Annelida

Aricidea sp., from here.


Belongs within: Lophotrochozoa.
Contains: Machaeridia, Saccocirrus, Leodicidae, Sipuncula, Terebelliformia, Cirratulida, Orbiniidae, Aciculata, Sabellida, Scolecida, Aeolosomatida, Clitellata.

The Annelida includes the segmented worms and related taxa. Most members of this clade possess homonomous segmentation, lateral chaetae and a nuchal organ at the posterior end of the prostomium, but these characters have all been modified or lost in some derived subgroups. Many classifications of the annelids have divided them between three classes: the Polychaeta (mostly marine worms which have more or less dense arrays of chaetae inserted on lateral parapodia), Oligochaeta (earthworms and related taxa which have fewer chaetae and lack parapodia) and Hirudinea (leeches). However, recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the latter two 'classes' (which together form a clade called the Clitellata) are likely to be nested within the paraphyletic 'polychaetes'. Exact relationships within the annelids remain otherwise much debated. Potential clades include the Canalipalpata, members of which often possess grooved, ciliated palps in association with the prostomium (Parry et al. 2014). The Errantia are a group of mobile, predatory or detritivorous, worms; members of this group have parapodia reinforced with internal, chitinous aciculae.

<==Annelida (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Sipuncula PTV14
    |  `--Terebelliformia SS07
    `--+--Cirratulida SS07
       `--+--+--Cossura [Cossuridae] RP07
          |  `--Paraonidae SS07
          |       |--Paraonis SS07
          |       |--Cirrophorus lyra (Southern 1914) RP07
          |       `--Aricidea SS07
          |            |--A. cerrutii Laubier 1967 [=Acesta cerrutii] H-S86
          |            `--A. jeffreysii M62
          `--+--Errantia PTV14
             |    |--Orbiniidae PTV14
             |    `--Aciculata PTV14
             `--Canalipalpata [Sedentaria] PTV14
                  |--Sabellida SS07
                  `--+--Scolecida SS07
                     `--+--Aeolosomatida SS07
                        `--Clitellata SS07

Annelida incertae sedis:
  Paranerilla limicola GO06
  Phyllobranchus Girard 1851 BR05
  Haementeria depressa DH08
  Machaeridia VVRB08
  Eumenia crassa MF02
  Amharete acutifrons GAS03
  Asabelides sibirica GAS03
  Praxillella praetermissa GAS03
  Tharyx pacifica KBC03
  Chone teres KBC03
  Jugaria quadriangularis KBC03
  Circeis KBC03
    |--C. armoricana KBC03
    `--C. spirillum KBC03
  Hermilepidonotus robustus KBC03
  Genetylli castanea KBC03
  Halosydna brevisetosa KBC03
  Polymnia trigonostoma KBC03
  Demonax fullo KBC03
  Neoamphitrite grayi KBC03
  Nicolea gracilibranchis KBC03
  Euthalanessa dendrolepis M62
  Hermonia histrix M62
  Lagisca extenuata M62
  Polydontes maxillosus M62
  Mysta picta M62
  Kefersteinia cirrata M62
  Podarke pallida M62
  Syllidia armata M62
  Langheransia cornuta M62
  Trypanosyllis BBB-S95
    |--T. coeliaca M62
    `--T. zebra BBB-S95
  Naineris laevigata BBB-S95
  Amphictene Savigny 1820 [Amphictenidae] H62
    `--*A. auricoma (Müller 1788) [=Amphitrite auricoma] H62
  Dialychone acustica M62
  Fabricia sabella BBB-S95
  Jasmineira BBB-S95
    |--J. candela M62
    `--J. elegans BBB-S95
  Praegeria remota M62
  Synelmis albini (Langerhans 1881) H-S86
  Acholoe squamosa (Delle Chiaje 1825) (see below for synonymy) BK77
  Adyte assimilis (McIntosh 1874) (see below for synonymy) BK77
  Arctonoe vittata BK77
  Antinoella sarsi [incl. Polynoe cirrata Grube 1876, Harmothoe cirrata] BK77
  Hermadion hyalinus BK77
  Subadyte pellucida (Ehlers 1864-1868) (see below for synonymy) BK77
  Phylo foetida [=Aricia foetida] BK77
  Phalacrostemma cidariophilum BK77
  Hesperonoe adventor CH97
  Nicomache lumbricalis K92
  Scolecolepides benhami HS01
  Hemipodus simplex HS01
  ‘Hedyle’ Malmgren 1865 non Guenée 1857 BR05
  Psammodrilidae [Psammodrilida] RF98
    |--Psammodriloides Swedmark 1961 H-S86
    |    `--P. fauveli Swedmark 1961 H-S86
    `--Psammodrilus Swedmark 1953 H-S86
         |--P. aedificator Kristensen & Nørrevang 1982 H-S86
         `--P. balanoglossoides Swedmark 1952 TS02
  Laeonereis acuta MGV06
  Steblospio benedicti R96
  Manayunkia speciosa KA01
  Protodriloides Jouin 1966 H-S86 [Protodriloididae RF98]
    |--P. chaetifer (Remane 1926) H-S86
    `--P. symbioticus (Giard 1904) H-S86
  Saccocirrus RP07
  Hrabeiella periglandulata Pizl & Chalupsky 1984 RP07
  Ditrypa F71
    |--D. australis Bretnall 1921 F71
    `--D. brazieri Bretnall 1921 F71
  Augeneriella lagunari P71
  Theostoma oerstedi BBB-S95
  Arabella iricolor BBB-S95
  Laonome BBB-S95
    |--L. kroyeri BBB-S95
    `--L. salmacidis BBB-S95
  Audouinia BBB-S95
    |--A. filigera BBB-S95
    `--A. tentaculata BBB-S95
  Polyodontes lupina (Stimpson 1856) BM88
  Leodicidae H62
  Lumbriconereidae H62
    |--Lumbriconereis Grube 1840 H62
    |    `--*L. quadristriata Grube 1840 H62
    `--Lumbriconereites Ehlers 1869 H62
         `--*L. deperditus Ehlers 1869 H62
  Staurocephalitidae [Staurocephalidae] H62
    |--Staurocephalites Hinde 1879 H62
    |    `--*S. niagarensis Hinde 1879 H62
    `--Marlenites Eller 1945 H62
         `--*M. marginatus (Eller 1944) [=Oenonites marginatus] H62
  Ebetallites Žebera 1935 H62
    `--*E. ancoraeformis Žebera 1935 H62
  Ottawina Wilson 1948 H62
    `--*O. trentonensis Wilson 1948 H62
  Keilorites Allan 1927 [=Trachyderma Phillips 1848 non Latreille 1829; Keiloritidae] H62
    `--*K. crassituba (Chapman 1910) [=*Trachyderma crassituba] H62
  Chloraemidae H62
    |--Chloraema Dujardin 1838 H62
    |    `--*C. edwardsii Dujardin 1838 H62
    |--Eotrophonia Ulrich 1878 H62
    |    `--*E. setigera Ulrich 1878 H62
    `--Siphonostomites Roverto 1904 H62
         `--*S. hesionoides (Massalongo 1855) [=Nereites hesionoides] H62
  Byronia Matthew 1899 H62
    `--*B. annulata Matthew 1899 H62
  Campylites Eichwald 1856 H62
    `--*C. longissimus (Sowerby 1839) [=Serpulites longissimus] H62
  Hammatopsis Hadding 1913 H62
    `--*H. scanicus Hadding 1913 H62
  Khemisina Termier & Termier 1951 H62
    `--*K. annulata Termier & Termier 1951 H62
  Lockportia Howell 1959 [=Dactylethra Ruedemann 1925 nec Cuvier 1829 nec Meyrick 1906] H62
    `--*L. conspicua (Ruedemann 1925) [=*Dactylethra conspicua] H62
  Oliveirania Maury 1927 H62
    `--*O. santacatharinae Maury 1927 H62
  Platysolenites Eichwald 1860 H62
    `--*P. antiquissimus Eichwald 1860 H62
  Ruedemannella Howell 1959 H62 [=Bertiella Ruedemann 1925 non Stiles & Hassall 1902 SWZ86]
    `--*R. obesa (Ruedemann 1925) [=*Bertiella obesa] H62
  Tubulella Howell 1949 [incl. Urotheca Matthew 1899 non Cocteau & Bibron 1843] H62
    `--*T. flagellum (Matthew 1899) [=Urotheca flagellum] H62
  Tubulelloides Howell 1949 H62
    `--*T. gracilis (Ruedemann 1916) [=Serpulites gracilis] H62
  Eopolychaetus Ruedemann 1901 H62
    `--*E. albaniensis Ruedemann 1901 H62
  Pontobdellopsis Ruedemann 1901 H62
    `--*P. cometa Ruedemann 1901 H62
  Potamilla Malmgren 1865 H75
  Lonchosaccus Ruedemann 1925 H75
    `--*L. uticanus Ruedemann 1925 H75
  Ladatheca cylindrica (Grabau 1900) L95
  ‘Hipponyx’ inexpectata Mestayer 1929 P61
  Peronochaeta dubia (Walcott 1911) [=Canadia dubia] E-J04
  Insolicorypha psygma Conway Morris 1979 E-J04
  Stephenoscolex argutus Conway Morris 1979 E-J04

Acholoe squamosa (Delle Chiaje 1825) [incl. Polynoe astericola, A. astericola, P. asterinae, P. malleata Grube 1855] BK77

Adyte assimilis (McIntosh 1874) [=Hermadion assimile, Scalisetosus assimilis; incl. H. echini Giard 1886] BK77

Annelida [Archiannelida, Chaetopoda, Cirratuliformia, Errantida, Naidina, Palpata, Pharyngata, Plesiopora, Plesiotheca, Polychaeta, Sedentarida, Terebellida]

Subadyte pellucida (Ehlers 1864-1868) [=Polynoe pellucida, Adyte pellucida, Hermadion pellucidum, Lepidonotus pellucidus, Scalisetosus pellucidus; incl. H. fragile Clarapède 1868, H. fugax Giard 1890, H. sabatieri Darboux 1900] BK77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[BM88] Bieler, R., & P. M. Mikkelsen. 1988. Anatomy and reproductive biology of two western Atlantic species of Vitrinellidae, with a case of protandrous hermaphroditism in the Rissoacea. Nautilus 102 (1): 1–29.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[DH08] Dunn, C. W., A. Hejnol, D. Q. Matus, K. Pang, W. E. Browne, S. A. Smith, E. Seaver, G. W. Rouse, M. Obst, G. D. Edgecombe, M. V. Sørensen, S. H. D. Haddock, A. Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. Okusu, R. M. Kristensen, W. C. Wheeler, M. Q. Martindale & G. Giribet. 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452: 745–749.

[E-J04] Eibye-Jacobsen, D. 2004. A reevaluation of Wiwaxia and the polychaetes of the Burgess Shale. Lethaia 37: 317–335.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H-S86] Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1986. Polychaeta (incl. Archiannelida). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 210–233. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[KA01] Kent, M. L., K. B. Andree, J. L. Bartholomew, M. El-Matbouli, S. S. Desser, R. H. Devlin, S. W. Feist, R. P. Hedrick, R. W. Hoffmann, J. Khattra, S. L. Hallett, R. J. G. Lester, M. Longshaw, O. Palenzuela, M. E. Siddall & C. Xiao. 2001. Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48: 395–413.

[K92] Kozloff, E. N. 1992. The genera of the phylum Orthonectida. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 33: 377–406.

[L95] Landing, E. 1995. Upper Placentian–Branchian series of mainland Nova Scotia (middle–upper Lower Cambrian): faunas, paleoenvironments, and stratigraphic revision. Journal of Paleontology 69 (3): 475–495.

[MGV06] Mai, A. C. G., A. M. Garcia & J. P. Vieira. 2006. Ecologia alimentar do barrigudinho Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces: Cyprinodontiformes) no estuário da Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comunicações do Museo de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Serie Zoologia 19 (1): 3–18.

[MF02] Martini, F. H., & D. Flescher. 2002. Hagfishes. Family Myxinidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 9–16. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[PTV14] Parry, L., A. Tanner & J. Vinther. 2014. The origin of annelids. Palaeontology 57 (6): 1091–1103.

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138–159.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3–35.

[RF98] Rouse, G. W., & K. Fauchald. 1998. Recent views on the status, delineation and classification of the Annelida. American Zoologist 38: 953–964.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[TS02] Tsetlin, A. B., & M. V. Safonov. 2002. Interstitial polychaetes (Annelida) from the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 81 (8): 899–908.

[VVRB08] Vinther, J., P. Van Roy & D. E. G. Briggs. 2008. Machaeridians are Palaeozoic armoured annelids. Nature 451 (7175): 185–188.

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