Blattoidea

Cretaceous predatory roach Raphidiomimula burmitica, from Grimaldi & Ross (2004).


Belongs within: Dictyoptera.
Contains: Mantodea, Isoptera, Blattaria.

The cockroach superfamily Blattoidea, as used by Vršanský et al. (2002), is paraphyletic to Polyphagoidea, Mantodea and Isoptera, and hence includes all crown-group dictyopterans and some related fossil families. These include the Raphidiomimidae, a Late Jurassic to Cretaceous group of predatory roaches with long slender legs, of which the front pair are raptorial (Grimaldi & Ross 2004). They also include the Upper Jurassic Skok svaba, which exhibited adaptations for jumping (Bohn et al. 2010).

Synapomorphies (from Vršanský et al. 2002): Ovipositor very short externally; eggs laid in two-row packages (in crown taxa at least); size small (body length under 20 mm, fore wing about 8-15 mm); fore wing elongate, with fore and hind margins parallel.

<==Blattoidea [Polyphagoidea] VVR02
    |--+--Blattulidae GE05
    |  |    |--Elisama vidlickai Vršanský 2004 V10
    |  |    `--Tarakanula shcherbakovi VLR09
    |  `--+--+--Liberiblattina GR04 [Liberiblattinidae V10]
    |     |  |    `--L. ihringovae GR04
    |     |  |--+--Eadiidae V10
    |     |  |  `--Mantodea GE05
    |     |  |--Skok [Skokidae] V10
    |     |  |    `--S. svaba Vršanský 2007 BP10
    |     |  `--Isoptera V10
    |     `--Blattaria GE05
    `--+--Mesoblattinidae GE05
       |    |--Mesoblattina protypa VVR02
       |    |--Hispanoblatta sumptuosa VVR02
       |    |--Artitocoblatta asiatica VVR02
       |    `--Austroblattula F71
       `--Raphidiomimidae GE05
            |--Raphidiomima Vishniakova 1973 GR04
            |    |--R. chimaera GR04
            |    `--R. cognata VVR02
            |--Cretaceochorista Z02
            |--Rhipidoblattina katavica GE05
            |--Raphidiomimula Grimaldi & Ross 2004 GR04
            |    `--*R. burmitica Grimaldi & Ross 2004 GR04
            `--Cameloblatta variegata GR04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BP10] Bohn, H., M. Picker, K.-D. Klass & J. Colville. 2010. A jumping cockroach from South Africa, Saltoblattella montistabularis, gen. nov., spec. nov. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68 (1): 53-69.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GR04] Grimaldi, D. A. & A. J. Ross. 2004. Raphidiomimula, an enigmatic new cockroach in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Burma) (Insecta: Blattodea: Raphidiomimidae). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2: 101-104.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793-808.

[VLR09] Vršanský, P., J.-H. Liang & D. Ren. 2009. Advanced morphology and behaviour of extinct earwig-like cockroaches (Blattida: Fuziidae fam. nov.). Geologica Carpathica 60 (6): 449-462.

[VVR02] Vršanský, P., V. N. Vishniakova & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Blattida Latreille, 1810. The cockroaches (=Blattodea Brunner von Wattenvill, 1882). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 263-270. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Insecta

Fossil of Dasyleptus sp. from the Mazon Creek, from RCFossils.


Belongs within: Panhexapoda.
Contains: Zygentoma, Pterygota, Meinertellidae, Machilidae.

One of the most speciose of all groups of organisms, the insects dominate the terrestrial environment. The majority of insects belong to the winged clade Pterygota, but some basal clades retain the primitive wingless morphology. These latter groups, the Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, are superficially similar in having a more or less elongate body form with three long terminal filaments (the cerci and median filament), and so have been combined in the past under the name Thysanura. However, the Zygentoma share a number of synapomorphies with the Pterygota, including the presence of mandibles with a secondary articulation in addition to the single articulation found in Archaeognatha, and are now recognised a forming a clade with the winged insects (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Archaeognatha, bristletails, are characterised by large eyes that meet on the top of the head and a distinctly humped thorax. They jump by rapidly flexing the abdomen to propel themselves into the aire (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005, many altered in derived subgroups): Antenna lacking musculature beyond the scape; chordotonal organ (Johnston's organ) present in antennal pedicel; posterior tentorium developed into transverse bar; articulations absent between coxae and sterna; tarsus subsegmented into tarsomeres; pretarsal claws articulating with apicalmost tarsomere rather than with tarsal base; ovipositor present in females formed from gonapophyses on eighth and ninth abdominal segments; long terminal filament present on dorsum of eleventh abdominal segment.

<==Insecta [Ectognatha, Ectotropha, Lepismatona, Scarabaeoda, Thysanura, Thysanuroidea]
    |--Dicondylia [Cercofilata] GE05
    |    |--Tricholepidion gertschi Wygodzinsky 1961 TW05, KZ02
    |    `--+--Zygentoma TW05
    |       `--Pterygota TW05
    `--Archaeognatha [Machilida, Machiloidea, Microcoryphia, Monocondylia] TW05
         |  i. s.: Triassomachilis Sharov 1948 KS02 [Triassomachilidae GE05]
         |           `--T. uralensis GE05
         |--Dasyleptus Brongniart 1885 FT05 [Cercopodata, Dasyleptidae R02, Monura]
         |    |--D. brongniarti Sharov 1957 K-P83
         |    `--D. sharovi GE05
         `--+--Meinertellidae R02
            `--Machilidae R02

Insecta incertae sedis:
  Drosicha mangiferae G01
  Clavigralla gibbosa G01
  Ramsdelepidion Kukalová-Peck 1987 K-P87
    `--*R. schusteri Kukalová-Peck 1987 K-P87
  Gaspea palaeoentognathae Z02
  Biorhiza pallida A71
  Neocolochelyna itoi Takeuchi 1951 I92
  Paratlanticus tsushimensis Yamasaki 1986 I92
  Cercomantispa shirozui Nakahara 1961 I92
  Armatocillenus sumaoi (Morita 1981) I92
  Heplochlaenius insularis Uéno 1964 I92
  Hydrochus chubu Balfour-Browne & Satô 1962 I92
  Georissus granulosus Satô 1972 I92
  Liparocephalus tokunagai Sakaguchi 1944 I92
  Schwarzerium viridicyaneum Hayashi 1956 I92
  Baryrhynchus tokarensis Ohbayashi & Satô 1966 I92
  Cyphagogus iwatensis Morimoto 1976 I92
  Ogasawarazo daitoensis Voss 1971 I92
  Xyelecia japonica Tagashi 1972 I92
  Pleroneura hikosana Togashi 1972 I92
  Nipponorhynchus I92
    |--N. bimaculatus Naito 1973 I92
    `--N. mirabilis Takeuchi 1941 I92
  Caenosclerogibba japonica Yasumatsu 1958 I92
  Pararrhynchium tsunekii Tano & Yamane 1983 I92
  Liacos melanogaster Tsuneki 1982 I92
  Strymonidia iyonis Ota & Kusunoki 1957 I92
  Pithecops I92
    |--P. corvus I92
    |    |--P. c. corvus I92
    |    `--P. c. ryukyuensis Shirôzu 1964 I92
    `--P. fulgens I92
         |--P. f. fulgens I92
         `--P. f. tsushimanus Shirôzu & Urata 1957 I92
  Tongeia fischeri (Eversmann 1843) I92
  Archiearis notha (Hübner 1808) I92
  Heliophobus texturatus (Alpheraky 1892) I92
  Cratosomus flavofasciatus H91
  Eldana saccharina H91
  Maruca testulalis H91
  Tricopria drosophilae GJR97
  Asobara tabida GJR97
  Aramigus tesselatus GJR97
  Leptopilina GJR97
    |--L. australis GJR97
    `--L. clavipes GJR97
  Schizaphis graminum SF98
  Leptophyllus Hope 1842 FT93
  Amaurocoris laticeps G89
  Aspongopus viduatus G89
  Nariscus spinosus G89
  Spilostethus G89
    |--S. macilentus G89
    `--S. militaris G89
  Anepsius encaustus G89
  Ischnopeza hirticornis G89
  Piezostethus galactinus G89
  Samea multiplicalis B04
  Neohydronomus affinus MHG04
  Araecerus fasciculatus G17a
  Lecanium G25
    |--L. baccatum G25
    |--L. capraea G17d
    `--L. viride G17a
  Stictococcus gowdeyi G17b
  Tachardia decorella G17b
  Physokermes insignicola G17b
  Eutettix tenella G17b
  Dibolia borealis G17b
  Tephrocerus gracilis G17b
  Evetria taxifoliella G17c
  Dioryctria xanthaenobares G17c
  Chelymorpha argus G17c
  Eudamus proteus G18
  Melitara junctolineella B88
  Moneilema ulkei G25
  Mytilaspis cordylinidis G29
  Cylindrococcus B88
    |--C. amplior G34
    `--C. casuarinae B88
  Proceras sacchariphagum B88
  Hypolycaena phorbas B88
  Stomopteryx simplexella B88
  Diplosis sorghicola B88
  Tryporyza VHK02
    |--T. incertulas B88
    |--T. monostigma VHK02
    |--T. nivella VHK02
    `--T. rhodoproctalis VHK02
  Actinoscytina belmontensis Tillyard 1926 F71
  Adelidium cordatum Tillyard 1917 F71
  Agetochoristella adscita Riek 1952 F71
  Anomaloscytina F71
    |--A. incompleta Evans 1943 F71
    `--A. metapteryx Davis 1942 F71
  Aphryganoneura anomala Tillyard 1926 F71
  Archaeosmylus pectinatus Riek 1952 F71
  Atelophlebis culleni (Etheridge & Olliff 1890) [=Ephemera culleni] F71
  Austroidelia perplexa Riek 1954 F71
  Austroprosbole maculata Evans 1943 F71
  Austroscytina imperfecta Evans 1943 F71
  Beaconiella F71
    |--B. fennahi Evans 1963 F71
    `--B. multivenata Evans 1963 F71
  Belpsylla reticulata Evans 1943 F71
  Clavopsyllidium minutum Davis 1942 F71
  Elateridium angustius Tillyard 1917 F71
  Eochiliocycla angusta Davis 1942 F71
  Eopsyllidium delicatulum Davis 1942 F71
  Eupincombea postiva Davis 1942 F71
  Homaloscytina plana Tillyard 1926 F71
  Mesonotoperla sinuata Riek 1954 F71
  Mesophlebia antinodalis Tillyard 1916 F71
  Mesothyris westraliensis Riek 1968 F71
  Metrorhynchites grandis Tillyard 1917 F71
  Mitchelloneura permiana Tillyard 1921 F71
  Nannochoristella reducta Riek 1953 F71
  Neoageta elongata Riek 1953 F71
  Neochoristella aptata Riek 1953 F71
  Neopetromantis australis Riek 1953 F71
  Notoblattites F71
    |--N. mitchelli Tillyard 1917 F71
    `--N. wianamattensis Tillyard 1917 F71
  Orthoscytina F71
    |--O. belmontensis Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. indistincta Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. mitchelli Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. obliqua Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. pincombei Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. quinquemedia Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. subcostalis Tillyard 1926 F71
    `--O. tetraneura Tillyard 1926 F71
  Palaeovicia incerta Evans 1943 F71
  Permagra distincta Evans 1943 F71
  Permopsychops belmontensis Tillyard 1926 [incl. Permithone venosa Davis 1943] F71
  Permoberothella perplexa Riek 1953 F71
  Permobrachus F71
    |--P. dubia (Tillyard 1926) [=Permodiphthera dubia] F71
    `--P. magnus Evans 1943 F71
  Permocapitus globulus Evans 1943 F71
  Permocephalus knighti Evans 1943 F71
  Permodiphthera robusta Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permoglyphis belmontensis Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permojassus F71
    |--P. australis Tillyard 1926 F71
    `--P. dubius Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permopsyllidium F71
    |--P. affine Tillyard 1926 F71
    `--P. mitchelli Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permopsyllidops stanleyi Davis 1942 F71
  Permopsylloides insolita Evans 1943 F71
  Permorapisma biserialis Tillyard 1926 [incl. P. triserialis Tillyard 1926] F71
  Permoscarta F71
    |--P. mitchelli Tillyard 1917 F71
    `--P. triventulata Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permosyne F71
    |--P. affinis Tillyard 1924 F71
    |--P. belmontensis Tillyard 1924 F71
    |--P. mitchelli Tillyard 1924 F71
    `--P. pincombeae Tillyard 1924 F71
  Permothea latipennis Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permotheela scytinopteroides Davis 1942 F71
  Permovicia obscura Evans 1943 F71
  Phipoides elegans Riek 1953 F71
  Prohagla superba Riek 1954 F71
  Protopincombea obgscura Evans 1943 F71
  Protopsyllops minuta Evans 1943 F71
  Psocopsyllidium media Davis 1942 F71
  Psocoscytina bifida Davis 1942 F71
  Psyllidella magna Evans 1943 F71
  Psyllidiana davisia Evans 1943 F71
  Stanleyana pulchra Evans 1943 F71
  Stenoglyphis kimblensis Evans 1947 F71
  Stenoscytina australiensis Tillyard 1926 F71
  Triassagrion australiensis Tillyard 1922 F71
  Triassodoecus chinai Evans 1963 F71
  Triassophlebis stigmata Tillyard 1922 F71
  Triassopsylla plecioides Tillyard 1917 F71
  Triassocytinopsis paranotalis Evans 1956 F71
  Tripsyllidium wadei Evans 1956 F71
  Tychticoloides belmontensis Evans 1963 F71
  Tenebroides mauritanicus BC91
  Fumea casta BC91
  Paleacrita vernata Z91
  Itame argillacearia DC10
  Biloba subsecivela VHK02
  Diaphania indica [=Margaronia indica] VHK02
  Lygropia quaternalis VHK02
  Marasma suspicalis VHK02
  Psara stultalis VHK02
  Holcocera pulverea VHK02
  Noorda moringa VHK02
  Nephanteryx rhodobasalis VHK02
  Anomalococcus indicus VHK02
  Phidodonta modesta VHK02
  Bissetia steniella VHK02
  ‘Cheyletus’ nigripes Mola 1907 B49
  Stephanostoma Danielsen 1880 D56
  Phrynomorphus Curtis 1831 FG06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267-320.

[BC91] Baker, G. T., & A. Chandrapatya. 1991. Fine structure of the chorion of the broak mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae). In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 325-328. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B04] Briese, D. T. 2004. Weed biological control: applying science to solve seemingly intractable problems. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 304-317.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[DC10] Drummond, F. A., J. A. Collins, B. Choate, D. Woodman, D. T. Jennings, H. Y. Forsythe, Jr & J. C. Cokendolpher. 2010. Harvestman (Opiliones) fauna associated with Maine lowbush blueberry fields in the major production areas of Washington and Hancock counties. Environmental Entomology 39 (5): 1428-1440.

[FT05] Fayers, S. R., & N. H. Trewin. 2005. A hexapod from the Early Devonian Windyfield Chert, Rhynie, Scotland. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1117-1130.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1-370.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[GJR97] Giordano, R., J. J. Jackson & H. M. Robertson. 1997. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 11439-11444.

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917a. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59-71).

[G17b] Girault, A. A. 1917b. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[G17c] Girault, A. A. 1917c. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102-111).

[G17d] Girault, A. A. 1917d. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116-131).

[G18] Girault, A. A. 1918. North American Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 142-152).

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. An essay on when a fly is lovable, the ceremony of baptizing some and unlovely hate. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 187-190).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262-265).

[G34] Girault, A. A. 1934. New Capsidae and Hymenoptera, with note on an unmentionable. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 311-314).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119-138.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KZ02] Klass, K.-D., O. Zompro, N. P. Kristensen & J. Adis. 2002. Mantophasmatodea: A new insect order with extant members in the Afrotropics. Science 296: 1456-1459.

[KS02] Kluge, N. Yu., & N. D. Sinitshenkova. 2002. Order Ephemerida Latreille, 1810. The true mayflies (=Ephemeroptera Hyatt et Arms, 1891 (s. l.); =Euephemeroptera Kluge, 2000. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 89-97. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618-1669.

[K-P87] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1987. New Carboniferous Diplura, Monura, and Thysanura, the hexapod ground plan, and the role of thoracic side lobes in the origin of wings (Insecta). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 2327-2345.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Subclass Lepismatona Latreille, 1804. The wingless insects (=Thysanura Latreille 1796, s. l.) In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 69-74. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SF98] Saikkonen, K., S. H. Faeth, M. Helander & T. J. Sullivan. 1998. Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 319-343.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245-306.

[Z91] Zhang, Z. Q. 1991. Biology of mites of Allothrombiinae (Acari: Trombidiidae) and their potential role in pest control. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 513-520. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Coccoidea

Male and female of Puto albicans, in ventral view, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).


Belongs within: Coccinea.
Contains: Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae.

The Coccoidea are recognised here, following Koteja (2000), as including the neococcoid scale insects; other authors use this name to refer to all scale insects (Coccinea).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005, as 'neococcoids'): Females lacking abdominal spiracles; male eyes reduced to individual facets; unique chromosomal system of sex determination by paternal genome elimination.

<==Coccoidea K00
    |--+--Pseudococcidae GE05
    |  `--+--Inka Koteja 1989 K00 [Inkaidae GE05]
    |     |    `--I. minuta Koteja 1989 K00
    |     `--+--Eriococcidae GE05
    |        |--Coccidae GE05
    |        `--Diaspididae GE05
    `--+--Puto Signoret 1876 K00 [Putoidae GE05]
       |    |--P. albicans GE05
       |    |--P. avitus (Menge 1856) [=Coccus avitus] K00
       |    `--P. trivenosus (Germar & Berendt 1856) [=Monophlebus trivenosus] K00
       `--Labiococcidae GE05
            |--Labiococcus Koteja 2000 K00
            |    `--L. joosti Koteja 2000 K00
            `--Solicoccus Koteja 2000 K00
                 `--S. nascimbenei Koteja 2000 K00

Coccoidea incertae sedis:
  Sucinikermes Koteja 1988 [Kermesidae] K00
    `--S. kulickae Koteja 1988 K00
  Aclerdidae K00
  Lecanodiaspididae K00
    |--Psoraleococcus GE05
    `--Lecanodiaspis prosopidis B88
  Beesoniidae K00
  Micrococcidae K00
  Dactylopius G17 [Dactylopiidae K00]
    |--D. ceylonicus B82
    |--D. glaciale G17
    `--D. opuntiae H91
  Apiomorpha [Apiomorphidae K00]
    |--A. conica G84
    |--A. duplex AY04
    |--A. frenchi B88
    |--A. maliformis B88
    |--A. ovicola [=Brachyscelis ovicola] B88
    |--A. pileata [=Brachyscelis pileata] B88
    `--A. strombylosa [incl. Brachyscelis crispa] B88
  Cerococcidae K00
  Halimococcidae GE05
  Phoenicococcus [Phoenicococcidae] T02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. pHales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B82] Batra, S. W. T. 1982. Biological control in agroecosystems. Science 215: 134-139.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485-509.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187-218.

Coccinea

Cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi, from Clemson University.


Belongs within: Aphidomorpha.
Contains: Ortheziidae, Coccoidea, Matsucoccidae.

The Coccinea include the scale insects, a characteristic group of plant-sucking bugs in which the females have become larviform and generally immobile.

Characters (from Griamldi & Engel 2005, as Coccoidea): Sexual dimorphism extreme: females highly neotenic, larviform, lacking eyes and wings, antennae and legs also usually highly absent; first-instar crawler as dispersal stage. Males lacking mouthparts; hind pair of wings reduced, often to tiny knobs (hamulohalteres).

<==Coccinea [Orthezioidea]
    |  i. s.: Polyclona Menge 1856 K00
    |         Stigmacoccus asper K00
    |         Neomargarodes erythrocephala K00
    |         Kerria [Kerriidae] GE05
    |           `--K. lacca GE05
    |         Permaleurodes GE05
    |         Carayonemidae GE05
    |         Ortheziola vejdovskyi K09
    |--Mesococcus asiaticus Becker-Migdisova in Rodendorf 1962 K00
    `--+--Ortheziidae GE05
       `--+--Coccoidea GE05
          |--Kukaspis Koteja & Poinar 2001 KP01 [Kukaspididae GE05]
          |    `--*K. usingeri Koteja & Poinar 2001 KP01
          |--Steingelia Nassonov 1908 K00 [Steingeliidae GE05]
          |    `--S. cretacea Koteja 2000 K00
          |--Phenacoleachia [Phenacoleachiidae] GE05
          |    `--P. zealandica GE05
          `--+--Matsucoccidae GE05
             `--+--+--Cancerococcus Koteja 1988 K00 [Pityococcidae GE05]
                |  |    `--C. apterus Koteja 1988 K00
                |  `--Electrococcidae GE05
                |       |--Electrococcus Beardsley 1969 K00
                |       |    `--E. canadensis Beardsley 1969 K00
                |       `--Turonicoccus Koteja 2000 K00
                |            |--T. beardsleyi Koteja 2000 K00
                |            `--T. grimaldii Koteja 2000 K00
                `--+--+--Coelostomidiidae [Coelostomidiinae] GE05
                   |  |    |--Coelostomidia zealandica WD04
                   |  |    `--Ultracoelostoma WD04
                   |  |         |--U. assimile WD04
                   |  |         `--U. brittini WD04
                   |  `--+--Jersicoccus Koteja 2000 K00 [Jersicoccidae GE05]
                   |     |    `--J. kurthi Koteja 2000 K00
                   |     `--Monophlebus K00 [Monophlebidae GE05]
                   |          |--M. irregularis Germar & Berendt 1856 K00
                   |          `--M. simplex Scudder 1890 K00
                   `--+--Baisococcus Koteja 1989 K00 [Xylococcidae GE05]
                      |    `--B. victoriae Koteja 1989 K00
                      `--+--Grimaldiella Koteja 2000 K00 [Grimaldiellidae GE05]
                         |    |--G. gregaria Koteja 2000 K00
                         |    `--G. resinophila Koteja 2000 K00
                         `--Margarodidae GE05
                              |--Melaleucococcus nodosus GE05
                              |--Callipappus rubiginosus GE05, B88
                              |--Monophlebulus pilosior ZS10
                              `--Icerya [Iceryini] B88
                                   |--I. aegyptiaca F04
                                   |--I. purchasi B88
                                   `--I. seychellarum B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F04] Ferrar, P. 2004. Australian entomology: isolated, or in touch with the rest of the world? Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 329-333.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187-218.

[KP01] Koteja, J., & G. O. Poinar Jr. 2001. A new family, genus, and species of scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccinea: Kukaspididae, new family) from Cretaceous Alaskan amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 103 (2): 356-363.

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91-101.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Eriococcidae

Gum-tree scale Eriococcus coriaceus, photographed by Arthur Chapman.


Belongs within: Coccoidea.

The Eriococcidae include scale insects causing sometimes remarkable galls on trees.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Female without dorsal ostioles, ventral circuli and cerarii; anterior and posterior pairs of thoracic spiracles approximately the same size; abdominal spiracles absent; terminal segments of abdomen not fused into pygidium; anal ring usually with a single row of pores; tubular ducts, if present, with inner end invaginated to form a cup.

<==Eriococcidae
    |--Madarococcus MC94
    |--Opisthoscelis AY04
    |--Cystococcus AY04
    |--Lachnodius eucalypti B88
    |--Keithia Koteja 2000 K00
    |    `--K. luzzii Koteja 2000 K00
    |--Gedanicoccus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    `--G. gracilis Koteja 1988 K00
    |--Kuenowicoccus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    `--K. pietrzeniukae Koteja 1988 K00
    |--Eriococcus B88
    |    |--E. coriaceus B88
    |    `--E. nitidus B88
    |--Balticoccus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    |--B. oblicus Koteja 1988 K00
    |    `--B. spinosus Koteja 1988 K00
    `--Jutlandicoccus Koteja 1988 K00
         |--J. pauper Koteja 1988 K00
         `--J. perfectus Koteja 1988 K00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 429-509. Melbourne University Press.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187-218.

[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: An empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99-153.

Pseudococcidae

Long-tailed mealy bug Pseudococcus longispinus, photographed by James Castner.


Belongs within: Coccoidea.

The Pseudococcidae include the mealy bugs, named for the thin covering of mealy wax over the body surface of many species. Many pseudococcids exhibit highly specialised symbioses with ants, who tend them for the honeydew they produce. Malaicoccus formicarii is found in association with the ant species Hypoclinea cuspidatus, and is transported by its host ants between suitable feeding sites. Emerging queens of the ant genus Acropyga carry mealybugs in their mandibles in order to establish a new mealybug 'herd' when establishing a new ant colony (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Female with a combination of dorsal ostioles, ventral circuli, trilocular pores and usually 1-18 pairs of cerarii; anterior and posterior pairs of thoracic spiracles approximately the same size; abdominal spiracles absent; terminal segments of abdomen not fused into pygidium; anal ring often with an outer and an inner row of pores; tubular ducts not cupped at inner end.

<==Pseudococcidae
    |--Trionymus perrisii M83, K09
    |--Trabutina mannipara GE05
    |--Hippeococcus GE05
    |--Malaicococcus formicarii GE05
    |--Electromyrmococcus GE05
    |--Dysmicoccus neobrevipes MHG04
    |--Phenacoccus LS96 [Phenacoccinae KP01]
    |    `--P. manihoti LS96
    |--Planococcus MHG04
    |    |--P. citri A-G91
    |    `--P. lilacinus MHG04
    |--Rastrococcus GE05
    |    |--R. iceryoides GE05
    |    |--R. invadens MHG04
    |    `--R. spinosus MHG04
    |--Pseudococcus Westwood 1840 GML13
    |    |--*P. longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti 1867) [=Dactylopius longispinus] GML13
    |    |--P. adonidum B88
    |    |--P. affinis ZS10
    |    |--P. anestios Williams 1985 GML13
    |    |--P. chenopodii Williams 1985 GML13
    |    |--P. citri A71
    |    |--P. comstocki M47
    |    |--P. crotonis G17
    |    |--P. epidendrus Williams 1985 GML13
    |    |--P. eremosus Williams 1985 GML13
    |    |--P. gahani A71
    |    |--P. maritima A71
    |    `--P. markharveyi Gullan in Gullan, Moir & Leng 2013 GML13
    |--Tympanococcus Williams 1967 GML13
    |--Chlorococcus Beardsley 1971 GML13
    |--Mollicoccus Williams 1960 GML13
    |    `--M. guadalcanalanus Williams 1960 GML13
    |--Clavicoccus erinaceus Ferris in Zimmerman 1948 GML13
    `--Phyllococcus oahuensis GML13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-G91] Al-Gboory, J. I. 1991. Biology of oriental citrus mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) on different citrus species. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 607-611. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 429-509. Melbourne University Press.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59-71).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GML13] Gullan, P. J., M. L. Moir & M. C. Leng. 2013. A new species of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from critically endangered Banksia montana in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 28 (1): 13-20.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[KP01] Koteja, J., & G. O. Poinar Jr. 2001. A new family, genus, and species of scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccinea: Kukaspididae, new family) from Cretaceous Alaskan amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 103 (2): 356-363.

[LS96] Levins, R., & B. B. Schultz. 1996. Effects of density dependence, feedback and environmental sensitivity on correlations among predators, prey and plant resources: Models and practical implications. Journal of Animal Ecology 65: 802-812.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263-288.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Pentatomoidea

Aphylum syntheticum, from here.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.
Contains: Scutelleridae, Tessaratomidae, Cydnidae, Pentatominae.

The Pentatomoidea include the stink bugs and related taxa. Many pentatomoids have an enlarged scutellum, which in extreme cases may cover the entire abdomen. Such examples include the Plataspididae, in which the hemelytra are much longer than the body but folding to fit under the scutellum at rest (Carver et al. 1991).

Synapomorphies (from Shcherbakov & Popov 2002): Antennae 5-segmented; only two lateral trichobothria per abdominal segment; genital aperture directed caudally; egg barrel-shaped with circular eclosion rent.

<==Pentatomoidea GE05
    |--+--Lestonia China 1955 [Lestoniidae] G75
    |  |    |--*L. haustorifera China 1955 G75
    |  |    `--L. grossi CGW91
    |  `--Plataspididae [Brachyplatidae, Coptosomatidae, Plataspidinae] G75
    |       |--Brachyplatys pacificus Wall. 1851 D14
    |       `--Coptosoma S07
    |            |--C. ostensum S07
    |            `--C. scutellatum H01
    `--+--Cydnidae G75
       `--+--Phloeidae G75
          `--Pentatomidae G75
               |  i. s.: Thyanta pallidovirens WS04
               |         Erthesina fullo YS01, H01
               |         Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda 1761) H01, L-SSY04 [incl. R. grisea H01]
               |         Mormidea integella [=Euschistus (Paraschistus) integellus] R74
               |         Irochrotus caspius H01
               |         Odontoscelis fuliginosa H01
               |         Phimodera collina H01
               |         Masthletinus abbreviatus H01
               |         Neottiglossa pusilla [incl. N. inflexa] H01
               |         Eusarcoris aeneus H01
               |         Rubiconia intermedia H01
               |         Peribalus vernalis H01
               |         Palomena prasina H01
               |         Picromerus bidens H01
               |         Elasmucha grisea [incl. E. betulae] H01
               |         Commius elegans C91
               |--Trincavellius [Discocephalinae] B27
               |--Pentatominae B27
               |--Aphylum Bergroth 1906 [Aphylidae, Aphylinae] G75
               |    |--*A. syntheticum Bergroth 1906 G75
               |    `--A. bergrothi G75
               `--Asopinae [Asopidae] GE05
                    |--Ealda minax Walk. 1867 D14
                    |--Zicrona coerulea G76, H01
                    |--Stiretrus G75
                    `--Eocanthocona MC13

Pentatomoidea incertae sedis:
  Acanthosomatidae SP02
    |  i. s.: Sastragala YS01
    |         Duadicus pallidus G75
    |         Stauralia chloracantha C91
    |         Amphaces CGW91
    |         Anischys luteovaria WEE70
    |         Hiarchas CGW91
    |         Elasmostethus interstinctus CGW91, H01 [incl. E. dentatus H01]
    |         Eupolemus CGW91
    |         Andriscus WEE70
    |         Stictocarenus WEE70
    |--Ditomotarsinae CGW91
    |--Blaudusinae CGW91
    `--Acanthosoma H01 [Acanthosomatinae CGW91]
         `--A. haemorrhoidale H01
  Parastrachia Distant 1883 SDT88 [Parastrachiaria, Parastrachiidae SS02, Parastrachiinae]
    |--P. japonensis (Scott 1880) (see below for synonymy) SDT88
    `--P. nagaensis Distant 1908 SS02
  Dinidoridae SS02
    |--Coridius janus SS02
    |--Eumenotes obscurus CGW91
    `--Megymenum SS02
         |--M. affine CGW91
         |--M. gracilicorne SS02
         `--M. insulare CGW91
  Thyreocoridae SS02
    |--Thyreocoris SS02
    `--Corimelaena [Corimelaeninae] SS02
  Scutelleridae GE05
  Tessaratomidae SS02
  Megaris [Megarididae] SDT88
  Canopidae CGW91
  Urolabida [Urostylinae] SDT88
    `--U. nilgirica SDT88
  Dismegistus SDT88
  Serbana SDT88
  Cyrtocoridae SDT88
  Ruckesona [Saileriolinae] SDT88
    `--R. vitrella SDT88
  Tahitocoris SDT88

Parastrachia japonensis (Scott 1880) [=Asopus japonensis, P. japonica (l. c.); incl. *P. fulgens Distant 1883] SDT88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B27] Bergroth, E. 1927. Hemiptera Heteroptera from New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 671–684.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 Heft 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[R74] Rolston, L. H. 1974. Revision of the genus Euschistus in Middle America (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini). Entomologica Americana 48 (1): 1–102.

[SDT88] Schaefer, C. W., W. R. Dolling & S. Tachikawa. 1988. The shieldbug genus Parastrachia and its position within the Pentatomoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 93: 283–311.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[SS02] Sweet, M. H., & C. W. Schaefer. 2002. Parastrachiinae (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) raised to family level. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 441–448.

[WS04] Wang, Q., & G. L. Shi. 2004. Mating frequency, duration, and circadian mating rhythm of New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 113–117.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 9 October 2017.

Coccidae

Fig wax scale Ceroplastes rusci, from here.


Belongs within: Coccoidea.

The Coccidae, soft scales, include both wax-covered and naked species.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Female with paired triangular or rounded anal plates at the base of an anal cleft; anterior and posterior thoracic spiracles approximately the same size; spiracular and marginal setae present; tubular ducts with inner end cupped.

<==Coccidae
    |--Parasaissetia nigra WFS04
    |--*Ripersiella rumicis [=Ripersia rumicis] M27
    |--Phenacaspis dubia [=Chionaspis dubia] M27
    |--Eulecanium patersoniae GE05
    |--Platycoelostoma Morrison 1923 M27
    |    `--*P. compressa [=Coelostomidia compressa] M27
    |--Anoplaspis M27
    |    |--*A. metrosideri [=Lepidosaphes metrosideri] M27
    |    `--A. maskelli Morrison 1922 M27
    |--Saissetia B88
    |    |--S. hemisphaerica [incl. Lecanium coffeae, S. coffeae] B88
    |    |--S. nigra B88
    |    `--S. oleae B88
    |--Coccus B88
    |    |--C. celatus MHG04
    |    |--C. hesperidium B88
    |    `--C. pseudomagnoliarum D37
    |--Ctenochiton B88
    |    |--C. elaeocarpi B88
    |    |--C. perforatus B88
    |    `--C. viridis B88
    `--Ceroplastes B88
         |--C. ceriferus B88
         |--C. chrysanthemum G17
         |--C. destructor ZS10
         |--C. rubens B88
         `--C. rusci B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 429-509. Melbourne University Press.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116-131).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine - phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[M27] Myers, J. G. 1927. On the nomenclature of New Zealand Homoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 685-690.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61-72.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Fulgoromorpha

Ricania japonica, copyright Vakhtang Janjghava.


Belongs within: Hemiptera.
Contains: Fulgoridae, Issidae, Delphacidae, Achilidae, Flatidae, Derbidae, Cixiidae.

The Fulgoromorpha are plant-sucking bugs including the modern Fulgoroidea and their possible predecessors, the Permian Coleoscytidae. Fulgoroids can be distinguished from other living hemipterans by their antennae being located ventrally to the eyes and having an enlarged, more or less bulbous pedicel with wart-like sensilla. Families of fulgoroids include the Meenoplidae, characterised by have one or both of the anal veins of the forewing granulate (Carver et al. 1991).

Synapomorphies (from Shcherbakov & Popov 2002): Mesonotum with longitudinal carinae; tegula concealing forewing base; basicubital triangle short in forewing; coxae separated mesally.

<==Fulgoromorpha
    |  i. s.: Boreocixius K-P91
    |         Tricrosbia K-P91
    |--Coleoscytidae [Coleoscytoidea] SP02
    `--Fulgoroidea SP02
         |  i. s.: Surijokocixius K-P91 [Surijokocixiidae SP02]
         |         Fulgoridae SP02
         |         Issidae SP02
         |         Nogodinidae SP02
         |           |  i. s.: Salona panorpaeformis CGW91
         |           |         Nurunderia chrysopoides CGW91
         |           `--Lipocalliini FM08 [Lipocalliinae, Nogodininae]
         |                |--Lipocallia Kirkaldy 1906 FM08
         |                `--Bilbilicallia Jacobi 1928 FM08
         |         Oeclidius [Kinnaridae] RH88
         |           |--O. antricola RH88
         |           |--O. hades RH88
         |           `--O. minos RH88
         |         Tropiduchidae SP02
         |           |  i. s.: Ossa WEE70
         |           |           |--O. formosa WEE70
         |           |           `--O. venusta WEE70
         |           |         Ommatissis binotatus BM76
         |           |--Alleloplasis Waterhouse 1839 FM08 [Bladininae MC13, Gaetuliini]
         |           |--Oligaethus [Tropiduchinae, Tropiduchini] MC13
         |           |--Trichoduchus [Trypetimorphini] CGW91
         |           |    `--T. biermani CGW91
         |           `--Tambiniini CGW91
         |                |--Tambinia venusta CGW91
         |                `--Kallitambinia australis CGW91
         |         Tettigometra H01 [Tettigometridae E02]
         |         Meenoplidae RH88
         |           |  i. s.: Meenoplus cancavus Remane & Hoch 1988 RH88
         |           `--Nisiinae MC13
         |                |--Nisia atrovenosa K08
         |                |--Suva koebelei Kirkaldy 1906 CGW91, K08
         |                `--Phaconeura CGW91
         |                     |--P. caesa CGW91
         |                     |--P. froggatti CGW91
         |                     `--P. pluto RH88
         |         Hypochthonella [Hypochthonellidae] RH88
         |           `--H. caeca RH88
         |         Carpopodus [Lalacidae] GE05
         |           `--C. difficilis GE05
         |         Pyrilla B88
         |           |--P. aberrans B88
         |           `--P. perpusilla B88
         |         Dictyopharidae F05
         |           |--Bursinia galaxia Emeljanov & Drosopoulos 2004 F05
         |           |--Rhynchomitra microrhina BM76
         |           |--Cleotyche MC13
         |           |--Thanatodictya praeferrata CGW91
         |           |--Hasta CGW91
         |           |--Netutela NR13
         |           `--Austrorgerius [Orgeriinae] CGW91
         |                `--A. collinae CGW91
         |         Eurybrachyidae K91
         |           |  i. s.: Gelastopsis insignis C91
         |           `--Platybrachyini [Platybrachinae]
         |                |--Olonia CGW91
         |                |--Dardus abbreviatus CGW91, R70
         |                `--Platybrachys K91
         |                     |--P. decemmacula K91
         |                     |--P. leucostigma C91
         |                     `--P. maculipennis CGW91
         |         Achilixidae CGW91
         |         Acanalonia L88 [Acanaloniidae CGW91]
         |         Lophopidae CGW91
         |           |--Lophops saccharicida CGW91
         |           `--Kasserota CGW91
         |         Gengidae CGW91
         |--Delphacidae E02
         `--+--Achilidae E02
            |--Flatidae E02
            |--Derbidae E02
            |--+--Cixiidae E02
            |  `--Fulgoridiidae GE05
            `--Ricaniidae E02
                 |--Scolypopa australis (Walker 1851) H82
                 |--Ricania japonica E02
                 `--Orosanga YS01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E02] Emeljanov, A. F. 2002. Contribution to classification and phylogeny of the family Cixiidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha). Denisia 2002: 103–112.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[FM08] Fletcher, M. J., & M. L. Moir. 2008. Gunawardenea, a new genus of squat leafhoppers from Western Australia, with description of two new species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 429–436.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[NR13] Nel, A., P. Roques, P. Nel, A. A. Prokin, T. Bourgoin, J. Prokop, J. Szwedo, D. Azar, L. Desutter-Grandcolas, T. Wappler, R. Garrouste, D. Coty, D. Huang, M. S. Engel & A. G. Kirejtshuk. 2013. The earliest known holometabolous insects. Nature 503: 257–261.

[RH88] Remane, R., & H. Hoch. 1988. Cave-dwelling Fulguroidea (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) from the Canary Islands. Journal of Natural History 22: 403–412.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 622–635. Melbourne University Press.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 5 October 2017.