Psychodinae

Psychoda alternata, copyright Ivan Stankovic.


Belongs within: Psychodoidea.

The Psychodinae, moth flies, are a group of densely hairy flies whose larvae are most commonly found in moist or semi-aquatic habitats (Wagner & Ibáñez-Bernal 2009).

Characters (from Wagner & Ibáñez-Bernal 2009): Eye reniform with extension towards midline forming eye bridge above antennal insertions; eyes continuous or separated, rarely with eye bridge short and acutely pointed; flagellomeres fusiform, pyriform or nodiform.

<==Psychodinae WI-B09
    |--Maruina [Maruinini] WI-B09
    |    `--M. hirta WM96
    |--Pericomini WI-B09
    |    |--Lepidiella WI-B09
    |    `--Pericoma (Clytocerus) americana WI-B09, QV81
    |--Paramormiini WI-B09
    |    |--Clogmia albipunctata WI-B09, WT11
    |    |--Telmatoscopus mergacolis WI-B09
    |    `--Paramormia [incl. Duckhousiella] WI-B09
    |         |--P. furcata WI-B09
    |         `--P. ustulata WI-B09
    |--Mormiini WI-B09
    |    |--Atrichobrunettia alternata WI-B09, CM91
    |    |--Bryopharsos WI-B09
    |    |--Eugenys clavellata WI-B09
    |    |--Mormia O98
    |    `--Brunettia [incl. Neobrunettia Bravo & Amorim 1995] WI-B09
    |         `--B. dominicana WI-B09
    |--Psychodini WI-B09
    |    |--Trichopsychoda insulicola WI-B09, QV81
    |    |--Threticus WI-B09
    |    |--Feuerborniella WI-B09
    |    |--Philosepedon WI-B09
    |    |    |--P. helicis WM96
    |    |    |--P. mauroae Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
    |    |    |--P. opposita WM96
    |    |    `--P. quatei WM96
    |    `--Psychoda WI-B09
    |         |--P. alternata CM91
    |         |--P. cinerea WI-B09
    |         |--P. harrisi M83
    |         |--P. juliae Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
    |         |--P. ocellaris G20
    |         |--P. phalaenoides WI-B09
    |         |--P. puertoricana Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
    |         |--P. satchelli WM96
    |         `--P. spatulata M83
    `--Setomimini WI-B09
         |--Nemoneura liparotes WI-B09
         |--Didicrum pyramidon WI-B09
         |--Desmioza WI-B09
         |--Didimioza symphilia WI-B09
         |--Thrysocanthus WI-B09
         |--Valerianna WI-B09
         |--Neoarisemus maesi WI-B09
         |--Neurosystasis WI-B09
         |--Armillipora selvica Quate 1996 WI-B09
         |--*Australopericoma caudata [incl. A. wirthi] WI-B09
         |--Balbagathis discuspis WI-B09
         |--Setomima WI-B09
         |--Platyplastinx WI-B09
         |--Micrommatos WI-B09
         |    |--M. simplex WI-B09
         |    `--M. sylvaticum WI-B09
         |--Caenobrunettia WI-B09
         |    |--C. sarculosa WI-B09
         |    `--C. subditicia WI-B09
         |--Tonnoira WI-B09
         |    |--T. cavernicola WI-B09
         |    `--T. rapiformis WI-B09
         |--Alepia WI-B09
         |    |--A. diocula WI-B09
         |    |--A. hirtiventris WI-B09
         |    `--A. longinoi WI-B09
         `--Arisemus WI-B09
              |--*A. boxi WM96
              |--A. amydrus WI-B09
              |--A. buzbyae Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
              |--A. mariannae Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96
              `--A. waidei Wagner & Masteller 1996 WM96

Psychodinae incertae sedis:
  Eurygarka helicis QV81
  Breviscapus QV81
  Neotelmatoscopus O98
  Paratelmatoscopus O98
  Epacretron O98
  Gerobrunettia O98
  Notiocharis O98
  Peripsychoda O98
  Ulomyia RD77
  Termitomastus RD77
  Termitodipteron RD77
  Termitadelphos RD77
  Thornburghiella marginalis BW09 [=Pericoma marginalis QV81]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[QV81] Quate, L. W., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1981. Psychodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–300. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flies or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 319–335. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WM96] Wagner, R., & E. C. Masteller. 1996. New moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and a key to species from Puerto Rico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 450–464.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Strepsiptera

Female Mengenilla moldryzki, from Pohl et al. (2012).


Belongs within: Holometabola.
Contains: Stylopiformia.

The Strepsiptera are a group of insects that develop as endoparasites of other insects. Adult males are free-living and non-feeding; mature females are larviform and those of Stylopidia remain within the original host.

See also: A queenage of Strepsiptera.

Characters (from Kathirithamby 1991): Endopterygote Neoptera with reduced mandibulate mouth-parts, extreme development of metathorax, reduced prothorax, and without differentiated trochanters in fore and mid legs. Adult males free living, with functional hind wings and small haltere-like fore wings. Females larviform, viviparous; usually parasitic, in puparium, and then with secondary progoneate genital apertures. Heteromorphosis during larval growth, 1st instar larvae free living and active, later instars parasitic.

<==Strepsiptera [Mengenillidia, Rhipiptera, Stylopida, Stylopoidea]
    |  i. s.: Neostylops aterrima A71
    |         Austrostylops gracilipes R35
    |         Bahiaxenos Bravo, Pohl et al. 2009 [Bahiaxenidae] BP09
    |           `--*B. relictus Bravo, Pohl et al. 2009 BP09
    |--Protoxenos [Protoxenidae] BP09
    |    `--P. janzeni Pohl, Beutel & Kinzelbach 2005 BP09
    `--+--Cretostylops engeli Grimaldi & Kathirithamby 2005 BP09
       `--+--Mengea [Mengeidae, Mengeiformia, Mengeina, Mengeoidea] BP09
          |    |--M. mengei GE05
          |    `--M. tertiaria K91
          `--+--Mengenillidae [Mengenilloidea] BP09
             |    |  i. s.: Eoxenos laboulbenei K91
             |    |--Iberoxeninae K91
             |    |--Congoxenos [Congoxeninae] K91
             |    `--Mengenilla [Mengenillinae] K91
             |         |--M. australiensis K91
             |         |--M. chobauti MHK11
             |         |--M. gracilipes K91
             |         `--M. moldryzki MW15
             `--Stylopidia [Stylopina] BP09
                  |  i. s.: Dundoxenos vilhenai A99
                  |         Bohartilla GE05 [Bohartillidae K91, Bohartilloidea]
                  |           |--B. kinzelbachi GE05
                  |           `--B. megalognatha GE05
                  |--Corioxenidae [Corioxenoidea] MHK11
                  |    |  i. s.: Uniclavinae K91
                  |    |--Corioxenos [Corioxeninae] MHK11
                  |    |    |--C. acucyrtophallus MHK11
                  |    |    `--C. antestiae K91
                  |    `--+--Blisseoxenos esaki MHK11
                  |       `--Triozocera [Triozocerinae] MHK11
                  |            `--T. papuana K91
                  `--Stylopiformia MHK11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (transl. 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BP09] Bravo, F., H. Pohl, A. Silva-Neto & R. G. Beutel. 2009. Bahiaxenidae, a "living fossil" and a new family of Strepsiptera (Hexapoda) discovered in Brazil. Cladistics 25 (6): 614–623.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[MHK11] McMahon, D. P., A. Hayward & J. Kathirithamby. 2011. The first molecular phylogeny of Strepsiptera reveals an early burst of molecular evolution correlated with the transition to endoparasitism. PLoS One 6 (6): e21206.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

Merizodinae

Merizodus soledadinus, from Lebouvier et al. (2020).


Belongs within: Conjunctae.

The Merizodinae are a group of small ground beetles with a disjunct distribution in southern South America, southern Australasia and northeastern Asia (Roig-Juñent & Cicchino 2001).

Characters (from Roig-Juñent & Cicchino 2001, as Zolini): Maxillary palpomere 3 plurisetose; elytron with apical plica, recurrent stria joined with apical portion of stria 5; tarsomeres dorsally sulcate.

<==Merizodinae [Merizodini, Oopterini, Zolini] R-JC01
    |--Sinozolina R-JC01
    |--Chaltenia Roig-Juñent & Cicchino 2001 [Chalteniina] R-JC01
    |    `--*C. patagonica Roig-Juñent & Cicchino 2001 R-JC01
    `--+--Oopterus Guérin-Ménéville 1841 [incl. Zolus Sharp 1886; Oopterina, Zolina] R-JC01
       |    `--‘Zolus’ helmsi H15
       `--Merizodus [Merizodina] R-JC01
            |--M. angustiocollis R-JC01
            `--M. soledadinus R-JC01

Merizodinae incertae sedis:
  Idacarabus Lea 1910 LB91, LM87
    |--I. cordicollis Moore 1967 LM87
    |--I. longicollis Moore 1978 LM87
    `--I. troglodytes Lea 1910 LM87
  Pterocyrtus Sloane 1920 B02, LM87
    |--*P. globosus Sloane 1920 LM87
    |--P. rubescens Sloane 1920 LM87
    |--P. striatulus Sloane 1920 LM87
    |--P. tasmanicus (Castelnau 1867) [=Drimostoma tasmanica] LM87
    `--P. truncaticollis Sloane 1923 LM87
  Sloaneana Csiki 1933 B02, LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. lamingtonensis Baehr 2002 B02
    |--S. similis Baehr 2002 B02
    `--S. tasmaniae (Sloane 1915) [=Brachydema tasmaniae; incl. B. victoriae Sloane 1915] LM87

Sloaneana Csiki 1933 B02, LM87 [=Brachydema Sloane 1915 non Fairmaire 1881 LM87, Sloanella Csiki 1928 non Jeannel 1927 LM87]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B02] Baehr, M. 2002. Two new species of Sloaneana Csiki from southern Queensland (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Merizodinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 48: 9–15.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[R-JC01] Roig-Juñent, S., & A. C. Cicchino. 2001. Chaltenia patagonica, new genus and species belonging to Chalteniina, a new subtribe of Zolini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Canadian Entomologist 133: 651–670.

Megatominae

Variegated carpet beetle Anthrenus verbasci, copyright Olei.


Belongs within: Bostrichoidea.

The Megatominae are a group of dermestid beetles characterised by the presence of an ocellus together with a relatively long basal segment on the hind tarsus. A number of species are notorious storage pests.

<==Megatominae [Anthreninae] B14
    |--Anthrenocerus australis LB91
    |--Myrmeanthrenus frontalis LB91
    |--Thaumaglossa nigricans LB91
    |--Megatoma undata (Linnaeus 1758) G20, L58 [=Dermestes undatus G20]
    |--Trogoderma B74
    |    |--T. adelaidae R35
    |    |--T. granarium MHG04
    |    |--T. variabile MHG04
    |    `--T. versicolor B70
    `--Anthrenus B14
         |--A. caucasicus C01
         |--A. fuscus C01
         |--A. museorum (Linnaeus 1761) B14
         |--A. pulchellus Gestro 1889 G89
         |--A. scrophulariae B70
         |--A. subclaviger G89
         |--A. verbasci B14 [=Nathrenus verbasci OM91]
         `--A. vorax B70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[B74] Britton, E. B. 1974. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 62–89. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[OM91] Okamoto, M., & K. Matsumoto. 1991. Observations on the behavior of the hypopus of Lardoglyphus konoi. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 555–559. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

Ptinus

Whitemarked spider beetle Ptinus fur, copyright Joseph Berger.


Belongs within: Ptinidae.

Ptinus, spider beetles, is a cosmopolitan genus of long-legged beetles with elytra bearing a vestiture of appressed scales or setae. A number of species are widespread as storage pests.

Ptinus
    |--P. adeps Olliff 1886 M86
    |--P. albomaculatus Macleay 1872 M86
    |--P. attritus Olliff 1886 M86
    |--P. bicinctus C01
    |--P. carinatus Lucas 1846 E12
    |--P. clavipes [incl. P. mobilis] B70
    |--P. egenus Olliff 1886 M86
    |--P. eminens Olliff 1886 M86
    |--P. exulans Erichs. 1842 M86
    |--P. fossulatus Lucas 1846 E12
    |--P. fur Linn. 1761 M86
    |--P. gibbicollis Lucas 1846 E12
    |--P. hirticollis Lucas 1846 E12
    |--P. imulus Olliff 1886 M86
    |--P. latro C01
    |--P. longus Olliff 1886 M86
    |--P. mauritanicus Lucas 1846 E12
    |--P. obesus Lucas 1846 E12
    |--P. pusillus LB91
    |--P. rotundicollis Lucas 1846 E12
    |--P. rufus Lucas 1846 E12
    `--P. tectus [incl. P. pilosus White 1846] M86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

Pselaphinae

Fustigerodes majusculus, from Péringuey (1897).


Belongs within: Staphylinidae.
Contains: Pselaphitae, Goniaceritae, Batrisitae, Faronini, Bythinoplectitae, Euplectini, Trogastrini, Jubini, Raffrayia, Claviger, Articerus, Fustiger.

The Pselaphinae are a cosmopolitan group of small, often grotesque-looking staphylinid beetles with a robust, relatively inflexible body (Newton et al. 2001). Members include the Clavigeritae, specialised beetles that are all associates of ants. Clavigeritae have antennae with one to six segments and greatly reduced maxillary palpi. An extensive hollow at the base of the abdomen surrounded by tufts of golden-yellow setae secretes a substance attractive to the beetle's ant hosts.

Characters (from Newton et al. 2001): Body robust, relatively inflexible, usually reddish-brown, with elytra exposing some abdominal segments; deep conical foveae present on vertex and/or other parts of the body; antennae inserted anterior to a line drawn between anterior margins of eyes; maxillary palps with 1-4 palpomeres plus a lightly sclerotized or unsclerotized apical pseudosegment, therefore often appearing to have five palpomeres; tarsal formula 3-3-3, rarely apparently 2-2-2; abdominal sterna III and IV usually with very dense setal fringe covering a basal impression on sternum IV.

<==Pselaphinae [Clavigeridae, Pselaphi, Pselaphidae, Pselaphii] NG05
    |  i. s.: Pselaphaulax MW01
    |         Seracamaurops PN02
    |         Troglamaurops PN02
    |         Cordiamaurops PN02
    |         Imtemps NG05
    |         Machadoites termitophilus N55
    |         Tinaroo ZS10
    |         Malleecola myrmecophila ZS10
    |--+--Pselaphitae R03
    |  `--Brachyscelidae R03
    |       |--Goniaceritae R03
    |       |--Batrisitae R03
    |       |--Faronini R03
    |       |--Bythinoplectitae R03
    |       `--Euplectitae [Euplectinae] R03
    |            |--Euplectini R03
    |            |--Trogastrini NT01
    |            |--Jubini NT01
    |            |--Raffrayia NT01
    |            `--Pteracmes Raffray 1890 R03 [Pteracmini NT01]
    |                 `--P. schaufussi Raffray 1890 R03
    `--Clavigeritae [Clavigerinae] R03
         |--Tiracerus LB91 [Tiracerini NG05]
         |    `--T. foveicollis LB91
         |--Colilodion Besuchet 1991 [Colilodionini] NG05
         |    |--C. incredibilis Besuchet 1991 NG05
         |    |--C. inopinatus Besuchet 1991 NG05
         |    |--C. mirus Besuchet 1991 NG05
         |    `--C. wuesti Löbl 1994 NG05
         `--Clavigerini [Adranini, Clavigerodini, Fustigerini] NG05
              |--Claviger R04
              |--Cerylambus reticulatus (Raffray 1895) NG05
              |--Articerus R04
              |--Fustiger NT01
              |--Pseudacerus Raffray 1895 R04
              |    `--P. furcatus Raffray 1895 NG05
              |--Anaclasiger Raffray 1890 R04
              |    `--A. sinuaticollis Raffray 1890 NG05
              |--Elasmatus Raffray 1903 R04
              |    `--E. lamellipes Raffray 1903 R04
              |--Theocerus Raffray 1896 R04
              |    `--T. crenulatus Raffray 1896 R04
              |--Amblycerus Raffray 1895 R04
              |    `--A. reticulatus Raffray 1895 R04
              |--Neocerus Wasmann 1893 R04
              |    `--N. compressicornis Wasmann 1893 R04
              |--Commatocerus Raffray 1882 R04
              |    `--C. elegantulus Raffray 1882 R04
              |--Apoderiger Wasmann 1897 R04
              |    `--A. cervinus Wasmann 1897 R04
              |--Trymalius Fairmaire 1898 R04
              |    `--T. foveicollis Fairmaire 1898 R04
              |--Hadrophorus Fairmaire 1898 R04
              |    `--H. humerosus Fairmaire 1898 R04
              |--Novofustiger Wasmann 1893 R04
              |    `--N. raffrayi Wasmann 1893 R04
              |--Pseudofustiger Reitter 1884 R04
              |    `--P. stricticornis (Reitter 1883) [=Articerus stricticornis] R04
              |--Commatoceropsis Raffray 1890 R04
              |    `--C. madagascariensis (Raffray 1882) [=Commatocerus madagascariensis] R04
              |--Rhynchoclaviger Wasmann 1891 R04
              |    `--R. crematogastris Wasmann 1891 R04
              |--Articeropsis Wasmann 1893 R04
              |    `--A. sikorae Wasmann 1893 R04
              |--Articeronomus Raffray 1897 R04
              |    `--A. nitidus Raffray 1897 R04
              |--Fusifer Raffray 1899 R04
              |    `--F. perrieri (Fairmaire 1898) [=Commatoceropsis perrieri] R04
              |--Paussiger Wasmann 1893 R04
              |    `--P. limicornis Wasmann 1893 R04
              |--Commatocerodes Péringuey 1888 R04
              |    `--C. raffrayi Péringuey 1888 R04
              |--Syrraphesina Raffray 1903 R04
              |    `--S. pliciventris Raffray 1903 R04
              |--Clavigerodes Raffray 1877 R04
              |    `--C. abyssinicus Raffray 1877 R04
              |--Bironia Raffray 1903 R04
              |    `--B. cavernosa Raffray 1903 R04
              |--Braunsiella Raffray 1901 R04
              |    `--B. pubiventris Raffray 1901 R04
              |--Clavigeropsis Raffray 1882 R04
              |    `--C. formicaria Raffray 1882 R04
              |--Semiclaviger Wasmann 1893 R04
              |    `--S. sikorae Wasmann 1893 R04
              |--Mastiger Motschulsky 1851 R04
              |    |--M. abruptus Motschulsky 1851 R04
              |    `--M. brevicornis Raffray 1890 NG05
              |--Disarthricerus Raffray 1895 R04
              |    |--D. integer Raffray 1895 NG05
              |    `--D. moultoni Bryant 1915 NG05
              |--Diartiger Sharp 1883 R04
              |    |--D. fossulatus Sharp 1883 R04
              |    `--D. spinipes Sharp 1883 R04
              |--Fustigeropsis Raffray 1890 R04
              |    |--F. peringueyi (Raffray 1887) [=Commatocerus peringueyi] R04
              |    `--F. simplex Raffray 1904 R04
              |--Thysdarius Fairmaire 1904 [incl. Thysdrus Fairmaire 1898 (preoc.)] R04
              |    |--T. gracilis Raffray 1899 R04
              |    `--T. perrieri Fairmaire 1898 R04
              |--Radamellus Raffray 1904 R04
              |    |--R. minutus (Raffray 1899) [=Radamides minutus] R04
              |    `--R. spinipennis (Raffray 1883) [=Radama spinipennis] R04
              |--Imerina Raffray 1896 R04
              |    |--I. breviceps Raffray 1896 R04
              |    `--I. wasmanni Raffray 1896 R04
              |--Miroclaviger Wasmann 1893 R04
              |    |--M. alluaudi Raffray 1897 R04
              |    `--M. cervicornis Wasmann 1893 R04
              |--Radamides Wasmann 1897 R04
              |    |--R. sulcicollis Fairmaire 1899 R04
              |    `--R. trifoveolatus Wasmann 1897 R04
              |--Articerodes Raffray 1890 R04
              |    |--A. borneensis Bryant 1915 NG05
              |    |--A. quadriscopulatus Schaufuss 1883 R04
              |    `--A. syriacus Saulcy 1865 [incl. A. bucharicus Reitter 1900, A. ponticus Sharp 1878] R04
              |--Radama Raffray 1883 R04
              |    |--R. fimbriatus Wasmann 1893 R04
              |    |--R. inflatus Raffray 1883 R04
              |    `--R. sulcatus Wasmann 1897 R04
              |--Adranes LeConte 1849 NT01
              |    |--A. coecus Leconte 1850 R04
              |    |--A. lecontei Brendel 1865 R04
              |    |--A. pacificus Wickham 1901 R04
              |    `--A. taylori Wickham 1901 R04
              `--Fustigerodes Reitter 1884 [incl. Novoclaviger Wasmann 1894] R04
                   |--F. articulatus Wasmann 1898 R04
                   |--F. braunsi Wasmann 1897 R04
                   |--F. capensis Péringuey 1888 R04
                   |--F. majusculus Péringuey 1888 R04
                   `--F. wroughtoni [=Novoclaviger wroughtoni] R04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[MW01] Molleman, F., & D. E. Walter. 2001. Niche segregation and can-openers: scydmaenid beetles as predators of armoured mites in Australia. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 283–288 Publishing: Melbourne.

[NT01] Newton, A. F., M. K. Thayer, J. S. Ashe & D. S. Chandler. 2001. Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 272–418. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[N55] Noirot, C. 1955. Termites du centre et du sud-ouest de l’Angola récoltés par A. de Barros Machado. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 139–150.

[NG05] Nomura, S., & I. Abd Ghani. 2005. Faunistic notes on the pselaphine species of the supertribes Goniaceritae, Pselaphitae and Clavigeritae from Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae). Serangga 10 (1–2): 1–36.

[PN02] Poggi, R., G. Nonveiller, A. Colla, D. Pavićević & T. Rađa. 2001–2002. Thaumastocephalini, a new tribe of Pselaphinae for Thaumastocephalus folliculipalpus n. gen., n. sp., an interesting new troglobious species from central Dalmatia (Croatia) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 94: 1–20.

[R03] Raffray, A. 1903. Genera et catalogue des psélaphides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 72: 484–604.

[R04] Raffray, A. 1904. Genera et catalogue des psélaphides [part III]. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 73: 401-476, pls 1-3.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Scirtidae

Prionocyphon serricornis, copyright Udo Schmidt.


Belongs within: Scirtoidea.

The Scirtidae are a group of small to moderate-sized beetles mostly found in vegetation near water, with larvae mostly being aquatic detritivores (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Moderate to small, oblong to ovoid beetles, usually somewhat flattened, with large, strongly deflexed head, pair of sharp genal ridges resting against fore coxae when head deflexed; antennae eleven-segmented, filiform; prothorax short and broad with large, projecting fore coxae and reduced sternal region, trochantins exposed, fore coxal cavities externally and internally open; mid coxal cavities contiguous, laterally open; elytral epipleura moderately broad and complete; tarsi five-segmented, fourth tarsal segments lobed; hind coxal plates often present; abdomen with five visible ventrites, none to two connate. Larvae elongate and somewhat flattened, with large head, multisegmented antennae, complex mouth-parts with maxillary comb-hairs and comb-like hypopharyngeal armature, a single pair of large spiracles at abdominal apex and a set of five anal papillae.

Scirtidae [Cyphonidae, Elodiidae, Helodidae, Scirtinae] B14
    |--Elodes Latreille 1802 MW15, L02
    |    |--E. griseus [=Cebrio (Elodes) griseus] G20
    |    |--E. haemisphaericus G20 [=Cebrio (Elodes) haemisphaericus G20, Cyphon haemisphericus L02]
    |    `--E. pallidus [=Cyphon pallidus] L02
    `--+--Cyphon MW15
       |    |--C. hilaris KB11
       |    |--C. padi C01
       |    |--C. paykulli C01
       |    `--C. variabilis C01
       `--+--Scirtes MW15
          |    |--S. exoletus Waterhouse 1880 M86
          |    |--S. hemisphericus KB11
          |    `--S. ruforotatus H02
          `--+--Veronatus MW15
             |    |--V. longicornis Sharp 1878 B14
             |    `--V. tricostellus B14
             `--Prionocyphon Redtenbacher 1858 MW15, W10
                  |  i. s.: P. caementum Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. deanboltoi Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. hamatus Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. insolitus Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. kurandaensis Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. lamingtonensis Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. latusmandibularis Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. macroflavidus Watts 2010 [=P. australis Armstrong ms] W10
                  |         P. microflavidus Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. monteithi Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. niger Kitching & Allsopp 1987 B14
                  |         P. ocellatus Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. quasichameleon Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. storeyi Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. tolgaensis Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. warra Watts 2010 W10
                  |         P. yarraensis Watts 2010 W10
                  |--*P. (Prionocyphon) serricornis (Mueller 1821) [=Cyphon serricornis] W10
                  `--P. (Orientoprionocyphon Klausnitzer 2009) W10

Scirtidae incertae sedis:
  Macrohelodes B14
    |--M. crassus Blackburn 1892 B14 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. lucidus L19
    |--M. montanus Lea 1919 L19
    `--M. princeps L19
  Ora troberti (Guérin-Méneville 1861) B14
  Pseudomicrocara LB91
  Macrocyphon LB91
  Microcara W10
  Macrodascillus W10
  Heterocyphon B70
  Eohelodites Hong 2002 H02
    `--*E. orbiculatus Hong 2002 H02

Macrohelodes crassus Blackburn 1892 B14 [incl. M. crassus gravis L19, M. crassus intricatus L19, M. crassus niger L19, M. crassus tasmanicus L19]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[KB11] Kundrata, R., & L. Bocak. 2011. The phylogeny and limits of Elateridae (Insecta, Coleoptera): is there a common tendency of click beetles to soft-bodiedness and neoteny? Zoologica Scripta 40: 364–378.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

[W10] Watts, C. H. S. 2010. Revision of Australian Prionocyphon Redtenbacher (Scirtidae: Coleoptera). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 134 (1): 53–88.

Limnichidae

Limnichus australis, from Insects of Tasmania.


Belongs within: Byrrhoidea.

The Limnichidae are a group of very small beetles often found in riparian habitats (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Very small, oval and moderately convex beetles, clothed with decumbent, erect or occasionally minute and pruinose vestiture. Antennae eleven-segmented with three- or four-segmented club, usually slender; frontoclypeal suture present; body with ventral cavities into which legs can be folded; prosternum elongate, extending well in front of coxae; fore coxae transverse, trochantins exposed, coxal cavities externally and internally open; mid coxal cavities widely separated, laterally open; transverse metasternal suture usually present; tarsi usually five-segmented, rarely four-segmented; abdomen with five visible ventrites, three to five connate. Larvae cylindrical, maxillolabial complex consolidated, so cardines are contiguous, maxillary articulating areas absent, postmentum joined to stipites for most of its length.

Limnichidae
    |--Babalimnichus B14
    |--Pseudeucinetus LB91
    |--Limnichus KB11
    |    |--L. australis LB91
    |    `--L. pygmaeus KB11
    |--Paralimnichus LB91
    |--Byrrhinus LB91
    |--Hyphalus [Hyphalinae] B14
    |    `--H. insularis Britton 1971 B14
    `--Mexico [Thaumastodinae] B14
         |--M. litoralis B14
         `--M. morrisoni Skelley 2005 B14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[KB11] Kundrata, R., & L. Bocak. 2011. The phylogeny and limits of Elateridae (Insecta, Coleoptera): is there a common tendency of click beetles to soft-bodiedness and neoteny? Zoologica Scripta 40: 364–378.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Silvanidae

Silvanus lateritius, photographed by S. E. Thorpe.


Belongs within: Cucujoidea.

The Silvanidae are a group of elongate, more or less flattened beetles found living in leaf litter and under bark; several species are widely distributed as storage pests.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Elongate, parallel-sided, more or less flattened, pubescent beetles with prognathous head, abruptly constricted posteriorly to form temples behind eyes, pronotum often with projecting front angles and/or dentate or crenulate lateral margins. Fore coxae globular, trochantins concealed, coxal cavities visibly closed behind; mid coxal cavities laterally open; tarsi four- or five-segmented, with setose lobes below; abdomen with five visible ventrites, two connate. Larvae elongate, parallel-sided and lightly sclerotised, with broad head, long antennae and legs, reduced 9th abdominal segment, and well-developed and terminal 10th segment.

<==Silvanidae [Silvaninae]
    |--Silvanolomus armatulus (Blackburn 1891) [=Silvanus armatulus] H73
    |--Austronausibius LB91
    |--Nepharis LB91
    |--Nepharinus LB91
    |--Airaphilus nubigena [=Silvanus nubigena] H73
    |--*Silvanops angulicollis [=Silvanus angulicollis] H73
    |--Silvaninus H73
    |--Coccidotrophus socialis RD77
    |--Eunausibius wheeleri RD77
    |--Ahasverus [incl. Leucohimatiops Heller 1923] L03
    |    `--A. advena L03 [=Cathartus advena V09; incl. *Leucohimatiops javanus Heller 1923 L03]
    |--Cathartoides Kessel 1921 H73
    |    `--*C. africanus (Kessel 1921) (n. d.) [=Silvanus (*Cathartoides) africanus] H73
    |--Calpus Halstead 1973 H73
    |    `--*C. bacchi Halstead 1973 H73
    |--Nausibius LB91
    |    |--N. clavicornis LB91
    |    `--N. latus [=Silvanus latus] H73
    |--Cathartus H73
    |    |--C. longulus Blatchley 1910 [incl. Silvanus parviceps Casey 1916] H73
    |    `--C. quadricollis B70
    |--Pensus Halstead 1973 H73
    |    |--*P. gilae (Casey 1884) [=Silvanus gilae] H73
    |    `--P. guatemalenus (Sharp 1899) [=Silvanus guatemalenus] H73
    |--Silvanoides Halstead 1973 H73
    |    |--*S. cheesmanae Halstead 1973 H73
    |    `--S. foveicollis Halstead 1973 H73
    |--Monanus LB91
    |    |--M. albertesi [=Silvanus albertesi] H73
    |    |--M. concinnulus LB91
    |    |--M. longicornis [=Silvanus longicornis] H73
    |    `--M. monticola (Blackburn 1891) [=Silvanus monticola] H73
    |--Silvanoprus H73
    |    |--S. birmanicus (Grouvelle 1892) [=Silvanus birmanicus] H73
    |    |--S. frater (Grouvelle 1904) [=Silvanus frater] H73
    |    |--S. orientalis [=Silvanus orientalis] H73
    |    `--S. porrectus (Walker 1859) [=Silvanus porrectus] H73
    |--Cathartosilvanus Grouvelle 1912 H73
    |    |--*C. trivialis (Grouvelle 1878) [=Silvanus trivialis] H73
    |    |--C. imbellis (LeConte 1854) [=Silvanus imbellis; incl. S. communis Grouvelle 1878] H73
    |    |--C. tropicalis (Van Dyke 1953) [=Silvanus tropicalis] H73
    |    `--C. vulgaris (Grouvelle 1878) [=Silvanus vulgaris] H73
    |--Oryzaephilus B14
    |    |--O. abeillei [=Silvanus abeillei] H73
    |    |--O. aridulus [=Silvanus aridulus] H73
    |    |--O. fauveli (Reitter 1890) [=Silvanus fauveli] H73
    |    |--O. mercator (Fauvel 1889) B14
    |    `--O. surinamensis B14
    |--Protosilvanus Grouvelle 1912 H73
    |    |--*P. lateritius (Reitter 1879) [=Silvanus lateritius] H73
    |    |--P. carinatus (Grouvelle 1912) [=Silvanus (Protosilvanus) carinatus] H73
    |    |--P. fasciatus Halstead 1973 H73
    |    |--P. granosus (Grouvelle 1897) [=Silvanus granosus] H73
    |    `--P. inaequalis (Grouvelle 1882) [=Silvanus inaequalis] H73
    |--Parasilvanus Grouvelle 1912 H73
    |    |--*P. ocellatus (Grouvelle 1889) [=Silvanus ocellatus] H73
    |    |--P. fairmairei (Grouvelle 1882) [=Silvanus fairmairei; incl. S. filum Krantz 1895] H73
    |    |--P. mimosae Halstead 1973 H73
    |    |--P. oblitus (Grouvelle 1909) [=Silvanus oblitus] H73
    |    |--P. pulcher (Grouvelle 1905) [=Silvanus pulcher] H73
    |    `--P. tenuis (Grouvelle 1889) [=Silvanus tenuis] H73
    `--Silvanus Latreille 1804 [=Leptus Duftschmidt 1823 non Latreille 1796; incl. Microsilvanus Grouvelle 1912] H73
         |--*S. unidentatus (Olivier 1790) H73 (see below for synonymy)
         |--S. bidentatus (Fabricius 1792) H73 (see below for synonymy)
         |--S. castaneus MacLeay 1873 H73
         |--S. difficilis Halstead 1973 H73
         |--S. inarmatus Wollaston 1867 [incl. S. hebetatus Grouvelle 1912, S. quadraticollis Reitter 1876] H73
         |--S. lateritius (Broun 1880) (see below for synonymy) H73
         |--S. lewisi Reitter 1876 H73
         |--S. mediocris Grouvelle 1889 H73
         |--S. muticus Sharp 1899 H73
         |--S. nitidulus LeConte 1854 H73
         |--S. planatus Germar 1824 [incl. S. cognatus LeConte 1854, S. zimmermanni Guérin-Méneville 1844] H73
         |--S. productus Halstead 1973 H73
         |--S. proximus Grouvelle 1904 [incl. S. amabilis Grouvelle 1914] H73
         |--S. recticollis Reitter 1876 (see below for synonymy) H73
         |--S. robustus Halstead 1973 H73
         |--S. rossi Halstead 1973 H73
         |--S. semus Halstead 1973 H73
         |--S. surinamensis C01
         `--S. tetrahens Walker 1858 (n. d.) H73

Nomina nuda: Silvanus crenatulus Hetschko 1930 H73
             Silvanus ornatulus Hetschko 1930 H73

Silvanus bidentatus (Fabricius 1792) H73 [=Dermestes bidentatus H73; incl. S. affinis Reitter 1876 H73, S. bidentatus var. affinis H73, Colydium sulcatum Fabricius 1792 H73, Lyctus sulcatus L02, Trogossita sulcata L02]

Silvanus lateritius (Broun 1880) [=Cryptamorpha lateritia non S. lateritius Reitter 1879 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)] H73

Silvanus recticollis Reitter 1876 [incl. Leucohimatium breve Wollaston 1873 (n. d.), S. (Microsilvanus) minimus Grouvelle 1912, S. (M.) pumilus Grouvelle 1912, S. reflexus Reitter 1880, S. vitulus Grouvelle 1882, S. (Microsilvanus) vitulus] H73

*Silvanus unidentatus (Olivier 1790) H73 [=Ips unidentata H73, Colydium (Silvanus) unidentatum G20, Dermestes unidentatus H73, Lyctus unidentatus L02; incl. Silvanus gratiosus Motschulsky 1863 H73, Colydium planum Herbst 1797 H73, S. siculus Stierlin 1864 H73]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H73] Halstead, D. G. H. 1973. A revision of the genus Silvanus Latreille (s. l.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology 29 (2): 39–112.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L03] Leschen, R. A. B. 2003. Erotylidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cucujoidea): phylogeny and review. Fauna of New Zealand 47: 1–108.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

Phalacridae

Phalacrus coruscus, copyright Lech Borowiec.


Belongs within: Cucujoidea.

The Phalacridae are a group of ovate, strongly convex beetles that mostly feed on fungal spores (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Broadly ovate, strongly convex, glabrous and shining beetles, lateral portions of prothorax and elytra broadly explanate and deflexed. Head short, broad and deeply inserted into anterior prothoracic emargination; antennae relatively long, eleven-segmented, with large three-segmented club; fore coxae globular to transverse with concealed trochantins, fore coxal cavities externally open, internally closed; mesocoxae narrowly to widely separated, cavities closed laterally; tibiae with conspicuous setal comb at apex; tarsi tetramerous with first three segments lobed and setose below and claws toothed or appendiculate; abdomen with five visible ventrites, one or two connate or all free. Larvae elongate and subcylindrical to flattened, usually narrowed posteriorly, and lightly sclerotised, except for head, protergal plate, apex of segment 8 and urogomphi or entire T9. Head broad and somewhat flattened, with short antennae and usually with median endocarina; mala blunt; hypostomal rods long and diverging; 8th spiracles located dorsally near posterior end of tergum; S9 and segment 10 more or less concealed.

<==Phalacridae [Phalacrinae]
    |--Platyphalacrus lawrencei Gimmel 2013 B14
    |--Olibroporus B14
    |--Austroporus B14
    |--Phalacrinus rotundus LB91
    |--Litochrus major LB91
    |--Parasemus LB91
    |--Olibrus C01
    |    |--O. bicolor C01
    |    |--O. flavicornis C01
    |    `--O. millefolii C01
    `--Phalacrus LB91
         |--P. bicolor [=Sphaeridium bicolor] L02
         |--P. coruscus L02
         |--P. striatipennis Lucas 1846 E12
         `--P. uniformis LB91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).