Verbenaceae

Lantana camara, from here.


Belongs within: Lamiales.

The Verbenaceae are a family of flowering plants that are most speciose in tropical areas. Some species are popular garden plants, such as Verbena officinalis (vervain) and Lantana camara, and have become established invasives outside their native ranges. Some taxa previously included in Verbenaceae are now placed in the Lamiaceae as members of the subfamilies Chloanthoideae and Ajugoideae. Members of the type genus Verbena have a dry fruit dehiscing into four nutlets; species of Newcastlia and Dicrastylis have indehiscent fruits (Black & Roberston 1965).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs, trees or shrubs; leaves without stipules, opposite, alternate or whorled. Flowers usually sessile or subsessile, bisexual, irregular or almost regular; calyx with 4 or 5, rarely 6, lobes or teeth, persistent; corolla with cylindrical tube and limb (rarely two-lipped) of 4-6 imbricate lobes; stamens inserted in corolla tube, 4 in pairs or 4-6 alternate with lobes; anthers 2-celled, cells usually parallel; ovary superior, originally of two carpels, entire or shortly four-lobed, often seated on small disk, usually four-celled by intrusion of two secondary dissepiments, with one ovule in each cell; placentas axile; style rising from summit of ovary, usually more or less two-lobed; fruit dry or drupaceous, generally enclosed in calyx, indehiscent or separating septicidally into two or four nutlets or fruitlets; seeds one in each cell, or fewer by abortion; albumen scanty or absent; embryo straight, with an inferior radicle shorter than the thick cotyledons.

<==Verbenaceae [Verbenoideae]
    |--Aegiphila YY22
    |--Phyla nodiflora BR65 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Cornutia grandifolia MM96
    |--Lantana BR65
    |    |--L. camara BR65
    |    |--L. javanica P03
    |    `--L. trifolia J87
    |--Stachytarpheta OP01
    |    |--S. dichotoma OP01
    |    `--S. jamaicensis MM96
    |--Lippia C55
    |    |--L. asperifolia C55
    |    `--L. lycioides C55
    |--Clerodendrum M01
    |    |--C. colebrookeanum D07
    |    |--C. hastatum BB07
    |    |--C. indicum BB07
    |    |--C. inerme C78
    |    |--C. phlomoides PP07
    |    |--C. serratum BB07
    |    |--C. trichotomum M01
    |    |--C. ugandense MHG04
    |    `--C. viscosum HU08
    |--Duranta H06
    |    |--D. arida JS87
    |    |    |--D. a. ssp. arida JS87
    |    |    `--D. s. ssp. serpentina Sanders & Judd in Judd & Sanders 1986 JS87
    |    |--D. armata OA02
    |    `--D. erecta H06
    |--Citharexylum MP00
    |    |--C. caudatum JS87
    |    |--C. flexuosum OA02
    |    |--C. fruticosum SWK87
    |    |--C. myrianthum MP00
    |    `--C. spinosum MHG04
    |--Newcastlia BR65
    |    |--N. bracteosa BR65
    |    |--N. cephalantha BR65
    |    |--N. chrysotricha BR65
    |    |--N. dixonii BR65
    |    `--N. spodiotricha BR65
    |--Verbena OP01
    |    |--V. bonariensis OP01
    |    |--V. bracteata OP01
    |    |--V. domingensis J87
    |    |--V. officinalis BR65
    |    |--V. rigida [incl. V. venosa] BR65
    |    |--V. scabrido-glandulosa LC02
    |    |--V. supina BR65
    |    `--V. urticifolia J87
    |--Chascanum marrubifolium PP07
    |--Premna P03
    |    |--P. divaricata C55
    |    `--P. flavescens P03
    `--Dicrastylis BR65
         |--D. beveridgei BR65
         |--D. costelloi BR65
         |--D. doranii BR65
         |    |--D. d. var. doranii BR65
         |    `--D. d. var. eriantha BR65
         |--D. exsuccosa (Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |--D. gilesii BR65
         |--D. maritima KM08
         `--D. verticillata BR65

Dicrastylis exsuccosa (Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Pityrodia exsuccosa Mueller 1858; incl. D. ochrotricha Mueller 1864] BR65

Phyla nodiflora BR65 [=Verbena nodiflora C55, Lippia nodiflora BR65, Zapania nodiflora C55; incl. L. canescens BR65]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251-258.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JS87] Judd, W. S., & J. D. Skean, Jr. 1987. Three new angiosperms from Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 137-150.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[LC02] Långström, E., & M. W. Chase. 2002. Tribes of Boraginoideae (Boraginaceae) and placement of Antiphytum, Echiochilon, Ogastemma and Sericostoma: a phylogenetic analysis based on atpB plastid DNA sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 234: 137-153.

[MP00] Machado, G., & M. A. Pizo. 2000. The use of fruits by the neotropical harvestman Neosadocus variabilis (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Journal of Arachnology 28: 357-360.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine - phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[M01] Morishita, M. 2001. Movement of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the Kanzawa spider mite T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) in a watermelon-pea cropping system. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 355-360. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[OA02] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002. Orobothriurus atiquipa, a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. Journal of Arachnology 30: 98-103.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348-361.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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