Verbenaceae

Lantana camara, from here.


Belongs within: Lamiales.

The Verbenaceae are a family of flowering plants that are most speciose in tropical areas. Some species are popular garden plants, such as Verbena officinalis (vervain) and Lantana camara, and have become established invasives outside their native ranges. Some taxa previously included in Verbenaceae are now placed in the Lamiaceae as members of the subfamilies Chloanthoideae and Ajugoideae. Species of Newcastlia and Dicrastylis have indehiscent fruits (Black & Robertson 1965); Verbena, Phyla, Aloysia and Lantana have dry fruits dehiscing into two or four nutlets (Hickman 1993). Lantana and Aloysia are strong-smelling perennials or shrubs (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs, trees or shrubs; leaves without stipules, opposite, alternate or whorled. Flowers usually sessile or subsessile, bisexual, irregular or almost regular; calyx with 4 or 5, rarely 6, lobes or teeth, persistent; corolla with cylindrical tube and limb (rarely two-lipped) of 4-6 imbricate lobes; stamens inserted in corolla tube, 4 in pairs or 4-6 alternate with lobes; anthers 2-celled, cells usually parallel; ovary superior, originally of two carpels, entire or shortly four-lobed, often seated on small disk, usually four-celled by intrusion of two secondary dissepiments, with one ovule in each cell; placentas axile; style rising from summit of ovary, usually more or less two-lobed; fruit dry or drupaceous, generally enclosed in calyx, indehiscent or separating septicidally into two or four nutlets or fruitlets; seeds one in each cell, or fewer by abortion; albumen scanty or absent; embryo straight, with an inferior radicle shorter than the thick cotyledons.

<==Verbenaceae [Verbenoideae]
    |--Aegiphila YY22
    |--Cornutia grandifolia MM96
    |--Chascanum marrubifolium PP07
    |--Faradaya splendida B00
    |--Premnophyllum trigonum Velenovsky 1884 CBH93
    |--Gmelina arborea CBH93, P03
    |--Aloysia H93
    |    |--A. gratissima OB11
    |    `--A. wrightii [=Lippia wrightii (nom. inv.)] H93
    |--Stachytarpheta OP01
    |    |--S. cayennensis LK14
    |    |--S. dichotoma OP01
    |    `--S. jamaicensis MM96
    |--Teucridium Hooker 1854 A61
    |    `--T. parvifolium Hooker 1854 A61
    |         |--T. p. var. parvifolium A61
    |         `--T. p. var. luxurians Cheeseman 1925 A61
    |--Lippia P03
    |    |--L. asperifolia C55
    |    |--L. hypoleia BT87
    |    |--L. javanica P03
    |    |--L. lycioides C55
    |    `--L. umbellata BT87
    |--Lantana BR65
    |    |--L. camara BR65
    |    |--L. montevidensis H93
    |    `--L. trifolia J87
    |--Phyla B00
    |    |--P. canescens B00 [=Lippia canescens BR65]
    |    |--P. lanceolata [=Lippia lanceolata] H93
    |    `--P. nodiflora BR65 [=Verbena nodiflora C55, Lippia nodiflora BR65, Zapania nodiflora C55]
    |         |--P. n. var. nodiflora (see below for synonymy) H93
    |         `--P. n. var. incisa [=Lippia incisa] H93
    |--Duranta H06
    |    |--D. arida JS87
    |    |    |--D. a. ssp. arida JS87
    |    |    `--D. s. ssp. serpentina Sanders & Judd in Judd & Sanders 1986 JS87
    |    |--D. armata OA02
    |    `--D. erecta H06
    |--Citharexylum MP00
    |    |--C. caudatum JS87
    |    |--C. flexuosum OA02
    |    |--C. fruticosum SWK87
    |    |--C. myrianthum MP00
    |    `--C. spinosum MHG04
    |--Newcastlia BR65
    |    |--N. bracteosa BR65
    |    |--N. cephalantha BR65
    |    |--N. chrysotricha BR65
    |    |--N. dixonii BR65
    |    `--N. spodiotricha BR65
    |--Verbena LC02
    |    |--V. bonariensis OP01
    |    |--V. bracteata OP01
    |    |--V. californica H93
    |    |--V. domingensis J87
    |    |--V. officinalis BR65
    |    |--V. gooddingii H93
    |    |--V. hastata [incl. V. hastata var. scabra] H93
    |    |--V. lasiostachys H93
    |    |    |--V. l. var. lasiostachys H93
    |    |    `--V. l. var. scabrida H93
    |    |--V. litoralis [incl. V. brasiliensis] H93
    |    |--V. menthifolia H93
    |    |--V. rigida [incl. V. venosa] BR65
    |    |--V. scabra H93
    |    |--V. scabrido-glandulosa LC02
    |    |--V. supina BR65
    |    |--V. tenuisecta [incl. V. tenera] H93
    |    `--V. urticifolia J87
    `--Clerodendrum H93
         |--C. colebrookeanum D07
         |--C. costatum B00
         |--C. floribundum LK14
         |    |--C. f. var. floribundum LK14
         |    |--C. f. var. coriaceum LK14
         |    `--C. f. var. ovatum LK14
         |--C. hastatum BB07
         |--C. indicum BB07
         |--C. inerme C78
         |--C. phlomoides PP07
         |--C. serratum BB07
         |--C. siphonanthus RA07
         |--C. × speciosum RA07
         |--C. thomsonae RA07
         |--C. tomentosum LK14
         |    |--C. t. var. tomentosum LK14
         |    `--C. t. var. lanceolatum LK14
         |--C. trichotomum M01
         |--C. ugandense MHG04
         `--C. viscosum HU08

Phyla nodiflora var. nodiflora [incl. Lippia nodiflora var. canescens, L. nodiflora var. reptans, L. nodiflora var. rosea] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 121–154.

[BT87] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1706: 1–237.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[JS87] Judd, W. S., & J. D. Skean, Jr. 1987. Three new angiosperms from Parc National Pic Macaya, Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 137–150.

[LC02] Långström, E., & M. W. Chase. 2002. Tribes of Boraginoideae (Boraginaceae) and placement of Antiphytum, Echiochilon, Ogastemma and Sericostoma: a phylogenetic analysis based on atpB plastid DNA sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 234: 137–153.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MP00] Machado, G., & M. A. Pizo. 2000. The use of fruits by the neotropical harvestman Neosadocus variabilis (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Journal of Arachnology 28: 357–360.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[M01] Morishita, M. 2001. Movement of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the Kanzawa spider mite T. kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) in a watermelon-pea cropping system. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 355–360. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[OA02] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002. Orobothriurus atiquipa, a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. Journal of Arachnology 30: 98–103.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[RA07] Rodrigues, J. C. V., D. Achor, E. W. Kitajima, N. L. Nogueira & C. C. Childers. 2007. Plant diseases and injuries associated with Brevipalpus mites. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 381–390. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 21 March 2019.

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