Lamiaceae

Teak Tectona grandis, photographed by J. M. Garg.


Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Thymus, Stachys, Prostanthera, Clerodendrum, Nepeta, Elsholtzieae, Ocimeae, Mentha, Salvia, Teucrium, Vitex.

The Lamiaceae are a family of flowering plants found worldwide, referred to in older publications as the 'Labiatae' in reference to the development of an upper and lower lip on the corolla (though the upper lip may be very small). Most species are herbs or shrubs, though a few trees are also included in the family (such as the commercially significant Tectona grandis, teak). Members of the Symphorematoideae are woody climbers, as are some Ajugoideae (Harley et al. 2004). Arborescent members of the family were previously included in the Verbenaceae, but the two families differ in ovule position: Lamiaceae have ovules on the inner face of the carpel wall, while Verbenaceae proper have ovules attached to the carpel margin (Harley et al. 2004). Many species have leaves with glands producing resinous oils, and as a result many species of the family are used as herbs, such as species of Mentha (mint), Lavandula (lavender), Salvia (sage), Rosmarinus (rosemary), Thymus (thyme) and Ocimum (basil).

Subfamilies of Lamiaceae can be separated by characters of the flowers and fruits. The style is gynobasic in Nepetoideae and Lamioideae, but usually terminal or subterminal in other subfamilies.

Characters (from Harley et al. 2004): Trees, shrubs, subshrubs or perennial or annual herbs, rarely climbers, aromatic or not. Roots rarely tuberous. Stems often quadrangular, erect to prostrate, sometimes forming stolons or large or slender rhizomes. Indumentum usually present, of glandular and non-glandular trichomes, often hair-like, rarely scale-like, usually multicellular-uniseriate, simple, branched, dendroid or stellate, sometimes gland-tipped, large-headed subsessile glands rarely absent. Leaves opposite, often decussate, sometimes whorled, very rarely alternate, simple, entire, toothed or lobed, sometimes compound and then digitate or pinnate, petiolate or sessile, rarely forming a basal rosette, estipulate. Inflorescence often bracteate, bracts sometimes conspicuous, persistent or deciduous, rarely spirally arranged, composed of cymes, bracteolate or not, and often arranged in a terminal, lax or congested, indeterminate thyrse which may be paniculate, raceme-like with cymes often 1-flowered, or spike-like, or rarely congested into a capitulum, with or without a distinct involucre of bracteoles. Flowers hypogynous, usually bisexual, or less often unisexual due to gynodioecy or gynomonoecy, very rarely due to dioecy. Perianth biseriate, sepals 4-5(-9), connate, actinomorphic to zygomorphic, sometimes 2-lipped, lobes 2-many, often 5, equal or unequal, rarely obsolete, some lobes often fused, or lips entire, calyx-tube (5-)10-15-nerved, straight or curved, throat hairy or glabrous, calyx often accrescent, rarely inflated or fleshy in fruit. Petals (4-)5(-6) connate, actinomorphic to more often slightly to strongly zygomorphic, often 2-lipped, rarely 1-lipped, lobes (2-)4-5(-16), equal or unequal, porrect to patent, one or other lip often concave to galeate, corolla-tube short to elongate, rarely spurred, often with annulus of hairs or appendaged within, rarely corolla resupinate. Stamens attached within corolla-tube, usually 4 or 2 by abortion and then staminodes often present, or stamens 5-8(-16), when 4 often didynamous (rarely a fifth, posterior vestigial staminode present), free or rarely monodelphic, filaments short or often elongate, usually exserted from corolla-tube and sometimes long-exserted from corolla; parallel, divergent or ascending and sometimes included within or lying under posterior corolla-lip, or declinate and then sometimes included within anterior corolla-lip, anthers usually dithecous, tetrasporangiate or monothecous by abortion, thecae parallel or divergent, occasionally widely separated by an elongate connective, or apically confluent or synthecous, opening by longitudinal slits or rarely by pores. Disc at base of ovary often present, usually fleshy, entire or irregularly or often 4-lobed, anterior lobe sometimes longer than others, nectariferous. Gynoecium 2-carpellate, often 4-locular by intrusion of carpel wall forming "false septum", or rarely imperfectly 2-locular and free towards apex, ovary usually 4-ovuled, 2-locular ovaries generally with loculi 2-ovuled and 4-locular ovaries with l ovule per loculus, ovary entire or lobed, with terminal style, or more often deeply 4-lobed, the loculi often separated and with style gynobasic, style usually with 2 equal or unequal stigma-lobes, rarely entire with 1 stigma-lobe vestigial, or stigma capitate or very rarely 4-lobed. Ovules anatropous to hemianatropous, usually basal or sub-basal, erect, rarely orthotropous, apical, pendulous, borne laterally or submarginally on the placenta, unitegmic, tenuinucellate. Fruit drupaceous, often with pyrenes, or dry, indehiscent, or separating into two 2-seeded or frequently, four 1-seeded mericarps, sometimes fewer by abortion. Mericarps (nutlets) often with sculptured, tuberculate, hairy or rarely winged pericarp, mucilage cells often present. Seeds albuminous or exalbuminous, epigeal. Embryo straight or bent, investing or spatulate.

<==Lamiaceae [Labiatae]
    |--Pogostemon BB07 [Pogostemoneae, Pogostemonoideae T00]
    |    |--P. benghalensis BB07
    |    `--P. stellatus LK14
    |--Symphorematoideae T00
    |    |--Congea T00
    |    |--Sphenodesme T00
    |    `--Symphorema T00
    |--Scutellarioideae T00
    |    |--Renschia T00
    |    |--Tinnea T00
    |    |--Holmskioldia sanguinea T00, P03
    |    `--Scutellaria Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |         |--S. minor C55b
    |         |--S. novae-zelandiae Hooker 1855 [incl. S. humilis Hooker 1854 non Br. 1810] A61
    |         `--S. prostrata O88
    |--Nepetoideae [Ocimoideae] HPR03
    |    |  i. s.: Nepeta HPR03
    |    |--Elsholtzieae HPR03
    |    |--Ocimeae HPR03
    |    `--Mentheae M99
    |         |--Mentha BR65
    |         |--Salvia M99
    |         `--Origanum M99
    |              |--O. onites PT98
    |              `--O. vulgare R-CT01
    |--Lamium CD07 [Lamioideae T00]
    |    |--*L. amplexicaule P01
    |    |    |--L. a. var. amplexicaule BR65
    |    |    `--L. a. var. clandestinum BR65
    |    |--L. album H59
    |    |--L. bifidum Y98
    |    |--L. maculatum C55b
    |    |--L. moschatum PT98
    |    |--L. nepalense O88
    |    |--L. purpureum Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    |    `--L. tuberosum O88
    |--Chloanthoideae [Chloanthaceae] T00
    |    |--Tectona grandis T00, HU08
    |    |--Chloanthes coccinea OS04
    |    |--Physopsis KM08
    |    |    |--P. chrysophylla KM08
    |    |    `--P. viscida G04a
    |    `--Westringia M99
    |         |--W. cephalantha G04b
    |         |--W. dampieri Brown 1810 [incl. W. grevillina Mueller 1855] BR65
    |         |--W. eremicola [incl. W. angustifolia Black 1926 (preoc.)] BR65
    |         |--W. fruticosa MM09
    |         `--W. rigida Brown 1810 [incl. W. cinerea] BR65
    `--Ajugoideae [Caryopteridoideae, Monochileae, Teucrioideae] T00
         |--Tetraclea T00
         |--Trichostema T00
         |--Wenchengia T00
         |--Teucrium BR65
         |--Spartothamnella Briquet 1894 T00, BR65
         |    `--S. teucriiflora (Mueller) Moldenke 1940 BR65
         |--Discretitheca nepalensis (Moldenke) Cantino 1999 [=Caryopteris nepalensis Moldenke 1959] K07
         |    |--D. n. var. nepalensis K07
         |    `--D. n. var. parvifolia (Moldenke) Kumar 2007 [=Caryopteris nepalensis var. pavifolia Moldenke 1973] K07
         |--Pseudocaryopteris K07
         |    |--P. bicolor (Roxburgh) Cantino 1999 (see below for synonymy) K07
         |    |--P. foetida (Don) Cantino 1999 (see below for synonymy) K07
         |    `--P. paniculata (Clarke) Cantino 1999 [=Caryopteris paniculata Clarke in Hooker 1885] K07
         |--Vitex T00
         `--Ajuga BR65
              |--A. australis BR65
              |--A. bracteosa O88
              |--A. chamaepitys PT98
              |    |--A. c. ssp. chamaepitys PT98
              |    `--A. c. ssp. chia PT98
              |--A. iva [incl. A. pseudo-iva] BR65
              |--A. lupulina O88
              |--A. macrosperma D07
              `--A. reptans P01

Lamiaceae incertae sedis:
  Callicarpa OP01
    |--C. candicans LK14
    |--C. dichotoma OP01
    `--C. selleana J87
  Orthosiphon P03
    |--O. aristatus [incl. O. stamineus] P88
    `--O. rubicundus P03
  Perilla frutescens PT01
    |--P. f. var. frutescens PT01
    `--P. f. var. crispa PT01
  Iboza YY22
  Moschosma YY22
  Colebrookia oppositifolia YY22, HU08
  Satureja DH98
    |  i. s.: S. nervosa PT98
    |         S. rotundifolia PT98
    |         S. spinosa SL06
    |         S. viminea J87
    `--S. sect. Zatarioideae DH98
         |--S. bachtiarica DH98
         |--S. nabateorum Danin & Hedge 1998 DH98
         `--S. thymbrifolia Hedge & Feinbrun 1968 DH98
  Thymus PL04
  Colquhounia coccinea O88
  Dracocephalum O88
    |--D. austriacum H09
    |--D. heterophyllum O88
    |--D. ruyschiana C55a
    |--D. tanguticum O88
    `--D. wallichii O88
  Eriophyton wallichii O88
  Galeopsis O88
    |--G. bifida O88
    |--G. ladanum C55b
    |--G. pubescens D51
    |--G. segetum V09
    |--G. speciosa D51
    `--G. tetrahit D51
  Glechoma O88
    |--G. decolorans O88
    |--G. nivalis O88
    `--G. pharica O88
  Micromeria biflora O88
    |--M. b. var. biflora O88
    `--M. b. var. hispida O88
  Phlomis O88
    |--P. bracteosa O88
    |--P. lychnitis C74
    |--P. macrophylla O88
    |--P. pungens B14
    |--P. rotata O88
    |--P. setigera O88
    |--P. tibetica O88
    `--P. tuberosa MN02
  Rabdosia pharica O88
  Stachys BR65
  Rosmarinus officinalis BR65
  Ballota GR98
    |--B. acetabulosa PT98
    |--B. deserti (Noë) Jury, Rejdali & Griffiths in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
    `--B. nigra C55b
  Coridothymus capitatus PT98
  Marrubium vulgare BR65
  Prasium majus PT98
  Sideritis curvidens PT98
  Lachnostachys coolgardiensis G04a
  Prostanthera BR65
  Cyanostegia lanceolata G04b
  Hemigenia OS04
    |--H. humilis OS04
    |--H. incana OS04
    |--H. teretiuscula G04b
    `--H. westringioides G04b
  Microcorys OS04
    |--M. lenticularis OS04
    `--M. obovata G04b
  Hemiandra OS04
    |--H. linearis OS04
    `--H. pungens N36
  Prunella BR65
    |--P. laciniata H91
    `--P. vulgaris [=Brunella vulgaris] BR65
  Lycopus BR65
    |--L. australis BR65
    `--L. europaeus LDB98
  Melissa officinalis BR65
  Hemizygia K02
    |--H. floccosa CV06
    `--H. foliosa K02
  Acrotome fleckii CV06
  Aeollanthus namibiensis CV06
  Tetradenia kaokoensis CV06
  Pityrodia LK14
    |--P. loxocarpa KM08
    `--P. ternifolia LK14
  Leucas SR07
    |--L. aspera DP72
    |--L. chinensis SR07
    |--L. martinicensis C55b
    |--L. mollisima P03
    `--L. urticaefolia PP07
  Dysophylla auricularia BB07
  Gomphostemma parviflora BB07
  Calamintha H91
    |--C. clinopodium [incl. Clinopodium vulgare] C55b
    |--C. nepeta H91
    `--C. sylvatica H91
  Anisomeles LK14
    |--A. indica P03
    `--A. malabarica LK14
  Perovskia abrotanoides [incl. P. artemisioides] YS10
  Basilicum polystachyon LK14
  Clerodendrum LK14
  Premna LK14
    |--P. acuminata LK14
    |--P. divaricata C55b
    |--P. flavescens P03
    `--P. herbacea LK14

Ballota deserti (Noë) Jury, Rejdali & Griffiths in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Sideritis deserti Noë 1855, Marrubium deserti (Noë) Cosson 1857] GR98

Pseudocaryopteris bicolor (Roxburgh) Cantino 1999 [=Volkameria bicolor Roxburgh ex Hardw. 1799, Caryopteris bicolor (Roxburgh) Mabb. in Manilal 1980; incl. Clerodendrum odoratum var. albiflorum Voigt 1845, Ca. odorata var. albiflora (Voigt) Moldenke 1971, Cl. odoratum Don 1825, Ca. odorata (Don) Rob. 1916, Volkameria odorata Roxburgh 1814 (n. n.), Ca. wallichiana Schauer in de Candolle 1847] K07

Pseudocaryopteris foetida (Don) Cantino 1999 [=Clerodendrum foetidum Don 1825, Caryopteris foetida (Don) Thell. 1919; incl. Cl. gratum Wallich ex Walp. 1845, Ca. grata (Wallich) Benth. in Benth. & Hooker 1876] K07

*Type species of generic name indicated

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