Veneridae

Golden carpet shell Tapes aureus, from here.


Belongs within: Heterodonta.
Contains: Lioconcha, Gafrarium, Dosinia, Pitar, Eumarcia, Paphia, Marama, Tawera, Periglypta, Chione.

The Veneridae is a diverse cosmopolitan group of infaunal bivalves. The earliest recorded venerids are from the Lower Cretaceous. Members of the Veneridae are divided between several subfamilies, of which members of the Venerinae are often the most ornate, with valves bearing both radial and concentric sculpture. The Venerinae also have an anterior lateral tooth present in the junction of the left valve. The Tapetinae have the shell surface somewhat polished, and lack lateral teeth (Cox et al. 1969).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Lunule and escutcheon usually well developed. Cardinal teeth three in either valve, with 1 and 2b commonly thicker than 3a and 2a; posterior lateral teeth feeble or wanting, anterior laterals present in some groups, absent in others; pallial sinus varying in size and shape.

<==Veneridae
    |--Gemminae M27
    |--Dosiniinae [Dosiniana] M27
    |    |--Dosinia M27
    |    |--Pitaria prora (Conrad 1837) M27, H09 [=Cytherea prora H09]
    |    `--*Dosinorbis bilunata M27
    |--Pitarinae S98
    |    |--Pitar M27
    |    `--Aphrodina Conrad 1869 [incl. Callistina Jukes-Browne 1908] S98
    |         |--*A. (A.) tippana (Conrad 1858) [=Meretrix tippana] S98
    |         |--*Callistina’ (Callistina) plana M27
    |         `--A. (Tikia Marwick 1927) S98
    |              |--A. (*T.) thomsoni (Woods 1917) S98 [=Callista thomsoni S98, Callistina (*T.) wilckensi M27]
    |              `--A. (T.) wilckensi (Woods 1917) [=Callista (Callistina) wilckensi] S98
    |--Meretricinae [Meretriciana] M27
    |    |--Meretrix meretrix KC11
    |    |--Finlaya Marwick 1927 M27
    |    |    `--*F. parthiana Marwick 1927 M27
    |    |--Fossacallista Marwick 1938 DK08
    |    |    `--F. tatei (Cossmann 1920) (see below for synonymy) DK08
    |    |--Paradione Dall 1909 [incl. Chionella] M27
    |    |    `--*P. (Paradione) ovalina [=Cytherea ovalina] M27
    |    |--Macrocallista Meek 1876 M27
    |    |    |--M. nimbosa [=Venus nimbosa; incl. V. gigantea, *Macrocallista gigantea] M27
    |    |    `--M. disrupta (Sowerby 1883) [=Cytherea disrupta] H09
    |    `--Notocallista Iredale 1924 M27
    |         |--N. (Notocallista) M27
    |         |    |--*N. (N.) kingi M27 [=Cytherea kingi M27, Callista kingi F27a, Paradione (*Notocallista) kingi M27]
    |         |    |--N. (N.) parki (Marwick 1927) [=Paradione (N.) parki] M27
    |         |    `--N. (N.) trigonalis (Marwick 1927) [=Paradione (N.) trigonalis] M27
    |         `--N. (Striacallista Marwick 1938) P61
    |              `--N. (*S.) multistriata (Sowerby 1851) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Tapetinae [Tapesina] M27
    |    |--Eumarcia M27
    |    |--Paphia M27
    |    |--*Hemitapes rimularis [=Venus rimularis] M27
    |    |--Notopaphia Oliver 1923 M27
    |    |    `--*N. elegans (Deshayes 1854) [=Venerupis elegans] M27
    |    |--Paphirus Finlay 1927 M27
    |    |    `--*P. largillierti (Philippi 1849) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Cyclorismina Marwick 1927 M27
    |    |    `--*C. woodsi Marwick 1927 M27
    |    |--Irona Finlay 1927 M27 [=Notirus Finlay 1928 P61]
    |    |    |--*I. reflexa (Gray 1843) M27 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--‘Notirus’ irus BBB-S95
    |    |--Cyclorisma M27
    |    |    |--*C. carolinensis M27
    |    |    `--C. oldhamia [=Cyprimeria oldhami] M27
    |    |--Gomphina Moerch 1853 M27
    |    |    |--*G. (Gomphina) veneriformis [=Venus veneriformis; incl. V. donacina] M27
    |    |    `--G. (Gomphinella Marwick 1927) M27
    |    |         |--G. (*G.) maorum Smith 1902 M27
    |    |         `--G. (G.) neastartoides M27
    |    |--Tapes M27
    |    |    |--T. aureus M62
    |    |    |--T. decusatus P75
    |    |    |--T. literatus (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
    |    |    |--T. platyptycha (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
    |    |    `--T. rhomboides M62
    |    `--Protothaca Dall 1902 M27
    |         |  i. s.: P. chiloensis [=Chione chiloensis] M27
    |         |--P. (Protothaca) M27
    |         |    |--*P. (P.) thaca [=Chama thaca; incl. Venus dombeyi] M27
    |         |    |--P. (P.) grata M27
    |         |    `--P. (P.) staminea M27
    |         `--P. (Tuangia Marwick 1927) M27
    |              `--P. (*T.) crassicosta (Deshayes 1835) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--Venerinae [Chioninae, Venusiana] M27
         |--Marama M27
         |--Tawera M27
         |--Periglypta M27
         |--*Ventricoloidea multilamella [=Chione multilamella] M27
         |--*Circomphalus plicatus [=Venus plicata, Cytherea (*Circomphalus) plicata] M27
         |--*Ventricola rugosa M27
         |--Chione M27
         |--Gnidiella Parker 1949 O08
         |--Artena M27
         |    |--A. dertoparva [=Clausinella dertoparva] M27
         |    `--A. staminea M27
         |--Ameghinomya von Ihering 1907 M27
         |    |--*A. argentina (von Ihering 1897) D10 [=Venus volckmanni var. argentina D10, Chione argentina M27]
         |    `--A. meridionalis [=Chione (Ameghinomya) meridionalis] M27
         |--Chioneryx Iredale 1924 M27
         |    |--*C. cardioides [=Erycina cardioides] M27
         |    `--C. mawsoni (Hedley 1916) [=Chione mawsoni] F27a
         |--Chamelea M27
         |    |--*C. gallina [=Venus gallina] M27
         |    `--C. cothurnix M27
         |--Timoclea MG-H11
         |    |--T. concinna (Viader 1951) [=Chione (Timoclea) concinna] L96
         |    `--T. scabra (Hanley 1844) MG-H11
         |--Kuia Marwick 1927 M27
         |    |--*K. vellicata (Hutton 1873) (see below for synonymy) M27
         |    |--K. macdowelli Marwick 1927 M27
         |    `--K. singularis Marwick 1927 M27
         |--Antigona Schumacher 1817 M27, D10
         |    |--*A. lamellaris Schumacher 1817 D10 [=Cytherea lamellaris M27]
         |    |--A. clathrata (Deshayes 1854) BW09
         |    |--A. resticulata (Sowerby 1853) BW09
         |    `--A. reticulata (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
         |--Clausinella Gray 1851 M27
         |    |--*C. fasciata [=Venus fasciata] M27
         |    |--C. morgani (Marwick 1924) [=Chione morgani] M27
         |    |--C. subroborata [=Chione subroborata] M27
         |    `--C. thiara M27
         |--Turia Marwick 1927 M27
         |    |--*T. chattonensis Marwick 1927 M27
         |    |--T. bortonensis Marwick 1927 M27
         |    |--T. pukeuriensis Marwick 1927 M27
         |    `--T. waiauensis Marwick 1927 M27
         |--Venus M27
         |    |--V. casina M62
         |    |--V. gregaria M’Coy 1847 F71
         |    |--V. ovata M62
         |    |--V. pulcherrima Deshayes 1860 F27b
         |    `--V. sulcata Lamarck 1835 M27
         |--Bassina Jukes-Browne 1914 [incl. Salacia (preoc.), Callanaitis Iredale 1917] M27
         |    |--*B. pachyphylla [=Venus pachyphylla; incl. V. paucilamellata] M27
         |    |--B. calophylla M27
         |    |--B. disjecta [=Venus (*Salacia) disjecta] M27
         |    |--B. parva Marwick 1927 M27
         |    |--B. speighti (Suter 1913) [=Chione (Lirophora) speighti] M27
         |    `--B. yatei (Gray 1835) P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Callista LS96
         |    |  i. s.: C. chione GW02
         |    |--C. (Callista) LS96
         |    |    |--*C. (C.) verrucosa [=Venus verrucosa, Clausina verrucosa] M27
         |    |    |--C. (C.) accincta Römer 1866 LS96
         |    |    `--C. (C.) roseotincta (Smith 1885) LS96 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--C. (Costacallista) lilacina (Lamarck 1818) (see below for synonymy) LS96
         |--Dosina Gray 1835 DK08 [=Dosinula Finlay 1927 M27]
         |    |  i. s.: D. crebra (Hutton 1873) P61 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |         ‘Callista’ elegans Hutton 1873 [=Chione elegans, Dosinula elegans] M27
         |    |         ‘Dosinula’ firmocosta Marwick 1927 M27
         |    |         ‘Dosinula’ suboblonga Marwick 1927 (see below for synonymy) M27
         |    |         ‘Dosinula’ uttleyi Marwick 1927 M27
         |    `--D. (Dosina) DK08
         |         |--*D. (D.) zelandica Gray 1835 D10 (see below for synonymy)
         |         `--D. (D.) multilamellata (Tate 1887) (see below for synonymy) DK08
         `--Proxichione Iredale 1929 KS02, D10 [incl. Tigammona Iredale 1930 D10]
              |--*P. materna Iredale 1929 D10
              |--P. chemnitzii (Hanley 1845) D10
              |--P. cognata (Pritchard 1903) [=Chione cognata] D10
              |--P. dimorphophylla (Tate 1885) D10
              |--P. elimatula Darragh 2010 D10
              |--P. moondarae Darragh 1965 D10
              |--P. persimilis (Iredale 1930) [=*Tigammona persimilis] D10
              `--P. subtilicostata Darragh 1965 D10

Veneridae incertae sedis:
  Mercenaria DM89
    |--M. campechiensis (Gmelin 1791) DM89
    |    |--M. c. campechiensis DM89
    |    `--M. c. texana (Dall 1902) [=Venus campechiensis texana, M. mercenaria texana] DM89
    `--M. mercenaria (Linnaeus 1758) DM89
  Lioconcha LS96
  Dosiniopsis M27
    |--*D. lenticularis M27
    `--D. fallax M27
  Pullastra M27
    |--P. galactites F27a
    `--P. rugosa [=Venerupis rugosa] F27a
  Venerupis M27
    |--V. decussatus KC11
    |--V. exotica M54
    |--V. galactites M54
    `--V. philippinarum KC11
  Gafrarium BD86
  Globivenus toreuma (Gould 1850) MG-H11
  Granicorium indutum Hedley 1906 MG-H11
  Saxidomus giganteus Deshayes 1839 R78
  Ventricolaria isocardia (Verrill 1870) PP78
  Megapitaria aurantiaca (Sowerby 1831) PP78
  Plurigens Finlay 1930 P61
    `--*P. phenax Finlay 1930 P61

Bassina yatei (Gray 1835) P61 [=Venus yatei M27, *Callanaitis yatei M27, Chione (Lirophora) yatei M27; incl. Chione chiloensis var. truncata Suter 1917 M27]

Callista (Callista) roseotincta (Smith 1885) LS96 [=Cytherea roseotincta LS96, Ca. (Striacallista) roseotincta LS96, Macrocallista roseotincta H09]

Callista (Costacallista) lilacina (Lamarck 1818) [=Cytherea lilacina; incl. Dione grata Deshayes 1853, Cy. pectoralis Sowerby 1853 non Lamarck 1818] LS96

Dosina crebra (Hutton 1873) P61 [=Chione crebra M27, Cytherea (Circomphalus) crebra M27, Cy. creba (l. c.) M27, Dosinula crebra M27, Venus crebra M27]

Dosina (Dosina) multilamellata (Tate 1887) [=Chione multilamellata, D. (D.) multitaeniata Ludbrook 1973] DK08

*Dosina (Dosina) zelandica Gray 1835 D10 [=Antigona zelandica M27, *Dosinula zelandica M27; incl. Dosina oblonga Gray 1843 M27, Antigona oblonga F27a, Cytherea (Circomphalus) oblonga M27, Venus oblonga M27]

‘Dosinula’ suboblonga Marwick 1927 [=Chione (Ventricoloidea) suboblonga Cossmann in Marshall 1917 (n. n.)] M27

Fossacallista tatei (Cossmann 1920) [=Cytherea tatei, Notocallista (Fossacallista) tatei, C. tenuis Tate 1886 non Hall & Meek 1854] DK08

*Irona reflexa (Gray 1843) M27 [=Venerupis reflexa M27, *Notirus reflexus P61; incl. V. siliqua Deshayes 1854 M27, Pullastra siliqua M27]

*Kuia vellicata (Hutton 1873) [=Chione vellicata, C. (Ventricoloidea) vellicata; incl. Cytherea (Circomphalus) chariessa Suter 1917] M27

Notocallista (*Striacallista) multistriata (Sowerby 1851) P61 [=Cytherea (Callista) multistriata M27, Macrocallista multistriata M27, Paradione (Notocallista) multistriata M27]

*Paphirus largillierti (Philippi 1849) P61 [=Venus largillierti P61; incl. V. intermedia Quoy & Gaimard 1835 (preoc.) M27]

Protothaca (*Tuangia) crassicosta (Deshayes 1835) P61 [=Venus crassicosta M27, Paphia (Protothaca) crassicosta M27]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[D10] Darragh, T. A. 2010. A new species of the genus Proxichione (Bivalvia: Veneridae) from Western Australia with notes on Late Tertiary species. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (4): 369–377.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[DM89] Dillon, R. T., Jr & J. J. Manzi. 1989. Genetics and shell morphology of hard clams (genus Mercenaria) from Laguna Madre, Texas. Nautilus 103 (2): 73–77.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KS02] Kanjilal, S., & M. S. Srinivasan. 2002. New bivalves from the Miocene of Little Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal. Journal of the Geological Society of India 60: 527–536.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[LS96] Lamprell, K. L., & J. Stanisic. 1996. Callista, Lioconcha and Pitar in New Caledonia and adjacent waters (Mollusca, Veneridae). Molluscan Research 17: 27–48.

[L96] Loch, I. 1996. Notice: R. Viader collection. Molluscan Research 17: 110.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[M27] Marwick, J. 1927. The Veneridae of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 567–636.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[O08] Özdikmen, H. 2008. Nomenclatural changes for some preoccupied harvestman genus group names (Arachnida: Opiliones). Turkish Journal of Arachnology 1 (1): 37–43.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P75] Por, F. D. 1975. Pleistocene pulsation and preadaptation of biotas in Mediterranean seas: consequences for Lessepsian migration. Systematic Zoology 24 (1): 72–78.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R78] Reid, R. G. B. 1978. The systematic, adaptive and physiological significance of proteolytic enzyme distribution in bivalves. Veliger 20 (3): 260–265.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

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