greene) Jeps. 1911 RM65, B. densiflora var. imbricata Greene 1891 RM65, B. densiflora var. genuina f. imbricata (Greene) Munz 1941 RM65, B. imbricata (Greene) Heller 1904 RM65, Oenothera densiflora var. imbricata (Greene) Lév. 1908 RM65, B. densiflora var. montanus Jeps. 1901 RM65, B. densiflora var. pallescens Suksd. 1900 RM65, Oenothera salicina Nutt. in Torrey & Gray 1840 RM65, B. densiflora var. salicina (Rydb.) Munz 1941 RM65, B. salicina Rydb. 1913 RM65, B. sparsiflora Heller 1904 RM65]

Boisduvalia cleistogama Curran 1884 RM65 [=Epilobium cleistogamum H93, Oenothera cleistogama (Curran) Lév. 1908 RM65]

Boisduvalia glabella (Nutt.) Walp. 1843 RM65 [=Oenothera glabella Nutt. in Torrey & Gray 1840 RM65; incl. B. campestris Jeps. 1901 RM65, B. glabella var. campestris (Jeps.) Jeps. 1911 RM65, Oenothera glabella race commixta Guffroy ex Lév. 1908 RM65, O. commixta Guffroy ex Lév. 1908 RM65, B. diffusa Greene 1895 RM65, O. pygmaea Speg. 1899 RM65, B. pygmaea (Speg.) Munz 1933 RM65, Epilobium pygmaeum H93]

Boisduvalia macrantha Heller 1905 RM65 [incl. B. pallida Eastw. 1937 RM65, Epilobium pallidum non E. wilsonii var. pallidum Simpson & Thomson 1940 H93]

Boisduvalia stricta (Gray) Greene 1891 RM65 [=Gayophytum strictum Gray 1868 RM65; incl. B. parviflora Heller 1897 RM65, Oenothera densiflora var. tenella Gray 1872 RM65, O. torreyi Wats. 1873 RM65, Boisduvalia torreyi (Wats.) Wats. 1876 RM65, Epilobium torreyi H93, Oenothera torreyoides Lév. 1908 RM65]

Boisduvalia subulata (Ruiz & Pav.) Raimann in Engl. & Prantl 1893 [=Oenothera subulata Ruiz & Pav. 1802, O. uniflora Gill. ex Hook. & Arn. in Hook. 1833; incl. Boisduvalia andina Phil. 1864–1865, *Cratericarpium argyrophyllum Spach 1835, Oenothera concinna Don in Sweet 1833, *Boisduvalia (sect. *Dictyopetalum) concinna (Don) Spach 1835, O. subulata race concinna (Don) Lév. 1908, O. gauroides Kuntze 1898, Nierembergia subdentata Meyen 1843, Boisduvalia tocornalii Gay 1846, V. volckmanni Phil. 1859–1860, Oenothera volkmanni (Phil.) Lév. & Guffr. 1908] RM65

Lopezia grandiflora Zucc. 1832 ssp. grandiflora [incl. L. galeottii Planch. 1851–1852, Jehlia galeottii (Planch.) Sprague & Riley 1924] PRB73

Lopezia grandiflora ssp. macrophylla (Benth.) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=L. macrophylla Benth. 1841, *Jehlia macrophylla (Benth.) Rose 1909, L. macrantha (l. c.)] PRB73

Lopezia longiflora Decaisne 1854 [=Pseudolopezia longiflora (Decaisne) Rose 1909; incl. L. insignis Hemsl. 1878, *P. insignis (Hemsl.) Rose 1909] PRB73

Lopezia lopezioides (Hook. & Arn.) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=*Diplandra lopezioides Hook. & Arn. 1836] PRB73

Lopezia sect. Jehlia (Rose) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=Jehlia Rose 1909; incl. Pseudolopezia Rose 1909] PRB73

Lopezia sect. Riesenbachia (Presl) Plitmann, Raven & Breedlove 1973 [=Riesenbachia Presl 1831; incl. Semeiandra Hook. & Arn. 1836] PRB73

Ludwigia adscendens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953 K95 [=Jussiaea adscendens Linnaeus 1767 K95; incl. J. repens ssp. glabrata f. albiflora Hochr. 1925 R77, J. fluviatilis Bl. 1826 K95, J. repens var. glaberrima O. K. 1891 R77, J. repens var. pilosa O. K. 1891 R77, J. repens Linnaeus 1753 non Ludwigia repens Forster 1771 K95]

Ludwigia erecta (L.) Hara 1953 [=Jussiaea erecta L. 1753; incl. J. acuminata Sw. 1800, J. plumeriana Bello 1881] L95

Ludwigia hyssopifolia (Don) Exell 1957 K95 [=Jussiaea hyssopifolia Don. 1832 K95; incl. J. fissendocarpa Haines 1920 B72, J. linifolia Vahl 1798 non Ludwigia linifolia Poir 1813 K95, Fissendocarpa linifolia (Vahl) Bennet 1970 B72, J. micrantha Kunze 1851 B72, Ludwigia micrantha (Kunze) Hara 1953 B72, J. prostrata White 1939 non Ludwigia prostrata Roxb. 1814 K95, J. suffruticosa Ridl. 1921 non Linnaeus 1753 K95, J. tenella Burman 1768 R77]

Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt.) Hara 1953 [=Jussiaea leptocarpa Nutt. 1818; incl. J. affinis DC. 1828, J. pilosa HBK. 1823 non J. repens var. pilosa O. K. 1891, J. variabilis Meyer 1818] L95

Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven 1926 K95 [=Oenothera octovalvis Jacq. 1760 K95, Jussiaea octovalvis (Jacq.) Swartz 1791 K95; incl. J. angustifolia Lamk. 1789 K95, J. suffruticosa var. angustifolia (Lam.) Kuntze 1891 L95, J. blumeana DC. 1828 R77, Ludwigia octovalvis ssp. brevisepala (Brenan) Raven 1963 R77, J. burmannii DC. 1828 R77, J. costata Pr. 1849 R77, J. exaltata Roxb. 1832 R77, J. erecta var. exaltata (Roxb.) Ridl. 1921 R77, Ludwigia suffruticosa var. hirta Ridl. 1916 non Oenothera hirta L. 1762 R77, J. junghuhniana Miq. 1855 R77, J. suffruticosa var. ligustrifolia Eggers 1879 L95, J. octovalvis var. ligustrifolia (Eggers) Alain 1963 L95, Ludwigia perennis Burm. f. 1768 non Linnaeus 1753 K95, J. octofila DC. 1828 L95, J. octonervia Lam. 1789 L95, J. pubescens Linnaeus 1762 K95, L. pubescens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953 K95, J. suffruticosa var. sintenisii Urb. 1910 L95, J. suffruticosa Linnaeus 1753 non L. suffruticosa Walt. 1788 K95, J. villosa Lank 1789 R77]

Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. 1817 H93, L95 [=Isnardia palustris L. 1753 L95; incl. L. palustris var. americana H93, L. palustris var. pacifica H93]

Ludwigia peploides (HBK.) Raven 1963 H93, L95 [=Jussiaea peploides HBK. 1823 L95, J. repens var. peploides (HBK.) Griseb. 1866 L95; incl. J. swartziana DC. 1828 L95]

Ludwigia perennis Linnaeus 1753 K95 [=Jussiaea perennis Brenan 1953 R77; incl. L. gracilis Miq. 1853 K95, L. lythroides Bl. 1826 K95, L. parviflora Roxburgh 1820 K95]

Ludwigia peruviana (Linné) Hara 1953 [=Jussiaea peruviana Linné 1753; incl. Oenothera hirta Linné 1762, Jussieua hirta (Linné) Sw. 1791 non Lamk 1789, Jussiaea speciosa Ridl. 1921] R77

Ludwigia prostrata Roxb. 1814 [=Nematopyxis prostrata Miq. 1855; incl. L. fruticulosa Bl. 1826, N. fruticulosa Miq. 1855, L. leucorhiza Bl. 1826, N. pusilla Miq. 1855] R77

*Type species of generic name indicated


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