Passifloraceae

Blue passionflower Passiflora caerulea, photographed by Natalie G.


Belongs within: Violineae.

The Passifloraceae includes the passionflowers and related taxa. Passionflowers (Passiflora) are tendrillar climbers, many species of which are grown for their edible fruit. Other species of the Passifloraceae are herbs or woody plants.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycosides and/or cyclopentenyl fatty acids present, cyanogenic glycosides derived from valine and isoleucine present; colleters present; calyx and corolla together forming a tube, styles separate; aril present, endotestal cells large, exotegmen palisade, endotegmen persistent; endosperm persistent, oily; biparental or paternal transmission of plastids.

Passifloraceae
    |  i. s.: Adenia SR07
    |           |--A. hondala SR07
    |           `--A. pechuelii CV06
    |         Atheranthera YY22
    |         Echinothamnus YY22
    |         Ophiocaulon YY22
    |         Tetrapathaea YY22
    |           |--T. australis A27
    |           `--T. tetrandra WH02 [=Passiflora tetrandra YY22]
    |         Paschanthus YY22
    |         Soyauxia BB07
    |--Malesherbia [Malesherbiaceae] DL07
    `--+--Turneraceae T00
       |    |--Hyalocalyx YY22
       |    |--Mathurina YY22
       |    |--Piriqueta YY22
       |    |--Streptopetalum YY22
       |    |--Wormskioldia YY22
       |    `--Turnera DL07
       |         |--T. oculata CV06
       |         |    |--T. o. var. oculata CV06
       |         |    `--T. o. var. paucipilosa CV06
       |         |--T. subulata P88
       |         `--T. ulmifolia P88
       `--+--Paropsia DL07
          `--Passiflora DL07
               |--P. caerulea BL04
               |--P. edulis H06
               |    |--P. e. f. edulis CR01
               |    `--P. e. f. flavicarpa CR01
               |--P. ekmanii J87
               |--P. foetida P88
               |--P. laurifolia P88
               |--P. mollissima Z02 [=P. tripartita var. mollissima H06]
               |--P. murucuja J87
               |--P. orbiculata J87
               |--P. sexflora J87
               |--P. suberosa H06
               `--P. subpeltata H06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[BB07] Bhattacharyya, P. K. & K. Bhattacharyya. 2007. A comparison of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification (2003) with system of Takhtajan (1997) and Cronquist (1988). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 95-120.

[CR01] Chagas, C. M., V. Rossetti, A. Colariccio, O. Lovisolo, E. W. Kitajima & C. C. Childers. 2001. Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) as vectors of plant viruses. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 369-375. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27-34.

Polygalaceae

September bush Polygala myrtifolia, photographed by Raimond Spekking.


Belongs within: Fabales.

The Polygalaceae are a family of flowering plants including the milkworts and related taxa. Members of the Polygalaceae often have flowers with the lower petal keeled. Trees of the genus Xanthophyllum are used as a source of fine wood.

Characters (from Chen, Ma & Parnell): Perennial or annual herbs or shrubs or trees, rarely small herbs (the latter sometimes saprophytic). Leaves simple, alternate, opposite, or whorled, petiolate or sessile, papery or leathery, with pinnate veins, margin entire, leaves rarely reduced and scalelike; stipules absent, sometimes spiniform or scalelike appendages present. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, white, yellow, or purple-red, pedicellate or sessile, in axillary or terminal racemes, panicles, or spikes, with bracts and usually also with bracteoles. Calyx persistent or caducous; sepals 5, free or connate at base, outer 3 small, inner 2 (alae) large, petal-like, or all 5 nearly equal. Petals 3 or 5, basally often connate, lower (median) one ("keel") usually inflexed, carinate, sometimes with fimbriate or lamellate or papilionaceous apical appendages. Stamens 8, 7, 5, or 4; filaments free, or variously united and forming a sheath open on upper side and troughlike; anthers basifixed, usually dehiscing by a single apical pore. Disk usually absent, if present annular or glandular. Ovary superior, 1- or 2-loculed; ovule 1 per locule, anatropous, pendulous, rarely ovules numerous and placentas parietal; style 1, erect or curved; stigmas 1 or 2, capitate. Fruit a 2-loculed capsule, dehiscing by valves, or a 1-loculed samara or a berrylike drupe, dehiscing or not. Seeds 2, or 1 with 1 sterile locule, yellow-brown, dark castaneous, or black, ovoid, globose, or ellipsoidal, glabrous or piliferous, strophiolate or not, with or without endosperm, sometimes with an appendage at end opposite to strophiole.

<==Polygalaceae [Polygaleae]
    |--Xanthophyllum H03
    `--Moutabeeae H03
         |--Balgoya H03
         `--+--Eriandra H03
            `--Diclidanthera forrestii H03, EF04

Polygalaceae incertae sedis:
  Polygala WM09
    |--P. arilata D07
    |--P. cruciata WM09
    |--P. erioptera PP07
    |--P. guerichiana CV06
    |--P. monspeliaca PT98
    |--P. myrtifolia GK00
    |--P. nicaeensis Risso ex Koch 1839 PL04
    |    |--P. n. ssp. nicaeensis PL04
    |    `--P. n. ssp. mediterranea Chodat 1889 PL04
    `--P. penaea J87
  Comesperma OS04
    |--C. calymega GK00
    |--C. ciliatum GK00
    |--C. drummondii GK00
    |--C. flavum GK00
    |--C. integerrimum OS04
    |--C. scoparium OS04
    |--C. virgatum GK00
    `--C. volubile G04
  Salomonia oblongifolia H09
  Securidaca WM09
    |--S. diversifolia WM09
    `--S. virgata J87
  Monnina xalapensis MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

Oxalidales

Yellow wood sorrel Oxalis stricta, photographed by Robbin Moran.


Belongs within: Fabidae.
Contains: Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae.

The Oxalidales is a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analyses. Many members of the clade are tropical trees and shrubs, but the clade also includes the prominent herbaceous genus Oxalis, the sorrels, a number of species of which are invasive weeds in many parts of the world. The Oxalidaceae also include the small tree genus Averrhoa, of which the carambola A. carambola and bilimbi A. bilimbi are cultivated for their edible fruit; the acidic fruit of A. bilimbi are more commonly used in cooking than eaten raw. Members of the clade containing Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Brunellia and Cephalotus have a valvate calyx that is postgenitally coherent by hairs (Angiosperm Phylogeny Web).Cephalotus follicularis of south-western Australia is a herb with leaves modified into insect-catching lidded pitchers. Brunellia is a Neotropical montane genus of trees with usually odd-pinnately compound leaves and bearing apetalous flowers.

Oxalidales [Cunoniales]
    |  i. s.: Platydiscus peltatus XR12
    |--Huaceae WM09
    |    |--Afrostyrax CD07
    |    `--Hua gabonii XR12, WM09
    `--+--+--+--Cunoniaceae WM09
       |  |  `--+--Elaeocarpaceae WM09
       |  |     `--Cephalotus [Cephalotaceae, Cephalotales] WM09
       |  |          `--C. follicularis WM09
       |  `--Brunellia [Brunelliaceae] WM09
       |       |--B. comocladiifolia J87
       |       |    |--B. c. ssp. comocladiifolia J87
       |       |    `--B. c. ssp. domingensis J87
       |       |--B. goudotii R96
       |       `--B. vulgaris C55a
       `--+--Connaraceae WM09
          |    |--Jollydora [Jollydoroideae] T00
          |    |--Rourea brachyandra B00
          |    |--Connaracanthium roureoides Conwentz 1886 CBH93
          |    |--Cnestis CBH93
          |    `--Connarus [Connaroideae] WM09
          |         `--C. conchocarpus WM09
          `--Oxalidaceae [Averrhoeaceae] WM09
               |  i. s.: Oxalidites brachysepalus Caspary 1887 CBH93
               |         Bilimbia Rchb. 1837 KC01
               |--+--Dapania XR12
               |  `--Averrhoa XR12
               |       |--A. bilimbi P88
               |       `--A. carambola P88
               `--Oxalis Linnaeus 1753 XR12, A61 [incl. Oxys D01]
                    |--O. albicans H93
                    |    |--O. a. ssp. albicans H93
                    |    |--O. a. ssp. californica H93
                    |    `--O. a. ssp. pilosa H93
                    |--O. ausensis CV06
                    |--O. cernua C55b
                    |--O. corniculata Linnaeus 1753 A61
                    |    |--O. c. var. corniculata A61
                    |    |--O. c. var. ciliifera (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 (see below for synonymy) A61
                    |    |--O. c. var. crassifolia (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 [=O. crassifolia Cunn. 1839] A61
                    |    `--O. c. var. microphylla Hook. f. 1852 [incl. O. exilis Cunn. 1839] A61
                    |--O. dillenii Jacq. 1794 CD07
                    |--O. eggersii J87
                    |--O. hirta C06
                    |--O. hunsbergensis CV06
                    |--O. laciniata D03
                    |--O. lactea Hook. 1836 [incl. O. cataractae Cunn. 1839, O. novae-zelandiae Gand. 1913] A61
                    |--O. latifolia [incl. O. martiana] H93
                    |--O. laxa H93
                    |--O. luederitzii CV06
                    |--O. magellanica Forst. f. 1789 A61
                    |--O. micrantha H93
                    |--O. oregana H93
                    |--O. perennans GK00
                    |--O. pes-caprae M99
                    |--O. pseudo-cernua CV06
                    |--O. purpurea [incl. O. variabilis] H93
                    |--O. rubra H93
                    |--O. schaeferi CV06
                    |--O. stricta Linnaeus 1753 A61 (see below for synonymy)
                    |--O. suksdorfii H93
                    |--O. trilliifolia H93
                    `--O. tuberosa S00

Oxalis corniculata var. ciliifera (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1852 [=O. ciliifera Cunn. 1839; incl. O. tenuicaulis Cunn. 1839] A61

Oxalis stricta Linnaeus 1753 A61 [=O. corniculata var. stricta C06; incl. O. ambigua Rich. 1832 A61, O. divergens Cunn. 1839 A61, O. lacicola Cunn. 1839 A61, O. propinqua Cunn. 1839 A61, O. urvillei Cunn. 1839 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75–103.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485–607.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

Last updated: 13 April 2020.

Euphorbia

Cypress spurge Euphorbia cyparissias, from here.


Belongs within: Euphorbiaceae.

Euphorbia is a very large genus of flowering plants, most diverse in drier parts of the tropics. Species are diverse in appearance, including herbs, trees and cactus-like succulents. Some species are popular ornamentals, such as the poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima, though the latex sap of species in this genus can be noticeably caustic. Notable species include the petty spurge E. peplus, a native of Europe and western Asia that has become naturalised in many other parts of the world including North America and Australasia.

Characters (from Ma & Gilbert): Herbs (annual, biennial, or perennial), shrubs, or trees, very rarely subscandent, sometimes rhizomatous, monoecious or, rarely in Flora area, dioecious; indumentum of simple hairs, often absent, all parts with abundant white, very rarely yellow, latex; roots fibrous or tuberous. Stems sometimes succulent, terete or variously winged or tuberculate. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely verticillate; stipules present or not, sometimes modified into glands or prickles; petiole often ill-defined to absent; leaf blade usually entire, sometimes serrulate or dentate. Inflorescence a flowerlike cyathium, single or often several in terminal or axillary, dichasial or monochasial cymes often in a "pseudumbel" with a terminal, more or less sessile cyathium subtended by a whorl of pedunculate cymes, each subtended by an involucral leaf; cyathium consisting of a bowl-shaped to tubular involucre subtended by a pair of bracts, "cyathophylls," enclosing several clusters of male flowers and 1 central female flower, occasionally cyathia unisexual, involucre margin with 4 or 5 lobes, cyathial glands (1-)4 or 5(-7), mostly alternating with involucral lobes, sometimes with petaloid appendages or a pair of horns. Male flower reduced to a single stamen, with an articulation at junction of pedicel and filament, subtended by slender bracteoles. Female flower pedicellate, reduced to a single ovary, rarely subtended by a very reduced perianth; ovary 3-loculed; ovules 1 per locule; styles 3, free, sometimes partly connate; stigma 2-lobed or not, more or less capitate. Fruit a capsule, breaking into 3 2-valved cocci, dehiscence usually explosive, very rarely almost indehiscent. Seeds 1 per locule, globose to ovoid or more or less cylindric; caruncle present or not; endosperm abundant; cotyledons large.

<==Euphorbia Linnaeus 1753 A61 [incl. Chamaesyce E03; Euphorbioideae]
    |--E. abyssinica DL07
    |--E. acanthothamnos S98
    |--E. acaulis KJ05
    |--E. albomarginata BT72
    |--E. alsiniflora LK14
    |--E. amygdaloides HH03
    |--E. angrae CV06
    |--E. antiquorum P88
    |--E. armstrongiana LK14
    |--E. atoto H09
    |--E. baliola CV06
    |--E. balsamifera GC05
    |--E. bifida LK14
    |--E. biglandulosa P93
    |--E. caducifolia PP07
    |--E. calyptrata P93
    |--E. caperonioides CV06
    |--E. chamaesyce Y98
    |--E. chamaesycoides CV06
    |--E. characias C55a
    |--E. cibdela CV06
    |--E. clarkeana PP07
    |--E. cyathophora LK14
    |--E. cyparissias C55b
    |--E. cyparissioides P93
    |--E. damarana CV06
    |--E. deflexa Sibthorp & Smith 1809 PL04
    |--E. dendroides P05
    |--E. drummondii KM08
    |--E. dulcis C55b
    |--E. epithymoides DL07
    |--E. esula C55b
    |--E. exigua PT98
    |--E. friedrichiae CV06
    |--E. giessii CV06
    |--E. glauca Forst. f. 1786 A61
    |--E. granulata PP07
    |--E. guyoniana P93
    |--E. helioscopia C55b
    |--E. heterophylla AGF98
    |--E. heyneane PP07
    |--E. himalayensis O88
    |--E. hirta PP07 [=Chamaesyce hirta ACW01]
    |--E. hypericifolia C55b [=Chamaesyce hypericifolia J87]
    |--‘Chamaesyce’ hyssopifolia MM96
    |--E. indica PP07
    |--E. insarmentosa CV06
    |--E. juttae CV06
    |--E. kaokoensis CV06
    |--E. kimberleyensis LK14
    |--E. lathyris C55b
    |--E. lavrani CV06
    |--E. leistneri CV06
    |--E. leucocephala MM96
    |--E. maculata GR98
    |--E. mauritanica CV06
    |    |--E. m. var. mauritanica CV06
    |    `--E. m. var. foetens CV06
    |--E. mitchelliana LK14
    |--E. monteiroi CV06
    |    |--E. m. ssp. monteiroi CV06
    |    `--E. m. ssp. brandbergensis CV06
    |--E. myrtoides LK14
    |--E. namibensis CV06
    |--E. namuskluftensis CV06
    |--E. neriifolia J07
    |--E. nicaeensis F05
    |--E. origanoides C55b [=Chamaesyce origanoides C79]
    |--E. otjipembana CV06
    |--E. palustris ZB01
    |--E. paralias C74
    |--E. peplus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |--E. pergracilis CV06
    |--E. pilulifera C55b
    |--E. platyphyllos C55b
    |--E. plumerioides LK14
    |--E. portlandica V09
    |--E. prostrata GR98
    |--E. pseudoduseimata CV06
    |--E. pulcherrima MH98
    |--E. regis-jubae P93
    |--E. rudis CV06
    |--E. salicifolia C55b
    |--E. schizolepis LK14
    |--E. schultzii LK14
    |--E. serpens GR98
    |--E. sharkoensis KM08
    |--E. spartaria CV06
    |--E. spinea CV06
    |--E. stracheyi O88
    |--E. tannensis KM08
    |    |--E. t. ssp. tannensis KM08
    |    `--E. t. ssp. eremophila KM08
    |--E. taurinensis PT98
    |--E. terracina P93
    |--E. thymifolia PP07
    |--E. tirucalli DP72
    |--E. tortilis RS02
    |--E. variegata PT01
    |--E. venenata CV06
    |--E. verruculosa CV06
    `--E. volkmanniae CV06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

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[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

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[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

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[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1–110.

[E03] Esser, H.-J. 2003. Fruit characters in Malesian Euphorbiaceae. Telopea 10 (1): 169–177.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997–1008.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

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[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 203–206.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 121–130.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

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[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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Euphorbiaceae

Manioc Manihot esculenta, copyright Arthur Chapman.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.
Contains: Glochidion, Macaranga, Sauropus, Bertya, Croton, Plukenetieae, Acalypha, Euphorbia.

The Euphorbiaceae are a diverse group of flowering plants, often containing latex. Many members of the family are succulent, and some can bear a strong superficial resemblance to cacti. Notable members include Manihot, a genus of Neotropical herbs, shrubs and trees with white latex and often deeply palmate leaves, of which manioc or cassava M. esculenta is widely grown as a food plant. The castor oil plant Ricinus communis is a large herb or shrub with palmately lobed leaves that is originally native to a range between eastern Africa and India but which has becomed naturalised in most tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Hevea is a Neotropical genus of trees with trifoliolate leaves, of which the Pará rubber tree H. brasiliensis is the most commercially significant source of latex for rubber.

Characters (from Flora of China): Trees, shrubs, or herbs, rarely woody or herbaceous lianas, monoecious or dioecious, indumentum of simple, branched, stellate, or gland-tipped hairs, peltate or glandular scales or stinging hairs, latex often present, clear, white, or colored; roots woody, rarely roots tuberous and stems succulent, sometimes spiny. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely whorled; stipules usually present, often free, sometimes modified into spines or glands, deciduous or persistent; petioles long to short, sometimes with glands at apex or base; leaf blade simple, sometimes palmately lobed, rarely compound, or reduced to scales, margins entire or toothed, sometimes with distinct glands along margin and/or on surface, venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, flowers in cymes or fascicles, these often arranged along an elongated axis, branched or unbranched, forming a thyrse, in congested heads, or in a flowerlike cyathium with very reduced flowers enclosed within a ± cupular involucre; bracts sometimes petaloid. Flowers unisexual, within same inflorescence or in separate inflorescences, actinomorphic. Sepals (1-)3-6(-8), free or connate into calyx tube, valvate or imbricate, rarely absent. Petals free, often reduced or absent. Disk present or absent. Male flowers with disk intrastaminal or extrastaminal, entire to dissected. Stamens one to very many, hypogynous; filaments free or connate; anthers 2(-4)-locular, mostly dehiscing longitudinally, rarely transversely or by pores, introrse or extrorse; rudimentary ovary sometimes present. Female flowers rarely with staminodes; ovary superior, (1-)2-5(-20)-locular; placentation axile; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, anatropous or hemitropous; styles free or connate, entire or lobed, or multifid, lobes erect, horizontal or curved; stigma capitate, linear, fimbriate, fan-shaped or pinnatilobate. Fruit typically a capsule elastically dehiscent into 2-valved cocci from a persistent columella, sometimes a berry or drupe. Seeds 1 or 2 per locule; seed coat thin to indurate, sometimes fleshy to form a sarcotesta; caruncle sometimes present; aril sometimes present; endosperm present or absent; embryo straight to curved or folded; cotyledons usually broader than radical. x = 6-14.

<==Euphorbiaceae [Acalyphoideae]
    |--Neoscortechinia XR12
    |    |--N. angustifolia H03
    |    |--N. philippinensis H03
    |    `--N. sumatrensis H03
    `--+--Jatropha XR12
       |    |--J. curcas XR12
       |    `--J. gossypiifolia LK14
       |--+--Micrandra DL07 [incl. Cunuria E03]
       |  |    `--M. siphonoides DL07
       |  |--Hevea XR12
       |  |    |--H. brasiliensis XR12
       |  |    `--H. pauciflora DL07
       |  `--Manihot XR12
       |       |--M. aipi C55
       |       |--M. epruinosa RS98
       |       |--M. esculenta XR12
       |       |--M. flabellifolia H90
       |       |--M. glaziovii RS98
       |       |--M. pseudoglaziovii Mo99
       |       |--M. quinquepartita GA97
       |       `--M. utilissima [=Mandioca utilissima] MM96
       |--+--Suregada Rottler 1803 XR12, A-R03 [incl. Gelonium Willdenow 1806 non Gaertner 1791 A-R03]
       |  |--Crotonoideae GA97
       |  |    |  i. s.: Aleurites moluccana GA97, C06 [incl. A. triloba C06]
       |  |    |--Croton XR12
       |  |    `--+--Codiaeum variegatum XR12, DL07
       |  |       |--Ostodes paniculata DL07
       |  |       `--Trigonostemon XR12
       |  `--+--Omphalea Linnaeus 1759 XR12, GA97 [Omphaleae]
       |     |    |--*O. triandra Linnaeus 1759 GA97
       |     |    `--O. diandra Linnaeus 1759 [incl. O. megacarpa Hemsley 1897] GA97
       |     `--+--Tetrorchidium XR12
       |        `--Endospermum XR12
       |             |--E. formicarum N91
       |             |--E. medullosum NC91
       |             `--E. moluccanum DL07
       `--+--+--Moultonianthus XR12
          |  `--+--Conceveiba XR12
          |     `--+--+--Lasiocroton XR12
          |        |  `--Plukenetieae XR12
          |        `--+--Ricinus XR12
          |           |    |--R. communis DL07
          |           |    `--R. zanzibarensis P09
          |           `--+--Spathiostemon XR12
          |              `--Acalypha XR12
          `--+--Pimelodendron zoanthogyne XR12, DL07
             `--Euphorbioideae GA97
                  |  i. s.: Senefeldera GA97
                  |         Mabea GA97
                  |           |--M. brasiliensis H11
                  |           |--M. salicoides GA97
                  |           `--M. taquari L-M-HG08
                  |--Euphorbia XR12
                  `--+--Hura XR12
                     |--Maprounea guianensis DL07
                     `--Homalanthus Juss. 1824 XR12, A61 [=Omalanthus H90]
                          |--H. novo-guineensis LK14
                          |--H. polyandrus (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 (see below for synonymy) A61
                          |--H. populifolius C16 [=Carumbium populifolium C16, Omalanthus populifolius H90]
                          |--H. populneus DL07
                          `--‘Omalanthus’ stillingifolius H90

Euphorbiaceae incertae sedis:
  Mercurialis PT01
    |--M. annua PT98
    `--M. perennis PT01
  Antidesma E03
    |--A. diandrum P03
    |--A. ghaesembilla VT13
    `--A. montanum K03
  Glochidion UB06
  Dichostemma H03
  Kairothamnus E03
  Gymnanthes lucida E03, J87
  Strophioblachia E03
  Agrostistachys capitata E03, H03
  Doryxylon E03
  Shirakiopsis sanchezii E03, H03
  Distichirops E03
  Homonoia E03
  Chaetocarpus Thwaites 1849 (nom. cons.) [Chaetocarpeae] KC01
  Baccaurea E03
    |--B. lanceolata K03
    `--B. puberula K03
  Macaranga E03
  Sauropus E03
  Acidocroton YY22
  Actinostemon E03
  Adenochlaena YY22
  Adenocline YY22
  Adenopeltis YY22
  Afrotrewia YY22
  Agyneja impubes YY22, V98
  Alcoceria YY22
  Algernonia YY22
  Alphandia E03
  Amanoa E03
  Anabaenella YY22
  Andrachne E03
  Angostylis YY22
  Anthostema YY22
  Aonikena YY22
  Apodiscus YY22
  Argithamnia YY22
  Argomuellera E03
  Aristogeitonia E03
  Avellantia YY22
  Baliospermum montanum E03, SR07
  Bertya YY22
  Blachia E03
  Bonania YY22
  Breynia E03
    |--B. cernua HM03
    |--B. nivosa B00a
    `--B. oblongifolia MM09
  Calpigyne YY22
  Cephalocroton E03
  Cephalocrotonopsis YY22
  Cephalomappa E03
  Chiropetalum YY22
  Chloradenia YY22
  Chondrostylis E03
  Chrozophora E03
    |--C. brocchiana AGF98
    |--C. plicata AGF98
    |--C. rottelari VB02
    `--C. tinctoria Y98
  Cladogynos E03
  Clavistylis YY22
  Cluytiandra YY22
  Cnesmone E03
  Colliguaya YY22
  Corythea YY22
  Crotonopsis YY22
  Dalembertia YY22
  Dicoelia E03
  Ditaxis E03
    |--D. californica H93
    |--D. clariana H93
    |--D. lanceolata H93
    |--D. neomexicana DL07
    `--D. serrata H93
  Dysopsis E03
  Eleutherostigma YY22
  Epiprinus E03
  Erismanthus E03
  Fragariopsis YY22
  Grimmeodendron YY22
  Hippomane [Hippomaneae] E03
    `--H. mancinella RJ11
  Hypocoton YY22
  Joannesia YY22
  Julocroton YY22
  Klaineanthus YY22
  Lasiococca E03
  Leidesia YY22
  Longetia YY22
  Lortia YY22
  Mareya E03
  Megistostigma E03
  Micrococca mercurialis E03, SR07
  Monadenium YY22
  Necepsia E03
  Neopalisaya YY22
  Neopycnocoma YY22
  Neoroepera YY22
  Nepenthandra YY22
  Ophthalmoblapton YY22
  Pachystroma YY22
  Pachystylidium E03
  Paracroton pendulus E03, SR07
    |--P. p. ssp. pendulus SR07
    `--P. p. ssp. zeylanicus SR07
  Pedilanthus tithymaloides E03, K03
  Petalodiscus YY22
  Platygyne YY22
  Poranthera Rudge 1811 A61
    |--P. alpina Cheesem. ex Hooker 1881 A61
    |--P. coerulea LK14
    |--P. corymbosa C08
    |--P. ericifolia H90
    |--P. huegelii GK00
    `--P. microphylla Brong. 1828 A61
  Pseudanthus H90
    |--P. divaricatissimus H90
    |--P. orientalis H90
    |--P. ovalifolius H90
    |--P. pimeleoides H90
    `--P. virgatus GK00
  Pterococcus Hasskarl 1842 (nom. cons.) FT93
  Pycnocoma E03
  Ramelia YY22
  Ricinocarpos LK14
    |--R. bowmanii H90
    |--R. marginatus LK14
    |--R. pinifolius L09
    |--R. rosmarinifolius LK14
    |--R. speciosus H90
    `--R. trichophyllus LK14
  Sagotia E03
  Schizostigma YY22
  Sebastiania YY22
  Seidelia YY22
  Speranskia YY22
  Sphaerostylis YY22
  Stenadenium YY22
  Stillingia E03
    |--S. linearifolia H93
    |--S. paucidentata H93
    `--S. spinulosa H93
  Sumbavia YY22
  Sumbaviopsis E03
  Synadenium YY22
  Syndyophyllum E03
  Tannodia E03
  Tetraplandra YY22
  Tragiella E03
  Trisyngyne YY22
  Wetriaria YY22
  Wielandia YY22
  Adelia E03
  Adenophaedra E03
  Adriana KM08
    |--A. glabrata H90
    |    |--A. g. var. glabrata [incl. A. glabrata var. heterophylla] H90
    |    `--A. g. var. subglabra [incl. A. glabrata var. acerifolia] H90
    |--A. quadripartita SM06
    |--A. tomentosa B00b
    |    |--A. t. var. tomentosa B00b
    |    `--A. t. var. hookeri B00b [incl. A. hookeri var. glabriuscula H90]
    `--A. urticoides KM08
  Alchorneopsis portoricensis E03, SWK87
  Alcinaeanthus YY22
  Aparisthmium cordatum E03, L-M-HG08
  Aporosella YY22
  Astrocasia E03
  Athroandra YY22
  Baccaureopsis YY22
  Blumeodendron E03
  Bocquillonia YY22
  Buraeavia YY22
  Caelebogyne YY22
  Caryodendron E03
  Chascotheca YY22
  Cheilosa E03
  Chlamydojatropha YY22
  Choriophyllum YY22
  Clarorivinia YY22
  Coccoceras YY22
  Cocconerion YY22
  Coelediscus YY22
  Cometia YY22
  Conceveibastrum YY22
  Crotonogyne YY22
  Cyathogyne YY22
  Cyrtogonone YY22
  Cyrtogyne YY22
  Deuteromallotus YY22
  Discocarpus E03
  Discoclaoxylon E03
  Discocleidion YY22
  Discoglypremna E03
  Ditta myricoides J87, SWK87
  Everettiodendron YY22
  Fontainea E03
    |--F. australis H90
    `--F. oraria H90
  Gavarettia E03
  Givotia YY22
  Grossera YY22
  Hamilcoa YY22
  Hasskarlia YY22
  Hemicyclia YY22
  Holstia YY22
  Lepidoturus YY22
  Leptonemea YY22
  Leucocroton YY22
  Maesobotrya E03
  Manniophyton YY22
  Martretia YY22
  Mettenia YY22
  Mischodon YY22
  Neoboutonia E03
  Neojatropha YY22
  Neomanniophyton YY22
  Nulbraedia YY22
  Paivaeusa YY22
  Pausandra E03
  Plagiostyles YY22
  Platystigma YY22
  Podadenia YY22
  Poggeophyton YY22
  Polydragma YY22
  Protomegabaria YY22
  Pseudagrostistachys E03
  Pseudocroton YY22
  Pseudolachnostylis E03
  Richeria E03
  Ricinodendron E03
  Savia E03
  Secretania YY22
  Spondianthus E03
  Staphysora YY22
  Tetracarpidium YY22
  Thecacoris E03
  Trewia nudiflora E03, HU08
  Trigonopleura E03
  Uapaca YY22
  Uranthera YY22
  Veconcites YY22
  Wetria E03
  Actephila E03
    |--A. latifolia H09
    `--A. lindleyi H90
  Alchornea [Alchornieae] E03
    |--A. costaricensis OB11
    |--A. glandulosa MP00
    |--A. ilicifolia [incl. Coelebogyne ilicifolia] H90
    `--A. latifolia SWK87
  Amperea GK00
    |--A. simulans GK00
    |--A. volubilis GK00
    `--A. xiphoclada [incl. A. spartioides] H90
  Angostylidium YY22
  Baloghia H90
    |--B. inophylla [incl. B. lucida] H90
    `--B. marmorata H90
  Beyeria KM08
    |--B. brevifolia G04b
    |--B. cinerea KM08
    |--B. lasiocarpa H90
    |--B. leschenaulti G76
    |--B. opaca H90
    `--B. viscosa N91
  Caperonia E03
  Claoxylon H90
    |--C. australe H90
    `--C. hillii LK14
  Cleidion E03
  Cleistanthus UB06
    |--C. collinus S02
    |--C. cunninghamii H90
    `--C. sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach. 1985 UB06
  Cordemoya YY22
  Dimorphocalyx australiensis LK14
  Garcia E03
  Lautembergia YY22
  Lebidieropsis YY22
  Melanolepis E03
  Reverchonia YY22
  Sapium E03
    |--S. buchii J87
    |--S. caribaeum SWK87
    |--S. haematospermum F11
    |--S. haitiense J87
    |--S. indicum R35
    |--S. jamaicense SWK87
    |--S. japonicum [=Excoecaria japonica] LO98
    |--S. laurocerasus SWK87
    `--S. sebiferum MH98
  Securinega BB07
    |--S. leucopyrus RaS02
    `--S. virosa BB07
  Tanodia YY22
  Astraea lobata [=Croton lobatum] C55
  Mallotus E03
    |--M. claoxyloides H90
    |--M. discolor H90
    |--M. dispersus LK14
    |--M. japonicus LO98
    |--M. nesophilus VT13
    |--M. paniculatus B00b
    |--M. philippensis HU08
    |--M. polyadenos B00a
    `--M. repandus P03
  Triadica E03
  Microstachys chamaelea LK14
  Margaritaria dubium-traceyi E03, LK14
  Ptychopyxis E03
  Balakata luzonica E03
  Leptopus SK05
    |--L. australis SK05
    |--L. decaisnei Ma99
    `--L. sanjappae Sumathi, Karthigeyan et al. 2005 SK05
  Annesijoa E03
  Borneodendron E03
  Botryophora E03
  Choriceras E03
  Clonostylis E03
  Elateriospermum E03
  Loerzingia E03
  Neotrewia E03
  Octospermum E03
  Reutalis E03
  Richeriella E03
  Tapoides E03
  Vernicia fordii [=Aleurites fordii] H90
  Meineckia parvifolia E03, SR07
  Spirostachys E03
    |--S. africana Ru-S02
    `--S. patagonica O06
  Cavacoa E03
  Crotonogynopsis E03
  Mildbraedia E03
  Neoholstia E03
  Paranecepsia E03
  Sclerocroton E03
  Cnidoscolus E03
    |--C. aconitifolius M-FR98
    |--C. quercifolius BV09
    `--C. vitifolius C-SQ08
  Argythamnia E03
  Dendrothrix E03
  Sandwithia E03
  Senefelderopsis croizatii GA97
  Celianella E03
  Glycydendron E03
  Jablonskia E03
  ‘Diplomorpha’ Griffith 1854 non Meisner 1841 FT93
  Hyeronima MP00
    |--H. alchorneoides MP00
    |--H. clusioides SWK87
    `--H. domingensis J87
  Calycopeplus LK14
    |--C. collinus LK14
    `--C. paucifolius G04a
  Erythrococca trichogyne DL07
  Monotaxis DL07
    |--M. bracteata DL07
    |--M. linifolia N91
    |--M. macrophylla H90
    |--M. occidentalis GK00
    `--M. tenuis LK14
  Koilodepas DL07
    |--K. batamense DL07
    `--K. longifolium K03
  Bernardia DL07
    |--B. incana BT72
    `--B. myricifolia DL07
  Crepetocarpon perkinsii XR12
  Excoecaria LK14
    |--E. agallocha LK14
    |--E. dallachyana H90
    |--E. ovalis LK14
    `--E. parvifolia LK14
  Gavarretia GA97
  Eremocarpus setigerus H93
  Securinegoxylon biseriatum Mädel 1962 CBH93
  Crotonopollis burdwanensis CBH93
  Retitricolporites irregularis CBH93
  Friesia Spreng. 1818 KC01
  Galorrheus Haw. 1812 KC01
  Heterochlamys Turcz. 1843 KC01
  Siphonia Rich. ex Schreb. 1791 KC01
  Trichosterigma Klotzsch & Garcke 1859 KC01
  Zygospermum Thwaites ex Baill. 1858 KC01

Homalanthus polyandrus (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 [=Carumbium polyandrum Hooker 1864; incl. H. nutans Hooker 1856 (preoc.)] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

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[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C-SQ08] Carvalho-Sobrinho, J. G. de & L. P. de Queiroz. 2008. Ceiba rubriflora (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae), a new species from Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 649–653.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

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[E03] Esser, H.-J. 2003. Fruit characters in Malesian Euphorbiaceae. Telopea 10 (1): 169–177.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1–351.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

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[GA97] Gillespie, L. J., & W. S. Armbruster. 1997. A contribution to the Guianan flora: Dalechampia, Haematostemon, Omphalea, Pera, Plukenetia, and Tragia (Euphorbiaceae) with notes on subfamily Acalyphoideae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 86: 1–48.

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[HM03] Holloway, J. D., & S. E. Miller. 2003. The composition, generic placement and host-plant relationships of the joviana-group in the Parallelia generic complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Catocalinae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 111–128.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[L09] Lea, A. M. 1909. Revision of the Australian Curculionidae belonging to the subfamily Cryptorhynchides. Part IX. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 701–732.

[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 394–401.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MP00] Machado, G., & M. A. Pizo. 2000. The use of fruits by the neotropical harvestman Neosadocus variabilis (Opiliones, Laniatores, Gonyleptidae). Journal of Arachnology 28: 357–360.

[Ma99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[Mo99] Moraes, G. J. de. 1999. Pest status of the cassava green mite in Brazil and strategies for its control. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 287–291. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

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Last updated: 13 April 2020.

Hypericum

Hypericum olympicum, photographed by Michael Kesl.


Belongs within: Clusiaceae.

Hypericum, the St John's worts, is a cosmopolitan genus of yellow-flowered plants, varying from herbs to small trees. The common St John's wort Hypericum perforatum has been used pharmaceutically.

Characters (from Li & Robson): Shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs (rarely trees), glabrous or with simple hairs, with translucent ("pale") and often opaque, black or reddish ("dark") glands, laminar (immersed and sometimes abaxial) and marginal or intramarginal. Leaves opposite (occasionally whorled), sessile or short petiolate, venation pinnate to palmate (or rarely dichotomous), margin entire or gland-fringed. Inflorescence cymose. Flowers bisexual, homostylous (occasionally heterostylous), stellate or cupped. Sepals 5 and quincuncial or rarely 4 and decussate, unequal or equal, free or partly united. Petals (4 or)5, contorted, golden to lemon yellow (or rarely white), abaxially sometimes tinged or veined red, persistent or deciduous after anthesis, usually asymmetric. Stamens in (4 or) 5 fascicles, free and antipetalous, or some united to form apparently 4 or 3 fascicles with compound fascicle(s) antisepalous, or irregular and apparently not fasciculate, persistent or deciduous, each single fascicle with up to 70(-120) stamens; filaments slender, free from nearly base (occasionally to 2/3 united) or apparently completely free; anthers small, dorsifixed or ± basifixed, dehiscing longitudinally, with gland on connective; sterile fascicles (fasciclodes) absent [very rare]. Ovary 3-5-loculed with axile placentae or ± completely 1-loculed with (2 or)3(-5) parietal placentae, each placenta with (2 or) few to many ovules; styles (2 or)3-5, free or partly to completely united, more or less slender; stigmas small or more or less capitate. Fruit a septicidal capsule or rarely ± indehiscent, valves often with oil-containing vittae or vesicles. Seeds small, often carinate or narrowly unilaterally winged; testa variously sculptured, not arillate (very rarely carunculate); embryo slender, straight, with distinct slender cotyledons.

<==Hypericum
    |--H. androsemum JK80
    |--H. beanii CB01
    |--H. calycinum CB01
    |--H. canariense CB01
    |--H. fuertesii J87
    |--H. gramineum CB01
    |--H. hidcote CB01
    |--H. hirsutum CB01
    |--H. hypericoides J87
    |--H. japonicum CB01
    |--H. kouytchense CB01
    |--H. millefolium J87
    |--H. monanthemum O88
    |--H. moserianum CB01
    |--H. olympicum CB01
    |--H. patulum CB01
    |--H. perforatum CB01
    |    |--H. p. var. perforatum CB01
    |    `--H. p. var. angustifolium CB01
    |--H. pulchrum CB01
    |--H. pusillum C45
    |--H. quadrangulum CB01
    |--H. quinquenervium C55b
    |--H. reptans CB01
    |--H. revolutum B06
    |--H. richeri C55a
    |--H. rowallene CB01
    |--H. russeggeri S54
    |--H. stellatum CB01
    `--H. tetrapterum CB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C45] Colenso, W. 1845. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany (concluded). Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 241-308.

[CB01] Cullen, J. M., & D. T. Briese. 2001. Host plant susceptibility to eriophyid mites used for weed biological control. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 342-348. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JK80] John, J. & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241-248.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Cyphodema rubricum n. sp., eine neue Mirine aus Syrien (Ins. Hem. Het. Miridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 99-100.