Cross-cut carpet shell Venerupis decussatus, copyright Cwmhiraeth.

Belongs within: Neoheterodontoidei.
Contains: Lioconcha, Gafrarium, Meretricinae, Dosinia, Venerinae, Eumarcia, Paphia, Tapes.

The Veneridae is a diverse cosmopolitan group of infaunal bivalves. The earliest recorded venerids are from the Lower Cretaceous. Members of the Veneridae are divided between several subfamilies, of which members of the Venerinae are often the most ornate, with valves bearing both radial and concentric sculpture. The Venerinae also have an anterior lateral tooth present in the junction of the left valve. This tooth is also present in the Dosiniinae which have lenticular, concentrically striate shells. The Tapetinae have the shell surface somewhat polished, and lack lateral teeth (Cox et al. 1969).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Lunule and escutcheon usually well developed. Cardinal teeth three in either valve, with 1 and 2b commonly thicker than 3a and 2a; posterior lateral teeth feeble or wanting, anterior laterals present in some groups, absent in others; pallial sinus varying in size and shape.

    |--+--Gafrarium PC11
    |  `--+--Gemma [Gemminae] PC11
    |     |    `--G. gemma PC11
    |     `--Meretricinae PC11
    `--+--Dosiniinae [Dosiniana] M27
       |    |--Dosinia PC11
       |    |--*Dosinorbis bilunata M27
       |    `--Pitaria M27
       |         |--P. prora (Conrad 1837) H09 [=Cytherea prora H09, Dione prora C64]
       |         `--P. rudis PP64
       |--+--Venerinae PC11
       |  `--+--Leukoma staminea (Conrad 1837) TW07
       |     `--Mercenaria PC11
       |          |--M. campechiensis (Gmelin 1791) DM89
       |          |    |--M. c. campechiensis DM89
       |          |    `--M. c. texana (Dall 1902) [=Venus campechiensis texana, M. mercenaria texana] DM89
       |          |--M. mercenaria (Linnaeus 1758) DM89
       |          `--M. stimpsoni (Gould 1861) [=Venus (Mercenaria) stimpsoni; incl. M. orientalis] C64
       `--+--Ruditapes TW07
          |    |--R. decussatus T-Q84
          |    |--R. largillierti HS01
          |    `--R. philippinarum (Adams & Reeve 1850) TW07
          |--Venerupis PC11
          |    |--V. cordieri [incl. Venus lamellifera] C64
          |    |--V. cylindracea [incl. Petricola subglobosa] C64
          |    |--V. decussatus KC11
          |    |--V. exotica M54
          |    |--V. galactites M54
          |    |--V. irus PP64
          |    |--V. philippinarum KC11
          |    `--V. saxatilis (Fleuriau 1802) TW07
          `--Tapetinae [Tapesina] M27
               |--Eumarcia M27
               |--Paphia PC11
               |--*Hemitapes rimularis [=Venus rimularis] M27
               |--Tapes M27
               |--Notopaphia Oliver 1923 M27
               |    `--*N. elegans (Deshayes 1854) [=Venerupis elegans] M27
               |--Paphirus Finlay 1927 M27
               |    `--*P. largillierti (Philippi 1849) P61 (see below for synonymy)
               |--Cyclorismina Marwick 1927 M27
               |    `--*C. woodsi Marwick 1927 M27
               |--Irona Finlay 1927 M27 [=Notirus Finlay 1928 P61]
               |    |--*I. reflexa (Gray 1843) M27 (see below for synonymy)
               |    `--‘Notirus’ irus BBB-S95
               |--Cyclorisma M27
               |    |--*C. carolinensis M27
               |    `--C. oldhamia [=Cyprimeria oldhami] M27
               |--Gomphina Moerch 1853 M27
               |    |--*G. (Gomphina) veneriformis [=Venus veneriformis; incl. V. donacina] M27
               |    `--G. (Gomphinella Marwick 1927) M27
               |         |--G. (*G.) maorum Smith 1902 M27
               |         `--G. (G.) neastartoides M27
               `--Protothaca Dall 1902 M27
                    |  i. s.: P. chiloensis [=Chione chiloensis] M27
                    |--P. (Protothaca) M27
                    |    |--*P. (P.) thaca [=Chama thaca; incl. Venus dombeyi] M27
                    |    |--P. (P.) grata M27
                    |    `--P. (P.) staminea M27
                    `--P. (Tuangia Marwick 1927) M27
                         `--P. (*T.) crassicosta (Deshayes 1835) P61 (see below for synonymy)

Veneridae incertae sedis:
  Lioconcha LS96
  Dosiniopsis M27
    |--*D. lenticularis M27
    `--D. fallax M27
  Pullastra M27
    |--P. galactites F27
    `--P. rugosa [=Venerupis rugosa] F27
  Globivenus toreuma (Gould 1850) MG-H11
  Granicorium indutum Hedley 1906 MG-H11
  Saxidomus R78
    |--S. aratus Gould 1861 C64
    |--S. brevisiphonatus Carpenter 1864 C64
    |--S. giganteus Deshayes 1839 R78 [=Venerupis gigantea C64]
    |--S. nuttallii [=Venerupis nuttalli; incl. Venus maxima, Lutraria traskei Conrad 1855] C64
    |--S. petitii C64
    |--S. purpurata XZ10
    `--S. squalidus C64
  Ventricolaria isocardia (Verrill 1870) PP78
  Megapitaria aurantiaca (Sowerby 1831) PP78
  Plurigens Finlay 1930 P61
    `--*P. phenax Finlay 1930 P61
  Circe T-Q84
    |--C. gibba F66
    |--C. nummulina C64
    |--C. pythinoides Tennison Woods 1877 P79
    |--C. scripta T-Q84
    `--C. undatina F66
  Eurhomalea C96
  Amiantis Carpenter 1864 JB12, C64
    `--*A. callosa (Conr. 1837) (see below for synonymy) C64
  Anomalocardia JB12
    |--A. squamosa K10
    |--A. subimbricata [incl. Venus amathusia] C64
    |--A. subrugosa C64
    `--A. trapezina F66
  Katelysia opima RK73
  Tivela arguta JB12, C64 [=Cytherea (Tivela) arguta C64]
  Irus TW07
    |--I. irus (Linnaeus 1758) TW07
    |--I. mitis T-Q84
    `--I. reflexus HS01
  Securella Parker 1949 AJH07
  Dione C64
    |--D. circinata [incl. Callista alternata, Venus guineensis, V. rubra] C64
    |--D. pannosa [=Callista pannosa; incl. Cytherea lutea, Ca. rosea var. puella] C64
    `--D. unicolor [incl. Chione badia, Cytherea ligula] C64
  Clementia C64
    |--C. papyracea (Gmelin 1791) [=Venus papyracea] H09
    `--C. subdiaphana Carpenter 1864 C64
  Pachydesma C64
    |--P. crassatelloides [incl. P. stultorum] C64
    `--P. inezana C64
  Psephis C64
    |--P. lordi Baird 1863 C64
    |--P. salmonea Carpenter 1864 C64
    |--P. tantilla [incl. Venus rhysomia] C64
    `--P. tellimyalis Carpenter 1864 C64

*Amiantis callosa (Conr. 1837) [=Callista callosa, Cytherea callosa; incl. Dione nobilis Rve. 1849, Callista nobilis, Cytherea nobilis] C64

*Irona reflexa (Gray 1843) M27 [=Venerupis reflexa M27, *Notirus reflexus P61; incl. V. siliqua Deshayes 1854 M27, Pullastra siliqua M27]

*Kuia vellicata (Hutton 1873) [=Chione vellicata, Ch. (Ventricoloidea) vellicata; incl. Cytherea (Circomphalus) chariessa Suter 1917] M27

*Paphirus largillierti (Philippi 1849) P61 [=Venus largillierti M27; incl. V. intermedia Quoy & Gaimard 1835 (preoc.) M27]

Protothaca (*Tuangia) crassicosta (Deshayes 1835) P61 [=Venus crassicosta M27, Paphia (Protothaca) crassicosta M27]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

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[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

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Last updated: 24 October 2021.

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