Evening primrose Oenothera biennis, from here.

Belongs within: Myrtales.
Contains: Epilobium section Lysimachion.

The Onagraceae is a family of more than 600 species of flowering plant around the world. Some species, such as members of the genus Fuchsia, are popular garden plants. The evening primrose Oenothera biennis is cultivated for its seed oil, which has been used in cosmetics. Nearly half the species of Onagraceae are placed in the genus Epilobium, the fireweeds and willowherbs, a group of perennial herbs of which many are rapid colonisers of disturbed ground. Ludwigia, the primrose-willows, is a pantropical genus of aquatic to subaquatic plants that may grow rooted in the soil or floating at the water surface.

See also: I said primrose-willows, darling.

Characters (from Kerenga 1995): Prostrate or erect, annual or perennial herbs (most commonly), shrubs or trees. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, occasionally whorled; stipules minute or absent. Flowers mostly solitary in axils, or in spikes, racemes or panicles, hermaphroditic, regular or somewhat zygomorphic, (2-)4(or 5)-merous. Perianth adnate to ovary. Calyx with lobes mostly 4-6, valvate. Petals mostly 4 or 5, sessile or clawed, usually valvate. Stamens inserted at apex of calyx tube, (1 or 2) 4 or 8-12, usually as many as petals. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, 2- or 4-6-locular (rarely unilocular); placentation axile; ovules many or 1-4. Style usually long, stigma capitate or clavate, often 4-lobed. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by 4-8 valves, or a berry or nutlet. Seeds many or 1-4, with tuft of long silky hairs or glabrous; endosperm absent.

<==Onagraceae [Oenotheraceae]
    |--Isnardia palustris C55
    |--Chamerion angustifolium [=Epilobium angustifolium] HS98
    |--Circaea PT01
    |    |--C. alpina O88
    |    `--C. lutetiana PT01
    |--Clarkia SDZ97
    |    |--C. amoena RS98
    |    |--C. elegans D37
    |    `--C. lassenensis RS98
    |--Ludwigia K95
    |    |--L. adscendens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |--L. hyssopifolia (Don) Exell 1957 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |--L. octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven 1926 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |    |--L. o. ssp. octovalvis K95
    |    |    `--L. o. ssp. sessiliflora K95
    |    |--L. perennis Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |--L. peruana WO05
    |    |--L. repens Forster 1771 K95
    |    `--L. stolonifera GC05
    |--Fuchsia Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |    |  i. s.: F. coccinea D03
    |    |         F. denticulata PT01
    |    |         F. magellanica D03
    |    |         F. pringsheimii J87
    |    |         F. triphylla J87
    |    `--F. sect. Skinnera (Forster & Forster) DC. 1828 A61
    |         |--F. colensoi Hooker 1867 A61
    |         |--F. cyrtandroides A61
    |         |--F. excorticata (Forster & Forster) Linn. f. 1781 [=Skinnera excorticata Forster & Forster 1776] A61
    |         |--F. perscandens Cockayne & Allan 1927 A61
    |         `--F. procumbens Cunn. 1839 [incl. F. kirkii Kirk 1869] A61
    |--Oenothera WM09
    |    |--O. biennis H06
    |    |--O. blandina D51
    |    |--O. cambrica V09
    |    |--O. deltoides KIW98
    |    |    |--O. d. ssp. deltoides KIW98
    |    |    `--O. d. ssp. howellii KIW98
    |    |--O. elata WM09
    |    |--O. glazioviana PT01
    |    |--O. × issleri BO08
    |    |--O. jamesii H06
    |    |--O. lamarckiana C96
    |    |--O. muricata C55
    |    |--O. organensis D51
    |    |--O. rosea H06
    |    |--O. stricta D03
    |    `--O. × vigeneri BO08
    `--Epilobium Linnaeus 1753 A61
         |  i. s.: E. brachycarpum BO08
         |         E. brevifolium O88
         |         E. ciliatum HE80
         |         E. coloratum J87
         |         E. conspersum O88
         |         E. cylindricum O88
         |         E. denticulatum Ruiz & Pav. 1798-1802 [incl. E. pedicellare Presl 1831] A61
         |         E. detznerianum Schlechter ex Diels 1929 (see below for synonymy) K95
         |         E. dodonaei P93
         |         E. glaucum D03
         |         E. hirsutum Y98
         |         E. hooglandii Raven 1967 K95
         |         E. keysseri Diels 1929 K95
         |         E. latifolium O88
         |           |--E. l. ssp. latifolium O88
         |           `--E. l. ssp. speciosum O88
         |         E. luteum D37
         |         E. montanum BBO01
         |         E. nankotaizanese CP02
         |         E. obscurum Y98
         |         E. palustre O88
         |         E. prostratum Warb. 1893 [incl. E. papuanum Ridl. 1916] K95
         |         E. royleanum O88
         |         E. sikkimense O88
         |           |--E. s. ssp. sikkimense O88
         |           `--E. s. ssp. ludlowianum O88
         |         E. spicatum C74
         |         E. wallichianum O88
         |           |--E. w. ssp. wallichianum O88
         |           `--E. w. ssp. souliei O88
         |         E. williamsii O88
         `--E. sect. Lysimachion A61

Epilobium detznerianum Schlechter ex Diels 1929 [incl. E. papuanum var. alpestre Ridl. 1916, E. papuanum Hoogl. 1958 non Ridl. 1916] K95

Ludwigia adscendens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953 [=Jussiaea adscendens Linnaeus 1767; incl. J. fluviatilis Bl. 1826, J. repens Linnaeus 1753 non Ludwigia repens Forster 1771] K95

Ludwigia hyssopifolia (Don) Exell 1957 [=Jussiaea hyssopifolia Don. 1832; incl. J. linifolia Vahl. 1798 non L. linifolia Poir. 1813, J. prostrata White 1939 (preoc.), J. suffruticosa Ridl. 1921 (preoc.)] K95

Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven 1926 [=Oenothera octovalvis Jacq. 1760, Jussiaea octovalvis (Jacq.) Swartz 1791; incl. J. angustifolia Lamk. 1789, Ludwigia perennis Burm. f. 1768 non Linnaeus 1753, J. pubescens Linnaeus 1762, L. pubescens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953, J. suffruticosa Linnaeus 1753 non L. suffruticosa Walt. 1788] K95

Ludwigia perennis Linnaeus 1753 [incl. L. gracilis Miq. 1853, L. lythroides Bl. 1826, L. parviflora Roxburgh 1820] K95

*Type species of generic name indicated


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