Halacaridae

Female Soldanellonyx chappuisi, copyright Holger Müller.


Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Copidognathus, Isobactrus, Rhombognathus, Rhombognathides, Agauopsis, Halacarus, Agaue, Anomalohalacarus.

The Halacaridae are a diverse group of aquatic mites, including both marine and freshwater forms. They do not swim, but have strong tarsal claws for movement and for holding themselves in place. The majority of species are predators or algal feeders, but a number are parasites or obligate commensals of other aquatic invertebrates (Walter et al. 2009). Such species include Enterohalacarus minutipalpis, found in the gut of the sea urchin Plesioderma indicum, and the Australian Astacopsiphagus parasiticus, found on the gills of the freshwater crayfish Euastacus spinifer (Walter & Proctor 1999).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Five to ten pairs of dorsal idiosomatic setae present; prodorsal bothridial setae absent. Tarsi I-IV with strongly developed lateral claws, usually with serrate margins, often with a claw-like or bifid empodium. Adults with two to several pairs of genital papillae.

<==Halacaridae [Limnohalacaridae]
    |--Mictognathus B05 [Mictognathinae WL09]
    |--Ropohalacarus [Ropohalacarinae] WL09
    |--Astacopsiphagus Viets 1931 H98 [Astacopsiphaginae WL09]
    |    `--A. parasiticus Viets 1931 H98
    |--Enterohalacarus Viets 1938 [Enterohalacarinae] N47
    |    `--E. minutipalpus K09
    |--Halixodes Brucker & Trouessart 1900 [Halixodinae] N47
    |    |--H. chitonis WP99
    |    `--H. truncipes Chilton 1883 [=Halacarus truncipes] QH01
    |--Acarochelopodia Angelier 1954 [Acarochelopodinae] B86
    |    |--A. aduncispina Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |--A. angelieri Travé 1972 B86
    |    |--A. cuneifera Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    `--A. delamarei Angelier 1954 B86
    |--Porohalacarinae [Porohalacaridae] N47
    |    |--Porohalacarus Thor 1923 N47
    |    |    `--P. alpinus BK91
    |    `--Caspihalacarus Viets 1928 N47
    |         `--C. hyrcanus WL09
    |--Copidognathinae B05
    |    |--Copidognathus B86
    |    `--Werthella Lohmann 1907 B05
    |         |--W. ampliata Bartsch 1996 H98
    |         |--W. atlantica Bartsch 1986 B05
    |         |--W. parvirostris [=Copidognathus parvirostris] N47
    |         |--W. plumifera Newell 1971 B05
    |         `--W. terella Bartsch 1993 B05
    |--Rhombognathinae [Rhombognathidae] B07
    |    |--Isobactrus AB07
    |    |--Rhombognathus DPD16
    |    |--Rhombognathides N47
    |    `--Metarhombognathus Newell 1947 N47
    |         |--*M. armatus (Lohmann 1893) [=Rhombognathus armatus; incl. R. mollis Viets 1927] N47
    |         |    |--M. a. armatus N47
    |         |    `--M. a. americanus Newell 1947 N47
    |         `--M. nudus (Viets 1928) [incl. Rhombognathopsis contectus Viets 1928] N47
    |--Actacarus Schulz 1937 [Actacarinae] B86
    |    |--A. australis Bartsch 1993 H98
    |    |--A. bacescui Konnerth-Ionescu 1970 B86
    |    |--A. giganteus Krantz 1971 B86
    |    |--A. hastatus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |--A. illustrans Newell 1951 B86
    |    |--A. mollis Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |--A. obductus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |--A. pacificus Bartsch 1979 B86
    |    |--A. pygmaeus Schulz 1937 B86
    |    `--A. uniscutatus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |--Lohmannellinae [Lohmannellidae] B05
    |    |--Scaptognathides Monniot 1972 B86
    |    |    |--S. australis Bartsch 1993 H98
    |    |    |--S. bicornis Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |    `--S. planus Monniot 1972 B86
    |    |--Porolohmannella Viets 1933 WL09, S86 [Porolohmannellinae]
    |    |    |--P. andrei Angelier 1951 S86
    |    |    |--P. curvimandibulata Petrova 1969 S86
    |    |    `--P. cvetkovi Petrova 1965 S86
    |    |--Scaptognathus Trouessart 1889 N47
    |    |    |--S. australis Bartsch 1993 H98
    |    |    |--S. bassianus Abé & Green 1994 H98
    |    |    |--S. peregrinus Bartsch 1993 H98
    |    |    `--S. sabularius André 1961 M62
    |    `--Lohmannella Trouessart 1901 B05 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--*L. falcata ((Hodge 1863) (see below for synonymy) N47
    |         |--L. abyssalis Bartsch 2005 B05
    |         |--L. arenaria Bartsch 1993 H98
    |         |--L. pinggi Otto 1994 H98
    |         `--L. stammeri Viets 1939 B05
    |--Simognathinae B86
    |    |--Atelopsalis Trouessart 1896 N47
    |    |    `--*A. tricuspis Trouessart 1896 T96
    |    |--Ischyrognathus Trouessart 1900 N47
    |    |    `--I. coutieri N47
    |    |--Simognathus Trouessart 1889 H98
    |    |    |--S. andrei Monniot 1961 M62
    |    |    |--S. delicatulus Bartsch 1994 H98
    |    |    |--S. gibberosus Bartsch 1994 H98
    |    |    |--S. gracilis Bartsch 1994 H98
    |    |    |--S. maculatus Bartsch 1994 H98
    |    |    |--S. scutatus Bartsch 1993 H98
    |    |    |--S. uniscutatus Bartsch 1994 H98
    |    |    `--S. variolosus Bartsch 1994 H98
    |    `--Acaromantis Trouessart & Neumann 1893 B86
    |         |--A. arenarius Bartsch 1980 B86
    |         |--A. armatus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |         |--A. fastigatus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |         |--A. grandiculus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |         |--A. minutus Bartsch 1976 B86
    |         |--A. monnioti Morselli 1970 B86
    |         |--A. punctulus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |         |--A. squilla Trouessart & Neumann 1893 B86
    |         `--A. subasper Bartsch 1977 B86
    |--Limnohalacarinae WL09
    |    |--Hamohalacarus Walter 1931 S86
    |    |    `--H. subterraneus Walter 1931 S86
    |    |--Stygohalacarus Viets 1934 S86
    |    |    `--S. scupiensis Viets 1934 S86
    |    |--Himejacarus Imamura 1957 S86
    |    |    `--H. morimotoi Imamura 1957 S86
    |    |--Limnohalacarus Walter 1917 S86
    |    |    |--L. africanus Walter 1935 S86
    |    |    |--L. capernaumi Petrova 1966 S86
    |    |    `--L. wackeri (Walter 1914) S86
    |    |--Parasoldanellonyx Viets 1929 S86
    |    |    |--P. parviscutatus (Walter 1917) S86
    |    |    `--P. typhlops Viets 1933 S86
    |    |         |--P. t. typhlops S86
    |    |         |--P. t. belgicus Viets 1936 S86
    |    |         `--P. t. japonicus Imamura 1957 S86
    |    `--Soldanellonyx Walter 1917 S86
    |         |--S. akiyoshiensis Imamura 1959 S86
    |         |--S. chappuisi Walter 1917 S86
    |         |--S. miyakoensis Imamura 1957 S86
    |         |--S. monardi Walter 1919 S86
    |         |    |--S. m. monardi S86
    |         |    |--S. m. japonicus Imamura 1971 S86
    |         |    `--S. m. sarangensis Viets 1929 S86
    |         |--S. papillosus Imamura 1957 S86
    |         `--S. visurgis Viets 1960 S86
    `--Halacarinae B05
         |--Agauopsis WP99
         |--Halacarus B05
         |--Agaue B05
         |--Pontacarus Lohmann 1901 N47
         |--Troglohalacarus Viets 1937 S86
         |    `--T. dentipes Viets 1937 S86
         |--Coloboceras Trouessart 1889 N47
         |    |--C. koehleri Trouessart 1896 T96
         |    `--C. longiusculus M62
         |--Bathyhalacarus Sokolov & Yankovskaya 1968 B05
         |    |--B. acutus Bartsch 1982 B05
         |    |--B. angustops (Newell 1984) B05
         |    `--B. anomalus Bartsch 2005 B05
         |--Lobohalacarus Viets 1939 S86 [incl. Walterella Romijn & Viets 1924 (preoc.) H98]
         |    |--L. bunurong Harvey 1988 H98
         |    `--L. weberi (Romijn & Viets 1924) S86
         |         |--L. w. weberi S86
         |         |--L. w. gotoensis Imamura 1970 S86
         |         `--L. w. quadriporus (Walter 1947) S86
         |--Halacarellus Viets 1927 B86, N47
         |    |--*H. balticus (Lohmann 1889) [=Halacarus balticus, H. (Thalassarachna) balticus] N47
         |    |--H. capuzinus (Lohmann 1893) B86 [=Halacarus capuzinus N47, H. (Thalassarachna) capuzinus N47]
         |    |--H. decipiens (Newell 1984) B05
         |    |--H. harioti B05
         |    |--H. phreaticus Petrova 1972 B86
         |    |--H. procerus Viets 1927 B86
         |    |--H. psammophilus (Krantz 1976) B86
         |    |--H. subcrispus Bartsch 1978 B86
         |    `--H. subterraneus Schulz 1933 [=Halacarus (Thalassarachna) subterraneus] B86
         `--Anomalohalacarus B86

Halacaridae incertae sedis:
  Halacaropsis Bartsch 1996 H98
    |--H. capuzina Bartsch 1996 H98
    |--H. hirsuta (Trouessart 1889) [=Agaue hirsuta, Agauopsis hirsuta] H98
    `--H. warringa (Otto 1993) [=Agauopsis warringa] H98
  Bradyagaue Newell 1971 H98
    `--B. scutella Bartsch 1992 H98
  Colobocerasides B05
  Werthelloides WP99
  Parhalixodes travei WL09, WP99
  Spongihalacarus longiscutis WL09
  Arenihalacarus WL09
  Peregrinacarus reticulatus WL09
  Acarothrix WL09
  Australacarus Bartsch 1987 H98
    `--A. pustulatus Bartsch 1993 H98
  Phacacarus Bartsch 1992 H98
    `--P. flavellus Bartsch 1992 H98

Lohmannella Trouessart 1901 B05 [=Leptognathus Hodge 1863 (preoc.) N47, Trouessartella Lohmann 1901 (preoc.) N47]

*Lohmannella falcata ((Hodge 1863) [=*Leptognathus falcatus, Halacarus falcatus, Raphignathus falcatus, *Trouessartella falcata; incl. Leptognathus marinus Lohmann 1889] N47

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AB07] Abé, H., & I. Bartsch. 2007. Historical biogeography of the halacarid mite genus Isobactrus (Prostigmata, Halacaridae). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 119–126. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[B86] Bartsch, I. 1986. Acari: Halacaridae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 638–642. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[B05] Bartsch, I. 2005. Halacaridae from the depths of western Antarctica (Arachnida, Acari). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 31–41.

[B07] Bartsch, I. 2007. Rhombognathus from the Caribbean area, with the description of a new species (Arachnida, Acari, Halacaridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 17–22.

[BK91] Biesiadka, E., & W. Kowalik. 1991. Water mites (Hydracarina) as indicators of trophy and pollution in lakes. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 475–481. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Habits and habitats. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 64–82. Texas Tech University Press.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[N47] Newell, I. M. 1947. A systematic and ecological study of the Halacaridae of eastern North America. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection 10 (3): 1–232.

[QH01] Qin, T.-K., & R. C. Henderson. 2001. Taxonomy of New Zealand Prostigmata: past, present and future. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 35–39. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: Limnohalacaridae and Hydrovolziidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 643–647. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[T96] Trouessart, E. 1896. Resultats scientifiques de la campagne du "Caudan" dans le Golfe de Gascogne: Halacariens. Annales de l'Universite de Lyon 26: 325–353, pls 9–11.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Last updated: 16 February 2019.

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