Ericales

Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa, from here.


Belongs within: Asteridae.
Contains: Impatiens, Sapotales, Lecythidaceae, Primulales, Theaceae, Ericaceae.

The Ericales is a large clade of flowering plants, one of the most basal branches within the clade Asteridae. The group has been primarily supported by molecular data. Members of the Ericales are significant members of the tropical understory. Noteworthy members of the Ericales include the kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry Actinidia deliciosa, grown commercially for its fruit, and the Polemoniaceae, a family of mostly herbaceous, often unpleasant-smelling species with tubular corollas. Marcgravia is a Neotropical genus of climbers in which the bat-pollinated flowers are born in umbellate clusters with the central flowers abortive and possessing pendulous, pitcher-shaped bracts filled with nectar.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Nonhydrolysable tannins, triterpenoids including saponins present; vessel elements with simple perforation plates; nodes 1:1; leaf vascular bundles collateral; leaves spiral, teeth with single vein and opaque deciduous cap; duplication of the PI gene.

<==Ericales [Clethrineae, Theineae]
    |--+--Impatiens K01
    |  `--Marcgravia [Marcgraviaceae] K01
    |       |--M. oligandra J87
    |       |--M. rectiflora J87
    |       `--M. sintenisii SWK87
    `--+--Sapotales K01
       `--+--+--+--Lecythidaceae K01
          |  |  `--Eurya K01
          |  |       |--E. acuminata D07
          |  |       |--E. emarginata MH98
          |  |       `--E. japonica MH98
          |  `--+--Primulales K01
          |     `--Polemoniaceae T00
          |          |  i. s.: Phlox BR65
          |          |           |--P. drummondii PT01
          |          |           `--P. hoodii CL86
          |          |         Navarretia squarrosa (Eschsch.) Hooker & Arnott 1838 (see below for synonymy) BR65
          |          |         Gilia gracilis MD82, C55a
          |          |         Ipomopsis WMS97
          |          |           |--I. aggregata WMS97
          |          |           |--I. macrosiphon WMS97
          |          |           `--I. tenuituba WMS97
          |          |--Acanthogilia [Acanthogilioideae] T00
          |          |--Polemonium D37 [Polemonioideae T00]
          |          |    `--P. reptans D37
          |          `--Cobaeoideae T00
          |               |--Bonplandia T00
          |               |--Cantua T00
          |               `--Cobaea T00
          `--+--+--Theaceae K01
             |  `--Styracaceae JK80
             |       |--Pterostyrax hispida JK80
             |       |--Halesia JK80
             |       |    |--H. carolina JK80
             |       |    `--H. monticola JK80
             |       `--Styrax K01
             |            |--S. japonica [=S. japonicum] LO98
             |            |--S. obassia JK80
             |            |--S. officinalis JK80
             |            `--S. portoricensis SWK87
             `--+--+--Sarraceniaceae [Sarraceniineae] H03
                |  |    |--Sarracenia purpurea T00, MCR04
                |  |    `--Heliamphora T00
                |  `--Actinidiaceae KJ02
                |       |--Parasaurauia T00
                |       |--Saurauia [Saurauioideae] T00
                |       |--Clematoclethra [Clematoclethroideae] T00
                |       `--Actinidia [Actinidioideae] T00
                |            |--A. arguta BA03
                |            |--A. chinensis KJ02
                |            |--A. deliciosa PF02
                |            `--A. strigosa SN88
                `--+--Clethra [Clethraceae] KJ02
                   |    |--C. acuminata JK80
                   |    |--C. alnifolia KJ02
                   |    |--C. arborea JK80
                   |    |--C. tinifolia C55b
                   |    `--C. tomentosa JK80
                   `--+--Cyrillaceae KJ02
                      |    |--Cyrilla racemiflora KJ02
                      |    |--Purdiaea T00
                      |    |--Epacridicarpum colwellense JD05
                      |    `--Pirocarpella aquisgranensis JD05
                      `--+--Ericaceae KJ02
                         `--Roridula [Roridulaceae] H03
                              |--R. dentata H03
                              `--R. gorgonias H03

Ericales incertae sedis:
  Mitrastema [Mitrastemaceae, Mitrastemonaceae] BL04
    `--M. yamamotoi BL04
  Physena [Physenaceae] T00
  Tetrameristaceae T00
    |--Pentamerista T00
    `--Tetramerista T00
  Pelliciera [Pellicieraceae] T00
    `--P. rhizophorae HSS13
  Symplocos [Symplocaceae] T00
    |--S. chinensis [incl. Schizophragma hydrangeoides] LO98
    |--S. cochinchinensis UB06
    |    |--S. c. var. cochinchinensis UB06
    |    `--S. c. var. laurina UB06
    |--S. hotteana J87
    |--S. kirstei JD05
    |--S. lignitum JD05
    |--S. paniculata KJ02
    |--S. racemosa P03
    `--S. tinctoria EBS98
  Pentaphylax [Pentaphylacaceae] T00

Navarretia squarrosa (Eschsch.) Hooker & Arnott 1838 [=Gilia squarrosa Hooker & Arnott 1833] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[BA03] Bergthorsson, U., K. L. Adams, B. Thomason & J. D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. Nature 424: 197-201.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CL86] Collins, E. I. & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85-93.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219-232.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[JK80] John, J. & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241-248.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K01] Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259-2274.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335-423.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MCR04] Majer, J. D., R. D. Cocquyt & H. F. Recher. 2004. Powdery bark in Eucalyptus accedens deters arthropods? An evaluation using ants. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 81-83.

[MD82] Mishler, B. D. & M. J. Donoghue. 1982. Species concepts: a case for pluralism. Systematic Zoology 31 (4): 491-503.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[PF02] Pomeroy, N., & R. M. Fisher. 2002. Pollination of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) by bumble bees (Bombus terrestris): Effects of bee density and patterns of flower visitation. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 41-49.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SN88] Suzuki, M., & S. Noshiro. 1988. Wood structure of Himalayan plants. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 341-379.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[UB06] Udayan, P. S. & I. Balachandran. 2006. Cleistanthus sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach.—a rare and little known endemic plant rediscovered from wild populations in Kollam district of Kerala state, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 217-218.

[WMS97] Wolf, P. G., R. A. Murray & S. D. Sipes. 1997. Species-independent, geographical structuring of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in a montane herb Ipomopsis (Polemoniaceae). Molecular Ecology 6: 283-291.

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