Lantana camara, from here.

Belongs within: Lamiales.

The Verbenaceae are a family of flowering plants that are most speciose in tropical areas. Some species are popular garden plants, such as Verbena officinalis (vervain) and Lantana camara, and have become established invasives outside their native ranges. Some taxa previously included in Verbenaceae are now placed in the Lamiaceae as members of the subfamilies Chloanthoideae and Ajugoideae. Species of Newcastlia and Dicrastylis have indehiscent fruits (Black & Robertson 1965); Verbena, Phyla, Aloysia and Lantana have dry fruits dehiscing into two or four nutlets (Hickman 1993). Lantana and Aloysia are strong-smelling perennials or shrubs (Hickman 1993). Duranta is a genus of shrubs found in the American tropics, as well as elsewhere as an ornamental or invasive, bearing fleshy, dehiscing fruits and pedicellate flowers.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs, trees or shrubs; leaves without stipules, opposite, alternate or whorled. Flowers usually sessile or subsessile, bisexual, irregular or almost regular; calyx with 4 or 5, rarely 6, lobes or teeth, persistent; corolla with cylindrical tube and limb (rarely two-lipped) of 4-6 imbricate lobes; stamens inserted in corolla tube, 4 in pairs or 4-6 alternate with lobes; anthers 2-celled, cells usually parallel; ovary superior, originally of two carpels, entire or shortly four-lobed, often seated on small disk, usually four-celled by intrusion of two secondary dissepiments, with one ovule in each cell; placentas axile; style rising from summit of ovary, usually more or less two-lobed; fruit dry or drupaceous, generally enclosed in calyx, indehiscent or separating septicidally into two or four nutlets or fruitlets; seeds one in each cell, or fewer by abortion; albumen scanty or absent; embryo straight, with an inferior radicle shorter than the thick cotyledons.

<==Verbenaceae [Verbenoideae]
    |--Aegiphila YY22
    |--Cornutia grandifolia MM96
    |--Chascanum marrubifolium PP07
    |--Premnophyllum trigonum Velenovsky 1884 CBH93
    |--‘Vermicularia’ Moench 1802 nec Tode 1790 nec Lamarck 1799 (ICZN) KC01
    |--Aloysia H93
    |    |--A. gratissima OB11
    |    `--A. wrightii [=Lippia wrightii (nom. inv.)] H93
    |--Teucridium Hooker 1854 A61
    |    `--T. parvifolium Hooker 1854 A61
    |         |--T. p. var. parvifolium A61
    |         `--T. p. var. luxurians Cheeseman 1925 A61
    |--Lantana BR65
    |    |--L. camara BR65
    |    |--L. hispida PWP96
    |    |--L. montevidensis H93
    |    |--L. trifolia J87
    |    `--L. urticifolia PWP96
    |--Stachytarpheta OP01
    |    |--S. cayennensis LK14
    |    |--S. dichotoma OP01
    |    |--S. indica B28
    |    |--S. jamaicensis MM96
    |    `--S. urticifolia PWP96
    |--Phyla B00
    |    |--P. canescens B00 [=Lippia canescens BR65]
    |    |--P. lanceolata [=Lippia lanceolata] H93
    |    `--P. nodiflora BR65 [=Verbena nodiflora C55, Lippia nodiflora BR65, Zapania nodiflora C55]
    |         |--P. n. var. nodiflora (see below for synonymy) H93
    |         `--P. n. var. incisa [=Lippia incisa] H93
    |--Citharexylum MP00
    |    |--C. caudatum JS87
    |    |--C. flexuosum OA02
    |    |--C. fruticosum SWK87
    |    |--C. myrianthum MP00
    |    `--C. spinosum [incl. Hadongia eberhardtii Gagn. 1950] S77
    |--Newcastlia BR65
    |    |--N. bracteosa BR65
    |    |--N. cephalantha BR65
    |    |--N. chrysotricha BR65
    |    |--N. dixonii BR65
    |    `--N. spodiotricha BR65
    |--Lippia P03
    |    |--L. asperifolia C55
    |    |--L. hypoleia BT87
    |    |--L. javanica P03
    |    |--L. lycioides C55
    |    |--L. myrocephala PWP96
    |    `--L. umbellata BT87
    |--Duranta H06
    |    |--D. arida JS87
    |    |    |--D. a. ssp. arida JS87
    |    |    `--D. s. ssp. serpentina Sanders & Judd in Judd & Sanders 1986 JS87
    |    |--D. armata OA02
    |    |--D. erecta H06
    |    `--D. repens PWP96
    |         |--D. r. var. repens PWP96
    |         `--D. r. var. lorentzii PWP96
    |--Peronema canescens S77
    `--Verbena LC02
         |--V. bonariensis OP01
         |--V. bracteata OP01
         |--V. californica H93
         |--V. carolina PWP96
         |--V. domingensis J87
         |--V. officinalis BR65
         |--V. gooddingii H93
         |--V. hastata [incl. V. hastata var. scabra] H93
         |--V. lasiostachys H93
         |    |--V. l. var. lasiostachys H93
         |    `--V. l. var. scabrida H93
         |--V. litoralis [incl. V. brasiliensis] H93
         |--V. macdougali C01
         |--V. macrostachya PWP96
         |--V. menthifolia H93
         |--V. rigida [incl. V. venosa] BR65
         |--V. scabra H93
         |--V. scabrido-glandulosa LC02
         |--V. supina BR65
         |--V. tenuisecta [incl. V. tenera] H93
         `--V. urticifolia J87

Phyla nodiflora var. nodiflora [incl. Lippia nodiflora var. canescens, L. nodiflora var. reptans, L. nodiflora var. rosea] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

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[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[JS87] Judd, W. S., & J. D. Skean Jr. 1987. Three new angiosperms from Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 137–150.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LC02] Långström, E., & M. W. Chase. 2002. Tribes of Boraginoideae (Boraginaceae) and placement of Antiphytum, Echiochilon, Ogastemma and Sericostoma: a phylogenetic analysis based on atpB plastid DNA sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 234: 137–153.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MP00] Machado, G., & M. A. Pizo. 2000. The use of fruits by the neotropical harvestman Neosadocus variabilis (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Journal of Arachnology 28: 357–360.

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[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[PWP96] Palmer, W. A., B. W. Willson & K. R. Pullen. 1996. The host range of Aconophora compressa Walker (Homoptera: Membracidae): a potential biological control agent for Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 617–624.

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[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

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[S77] Steenis, C. G. G. J. van. 1977. Bignoniaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 114–186.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 29 March 2020.

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