Marginellini

Marginella glabella, copyright H. Zell.


Belongs within: Marginellidae.
Contains: Marginella (Glabella), Marginella (Volvarinella).

The Marginellini are a group of margin shells characterised by the complete loss of the buccal mass including the radula.

<==Marginellini [Porcellanina, Porcellaninae] BR05
    |--Volvarina Hinds 1844 P61
    |    |--*V. avena [=Marginella avena] P61
    |    |--V. albescens (Hutton 1878) [=Marginella (Volvarina) albescens] P61
    |    |--V. fusca C64
    |    |--V. insulana Gofas & Fernandes 1988 BC01
    |    |--V. maoriana (Powell 1932) [=Marginella (Volvarina) maoriana] P61
    |    |--V. mustelina (Angas 1871) P61 [=Hyalina mustelina H09, Marginella (Volvarina) mustelina P61]
    |    |--V. parvistriata (Suter 1908) [=Marginella (Volvarina) parvistriata] P61
    |    |--V. plicatula (Suter 1910) [=Marginella (Volvarina) plicatula] P61
    |    |--V. serrata C64
    |    |--V. triticea C64
    |    |--V. varia C64
    |    `--V. veliei (Pilsbry 1896) [=Marginella veliei, Hyalina (Volvarina) veliei] MP65
    `--Marginella Lamarck 1799 [=Porcellana Gray 1847 nec da Costa 1776 nec Lamarck 1801] BR05
         |  i. s.: M. alta Watson 1886 H09
         |         M. aureocincta Stearns 1872 D88
         |         M. australis H86a
         |         M. aveniformis Marshall 1919 F27a
         |         M. brachia Watson 1886 H09
         |         M. brevispira Sacco 1890 F27b
         |         M. caerulescens C64
         |         M. carquejai Gofas & Fernandes 1994 BC01
         |         M. clandestina M62
         |         M. coerulescens [=Voluta coerulescens; incl. M. subcoerulea] G79
         |         M. coma F27a
         |         M. conica Harris 1897 F27a
         |         M. cypraeola C64
         |         M. dubia Hutton 1873 F27a
         |         M. fraudulenta Suter 1917 F27a
         |         M. fusiformis Hinds 1844 H09
         |         M. guttula Reeve 1865 H09
         |         M. harrisi Cossmann 1899 [=Eratoidea harrisi, M. ovata Harris 1897 (preoc.)] F27b
         |         M. hectori Kirk 1882 F27a
         |         M. hordeacea H86b
         |         M. interrupta G79
         |         M. kirki Marwick 1924 F27a
         |         M. laevigata Brazier 1877 H09
         |         M. laevis N79
         |         M. luculenta Gofas & Fernandes 1994 BC01
         |         M. marginata [incl. M. bivaricosa] G79
         |         M. marwicki Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy) F27b
         |         M. minor C64
         |         M. ochracea Angas 1871 H09
         |         M. ovulum Sowerby 1846 H09
         |         M. pachia Watson 1886 H09
         |         M. philippii M62
         |         M. polita C64
         |         M. poppei Boyer & Neefs 1999 BC01
         |         M. propinqua F27a
         |         M. prunum [incl. Voluta plumbea Sol. ms] C64
         |         M. pulchella M54
         |         M. regularis Carpenter 1865 O27
         |         M. ringiculaeformis [=Cancellaria ringiculaeformis] PH90
         |         M. sapotilla C64
         |         M. spinacia Gofas & Fernandes 1988 BC01
         |         M. strombiformis [=Voluta strombiformis, Vespertilio johnstoni Cossmann 1899] F27b
         |         M. subtrigona Carpenter 1865 O27
         |         M. trochiscus Tomlin 1919 [=M. (Volvarina) brevispira Oppenheim 1906 non Sacco 1890] F27b
         |         M. undulans Gofas & Fernandes 1994 BC01
         |         M. ventricosa H86a
         |         M. whitecliffensis Marwick 1926 F27a
         |--M. (Marginella) O27
         |    |--*M. (M.) glabella (Linnaeus 1758) [=Voluta glabella, *Porcellana glabella] BR17
         |    |--M. (M.) nubeculata O27
         |    `--M. (M.) persicula (Linnaeus 1758) G20, L58 [=Voluta persicula G20]
         |--M. (Glabella) P61
         |--M. (Hyalina Schumacher 1817) O27
         |    |--Marginella (H.) californica Tomlin 1916 O27
         |    `-- Marginella (H.) myrmecoon Dall 1919 O27
         |--M. (Kagomea Habe 1951) P61
         |    |--M. (*K.) novemprovincialis P61
         |    |--M. (K.) ficula (Murdoch & Suter 1906) P61
         |    `--M. (K.) hardingae Dell 1956 P61
         |--M. (Microvulina Habe 1951) P61
         |    |--M. (*M.) nipponica P61
         |    |--M. (M.) angasi Crosse 1870 P61
         |    `--M. (M.) vidae Dell 1956 P61
         `--M. (Volvarinella) P61

Marginella marwicki Finlay 1927 [=M. brevispira Marwick 1924 nec Sacco 1890 nec Oppenheim 1906] F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[D88] D’Asaro, C. N. 1988. Micromorphology of neogastropod egg capsules. Nautilus 102 (4): 134–148.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86a] Hutton, F. W. 1886a. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Alcithoe

Arabic volute Alcithoe arabica, copyright Javier.


Belongs within: Volutoidea.

Alcithoe is an Australasian genus of volutes bearing an elongate, fusiform shell with a thickened, reflexed outer lip and strong plaits on the columella.

Alcithoe Adams & Adams 1853 [Alcithoides, Alcithoinae, Alcithoini] DK08
    |  i. s.: A. aillaudorum Bouchet & Poppe 1988 BC01
    |         A. ‘corrugata’ (Hutton 1873) (n. d.) [=Voluta (Lyria) corrugata non Binkhorst 1861] F27b
    |         ‘Waihaoia’ firma Marwick 1926 F27a
    |         A. flemingi Dell 1978 LB89
    |         A. gatesi Marwick 1926 [=Fulguraria morgani Marshall & Murdoch 1920 non Cossmann & Pissaro 1905] F27b
    |         A. reflexa M49
    |         A. solida F27b
    |         ‘Waihaoia’ thomsoni A27
    |--A. (Alcithoe) P61
    |    |--*A. (A.) pacifica (Perry 1810) [=Voluta pacifica] BR17
    |    |--A. (A.) arabica (Gmelin 1791) P61
    |    |--A. (A.) calva Powell 1928 P61
    |    |--A. (A.) depressa (Suter 1908) P61
    |    |--A. (A.) jaculoides Powell 1924 P61
    |    |--A. (A.) johnstoni Powell 1928 P61
    |    |--A. (A.) larochei Marwick 1926 P61
    |    |--A. (A.) ostenfeldi Iredale 1937 P61
    |    `--A. (A.) swainsoni Marwick 1926 P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--A. s. swainsoni P61
    |         `--A. s. motutaraensis Powell 1928 P61
    |--A. (Leporemax Iredale 1937) [incl. Carolluta] P61
    |    |--A. (*L.) gracilis P61 [=Voluta pacifica var. gracilis P61, P79]
    |    |--A. (L.) chathamensis Dell 1956 P61
    |    |--A. (L.) fusus (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) P61
    |    |    |--A. f. fusus P61
    |    |    `--A. f. haurakiensis Dell 1956 P61
    |    `--A. (L.) hedleyi (Murdoch & Suter 1906) P61
    |--‘Waihaoia’ (Pachymelon Marwick 1926) F27a
    |    `--W. (*P.) amoriaformis Marwick 1926 F27a
    |--A. (Palomelon Finlay 1927) P61
    |    |--A. (*P.) lutea (Watson 1882) LB89, P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--‘Pachymelon’ (P.) smithi Powell 1950 P61
    |    `--A. (P.) wilsonae (Powell 1933) LB89, P61 [=Pachymelon (P.) wilsonae P61]
    `--A. (Waihaoia Marwick 1926) DK08
         |--*Waihaoia’ (Waihaoia) allani Marwick 1926 F27a
         `--A. (W.) pagodoides (Tate 1888) [=Voluta pagodoides] DK08

Alcithoe (Alcithoe) swainsoni Marwick 1926 P61 [=Voluta pacifica var. elongata Swainson 1821 non Lightfoot 1786 H86, F27b]

Alcithoe (*Palomelon) lutea (Watson 1882) LB89, P61 [=Cymbiola lutea P61, Waihaoia (Pachymelon) lutea F27a, W. (Palomelon) lutea F27a]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[LB89] Leal, J. H., & P. Bouchet. 1989. New deep-water Volutidae from off southeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Nautilus 103 (1): 1–12.

[M49] Mason, B. 1949. The geology of Mandamus-Pahau district, north Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 403–428.

[P79] Petterd, W. F. 1879. List of the Australian volutes. Journal of Conchology 2: 340–345.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Balcis (Balcis)

Balcis otakauica, copyright Te Papa Tongarewa.


Belongs within: Vanikoroidea.

The type subgenus of the genus Balcis is a group of snails parasitic on echinoderms with an awl-shaped, turriculate shell.

<--Balcis Leach 1847 (Balcis) P61
    |--B. (B.) alba [incl. *B. montagui] P61
    |--B. (B.) alertae Dell 1956 P61
    |--B. (B.) archeyi Finlay 1928 P61
    |--B. (B.) aucklandica (Suter 1909) P61
    |--B. (B.) aupouria Powell 1937 P61
    |--B. (B.) bollonsi Powell 1937 P61
    |--B. (B.) infrapatula (Murdoch & Suter 1906) P61
    |--B. (B.) maoria Powell 1940 P61
    |--B. (B.) maui Dell 1952 P61
    |--B. (B.) micans B56
    |--B. (B.) otagoensis Powell 1927 P61
    |--B. (B.) otakauica Dell 1956 P61
    |--B. (B.) oxyacme (Suter 1908) P61
    |--B. (B.) paxillus (Hedley 1904) P61
    |--B. (B.) pervegrandis Powell 1940 P61
    |--B. (B.) puhana Dell 1956 P61
    |--B. (B.) titahica (Suter 1908) P61
    |--B. (B.) truncata (Suter 1908) P61
    `--B. (B.) vegrandis (Murdoch & Suter 1906) P61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Epitoniidae

Precious wentletrap Epitonium scalare, copyright James St. John.


Belongs within: Hypsogastropoda.
Contains: Epitonium (Nitidiscala).

The Epitoniidae are a group of carnivorous marine gastropods that prey on cnidarians. Many are small with porcelain-like, strongly ornamented shells. However, recent studies have confirmed that the violet snails (Janthina and related species), planktic species with more globose shells that float using a raft of air bubbles, are also derived epitoniids.

<==Epitoniidae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Ferminoscala pseudoleroyi (Maury 1925) [incl. Scalina gardnerae Olsson 1967] BT78
    |--Iodes Mörch 1860 [Iodeidae] BR05
    |--Alexania Strand 1928 [=Alexandria Tomlin 1926 non Pfeiffer 1881, Tomlinula Strand 1932; incl. Habea Kuroda 1943] RH65
    |    |--*A. natalensis (Tomlin 1926) [=*Alexandria natalensis, *Tomlinula natalensis] RH65
    |    |--‘Habea’ callizona Habe 1961 RH65
    |    `--*Habea’ inazawai Kuroda 1943
    |--Opaliopsis BR17
    |--Proacirsa inornata (Terquem & Jourdy 1869) TTE93
    |--Hartungia typica Bronn 1861 TTE93
    |--Eccliseogyra B91
    |--Iphitus tuberculatus B91
    |--Cycloscala hyalina (Sowerby 1844) B91
    |--Acrilla Adams 1860 [Acrillinae] BR05
    |    `--*A. acuminata (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria acuminata] BR17
    |--Clathroscala de Boury 1890 [Clathroscalinae] BR05
    |    `--*C. cancellata (Brocchi 1814) [=Turbo cancellatus] BR17
    |--Gyroscala de Boury 1887 [Gyroscalinae] BR05
    |    `--*G. commutata (Monterosato 1877) [=Scalaria commutata] BR17
    |--Papyriscala de Boury 1909 [Papyriscalinae] BR05
    |    `--*P. latifasciata (Sowerby 1874) [=Scalaria latifasciata] BR17
    |--Lioatlanta Dybowski & Grochmalicki 1920 [Lioatlantinae] BR05
    |    `--*L. semidisjuncta (Jeffreys 1884) [=Scalaria semidisjuncta] BR17
    |--Stenacme Pilsbry 1945 [Stenacmidae] BR05
    |    `--*S. floridana Pilsbry 1945 BR17
    |--Granuliscala Boury 1909 WG71
    |    `--G. granosa Quoy & Gaimard 1834 WG71
    |--Nystiella Clench & Turner 1952 BR17, BR05 [Nystiellinae]
    |    |--*N. opalina (Dall 1927) [=Epitonium opalinum] BR17
    |    `--N. concava (Dall 1889) B91
    |--Tenuiscala F27a
    |    |--T. parvicostata (Marshall 1917) [=Epitonium parvicostata] F27a
    |    `--T. simplex (Marshall 1917) [=Epitonium simplex] F27a
    |--Funiscala de Boury 1891 P61
    |    |--*F. speyeri [=Scalaria speyeri] P61
    |    `--F. maxwelli Finlay 1930 P61
    |--Notacirsa F27a
    |    |--*N. oamarutica [=Turbonilla oamarutica] F27a
    |    |--N. elata A27
    |    `--‘Bittium oamaruticum’ Bartrum 1919 (preoc.; n. d.) F27a
    |--Stenorhytis P12
    |    |--S. expansa (Conrad 1842) P12
    |    |--S. pachypleura (Conrad 1841) P12
    |    `--S. pernobilis (Fischer & Bernardi 1857) A88
    |--Murdochella Finlay 1927 P61
    |    |--*M. levifoliata (Murdoch & Suter 1906) [=Scala levifoliata] P61
    |    |--M. alacer Finlay 1927 P61
    |    |--M. superlata Finlay 1930 P61
    |    `--M. tertia Finlay 1930 P61
    |--Recluzia Petit de la Saussaye 1853 [Recluziidae] BR05
    |    |--*R. jehennei Petit de la Saussaye 1853 BR17
    |    |--R. johnii (Holten 1803) A63 [=Helix johnii H09]
    |    |--R. lutea Bennett 1840 (see below for synonymy) A63
    |    `--R. rollandiana Petit 1853 A63
    |--Nodiscala de Boury 1890 P61
    |    |--*N. bicarinata (Sowerby 1844) P61, H09 [=Scalaria bicarinata P61, Epitonium bicarinatum H09]
    |    |--N. ahiparana Powell 1930 P61
    |    |--N. retiporosa (Carpenter 1864) [=Epitonium (Nodiscala) retiporosum] O27
    |    |--N. spongiosa (Carpenter 1864) [=Opalia spongiosa, Epitonium (Nodiscala) spongiosum] O27
    |    `--N. zelandica Finlay 1930 P61
    |--Acirsa Mörch 1857 O27, BR05 [Acirsidae, Acirsinae]
    |    |--*A. borealis (Lyell 1841) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |     |--A. b. borealis O27
    |    |     `--A. b. ochotensis (Middendorff 1849) O27 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. menesthoides C64
    |    `--A. wadei B91
    |--Clathrus Oken 1815 non Micheli ex L. 1801 (ICBN) BR17 [=Scala Mörch 1852 BR05, BR17]
    |    |--*C. clathrus (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Turbo clathrus BR17, *Scala clathrus BR17, T. (Scalaria) clathrus G20]
    |    |--‘Scala’ australis O27
    |    |--‘Scala’ dentiscalpium C60
    |    |--‘Scala’ granosa [=Turritella granosa] O27
    |    |--C. harmeri (de Boury in Harmer 1918) [=Scala (Clathrus) harmeri] F27b
    |    |--‘Scala’ magellanica O27
    |    |--‘Scala’ ralphi (de Boury 1913) [=Scalaria pachypleura Tate 1890 non Conrad 1842] F27b
    |    `--‘Scala’ turtonis [incl. S. tenuicostata] F27b
    |--Amaea BT78
    |    |  i. s.: A. africana Bouchet & Tillier 1978 BT78
    |    |         A. brunneopicta (Dall 1896) BT78
    |    |         A. elegantissima (Deshayes 1861) BT78
    |    |         A. guineense Bouchet & Tillier 1978 BT78
    |    |         A. mitchelli Dall 1896 BT78
    |    |         A. pellati (de Raincourt & Munier-Chalmas 1863) [incl. Acrilla amoena var. eosubcancellata] BT78
    |    |         A. phoenix (de Boury 1912) BT78
    |    |         A. prunicola (Martin 1904) P12
    |    |         A. reticulata (Martin 1904) P12
    |    |         A. subreticula (d’Orbigny 1852) BT78
    |    `--A. (Scalina) BC01
    |         |--A. (S.) deroyae DuShane 1970 BC01
    |         `--A. (S.) tehuanarum DuShane & McLean 1968 BC01
    |--Janthina Röding 1798 BR17, BR05 [=Ianthina (l. c.) BR05; Ianthinea, Janthininae]
    |    |  i. s.: J. ceruleata Reeve 1858 O27
    |    |         J. decollata [=Ianthella decollata] C64
    |    |         J. fragilis [incl. Ianthina striulata] C64
    |    |         J. prolongata C64
    |    |         J. rotundata O01
    |    |         J. striolata C64
    |    |--J. (Janthina) P61
    |    |    |--*J. (J.) janthina (Linnaeus 1758) P61, H09 [=Helix janthina H09]
    |    |    |--J. (J.) communis O27
    |    |    `--J. (J.) violacea Röding 1798 P61, BR17
    |    |--J. (Iodina Moerch 1860) P61
    |    |    `--J. (*I.) exigua Lamarck 1822 P61
    |    `--J. (Violetta Iredale 1929) P61
    |         `--J. (*V.) globosa Swainson 1822 P61
    |--Cirsotrema Mörch 1852 [Cirsotrematinae, Cirsotreminae] DK08
    |    |  i. s.: C. angulata Marwick 1926 F27a
    |    |         C. caelicola Finlay 1926 F27a
    |    |         C. calvertensis (Martin 1904) P12
    |    |         C. karinae (Usticke 1969) [=Opalia karinae] BC01
    |    |         C. kieneri Tapparone-Canefri 1876 WG71 [=Epitonium kieneri H09]
    |    |         C. lyrata A27
    |    |--C. (Cirsotrema) P61
    |    |    |--*C. varicosa (Lamarck 1822) P61, WG71 [=Scalaria varicosa P61, Epitonium varicosum H09]
    |    |    |--C. (C.) montereyense (Dall 1907) [=Epitonium (C.) montereyense] O27
    |    |    |--C. (C.) pleiophylla (Tate 1890) [=Scalaria (C.) pleiophylla] DK08
    |    |    |--C. (C.) togatum (Hertlein & Strong 1951) [=Epitonium (C.) togatum] PP78
    |    |    |--C. (C.) vulpinum (Hinds 1844) [=Epitonium (C.) vulpinum] PP78
    |    |    `--C. (C.) zelebori (Dunker 1866) P61
    |    `--C. (Tioria Marwick 1928) P61
    |         |--C. (*T.) youngi P61
    |         `--C. (T.) forresti Dell 1956 P61
    |--Opalia Adams & Adams 1853 [Opaliinae] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: O. bullata Carpenter 1864 C64
    |    |         O. crenata (Linnaeus 1758) BT78
    |    |         O. diadema [=Cirsotrema diadema] C64
    |    |         O. funiculata [=Cirsotrema funiculata] C64
    |    |         O. gaini (deBoury in Lamy 1923) BT78
    |    |         O. hellenica (Forbes 1844) BT78
    |    |         O. insculpta C64
    |    |         O. ochotensis C64
    |    |         O. retiporosa Carpenter 1864 C64
    |    |         O. tremperi Bartsch 1927 O27
    |    |--O. (Opalia) BC01
    |    |    |--*O. (O.) australis (Lamarck 1822) [=Scalaria australis] BR17
    |    |    |--O. (O.) borealis Keep 1881 [incl. O. chacei Strong 1937] BC01
    |    |    |--O. (O.) burchorum DuShane 1988 BC01
    |    |    |--O. (O.) evicta (De Boury 1919) [=Epitonium (O.) evictum, Scalaria pluricostata Or. 1913 (preoc.)] O27
    |    |    `--O. (O.) wroblewskii (Mörch 1876) [=Scala wroblewskii, Epitonium (O.) wroblewskii] O27
    |    `--O. (Dentiscala De Boury 1886) BC01, O27
    |         |--O. (D.) crenatoides (Carpenter 1864) PP78
    |         |--‘Epitonium’ (D.) crenimarginatum Dall 1917 O27
    |         |--‘Epitonium’ (D.) nesioticum Dall 1917 O27
    |         `--O. (D.) paulula DuShane 1974 BC01
    |--Scalaria Lamarck 1801 BR05
    |    |--S. atomus Smith 1890 BT78
    |    |--S. bellastriata Carpenter 1864 C64
    |    |--S. bezanconi [=Cancellaria bezanconi nec de Raincourt 1884 nec Morlet 1885] PH90
    |    |--S. boettgeri von Maltzan 1885 BT78
    |    |--S. brownii H86
    |    |--S. clathratula N79
    |    |--S. cochlea Sowerby 1844 BT78
    |    |--S. commoda Smith 1890 BT78
    |    |--S. communis N79
    |    |--S. confusa Smith 1890 BT78
    |    |--S. conica Lamarck 1801 BR17
    |    |--S. crebricostata Carpenter 1864 C64
    |    |--S. crenata PP64
    |    |--S. cumingii Cpr. 1856 C64
    |    |--S. elenensis [incl. S. raricosta] C64
    |    |--S. fragilis Hanley 1842 BT78
    |    |--S. fusca Sowerby 1844 BT78
    |    |--S. gracilis C64
    |    |--S. groenlandica [=Turbo clathrus groenlandicus] N79
    |    |--S. lyrata H86
    |    |--S. marginata H86
    |    |--S. mellisii Smith 1890 BT78
    |    |--S. multistriata Say 1825 BT78
    |    |--S. ornata Baily 1855 F27b
    |    |--S. pachypleura Conrad 1842 F27b
    |    |--S. pachygyra Locard 1896 BT78
    |    |--S. pacifica Wilckens 1922 [=Cirsostrema pacifica] F27a
    |    |--S. planicostata C64
    |    |--S. pretiosa C64
    |    |--S. regularis C64
    |    |--S. rotunda H86
    |    |--S. sanctaehelenae Smith 1890 BT78
    |    |--S. senegalensis von Maltzan 1885 BT78
    |    |--S. smithii Tryon 1887 [=Scala miranda Smith 1871 (preoc.)] BT78
    |    |--S. tiara C64
    |    |--S. trevelyana N79
    |    |--S. trochiformis von Maltzan 1885 BT78
    |    `--S. turtonae N79
    `--Epitonium Röding 1798 BR05
         |  i. s.: E. aculeatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria aculeata] H09
         |         E. albidum RL04
         |         E. auritum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria aurita] H09
         |         E. candidissimum (Monterosato 1877) BT78
         |         E. castum (Sowerby 1873) [=Scalaria casta] H09
         |         E. commutatum (Monterosato 1877) BT78
         |         E. costulatum (Kiener 1839) D88
         |         E. crenatoides Carpenter 1864 O27
         |         E. denticulatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria denticulata] H09
         |         E. dentiscalpium (Watson 1883) [=Scalaria dentiscalpia] H09
         |         E. eleutherium Pilsbry & Olsson 1941 BT78
         |         E. formosissimum B91
         |         E. grossicostatum (Nyst 1873) BT78
         |         E. hyalinum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria hyalina] H09
         |         E. imperialis (Sowerby 1844) WG71
         |         E. irregulare (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaris irregularis] H09
         |         E. minora HS01
         |         E. muricatum (Kiener 1839) [=Scalaria muricata] H09
         |         E. neglecta Adams & Reeve 1850 WG71
         |         E. obliquum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria obliqua] H09
         |         E. pallasi Kiener 1838 WG71
         |         E. perplexa Pease 1860 WG71
         |         E. pulchellum (Bivona 1832) BT78
         |         E. replicatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria replicata] H09
         |         E. revolutum (Hedley 1899) [=Scalaria revoluta] H09
         |         E. rubrolineatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria rubrolineata] H09
         |         E. subauriculatum (Souverbie 1866) [=Scalaria subauriculata] H09
         |         E. subnudatum (Sowerby 1874) [=Scalaria subnudata] H09
         |         E. tenuicostatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria tenuicostata] H09
         |         E. ‘tenuicostatum’ von Martens 1882 non Scalaria tenuicostata Sowerby 1844 BT78
         |         E. tenuispiralis Marshall 1919 F27a
         |         E. tricinctum Marshall 1918 F27a
         |         E. turriculum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria turricula] H09
         |         E. ulu Pilsbry 1921 D88
         |         E. vestale (Hinds 1843) [=Scalaria vestalis] H09
         |--E. (Epitonium) RL04
         |    |--*E. (E.) scalare (Linnaeus 1758) RL04 [=Turbo scalaris RL04, T. (Scalaria) scalaris G20]
         |    |--E. (E.) hancocki DuShane 1970 [=E. (Nitidiscala) hancocki] BC01
         |    |--E. (E.) hemmesi DuShane 1988 BC01
         |    |--E. (E.) krebsii (Mörch 1874) [=Scala krebsii] MP65
         |    `--E. (E.) thorssoni DuShane 1988 BC01
         |--E. (Acutiscala de Boury 1909) P61
         |    `--E. (*A.) philippinarum (Sowerby 1844) P61 [=Scalaria philippinarum H09]
         |--E. (Asperiscala De Boury 1909) BC01
         |    |--E. (A.) apiculatum (Dall 1889) [=Scala apiculata] MP65
         |    |--E. (A.) arnoldi Dall 1917 O27
         |    |--E. (A.) bellastriatum Carpenter 1864 O27
         |    |--E. (A.) championi MP65
         |    |--E. (A.) cookeanum Dall 1917 O27
         |    |--E. (A.) goldsmithi (DuShane 1988) [=Asperiscala goldsmithi] BC01
         |    |--E. (A.) lagunarum Dall 1917 O27
         |    `--E. (A.) lowei Dall 1906 O27
         |--E. (Boreoscala Kobelt 1902) O27
         |    `--E. (B.) greenlandicum Perry 1811 [=Scala groenlandica] O27
         |--E. (Crisposcala De Boury 1909) O27
         |    |--E. (C.) acrostephanum Dall 1908 O27
         |    |--E. (C.) catalinae Dall 1908 O27
         |    |--E. (C.) regum Dall 1917 O27
         |    `--E. (C.) tabulatum Dall 1917 O27
         |--E. (Globiscala De Boury 1909) O27
         |    |--E. (G.) barbarinum Dall 1919 O27
         |    |--E. (G.) bullatum (Sowerby 1844) (see below for synonymy) D88
         |    |--E. (G.) orcuttianum Dall 1917 O27
         |    `--E. (G.) zephyrium Dall 1917 O27
         |--E. (Hirtoscala Monterosato 1890) BC01
         |    |--E. (H.) fractum Dall 1927 [incl. E. (Epitonium) mauryi Tursch & Pierret 1964] BC01
         |    |--E. (H.) reflexum (Carpenter 1856) PP78
         |    `--E. (H.) shyorum DuShane & McLean 1968 BC01
         |--E. (Hyaloscala de Boury 1889) BC01
         |    |--E. (*H.) clathratulum P61
         |    |--E. (H.) arcanum DuShane 1979 [=E. (Nitidiscala) arcanum] BC01
         |    |--E. (H.) bucknilli Powell 1924 P61
         |    |--E. (H.) jukesianum (Forbes 1852) P61
         |    |--E. (H.) tinctum (Carpenter 1865) BC01 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--E. (H.) worsfoldi Robertson 1994 BC01
         |--E. (Laeviscala de Boury 1909) BC01
         |    `--E. (L.) luceo (Dushane 1988) [=Laeviscala luceo] BC01
         |--E. (Limiscala de Boury 1909) BC01
         |    |--E. (*L.) lyra (Sowerby 1844) P61, H09 [=Scalaria lyra H09]
         |    |--E. (L.) billeeanum (DuShane & Bratcher 1965) RL04 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--E. (L.) macleani DuShane 1970 [=E. (Asperiscala) macleani] BC01
         |    |--E. (L.) plymanthi Robertson 1994 BC01
         |    `--E. (L.) tenellum (Hutton 1885) P61
         |--E. (Nitidiscala) BC01
         |--E. (Parviscala) striatissimum (Monterosato 1878) RL04
         `--E. (Sodaliscala de Boury 1909) BC01
              |--E. (S.) dendrophylliae Bouchet & Warén 1986 RL04
              `--E. (S.) textimattum DuShane 1977 [=E. (Asperiscala) textimattum] BC01

Nomina nuda: Epitonium atlanticum de Boury in Tomlin & Shackleford 1914 BT78
             Epitonium tenuipunctatum de Boury in Tomlin & Shackleford 1914 BT78

*Acirsa borealis (Lyell 1841) BR17 [=Scalaria borealis BR17, Epitonium (Acirsa) boreale O27, Mesalia borealis J64, Scala (A.) borealis O27; incl. Scala eschrichtii O27, Scalaria eschrichti J64, Scalaria undulata J64]

Acirsa borealis ochotensis (Middendorff 1849) O27 [=Scala ochotensis O27, Epitonium boreale ochotense O27, Scalaria ochotensis C64]

Epitoniidae [Epitoniacea, Epitoniida, Epitoniinae, Epitonioidea, Janthinidae, Janthiniformes, Janthinoidea, Janthinoidei, Nystiellidae, Scalacea, Scalariana, Scalariidae, Scalidae]

Epitonium (Globiscala) bullatum (Sowerby 1844) [incl. Globiscala kashiwajimensis Azuma 1962, Scala (G.) papyracea de Boury 1912, Epitonium (G.) woolacottae Kerslake 1958] D88

Epitonium (Hyaloscala) tinctum (Carpenter 1865) BC01 [=Scalaria indianorum tincta O27, E. (Nitidiscala) tinctum O27; incl. E. (Nitidoscala [l. c.]) tinctum bormanni Strong 1941 (nom. inv.) BC01]

Epitonium (Limiscala) billeeanum (DuShane & Bratcher 1965) RL04 [=Scalina billeeana BC01, Alora billeeana RL04, Asperiscala billeeana RL04]

Recluzia lutea Bennett 1840 [incl. R. erythraea Jickeli 1882, R. hargravesi Cox 1870, R. montouzieri Souverbie 1872, R. turrita Philippi 1848] A63

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A63] Abbott, R. T. 1963. The janthinid genus Recluzia in the western Atlantic. Nautilus 76 (4): 151.

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[A88] Askew, T. M. 1988. A new species of pleurotomariid gastropod from the western Atlantic. Nautilus 102 (3): 89–91.

[B91] Bandel, K. 1991. Über triassische "Loxonematoidea" und ihre Beziehungen zu rezenten und paläozoischen Schnecken. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 65 (3–4): 239–268.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BT78] Bouchet, P., & S. Tillier. 1978. Two new giant epitoniids (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from West Africa. Veliger 20 (4): 345–348.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[D88] DuShane, H. 1988. Geographical distribution of some Epitoniidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) associated with fungiid corals. Nautilus 102 (1): 30–35.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O01] Ohlin, A. 1901. On a new "bipolar" schizopod. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 371–374.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RL04] Richter, A., & Á. A. Luque. 2004. Epitonium dendrophylliae (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae) feeding on Astroides calycularis (Anthozoa, Scleractinia). Journal of Molluscan Studies 70: 99–101.

[RH65] Robertson, R., & T. Habe. 1965. Alexania replaces Habea. Nautilus 78 (4): 140–141.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Last updated: 16 September 2021.

Melanopsidae

Melanopsis costata, copyright Panayotis Ovalis.


Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.

The Melanopsidae are a group of freshwater snails with a disjunct distribution in the western Palaearctic and New Zealand. They have an ovate or elongate conical shell that is smooth or ornamented with nodulose ribs.

<==Melanopsidae [Melanopidae, Melanopsinae]
    |--Megalonoda reussi (Hörnes 1856) TTE93
    |--Amphimelania Fischer 1885 [Amphimelaniidae, Amphimelaniinae] BR05
    |    `--*A. holandrii (Pfeiffer 1828) [=Melania holandrii] BR17
    |--Fagotia Bourguignat 1884 [Fagotiinae] BR05
    |    `--*F. esperi (Férussac 1823) [=Melanopsis esperi] BR17
    `--Melanopsis Férussac 1807 BR05
         |  i. s.: M. americana G88
         |         M. buccinoidea (Olivier 1804) [=Melania buccinoidea] BR17
         |         M. etrusca PB27
         |         M. impressa Krauss 1852 GK02
         |         M. jordanica PB27
         |         M. kleini E99
         |         M. laevigata E99
         |         M. narzolina E99
         |           |--M. n. narzolina E99
         |           `--M. n. gigantea E99
         |         M. praerosa (Linnaeus 1767) [=Buccinum praerosum] BR17
         |         M. requenensis E99
         |         M. variabilis C63
         |--*M. (Melanopsis) costata (Olivier 1804) [=Melania costata] BR17
         |    |--M. c. costata C63
         |    `--M. c. turcica C63
         |--M. (Pakaurangia Finlay 1927) F27
         |    |--M. (*P.) waitaraensis Marwick 1926 [=Zemelanopsis (*P.) waitaraensis] F27
         |    `--‘Zemelanopsis’ (P.) zelandicus (Marshall 1918) [=Coptochetus zelandicus] F27
         `--M. (Zemelanopsis Finlay 1927) P61
              |--M. (*Z.) trifasciata Gray 1843 P61
              `--M. (Z.) pomahaka (Hutton 1873) H86, F27 [=Ancillaria pomahaka F27]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C63] Curtin, T. J. 1963. Snails from Turkey, Crete and Greece. Nautilus 76 (4): 132–135.

[E99] Esu, D. 1999. Contribution to the knowledge of Neogene climate changes in western and central Europe by means of non-marine molluscs. In: J. Agustí, L. Rook & P. Andrews (eds) The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe pp. 328–354. Cambridge University Press.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43–57.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Zeacolpus

Zeacolpus blacki, copyright Te Papa Tongarewa.


Belongs within: Turritellidae.

Zeacolpus is a predominantly New Zealand genus of turritellid gastropods (with Z. bartoni known from the Eocene of Western Australia) characterised by a paucispiral apex of one whorl and a sculpture of spiral cords (Finlay 1927a).

<==Zeacolpus Finlay 1926 [Zeacolpini] P61
    |  i. s.: Z. abscisus [=Turritella abscisa] F27a
    |         Z. albolapis (Finlay 1924) F27a [=Turritella albolapis F27a, T. concava Hutton 1877 (preoc.) F27b]
    |         Z. bartoni Darragh & Kendrick 2008 DK08
    |         Z. lornensis (Marwick 1926) [=Turritella lornensis] F27a
    |         Z. semiconcavus [=Turritella semiconcava] F27a
    |--*Z. (Zeacolpus) vittatus (Hutton 1873) P61 [=Turritella vittata P61; incl. T. carlottae Watson 1881 F27a]
    `--Z. (Stiracolpus Finlay 1926) P61
         |--Z. (*S.) symmetricus (Hutton 1873) P61 [=Turritella symmetrica P61; incl. T. chordata F27a]
         |--Z. (S.) ahiparanus (Powell 1927) P61 [=Turritella (Zeacolpus) ahiparana BC01]
         |--Z. (S.) ascensus Marwick 1957 P61
         |--‘Stiracolpus’ atkinsoni [=Turritella atkinsoni] F27a
         |--Z. (S.) blacki Marwick 1957 P61
         |--Z. (S.) delli Marwick 1957 P61
         |--‘Stiracolpus’ godeffroyanus [=Turritella godeffroyana] F27a
         |--‘Stiracolpus’ kanieriensis (Harris 1897) F27a (see below for synonymy)
         |--Z. (S.) knoxi Marwick 1957 P61
         |    |--Z. k. knoxi P61
         |    `--Z. k. tardior Marwick 1957 P61
         |--Z. (S.) maorius (Powell 1940) [=Gazameda maoria] P61
         |--Z. (S.) mixtus Finlay 1930 P61
         |--Z. (S.) pagoda (Reeve 1849) P61 [=Turritella pagoda F27a]
         |    |--Z. p. pagoda P61 [incl. T. fulminata F27a, Zeacolpus fulminatus P61]
         |    `--Z. p. powelli Marwick 1957 P61
         |--‘Stiracolpus’ smithianus [=Turritella smithiana] F27a
         `--‘Stiracolpus’ waikopiroensis (Suter 1917) [=Turritella waikopiroensis] F27a

‘Stiracolpus’ kanieriensis (Harris 1897) F27a [=Turritella kanieriensis F27a, T. (Zaria) tricincta Hutton 1873 nec Borson 1820 nec Morris 1845 F27b]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Fossarinae

Zeradina corrugata, from Hedley (1904).


Belongs within: Cerithiimorpha.

The Fossarinae are a group of small marine snails whose shells usually have a large body whorl, open umbilicus and strong spiral sculpture.

See also: In which I am defeated by shells.

<==Fossarinae [Fossaridae]
    |--Carinorbis dalli (Whitfield 1894) P12
    |--Iselica Dall 1918 [=Isapis Adams 1853 non Westwood 1851] O27
    |    |--*I. anomala [=Fossarus anomala, Isapis anomala] O27
    |    |--I. fenestrata (Carpenter 1864) [=Isapis fenestrata] O27
    |    |--I. obtusa Carpenter 1864 O27 [=Isapis obtusa C64]
    |    |    |--I. o. obtusa O27
    |    |    `--I. o. laxa Dall 1919 O27
    |    `--‘Isapis’ ovoidea C64
    |--Fossarus Philippi 1841 [=Fossar Gray 1847] BR05
    |    |--*F. adansoni Philippi 1841 BR17
    |    |--F. ambiguus (Linnaeus 1758) [incl. F. orbignyi var. tridentata Usticke 1959] BC01
    |    |--F. angiolus Dall 1919 O27
    |    |--F. aupouria Powell 1937 P61
    |    |--F. brumalis Hedley 1907 H09
    |    |--F. cereus Watson 1880 H09
    |    |--F. costatus O27
    |    |--F. maoria Powell 1937 P61
    |    |--F. parcipictus C64
    |    `--F. purus C64
    |--Halotapada RH65
    `--Zeradina Finlay 1927 P61
         |  i. s.: Z. obliquicostata (Marshall & Murdoch 1920) TTE93
         |--Z. (Zeradina) P61
         |    |--*Z. (Z.) ovata (Odhner 1924) [=Fossarus ovatus] P61
         |    |--Z. (Z.) concinna (Marshall & Murdoch 1921) [=Couthouyia concinna] F27
         |    |--Z. (Z.) costellata (Hutton 1885) [=Aclis costellata] F27
         |    |--Z. (Z.) exilis (Murdoch 1900) [=Lacuna exilis] F27
         |    |--Z. (Z.) odhneri Powell 1927 P61
         |    `--Z. (Z.) producta (Odhner 1924) P61 [=Fossarus productus F27]
         `--Z. (Radinista Finlay 1927) P61
              |--Z. (*R.) corrugata (Hedley 1904) [=Couthouyia corrugata] P61
              `--Z. (R.) scalarina Powell 1940 P61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RH65] Robertson, R., & T. Habe. 1965. Alexania replaces Habea. Nautilus 78 (4): 140–141.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Pyramidellidae

Pyrgulina pseudorugata, from Marshall & Murdoch (1921).


Belongs within: Pylopulmonata.
Contains: Syrnola, Pyramidella, Strioturbonilla, Turbonilla, Chemnitzia, Eulimella, Menestho, Chrysallida, Odostomia, Evalea.

The Pyramidellidae are a group of mostly minute marine snails with a heterostrophic protoconch and no anterior canal on the shell aperture. Members of the family lack a radula and live as ectoparasites of other invertebrates such as other molluscs or polychaetes.

Pyramidellidae
    |--Syrnolinae [Syrnolidae] BR05
    |    |--Syrnola BR05
    |    `--Tiberia Jeffreys 1884 [Tiberiinae, Tiberiini] BR05
    |         |--*T. minuscula (Monterosato 1880) [=Pyramidella minuscula] BR17
    |         `--T. nitidula (Adams 1860) [=Syrnola nitidula] BR17
    |--Pyramidellinae BR05
    |    |--Sayella Dall 1885 [Sayellinae, Sayellini] BR05
    |    |    |--*S. hemphillii (Dall 1883) [=Leuconia hemphillii] BR17
    |    |    `--S. crosseana Dall 1885 MP65
    |    `--Pyramidellini BR05
    |         |--Pyramidella BR05
    |         `--Plotia Röding 1798 [Plotiidae] BR05
    |              |--*P. lineata Röding 1798 BR17
    |              `--P. scabra [=Melania (Plotia) scabra; incl. M. denticulata Lea 1851, M. doreyana, M. spinulosa] TC89
    |--Turbonillinae [Chemnitziidae, Chemnitziinae, Turbonillidae] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Strioturbonilla O27a
    |    |--Turbonillini BR17
    |    |    |--Turbonilla BR05
    |    |    `--Chemnitzia BR17
    |    |--Cingulina Adams 1860 BR05 [Cingulininae, Cingulinini BR17]
    |    |    |--*C. circinata (Adams 1860) BR17
    |    |    `--C. isseli (Tryon 1886) [incl. Eulimella cingulata Issel 1869, Odetta cingulata] BD86
    |    `--Eulimellini BR17
    |         |--Eulimella BR05
    |         `--Belonidium Cossmann 1893 non Mont. & Durieu 1846 (ICBN) BR17 [=Anisocycla Monterosato 1880 BR05]
    |              `--*B. gracile (Deshayes 1861) [=Aciculina gracilis, *Anisocycla gracilis] BR17
    `--Odostomiinae [Odostomiidae] BR05
         |--Odostomella Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1883 [Odostomellidae, Odostomellinae, Odostomellini] BR05
         |    `--*O. doliolum (Philippi 1844) [=Rissoa doliolum] BR17
         |--Cyclostremella Bush 1897 [Cyclostremellidae, Cyclostremellinae, Cyclostremellini] BR05
         |    |--*C. humilis Bush 1897 BR17
         |    |--C. californica Bartsch 1907 O27b
         |    `--C. concordia Bartsch 1920 O27b
         |--Chrysallidini [Chrysallididae, Chrysallidinae] BR05
         |    |--Menestho BR05
         |    |--Chrysallida BR05
         |    `--Pyrgulina Adams 1864 [Pyrgulininae] BR05
         |         |--*P. casta (Adams 1861) [=Chrysallida casta] BR17
         |         |--P. gliriella Melvill & Standen 1896 H09
         |         |--P. henni (Brazier 1894) [=Odostomia henni] H09
         |         |--P. pseudorugata M. & M. 1921 F27
         |         |--P. rugata F27
         |         |--P. senex Hedley 1902 H09
         |         |--P. umeralis Hedley 1902 H09
         |         `--P. zea Hedley 1902 H09
         `--Odostomiini [Liostomiini, Liostomini] BR05
              |--Odostomia BR05
              |--Spiralinella pellucida (Dillwyn 1817) BR05
              |--Evalea O27a
              |--Liostomia Sars 1878 BR05
              |    `--*L. clavula (Lovén 1846) [=Turbonilla clavula] BR17
              |--Ividella Dall & Bartsch 1909 O27a
              |    |--*I. navisa (Dall & Bartsch 1907) P61, O27a [=Odostomia (*Ividella) navisa P61]
              |    |    |--I. n. navisa O27a
              |    |    `--I. n. delmontensis (Dall & Bartsch 1907) [=Odostomia (Ividella) navisa delmontensis] O27a
              |    |--I. maoria Powell 1940 P61
              |    `--I. pedroana (Dall & Bartsch 1909) [=Odostomia (Ividella) pedroana] O27a
              |--Miralda Adams 1864 O27a
              |    |--M. aepynota (Dall & Bartsch 1909) [=Odostomia (Miralda) aepynota] O27a
              |    |--M. hemphilli (Dall & Bartsch 1909) [=Odostomia (Miralda) hemphilli] O27a
              |    |--‘Parthenia’ quinquecincta [incl. Rissoa notabilis, Cingula turrita] C64
              |    |--M. soteloi Rolán 1994 BC01
              |    |--M. superba Rolán & Fernandes 1993 BC01
              |    `--M. temperata Rolán & Fernandes 1993 BC01
              `--Besla Dall & Bartsch 1904 O27a, P61
                   |--*B. convexa [=Chrysallida convexa] P61
                   |--B. callimorpha (Dall & Bartsch 1909) (see below for synonymy) O27a
                   |--B. rossiana Laws 1941 P61
                   |--B. subrugata (Powell 1927) P61
                   |--B. vaga Laws 1941 P61
                   `--B. waitangiensis Laws 1941 P61

Pyramidellidae incertae sedis:
  Myxa Hedley 1903 F27
  Kleinella fulva (Adams 1851) [=Monoptygma fulva, Pyrammidella (Actaeopyramis) fulva] BD86
  Monoptygma sinuata Gould 1861 BD86
  Otopleura mitralis Adams 1855 BW09
  Pseudoscilla verdensis Peñas & Rolán 1999 BC01
  Agatha Adams 1860 P61
    |--*A. virgo [=Pyramidella virgo] P61
    `--A. georgiana (Hutton 1885) P61 (see below for synonymy)
  Obexomia Laws 1941 [incl. Obex Laws 1940] P61
    `--*O. denselirata (Suter 1908) [=Odostomia denselirata] P61
  Striodostomia Laws 1940 P61
    `--*S. orewa Laws 1940 P61
  Gumina Finlay 1928 P61
    |--*G. dolichostoma (Suter 1908) [=Odostomia dolichostoma] P61
    `--G. minor Laws 1940 P61
  Linopyrga Laws 1941 P61
    `--*L. rugata (Hutton 1886) [=Odostomia rugata] P61
         |--L. r. rugata P61
         `--L. r. parva Laws 1941 P61
  Siogamaia Nomura 1936 P61
    |--*S. fortiplicata [=Tropaeas (*Siogamaia) fortiplicata] P61
    `--S. morioria Laws 1941 P61
  Puposyrnola Cossmann 1921 P61
    |--*P. acicula [=Auricula acicula] P61
    |--P. fastigiata (Suter 1906) P61
    `--P. missile Laws 1937 P61
  Terelimella Laws 1937 P61
    |--*T. ototarana P61
    |--T. aupouria (Powell 1937) P61
    |--T. benthicola Dell 1956 P61
    `--T. larochei (Powell 1930) P61
  Finlayola Laws 1937 P61
    |--*F. finlayi P61
    `--F. lurida (Suter 1908) P61
  Planpyrgiscus Laws 1937 P61
    |--*P. extenuatus [=Turbonilla extenuata] P61
    `--P. lawsi Dell 1956 P61
  Pyrgiscilla Laws 1937 P61
    |--*P. chattonensis [=Turbonilla chattonensis] P61
    `--P. otakauica Laws 1937 P61
  Striarcana Laws 1937 P61
    |--*S. cryptolira Laws 1937 P61
    `--S. tauranga Laws 1937 P61
  Creonella TTE93
    |--C. subangulata Sohl 1964 TTE93
    |--C. triplicata Wade 1917 TTE93
    `--C. turretiforma Sohl 1964 TTE93

Agatha georgiana (Hutton 1885) P61 [=Odostomia georgiana F27; incl. O. bembix Suter 1908 P61, F27, O. inornata P61, O. stygia P61]

Besla callimorpha (Dall & Bartsch 1909) [=Odostomia (Besla) callimorpha, Chrysallida pumila Carpenter 1866 non O. pumila Adams 1861] O27a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[O27a] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927a. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[O27b] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927b. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.