Halacaridae

Female Soldanellonyx chappuisi, copyright Holger Müller.


Belongs within: Eupodides.
Contains: Anomalohalacarus, Copidognathus, Halacarellus.

The Halacaridae are a diverse group of aquatic mites, including both marine and freshwater forms. They do not swim, but have strong tarsal claws for movement and for holding themselves in place. The majority of species are predators or algal feeders, but a number are parasites or obligate commensals of other aquatic invertebrates (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Five to ten pairs of dorsal idiosomatic setae present; prodorsal bothridial setae absent. Tarsi I-IV with strongly developed lateral claws, usually with serrate margins, often with a claw-like or bifid empodium. Adults with two to several pairs of genital papillae.

<==Halacaridae [Limnohalacaridae]
    |--Mictognathus B05 [Mictognathinae WL09]
    |--Anomalohalacarus WL09
    |--Ropohalacarus [Ropohalacarinae] WL09
    |--Astacopsiphagus [Astacopsiphaginae] WP99
    |    `--A. parasiticus WP99
    |--Enterohalacarus [Enterohalacarinae] WP99
    |    `--E. minutipalpus K09
    |--Halixodes [Halixodinae] WP99
    |    |--H. chitonis WP99
    |    `--H. truncipes Chilton 1883 [=Halacarus truncipes] QH01
    |--Acarochelopodia Angelier 1954 [Acarochelopodinae] B86
    |    |--A. aduncispina Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |--A. angelieri Travé 1972 B86
    |    |--A. cuneifera Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    `--A. delamarei Angelier 1954 B86
    |--Copidognathinae B05
    |    |--Copidognathus B86
    |    `--Werthella Lohmann 1907 B05
    |         |--W. atlantica Bartsch 1986 B05
    |         |--W. plumifera Newell 1971 B05
    |         `--W. terella Bartsch 1993 B05
    |--Actacarus Schulz 1937 [Actacarinae] B86
    |    |--A. bacescui Konnerth-Ionescu 1970 B86
    |    |--A. giganteus Krantz 1971 B86
    |    |--A. hastatus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |--A. illustrans Newell 1951 B86
    |    |--A. mollis Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |--A. obductus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |--A. pacificus Bartsch 1979 B86
    |    |--A. pygmaeus Schulz 1937 B86
    |    `--A. uniscutatus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |--Lohmannellinae [Lohmannellidae] B86
    |    |--Scaptognathides Monniot 1972 B86
    |    |    |--S. bicornis Bartsch 1977 B86
    |    |    `--S. planus Monniot 1972 B86
    |    |--Lohmannella Trouessart 1901 B05
    |    |    |--L. abyssalis Bartsch 2005 B05
    |    |    |--L. falcata M62
    |    |    `--L. stammeri Viets 1939 B05
    |    `--Porolohmannella Viets 1933 WL09, S86 [Porolohmannellinae]
    |         |--P. andrei Angelier 1951 S86
    |         |--P. curvimandibulata Petrova 1969 S86
    |         `--P. cvetkovi Petrova 1965 S86
    |--Simognathinae B86
    |    |--Simognathus andrei Monniot 1961 M62
    |    `--Acaromantis Trouessart & Neumann 1893 B86
    |         |--A. arenarius Bartsch 1980 B86
    |         |--A. armatus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |         |--A. fastigatus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |         |--A. grandiculus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |         |--A. minutus Bartsch 1976 B86
    |         |--A. monnioti Morselli 1970 B86
    |         |--A. punctulus Bartsch 1977 B86
    |         |--A. squilla Trouessart & Neumann 1893 B86
    |         `--A. subasper Bartsch 1977 B86
    |--Rhombognathinae [Rhombognathidae] WL09
    |    |--Rhombognathides WL09
    |    |--Metarhombognathus WL09
    |    |--Isobactrus WL09
    |    |    |--I. setosus WL09
    |    |    `--I. uniscutatus WP99
    |    `--Rhombognathus Trouessart 1888 B07
    |         |--R. caribaeus Bartsch 2007 B07
    |         |--R. leurodactylus WL09
    |         |--R. magnirostris Trouessart 1889 B07
    |         |--R. pectinatus Viets 1936 B07
    |         |--R. peltatus Viets 1939 B07
    |         |--R. pseudolionyx Newell & André 1959 B07
    |         |--R. reticulatus WL09
    |         `--R. validipes Bartsch 2000 B07
    |--Limnohalacarinae WL09
    |    |--Hamohalacarus Walter 1931 S86
    |    |    `--H. subterraneus Walter 1931 S86
    |    |--Stygohalacarus Viets 1934 S86
    |    |    `--S. scupiensis Viets 1934 S86
    |    |--Himejacarus Imamura 1957 S86
    |    |    `--H. morimotoi Imamura 1957 S86
    |    |--Limnohalacarus Walter 1917 S86
    |    |    |--L. africanus Walter 1935 S86
    |    |    |--L. capernaumi Petrova 1966 S86
    |    |    `--L. wackeri (Walter 1914) S86
    |    |--Parasoldanellonyx Viets 1929 S86
    |    |    |--P. parviscutatus (Walter 1917) S86
    |    |    `--P. typhlops Viets 1933 S86
    |    |         |--P. t. typhlops S86
    |    |         |--P. t. belgicus Viets 1936 S86
    |    |         `--P. t. japonicus Imamura 1957 S86
    |    `--Soldanellonyx Walter 1917 S86
    |         |--S. akiyoshiensis Imamura 1959 S86
    |         |--S. chappuisi Walter 1917 S86
    |         |--S. miyakoensis Imamura 1957 S86
    |         |--S. monardi Walter 1919 S86
    |         |    |--S. m. monardi S86
    |         |    |--S. m. japonicus Imamura 1971 S86
    |         |    `--S. m. sarangensis Viets 1929 S86
    |         |--S. papillosus Imamura 1957 S86
    |         `--S. visurgis Viets 1960 S86
    `--Halacarinae [Porohalacarinae] B86
         |--Halacarellus B86
         |--Porohalacarus alpinus WL09, BK91
         |--Troglohalacarus Viets 1937 S86
         |    `--T. dentipes Viets 1937 S86
         |--Bathyhalacarus Sokolov & Yankovskaya 1968 B05
         |    |--B. acutus Bartsch 1982 B05
         |    |--B. angustops (Newell 1984) B05
         |    `--B. anomalus Bartsch 2005 B05
         |--Agauopsis WP99
         |    |--A. curvata WP99
         |    |--A. filirostris WP99
         |    `--A. microrhyncha M62
         |--Lobohalacarus Viets 1939 S86
         |    `--L. weberi (Romijn & Viets 1924) S86
         |         |--L. w. weberi S86
         |         |--L. w. gotoensis Imamura 1970 S86
         |         `--L. w. quadriporus (Walter 1947) S86
         |--Agaue Lohmann 1889 B05
         |    |--A. chevreuxi M62
         |    |--A. panopae M62
         |    |    |--A. p. panopae M62
         |    |    `--A. p. setifera M62
         |    |--A. parvus Chilton 1883 [=Halacarus parvus] QH01
         |    |--A. uncinata Bartsch 1990 B05
         |    `--A. verrucosa Bartsch 1982 B05
         `--Halacarus Gosse 1855 B05
              |--H. anomalus M62
              |--H. basteri M62
              |    |--H. b. basteri M62
              |    `--H. b. affinis M62
              |--H. bisulcus Viets 1927 M62
              |--H. humerosus M62
              |    |--H. h. humerosus M62
              |    `--H. h. graveolus Monniot 1962 M62
              `--H. longior Bartsch 1981 B05

Halacaridae incertae sedis:
  Halacaropsis OW01
  Bradyagaue B05
  Colobocerasides B05
  Werthelloides WP99
  Parhalixodes travei WL09, WP99
  Spongihalacarus longiscutis WL09
  Thalassarachna WL09
    |--T. psammophila WL09
    `--T. raphidochela WL09
  Arenihalacarus WL09
  Peregrinacarus reticulatus WL09
  Caspihalacarus hyrcanus WL09
  Acarothrix WL09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B86] Bartsch, I. 1986. Acari: Halacaridae. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 638-642. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[B05] Bartsch, I. 2005. Halacaridae from the depths of western Antarctica (Arachnida, Acari). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 31-41.

[B07] Bartsch, I. 2007. Rhombognathus from the Caribbean area, with the description of a new species (Arachnida, Acari, Halacaridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 17-22.

[BK91] Biesiadka, E., & W. Kowalik. 1991. Water mites (Hydracarina) as indicators of trophy and pollution in lakes. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 475-481. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Habits and habitats. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 64-82. Texas Tech University Press.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231-322.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 100-109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[QH01] Qin, T.-K., & R. C. Henderson. 2001. Taxonomy of New Zealand Prostigmata: past, present and future. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 35-39. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: Limnohalacaridae and Hydrovolziidae. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 643-647. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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