Onagraceae

Evening primrose Oenothera biennis, from here.


Belongs within: Myrtales.
Contains: Epilobium section Lysimachion.

The Onagraceae is a family of more than 600 species of flowering plant around the world. Some species, such as members of the genus Fuchsia, are popular garden plants. The evening primrose Oenothera biennis is cultivated for its seed oil, which has been used in cosmetics. Nearly half the species of Onagraceae are placed in the genus Epilobium, the fireweeds and willowherbs, a group of perennial herbs of which many are rapid colonisers of disturbed ground. Ludwigia, the primrose-willows, is a pantropical genus of aquatic to subaquatic plants that may grow rooted in the soil or floating at the water surface.

See also: I said primrose-willows, darling.

Characters (from Kerenga 1995): Prostrate or erect, annual or perennial herbs (most commonly), shrubs or trees. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, occasionally whorled; stipules minute or absent. Flowers mostly solitary in axils, or in spikes, racemes or panicles, hermaphroditic, regular or somewhat zygomorphic, (2-)4(or 5)-merous. Perianth adnate to ovary. Calyx with lobes mostly 4-6, valvate. Petals mostly 4 or 5, sessile or clawed, usually valvate. Stamens inserted at apex of calyx tube, (1 or 2) 4 or 8-12, usually as many as petals. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, 2- or 4-6-locular (rarely unilocular); placentation axile; ovules many or 1-4. Style usually long, stigma capitate or clavate, often 4-lobed. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by 4-8 valves, or a berry or nutlet. Seeds many or 1-4, with tuft of long silky hairs or glabrous; endosperm absent.

<==Onagraceae [Oenotheraceae]
    |--Isnardia palustris C55
    |--Chamerion angustifolium [=Epilobium angustifolium] HS98
    |--Circaea PT01
    |    |--C. alpina O88
    |    `--C. lutetiana PT01
    |--Clarkia SDZ97
    |    |--C. amoena RS98
    |    |--C. elegans D37
    |    `--C. lassenensis RS98
    |--Ludwigia K95
    |    |--L. adscendens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |--L. hyssopifolia (Don) Exell 1957 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |--L. octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven 1926 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |    |--L. o. ssp. octovalvis K95
    |    |    `--L. o. ssp. sessiliflora K95
    |    |--L. perennis Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy) K95
    |    |--L. peruana WO05
    |    |--L. repens Forster 1771 K95
    |    `--L. stolonifera GC05
    |--Fuchsia Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |    |  i. s.: F. coccinea D03
    |    |         F. denticulata PT01
    |    |         F. magellanica D03
    |    |         F. pringsheimii J87
    |    |         F. triphylla J87
    |    `--F. sect. Skinnera (Forster & Forster) DC. 1828 A61
    |         |--F. colensoi Hooker 1867 A61
    |         |--F. cyrtandroides A61
    |         |--F. excorticata (Forster & Forster) Linn. f. 1781 [=Skinnera excorticata Forster & Forster 1776] A61
    |         |--F. perscandens Cockayne & Allan 1927 A61
    |         `--F. procumbens Cunn. 1839 [incl. F. kirkii Kirk 1869] A61
    |--Oenothera WM09
    |    |--O. biennis H06
    |    |--O. blandina D51
    |    |--O. cambrica V09
    |    |--O. deltoides KIW98
    |    |    |--O. d. ssp. deltoides KIW98
    |    |    `--O. d. ssp. howellii KIW98
    |    |--O. elata WM09
    |    |--O. glazioviana PT01
    |    |--O. × issleri BO08
    |    |--O. jamesii H06
    |    |--O. lamarckiana C96
    |    |--O. muricata C55
    |    |--O. organensis D51
    |    |--O. rosea H06
    |    |--O. stricta D03
    |    `--O. × vigeneri BO08
    `--Epilobium Linnaeus 1753 A61
         |  i. s.: E. brachycarpum BO08
         |         E. brevifolium O88
         |         E. ciliatum HE80
         |         E. coloratum J87
         |         E. conspersum O88
         |         E. cylindricum O88
         |         E. denticulatum Ruiz & Pav. 1798-1802 [incl. E. pedicellare Presl 1831] A61
         |         E. detznerianum Schlechter ex Diels 1929 (see below for synonymy) K95
         |         E. dodonaei P93
         |         E. glaucum D03
         |         E. hirsutum Y98
         |         E. hooglandii Raven 1967 K95
         |         E. keysseri Diels 1929 K95
         |         E. latifolium O88
         |           |--E. l. ssp. latifolium O88
         |           `--E. l. ssp. speciosum O88
         |         E. luteum D37
         |         E. montanum BBO01
         |         E. nankotaizanese CP02
         |         E. obscurum Y98
         |         E. palustre O88
         |         E. prostratum Warb. 1893 [incl. E. papuanum Ridl. 1916] K95
         |         E. royleanum O88
         |         E. sikkimense O88
         |           |--E. s. ssp. sikkimense O88
         |           `--E. s. ssp. ludlowianum O88
         |         E. spicatum C74
         |         E. wallichianum O88
         |           |--E. w. ssp. wallichianum O88
         |           `--E. w. ssp. souliei O88
         |         E. williamsii O88
         `--E. sect. Lysimachion A61

Epilobium detznerianum Schlechter ex Diels 1929 [incl. E. papuanum var. alpestre Ridl. 1916, E. papuanum Hoogl. 1958 non Ridl. 1916] K95

Ludwigia adscendens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953 [=Jussiaea adscendens Linnaeus 1767; incl. J. fluviatilis Bl. 1826, J. repens Linnaeus 1753 non Ludwigia repens Forster 1771] K95

Ludwigia hyssopifolia (Don) Exell 1957 [=Jussiaea hyssopifolia Don. 1832; incl. J. linifolia Vahl. 1798 non L. linifolia Poir. 1813, J. prostrata White 1939 (preoc.), J. suffruticosa Ridl. 1921 (preoc.)] K95

Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven 1926 [=Oenothera octovalvis Jacq. 1760, Jussiaea octovalvis (Jacq.) Swartz 1791; incl. J. angustifolia Lamk. 1789, Ludwigia perennis Burm. f. 1768 non Linnaeus 1753, J. pubescens Linnaeus 1762, L. pubescens (Linnaeus) Hara 1953, J. suffruticosa Linnaeus 1753 non L. suffruticosa Walt. 1788] K95

Ludwigia perennis Linnaeus 1753 [incl. L. gracilis Miq. 1853, L. lythroides Bl. 1826, L. parviflora Roxburgh 1820] K95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BBO01] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Muribasidiospora: Microstromatales or Exobasidiales? Mycological Research 105 (7): 798–810.

[BO08] Bönsel, D., I. Ottich, A. Malten & G. Zizka. 2008. An updated list of the vascular plants of Frankfurt am Main (Pteridophyta & Spermatophyta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 111–121.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997–1008.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[HS98] Husband, B. C., & D. W. Schemske. 1998. Cytotype distribution at a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in Chamerion (Epilobium) angustifolium (Onagraceae). American Journal of Botany 85: 1688–1694.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

[K95] Kerenga, K. 1995. Onagraceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 203–211. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[RS98] Ramsey, J., & D. W. Schemske. 1998. Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 467–501.

[SDZ97] Sang, T., M. J. Donoghue & D. Zhang. 1997. Evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase genes in peonies (Paeonia): phylogenetic relationships of putative nonhybrid species. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 994–1007.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[WO05] Wilson, P. G., M. M. O'Brien, M. M. Heslewood & C. J. Quinn. 2005. Relationships within Myrtaceae sensu lato based on a matK phylogeny. Plant Systematics and Evolution 251: 3–19.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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