Amarini

Common sun beetle Amara aenea, copyright Entomart.


Belongs within: Harpalinae.

The Amarini are a group of ground beetles with a head distinctly wider than long, and short, stout mandibles.

<==Amarini B90
    |--Disamara arenaria B90
    `--Amara B90
         |--A. aenea C01
         |--A. aurichalcea C01
         |--A. equestris C01
         |--A. fodinae C01
         |--A. municipalis C01
         |--A. praetermissa C01
         |--A. similata C01
         `--A. solskyi C01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B90] Bell, R. T. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Carabidae adults and larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1053–1092. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

Platynina

Platynus sp., copyright Nick Block.


Belongs within: Harpalinae.

The Platynina are a group of ground beetles in which females have a fringe of setae along the apex of the penultimate segment of the gonostylus.

Platynina R-JC01
    |--Incagonum lineatupunctatum R-JC01
    `--Platynus L88
         |  i. s.: P. assimilis C01
         |         P. atratus C01
         |         P. dolens C01
         |         P. gracilipes C01
         |         P. gracilis C01
         |         P. impressus C01
         |         P. obscurus C01
         |         P. sexpunctatus C01
         |         P. versutus C01
         |         P. viduus [incl. P. viduus var. moestus] C01
         |--P. alternans L88
         |--P. lherminieri L88
         `--+--+--P. ellipticus L88
            |  `--P. pseudellipticus L88
            `--+--+--P. amone L88
               |  `--+--P. wolla L88
               |     `--+--+--P. acuniai L88
               |        |  `--P. cubensis L88
               |        `--+--P. laeviceps L88
               |           `--+--P. marcus L88
               |              `--P. ramoni L88
               `--+--P. cinchonae L88
                  |--P. constricticeps L88
                  `--+--P. calathinus L88
                     `--+--+--P. stricticollis L88
                        |  `--+--P. rastafarius L88
                        |     `--+--P. faber L88
                        |        `--P. jamaicae L88
                        `--+--P. robustus L88
                           `--+--P. jaegeri L88
                              |--+--P. subcordens L88
                              |  `--P. tipoto L88
                              `--+--P. cychrinus L88
                                 `--+--P. christophe L88
                                    `--+--P. biramosus L88
                                       `--P. transcibao L88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[R-JC01] Roig-Juñent, S., & A. C. Cicchino. 2001. Chaltenia patagonica, new genus and species belonging to Chalteniina, a new subtribe of Zolini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Canadian Entomologist 133: 651–670.

Pterostichini

Notonomus sp., copyright Reiner Richter.


Belongs within: Pterostichitae.

The Pterostichini are a group of mostly mid-sized, relatively stout ground beetles, with antennae that are setose from the fourth segment onwards. Most possess two pairs of supra-orbital setae though only one pair is present in Pterostichus honestus (Bell 1990). Members of the Pterostichini include Notonomus, a genus of over 100 species of flightless ground beetle from Australia, characterised by a mentum with oblique sides to the sinus, and a narrow border on the pronotum.

Pterostichini B90
    |--Myas B90
    |--Evarthrus B90
    |    |--E. gravesi B90
    |    `--E. sodalis BB68
    |--Abacidus B90
    |--Notonomus Chaudoir 1865 LB91, LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*N. triplogenioides (Chaudoir 1865) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. aequabilis Moore 1960 LM87
    |    |--N. aequalis Sloane 1907 LM87
    |    |--N. aeques (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia aeques, N. eques (l. c.)] LM87
    |    |--N. amabilis (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia amabilis] LM87
    |    |--N. angulosus Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. angustibasis Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. apicalis Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. arthuri Sloane 1890 LM87
    |    |--N. atrodermis Sloane 1903 [=N. atridermis Csiki 1930] LM87
    |    |    |--N. a. atrodermis LM87
    |    |    `--N. a. smithi Moore 1961 LM87
    |    |--N. auricollis (Castelnau 1867) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. australasiae (Dejean 1828) [=Feronia australasiae; incl. F. mitchelii Castelnau 1867] LM87
    |    |--N. australis (Castelnau 1840) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. bakewelli Sloane 1902 [incl. N. hamifer Moore 1960] LM87
    |    |--N. banksi Sloane 1910 LM87
    |    |--N. besti Sloane 1902 [incl. N. besti aeneodorsis Sloane 1903] LM87
    |    |--N. bodeae Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. carteri Sloane 1907 LM87
    |    |--N. chalybaeus (Dejean 1828) [=Feronia chalybea] LM87
    |    |--N. colossus Sloane 1902 [incl. N. heroicus Lutshnik 1915] LM87
    |    |--N. crenulatus Sloane 1911 [=N. australis crenulatus] LM87
    |    |--N. croesus (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia croesus; incl. N. frenchi Sloane 1902, F. plutus Castelnau 1867] LM87
    |    |--N. cupricolor Sloane 1903 LM87
    |    |--N. curvicollis Sloane 1923 LM87
    |    |--N. cylindricus Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. darlingii (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia darlingii] LM87
    |    |--N. dehiscens Sloane 1923 LM87
    |    |--N. depressipennis (Chaudoir 1874) [=Feronia (Notonomus) depressipennis] LM87
    |    |--N. dimorphicus Darlington 1961 LM87
    |    |--N. dives Sloane 1915 LM87
    |    |--N. doddi Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. dyscoloides (Motschulsky 1865) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. ellioti Darlington 1961 LM87
    |    |--N. ellipticus Sloane 1923 LM87
    |    |--N. excisipennis Sloane 1902 (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. fergusoni Sloane 1910 LM87
    |    |--N. flos Darlington 1961 LM87
    |    |--N. froggatti Sloane 1902 [incl. N. atripennis Sloane 1903] LM87
    |    |--N. frontevirens Sloane 1916 LM87
    |    |--N. gippsiensis (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia gippsiensis] LM87
    |    |--N. gravis (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) gravis; incl. F. montana Castelnau 1867] LM87
    |    |--N. hedleyi Sloane 1916 LM87
    |    |--N. hopsoni Sloane 1923 LM87
    |    |--N. ingratus (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) ingrata] LM87
    |    |--N. johnstoni Sloane 1907 [incl. N. johnstoni parvula Sloane 1915] LM87
    |    |--N. kershawi Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. kingi (Macleay 1826) LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--N. kosciuskianus Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. lateralis Sloane 1890 [incl. N. sloanianum Lutshnik 1922] LM87
    |    |--N. leai Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. lesueurii (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia lesueurii] LM87
    |    |--N. longus Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. macoyi Sloane 1902 [incl. N. howitti Sloane 1902] LM87
    |    |--N. marginatus (Castelnau 1840) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. masculinus Darlington 1953 LM87
    |    |--N. mediosulcatus (Chaudoir 1865) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. melas Sloane 1903 LM87
    |    |--N. metallicus Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. miles (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia miles] LM87
    |    |--N. minimus Sloane 1907 LM87
    |    |--N. molestus (Chaudoir 1865) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. montellus Darlington 1961 LM87
    |    |--N. montorum Darlington 1961 LM87
    |    |    |--N. m. montorum LM87
    |    |    `--N. m. azul Darlington 1961 LM87
    |    |--N. muelleri Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. nitescens Sloane 1911 [incl. N. bellingeri Sloane 1911] LM87
    |    |--N. nitidicollis (Chaudoir 1865) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. obscurus Moore 1963 LM87
    |    |--N. opacicollis (Chaudoir 1865) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. opulentus (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia opulenta; incl. N. bassi Sloane 1902] LM87
    |    |    |--N. o. opulentus LM87
    |    |    `--N. o. gippslandicus (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia gippslandica; incl. N. viridulus Straneo 1953] LM87
    |    |--N. peronii (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia peronii] LM87
    |    |--N. philippi (Newman 1842) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. phillipsii (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia phillipsii] LM87
    |    |--N. planipectus Sloane 1903 [incl. N. planipectus purpurata Sloane 1913] LM87
    |    |--N. pluripunctatus Sloane 1903 LM87
    |    |--N. politulus (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) politula; incl. F. tasmanica Castelnau 1867] LM87
    |    |--N. polli Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. prominens Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |    |--N. p. prominens LM87
    |    |    `--N. p. illidgei Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. queenslandicus Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. rainbowi Sloane 1902 [=N. montanus Rainbow 1899 non Feronia montana Castelnau 1867] LM87
    |    |--N. resplendens (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia resplendens; incl. N. rugitarsis Sloane 1913] LM87
    |    |--N. saepistriatus Sloane 1907 [incl. N. triplicatus Darlington 1953] LM87
    |    |--N. satrapa (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia satrapa] LM87
    |    |--N. scotti Sloane 1907 (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. semiplicatus (Castelnau 1840) [=Poecilus semiplicatus] LM87
    |    |--N. spenceri Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. sphodroides (Dejean 1828) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    |--N. spurgeoni Darlington 1953 LM87
    |    |--N. striatocollis (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia striatocollis; incl. N. discorimosus Sloane 1902] LM87
    |    |--N. strzeleckianus Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. subiridescens (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) subiridescens; incl. N. liragerus Sloane 1902] LM87
    |    |--N. taylori Sloane 1903 LM87
    |    |--N. tenuistriatus Sloane 1913 [incl. N. tenuistriatus reticollis Sloane 1913] LM87
    |    |--N. tessellatus Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. tillyardi Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    |--N. transitus Darlington 1961 LM87
    |    |--N. truncatus Sloane 1916 LM87
    |    |--N. tubericauda Bates 1878 LM87
    |    |--N. variicollis (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) variicollis; incl. F. comes Castelnau 1867] LM87
    |    |--N. victoriensis Sloane 1902 LM87
    |    |--N. violaceus (Castelnau 1834) [=Trigonotoma violacea; incl. N. fletcheri Sloane 1902] LM87
    |    |--N. wentworthi Sloane 1913 LM87
    |    `--‘Feronia’ wilcoxii Castelnau 1867 [incl. F. (Notonomus) subopacus Chaudoir 1874] LM87
    |--Poecilus OM08
    |    |--P. coerulescens C01
    |    |--P. conformis G89
    |    |--P. cupreus [incl. P. cupreus ab. erythropus] C01
    |    |--P. fortipes C01
    |    |--P. gebleri C01
    |    |--P. lepidus C01
    |    |--P. numidicus Lucas 1846 E12
    |    |--P. punctulatus C01
    |    `--P. scitulus OM08
    `--Pterostichus OM08
         |--P. anthracinus C01
         |--P. chalcites [=Poecilus chalcites] BB68
         |--P. cupreus (Linnaeus 1758) VPB11
         |--P. dilutipes C01
         |--P. eschscholtzii C01
         |--P. honestus B90
         |--P. madidus (Fabricius 1775) VPB11
         |--P. melanarius (Illiger 1798) VPB11
         |--P. metallicus FFB88
         |--P. (Piesmus) monedulus B90
         |--P. niger C01
         |--P. nigrita (Paykull 1790) VPB11
         |--P. oblongopunctatus C01
         |--P. pumilio FFB88
         |--P. vitreus C01
         `--P. vulgaris C01

Notonomus Chaudoir 1865 LB91, LM87 [incl. Adetipa Castelnau 1867 LM87, Neuropates Motschulsky 1865 LM87, Orbitus Motschulsky 1865 LM87, Ternox Motschulsky 1865 LM87]

Notonomus auricollis (Castelnau 1867) [=Feronia auricollis; incl. F. (Notonomus) parallelomorpha Chaudoir 1878] LM87

Notonomus australis (Castelnau 1840) [=Trigonotoma australis; incl. F. (Notonomus) aeneomicans Chaudoir 1865, F. lapeyrousii Castelnau 1867] LM87

Notonomus dyscoloides (Motschulsky 1865) [=Neuropates dyscoloides; incl. Feronia semiviolacea Castelnau 1867, F. (Notonomus) simulans Chaudoir 1874, F. subvilis Castelnau 1867, F. victoriae Castelnau 1867] LM87

Notonomus excisipennis Sloane 1902 [incl. Feronia (Notonomus) kingii Chaudoir 1865 non Poecilus kingi Macleay 1826] LM87

Notonomus kingi (Macleay 1826) LM87 [=Poecilus kingi LM87, Feronia (Poecilus) kingii B35; incl. F. (Notonomus) incrassata Chaudoir 1874 LM87]

Notonomus marginatus (Castelnau 1840) [=Poecilus marginatus; incl. Feronia (Notonomus) discodera Chaudoir 1865, F. hunteriensis Castelnau 1867, Notonomus marginatus luculentus Sloane 1902, N. sydneyensis Sloane 1902] LM87

Notonomus mediosulcatus (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) mediosulcata; incl. F. occidentalis Castelnau 1867, *Adetipa punctata Castelnau 1865, F. satanas Castelnau 1867] LM87

Notonomus molestus (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) molesta; incl. F. lacustis Castelnau 1867, *Ternox obsoletus Motschulsky 1865] LM87

Notonomus nitidicollis (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) nitidicollis; incl. N. angustipennis Macleay 1871, N. cyaneocinctus Macleay 1871, Feronia impressicollis Castelnau 1867, N. latibasis Sloane 1902, N. nitidicollis obtusicollis Sloane 1913, N. purpureipennis Macleay 1871, N. violaceomarginatus Macleay 1871, N. viridicinctus Macleay 1871, Feronia viridilimbata Castelnau 1867, F. viridimarginata Castelnau 1867] LM87

Notonomus opacicollis (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (Notonomus) opacicollis; incl. F. impressipennis Castelnau 1867, F. purpureolimbata Castelnau 1867, *Orbitus purpuripennis Motschulsky 1865, Notonomus rugosicollis Sloane 1902] LM87

Notonomus philippi (Newman 1842) [=Feronia philippi; incl. N. philippi arcuata Sloane 1913, F. bipunctatus Castelnau 1867, N. chalybeus otwayensis Sloane 1902] LM87

Notonomus scotti Sloane 1907 [=N. kingi Sloane 1902 nec Poecilus kingi Macleay 1826 nec Feronia (Notonomus) kingii Chaudoir 1865] LM87

Notonomus sphodroides (Dejean 1828) [=Feronia (Poecilus) sphodroides; incl. F. (Notonomus) accedens Chaudoir 1865, *Neuropates pristonychoides Motschulsky 1865] LM87

*Notonomus triplogenioides (Chaudoir 1865) [=Feronia (*Notonomus) triplogenioides; incl. F. ducalis Castelnau 1867, Notonomus jervisensis Sloane 1902] LM87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB68] Basford, N. L., J. E. Butler, C. A. Leone & F. J. Rohlf. 1968. Immunologic comparisons of selected Coleoptera with analyses of relationships using numerical taxonomic methods. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 388–406.

[B90] Bell, R. T. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Carabidae adults and larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1053–1092. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FFB88] Franke, U., B. Friebe & L. Beck. 1988. Methodisches zur Ermittlung der Siedlungsdichte von Bodentieren aus Quadratproben und Barberfallen. Pedobiologia 32: 253–264.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[OM08] Ober, K. A., & D. R. Maddison. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of tribes within Harpalinae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as inferred from 28S ribosomal DNA and the wingless gene. Journal of Insect Science 8: 63.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236–243.

Last updated: 26 February 2018.

Harpalus

Harpalus affinis, copyright Trevor & Dilys Pendleton.


Belongs within: Harpalitae.

Harpalus is a diverse genus of carabid beetles with antennae that are setose from the third segment onwards, and two ventral rows of scale-like setae on the fore tarsi of males. They are native to Eurasia and North America though some species have also been introduced outside this range.

Harpalus Latreille 1802 LM87
    |--H. affinis (Schrank 1781) E04, LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |--H. aeneus C01
    |--H. amariformis C01
    |--H. ambiguus [=Carabus ambiguus] L02
    |--H. caerulescens (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Carabus caerulescens L02]
    |--H. caliginosus BB68
    |--H. calydonius [=Carabus calydonius] L02
    |--H. cephalotes (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Carabus cephalotes L02]
    |--H. cisteloides [=Carabus cisteloides] L02
    |--H. cupreus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Carabus cupreus L02]
    |--H. distinguendus C01
    |--H. eraticus BS02
    |--H. fulvicornis (Thunberg 1806) [=Carabus fulvicornis] LM87
    |--H. fuscicalpis C01
    |--H. gagates [=Scarites gagates] L02
    |--H. germanus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Carabus germanus L02]
    |--H. gory Gory 1833 LM87
    |--H. goryi Boisduval 1835 LM87
    |--H. ignobilis Boheman 1858 LM87
    |--H. indianus BS02
    |--H. interruptus [=Carabus interruptus] L02
    |--H. leucopthalmus [=Carabus leucopthalmus] L02
    |--H. marginatus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Carabus marginatus L02]
    |--H. marginepunctatus B35
    |--H. metallicus [=Carabus metallicus] L02
    |--H. motschulskyi C01
    |--H. pennsylvanicus BB68
    |--H. piceus [=Scarites piceus] L02
    |--H. picipennis C01
    |--H. prasinus [=Carabus prasinus] L02
    |--H. puncticeps E04
    |--H. rubripes (De Geer 1774) VPB11
    |--H. rufibarbis E04
    |--H. rufipes (De Geer 1774) VPB11 [=Cucujus rufipes L02]
    |--H. serripes C01
    |--H. sexpunctatus (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Carabus sexpunctatus L02]
    |--H. spiniger [=Carabus spiniger] L02
    |--H. striatus [=Carabus striatus] L02
    |--H. striola [=Carabus striola] L02
    |--H. tardus (Panzer 1796) VPB11
    |--H. terricola [=Carabus terricola] L02
    |--H. vestitus [=Carabus vestitus] L02
    `--H. vulgaris (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Carabus vulgaris L02]

Harpalus affinis (Schrank 1781) E04, LM87 [=Carabus affinis LM87; incl. C. proteus Paykull 1790 LM87, *Harpalus proteus LM87]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS02] Ball, G. E., & D. Shpeley. 2002. Ginemini, Ginema thomasi, new tribe, new genus and new species, from Amazonian Bolivia (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalinae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 128 (1): 75–98.

[BB68] Basford, N. L., J. E. Butler, C. A. Leone & F. J. Rohlf. 1968. Immunologic comparisons of selected Coleoptera with analyses of relationships using numerical taxonomic methods. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 388–406.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E04] Emberson, R. M. 2004. A European ground beetle, Harpalus tardus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in Canterbury, and the predisposition of European carabids to establish in exotic temperate locations. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 39–42.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236–243.

Last updated: 5 March 2018.

Bembidiina

Bembidion quadrimaculatum, copyright Udo Schmidt.


Belongs within: Bembidiinae.

The Bembidiina are a group of small carabids with reduced terminal palpomeres. It includes the large genus Bembidion with over 1200 species of relatively small ground beetles, most diverse in northern temperate regions.

<==Bembidiina R-JC01
    |--Notaphus Stephens 1828 R-JC01, LM87
    |    |--N. varius (Olivier 1795) [=Carabus varius, Bembidion (*Notaphus) varium] LM87
    |    |--N. brullei (Gemminger & Harold 1868) (see below for synonymy) LM87
    |    `--N. convergens [=Austronotaphus convergens] R-JC01
    |--Peryphus Stephens 1828 R-JC01, LM87
    |    |--*P. litoralis (Olivier 1795) [=Carabus litoralis, Bembidion (Peryphus) litorale] LM87
    |    |--P. bandotaro (Morita 1991) [=Bembidion (Peryphus) bandotaro] L98
    |    |--P. chilensis [=Chilioperyphus chilensis] R-JC01
    |    |--P. postae (Csiki 1901) [=Bembidium (Peryphus) postae] C01
    |    `--P. tetracolus (Say 1823) [=Bembidium tetracolum, Bembidion (Peryphus) tetracolum] LM87
    `--Bembidion Latreille 1802 LM87
         |  i. s.: B. adustum C01
         |         B. aegyptiacum G89
         |         B. algiricum Lucas 1846 E12
         |         B. andreae C01
         |         B. articulatum C01
         |         B. assimile C01
         |         B. dentellum (Thunberg 1787) VPB11
         |         B. dives Lucas 1846 E12
         |         B. foveum C01
         |         B. gibberosum Lucas 1846 E12
         |         B. infuscatum C01
         |         B. lampros (Herbst 1784) VPB11 [incl. B. lampros var. properans C01]
         |         B. levettei OM08
         |           |--B. l. levettei OM08
         |           `--B. l. carrianum OM08
         |         B. mauritanicum Lucas 1846 E12
         |         B. numidicum Lucas 1846 E12
         |         B. octomaculatum C01
         |         B. perspicuum HR11
         |         B. pulchellum Lucas 1846 E12
         |         B. quadriguttatum [=Carabus quadriguttatus] L02
         |         B. quadripustulatum C01
         |         B. semilunium L98
         |         B. striatum C01
         |         B. vicinum Lucas 1846 E12
         |--*B. (Bembidion) quadrimaculatum (Linnaeus 1761) [=Cicindela quadrimaculata] LM87
         |--B. (Ananotaphus Nekolitzky 1931) LM87
         |    |--B. (*A.) errans Blackburn 1888 [=Bembidium errans] LM87
         |    |--B. (A.) blackburni Csiki 1928 [=Bembidium dubium Blackburn 1888 non Heer 1841] LM87
         |    `--B. (A.) proprium Blackburn 1888 [=Bembidium proprium] LM87
         |--B. (Desarmatocillenus Netolitzky 1942) LM87
         |    |--B. (*D.) yokohamae (Bates 1883) [=Cillenus yokohamae] LM87
         |    |--B. (D.) adelaidae Lindroth 1980 LM87
         |    |--B. (D.) albovirens (Sloane 1903) [=Cillenus albovirens] LM87
         |    `--B. (D.) mastersi Sloane 1895 (see below for synonymy) LM87
         |--B. (Notaphocampa Netolitzky 1914) [incl. Notaphomimus Netolitzky 1931] LM87
         |    |--B. (*N.) niloticum Dejean 1831 LM87
         |    `--B. opulentum Nietner 1858 [=Bembidium opulentum, Bembidion (*Notaphocampa) opulentum] LM87
         |         |--B. o. opulentum LM87
         |         `--B. o. riverinae Sloane 1895 [=Bembidium riverinae] LM87
         |--B. (Pekinium Csiki 1901) C01
         |    `--B. (*P.) chinense Csiki 1901 C01
         `--B. (Philochthus Stephens 1828) [incl. Sloanephila Netolitzky 1931] LM87
              |--B. (*P.) biguttatum (Fabrcius 1779) LM87 (see below for synonymy)
              `--B. (P.) jacksoniense Guérin-Méneville 1830 (see below for synonymy) LM87

Bembidion (Desarmatocillenus) mastersi Sloane 1895 [=Bembidium mastersi; incl. Bembidium flavescens Macleay 1864 (n. n.)] LM87

Bembidion (*Philochthus) biguttatum (Fabrcius 1779) LM87 [=Carabus biguttatus LM87; incl. B. biguttatum var. inoptatum G89]

Bembidion (Philochthus) jacksoniense Guérin-Méneville 1830 [=Bembidion (Leia) jacksoniensis, Bembidion (*Sloanephila) jacksoniense; incl. Bembidium ocellatum Blackburn 1888, Bembidium subviride Macleay 1871] LM87

Notaphus brullei (Gemminger & Harold 1868) [=Bembicidium brullei, Bembidion (Notaphus) brullei, Bembidion variegatum Brullé 1838 non Say 1823] LM87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[L98] Lafer, G. S. 1998. Supplementary accounts of the ground-beetles fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Southern Kuril Islands. Far Eastern Entomologist 59: 19–20.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[OM08] Ober, K. A., & D. R. Maddison. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of tribes within Harpalinae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as inferred from 28S ribosomal DNA and the wingless gene. Journal of Insect Science 8: 63.

[R-JC01] Roig-Juñent, S., & A. C. Cicchino. 2001. Chaltenia patagonica, new genus and species belonging to Chalteniina, a new subtribe of Zolini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Canadian Entomologist 133: 651–670.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236–243.

Last updated: 21 February 2018.

Platylabini

Platylabus rufus, copyright Marko Mutanen.


Belongs within: Ichneumonidae.

The Platylabini are a group of ichneumonid wasps that parasitise geometroid moths, particularly Geometridae (Gauld 1984).

Characters (from Gauld 1984): Clypeus convex; speculum punctate; propodeal apophyses present; petiole dorsally flatted, O-shaped in cross-section, usually with carina between tergite and sternite; apex of gaster usually truncated.

<==Platylabini G84
    |--Neolevansa Gauld 1984 G84
    |    `--*N. hirsuta Gauld 1984 G84
    |--Pristiceros Gravenhorst 1829 [incl. Neopristiceros Heinrich 1961, Pristicerops Heinrich 1962] G84
    |    |--*P. serrarius G84
    |    |--‘Platylabus’ bakeri [=*Pristicerops bakeri] G84
    |    `--‘Ichneumon’ lascivus [=*Neopristiceros lascivus] G84
    |--Platylabus Wesmael 1844 (see below for synonymy) G84
    |    |--*P. rufus G84
    |    |--P. altitudinis G84
    |    |--*Lamprojoppa’ caerulea G84
    |    |--*Pagarenes’ erythropus G84
    |    |--*Pyramidophorus’ flavoguttatus G84
    |    |--*Pachyjoppa’ tibialis G84
    |    `--*Chlorojoppa’ viridis G84
    `--Notoplatylabus birmanicus Heinrich 1974 NI11

Platylabus Wesmael 1844 [incl. Chlorojoppa Cameron 1907, Lamprojoppa Cameron 1901, Pachyjoppa Cameron 1901, Pagarenes Cameron 1903, Pyramidophorus Tischbein 1882] G84

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[NI11] Norhafiza, A. F., & A. B. Idris. 2011. A catalogue of Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 29–50.

Phaeogenini

Phairichneumon sp., from Insects of Tasmania: Hymenoptera.


Belongs within: Ichneumonidae.

The Phaeogenini are a group of mostly smaller ichneumonid wasps characterised by a rather convex clypeus and circular or subcircular petiolar spiracles. The monophyly of this group is uncertain; features of this group may have evolved convergently as a result of smaller size (Gauld 1984).

See also: The Phaeogenini: Widdle Icky Newmans.

<==Phaeogenini G84
    |--Oronotus Wesmael 1844 G84, CW92
    |--Centeterus opprimator G84, MS01
    |--Aucklandella G84
    |--Cratichneumon sicarius G84, P93
    |--Phaeogenes bellicornis MS01
    |--Akymichneumon Gauld 1984 G84
    |    `--*A. rufipes (Cameron 1906) [=Otacustes rufipes, Phaeogenes rufipes] G84
    |--Eleebichneumon Gauld 1984 G84
    |    `--*E. pittata Gauld 1984 G84
    `--Phairichneumon Gauld 1984 G84
         `--*P. orbitalis Gauld 1984 G84

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Dynastinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 383–425. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

Last updated: 23 September 2017.

Arthroleptinae

Female Arthroleptis reichei, copyright Vincenzo Mercurio.


Belongs within: Laurentobatrachia.

The Arthroleptinae are a group of frogs found in sub-Saharan Africa, males of which often have hyperelongate third fingers.

<==Arthroleptinae [Arthroleptina, Arthroleptini] FG06
    |--Coracodichus FG06
    |--Cardioglossa Boulenger 1900 FG06
    |    |--+--C. gracilis PW11
    |    |  `--C. schioetzi PW11
    |    `--+--C. elegans PW11
    |       `--+--C. gratiosa PW11
    |          `--+--+--C. leucomystax PW11
    |             |  `--C. occidentalis PW11
    |             `--+--C. pulchra PW11
    |                `--+--C. manengouba PW11
    |                   `--C. oreas PW11
    `--Arthroleptis Smith 1849 [incl. Schoutedenella De Witte 1921] FG06
         |  i. s.: A. batesi FG06
         |         A. crusculum Angel 1950 [=Schoutedenella crusculum] FG06
         |         A. discodactyla (Laurent 1954) [=Schoutedenella discodactyla] FG06
         |         A. hematogaster (Laurent 1954) [=Schoutedenella hematogaster] FG06
         |         A. lameerei de Witte 1921 [=Schoutedenella lameerei] FG06
         |         A. loveridgei de Witte 1933 [=Schoutedenella loveridgei] FG06
         |         A. milletihorsini Angel 1922 [=Schoutedenella milletihorsini] FG06
         |         A. mossoensis (Laurent 1954) [=Schoutedenella mossoensis] FG06
         |         A. nimbaensis Angel 1950 [=Schoutedenella nimbaensis] FG06
         |         A. phrynoides (Laurent 1976) [=Schoutedenella phrynoides] FG06
         |         A. pyrrhoscelis Laurent 1952 [=Schoutedenella pyrrhoscelis] FG06
         |         A. spinalis Boulenger 1919 FG06
         |         A. troglodytes Poynton 1963 [=Schoutedenella troglodytes] FG06
         |         A. vercammeni (Laurent 1954) [=Schoutedella vercammeni] FG06
         |         A. xenochirus Boulenger 1905 [=Schoutedenella xenochirus] FG06
         |         A. zimmeri Ahl 1925 FG06
         |--+--A. xenodactylus Boulenger 1909 PW11, FG06 [=Schoutedenella senodactyla FG06]
         |  `--+--A. schubotzi Nieden 1911 PW11, FG06 [=Schoutedenella schubotzi FG06]
         |     `--A. xenodactyloides Hewitt 1933 PW11, FG06 [=Schoutedenella xenodactyloides FG06]
         `--+--+--A. taeniatus PW11 [=Schoutedenella taeniata FG06]
            |  `--+--A. aureoli PW11
            |     `--A. sylvaticus (Laurent 1954) PW11, FG06 [=Schoutedenella sylvatica FG06]
            `--+--+--A. francei PW11
               |  `--A. wahlbergii PW11
               `--+--+--A. tanneri PW11
                  |  `--+--A. reichei PW11
                  |     `--+--A. affinis PW11
                  |        `--A. nikeae PW11
                  `--+--A. stenodactylus PW11
                     `--+--+--A. adelphus PW11
                        |  `--A. poecilonotus PW11
                        `--+--A. krokosua PW11
                           `--A. variabilis PW11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

Laurentobatrachia

Peacock tree frog Leptopelis vermiculatus, copyright Dawson.


Belongs within: Ranoidea.
Contains: Arthroleptinae, Hyperolius, Heterixalus.

The Laurentobatrachia are a clade of frogs found in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar.

Characters (from Frost et al. 2006): Larval m. levator manidbulae externus in two portion; commissura proximalis III absent; intercalary elements absent; external metatarsal tubercle poorly developed or absent; terminal phalanges claw-shaped.

Laurentobatrachia [Arthroleptoidae]
    |--Arthroleptidae FG06
    |    |--Arthroleptinae FG06
    |    `--+--Leptopelis Günther 1859 FG06 [Leptopelinae PW11, Leptopelini]
    |       |    |  i. s.: L. mossambicus FG06
    |       |    |--+--L. argenteus FG06
    |       |    |  `--L. brevirostris PW11
    |       |    `--+--L. modestus PW11
    |       |       `--+--L. vermiculatus PW11
    |       |          `--+--L. natalensis PW11
    |       |             `--+--+--L. bocagii PW11
    |       |                |  `--L. concolor PW11
    |       |                `--+--L. kivuensis PW11
    |       |                   `--L. palmatus PW11
    |       `--Astylosterninae [Astylosternidae, Astylosternini] PW11
    |            |--Leptodactylodon Andersson 1903 FG06
    |            |    `--L. bicolor FG06
    |            `--+--+--Nyctibates Boulenger 1904 FG06
    |               |  |    `--N. corrugatus FG06
    |               |  `--Scotobleps Boulenger 1900 PW11, FG06
    |               |       `--S. gabonicus FG06
    |               `--+--Trichobatrachus Boulenger 1900 FG06
    |                  |    `--T. robustus FG06
    |                  `--Astylosternus Werner 1898 FG06
    |                       |--A. diadematus PW11
    |                       `--+--A. batesi PW11
    |                          `--A. schioetzi PW11
    `--Hyperoliidae [Hyperoliinae, Kassininae, Kassinini]
         |  i. s.: Chlorolius Perret 1988 FG06
         |         Arlequinus Perret 1988 FG06
         |         Chrysobatrachus Laurent 1951 FG06
         |--Cryptothylax Laurent & Combaz 1950 PW11, FG06
         |    `--C. greshoffii PW11
         `--+--+--Phlyctimantis Laurent & Combaz 1950 PW11, FG06
            |  |    |--P. leonardi PW11
            |  |    `--+--‘Kassina’ maculata PW11
            |  |       `--P. verrucosus PW11
            |  `--+--Kassina Girard 1853 PW11, FG06
            |     |    |--K. senegalensis FG06
            |     |    `--K. wealii WKW73
            |     `--+--Paracassina Peracca 1907 FG06
            |        `--Semnodactylus Hoffman 1939 FG06
            |             `--S. wealii PW11
            `--+--+--Callixalus Laurent 1950 FG06
               |  `--Acanthixalus Laurent 1944 PW11, FG06
               |       |--A. sonjae PW11
               |       `--A. spinosus FG06
               `--+--Opisthothylax Perret 1966 PW11, FG06
                  |    `--O. immaculatus FG06
                  `--+--Hyperolius PW11
                     `--+--Morerella cyanophthalma PW11
                        `--+--+--Heterixalus FG06
                           |  `--Tachycnemis Fitzinger 1843 PW11, FG06 [Tachycneminae]
                           |       `--T. seychellensis NW07
                           `--+--Kassinula Laurent 1940 FG06
                              `--Afrixalus Laurent 1944 PW11, FG06
                                   |  i. s.: A. pygmaeus FG06
                                   |         A. weidholzi KF69
                                   |--+--A. knysnae PW11
                                   |  `--+--A. delicatus PW11
                                   |     `--A. stuhlmanni PW11
                                   `--+--A. fornasini PW11
                                      `--+--A. laevis PW11
                                         `--+--A. dorsalis PW11
                                            `--A. paradorsalis PW11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[KF69] Kluge, A. G., & J. S. Farris. 1969. Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Systematic Zoology 18 (1): 1–32.

[NW07] Nussbaum, R. A., & S.-H. Wu. 2007. Morphological assessments and phylogenetic relationships of the Seychellean frogs of the family Sooglossidae (Amphibia: Anura). Zoological Studies 46 (3): 322–335.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

[WKW73] Wallace, D. G., M.-C. King & A. C. Wilson. 1973. Albumin differences among ranid frogs: taxonomic and phylogenetic implications. Systematic Zoology 22 (1): 1–13.

Limnodynastinae

Spawning striped marsh frogs Limnodynastes peronii, copyright Froggydarb.


Belongs within: Neobatrachia.

The Limnodynastinae are a group of small to medium-sized toad-like terrestrial frogs found in Australia and New Guinea. They have an inguinal amplexus and many are foam-nesters (Frost et al. 2006).

<==Limnodynastinae [Limnodynastidae, Limnodynastini]
    |  i. s.: Opisthodon Steindachner 1867 FG06
    |           |--O. ornatus (Gray 1842) (see below for synonymy) FG06
    |           `--O. spenceri (Parker 1940) [=Limnodynastes spenceri] FG06
    |--+--Notaden Günther 1873 PW11, FG06
    |  |    |--N. bennettii PW11
    |  |    |--N. melanoscaphus FG06
    |  |    |--N. nichollsi TW05
    |  |    `--N. weigeli Shea & Johnston 1988 D11
    |  `--Neobatrachus Peters 1863 PW11, FG06 [incl. Neoruinosus Wells & Wellington 1985 R10]
    |       |  i. s.: N. albipes Roberts, Mahony et al. 1991 R10
    |       |         N. aquilonius Tyler, Davies & Martin 1981 R10
    |       |         N. fulvus Mahony & Roberts 1986 R10
    |       |         N. kunapalari Mahony & Roberts 1986 R10
    |       |         N. sutor Main 1957 R10
    |       |         N. wilsmorei (Parker 1940) R10
    |       |--N. pelobatoides (Werner 1914) PW11, R10
    |       `--+--N. pictus Peters 1863 PW11, R10
    |          `--N. sudelli (Lamb 1911) PW11, R10 [=*Neoruinosus sudelli R10; incl. N. centralis (Parker 1940) R10]
    `--+--Platyplectrum Günther 1863 PW11, DAP09
       |    |--P. spenceri PW11
       |    `--+--P. ornatum PW11
       |       `--Lechriodus Boulenger 1882 PW11, FG06
       |            |--L. fletcheri FG06
       |            `--L. melanopyga FG06
       `--+--Heleioporus Gray 1841 PW11, FG06
          |    |--H. albopunctatus ERK07
          |    |--H. australiacus FG06
          |    |--H. barycragus KF69
          |    |--H. eyrei KF69
          |    |--H. inornatus KF69
          |    `--H. psammophilus ERK07
          `--+--Adelotus Ogilby 1907 PW11, FG06
             |    `--A. brevis FG06
             `--+--Philoria Spencer 1901 PW11, FG06 [incl. Kyarranus Moore 1958 FG06]
                |    `--P. sphagnicola FG06
                `--Limnodynastes Fitzinger 1843 PW11, FG06 [incl. Megistolotis Tyler, Martin & Davis 1979 FG06]
                     |--+--L. salmini PW11
                     |  `--+--L. convexiusculus PW11
                     |     `--L. lignarius PW11
                     `--+--+--+--L. depressus PW11
                        |  |  `--L. fletcheri PW11
                        |  `--+--L. peronii PW11
                        |     `--L. tasmaniensis PW11
                        `--+--L. dorsalis (Gray 1841) PW11, F13 (see below for synonymy)
                           |--L. terraereginae PW11
                           `--+--L. dumerilii Peters 1863 PW11, F13 (see below for synonymy)
                              `--L. interioris Fry 1913 PW11, F13 [=L. dorsalis var. interioris F13]

Limnodynastes dorsalis (Gray 1841) PW11, F13 [=Cystignathus dorsalis F13, Wagleria dorsalis F13]

Limnodynastes dumerilii Peters 1863 PW11, F13 [=L. (Platyplectron) dumerilii F13, L. dorsalis var. dumerilii F13; incl. L. bibronii Krefft 1867 (n. n.) F13, Heliorana grayi Steindachner 1867 F13, Platyplectrum superciliare Keferstein 1867 F13, H. superciliaris F13]

Opisthodon ornatus (Gray 1842) [=Discoglossus ornatus, Limnodynastes ornatus; incl. *Opisthodon frauenfeldi Steindachner 1867] FG06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D11] Doughty, P. 2011. An emerging frog diversity hotspot in the northwest Kimberley of Western Australia: another new frog species from the high rainfall zone. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (2): 209–216.

[DAP09] Doughty, P., M. Anstis & L. C. Price. 2009. A new species of Crinia (Anura: Myobatrachidae) from the high rainfall zone of the northwest Kimberley, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (2): 127–144.

[ERK07] Edwards, D. L., J. D. Roberts & J. S. Keogh. 2007. Impact of Plio-Pleistocene arid cycling on the population history of a southwestern Australian frog. Molecular Ecology 16: 2782–2796.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[F13] Fry, D. B. 1913. On a Varanus and a frog from Burnett River, Queensland, and a revision of the variations in Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (2): 17–34, pls 1–3.

[KF69] Kluge, A. G., & J. S. Farris. 1969. Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Systematic Zoology 18 (1): 1–32.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

[R10] Roberts, J. D. 2010. Taxonomic status of the Australian burrowing frogs Neobatrachus sudelli, N. centralis and Neoruinosus and clarification of the type specimen of N. albipes. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (4): 455–458.

[TW05] Thompson, G. G., P. C. Withers, K. A. McMaster & V. A. Cartledge. 2005. Burrows of desert-adapted frogs, Neobatrachus aquilonius and Notaden nichollsi. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 17–23.

Neobatrachia

Table Mountain ghost frog Heleophryne rosei, copyright Vincent Carruthers.


Belongs within: Anura.
Contains: Ranoidea, Hyloidea, Limnodynastinae, Myobatrachinae.

The Neobatrachia are a clade containing the majority of living frogs, united by features such as the presence of a neopalatine bone in the skull.

Synapomorphies (from Frost et al. 2006): Neopalatine bone present; third distal carpal fused to other carpals; m. sartorius completely separated from m. semitendinosus; accessory head present on m. adductor longus; parahyoid bone absent.

Neobatrachia [Hemiphractinae]
    |  i. s.: Indobatrachus pusillus (Owen 1847) BB03
    |--Heleophrynidae [Heleophryninae] PW11
    |    |--Hadromophryne natalensis PW11
    |    `--Heleophryne Sclater 1898 FG06
    |         |--H. natalensis FG06
    |         |--H. purcelli BB03
    |         |--H. regis FG06
    |         `--H. rosei FG06
    `--Phthanobatrachia (see below for synonymy) FG06
         |--+--Nasikabatrachus Biju & Bossuyt 2003 FG06 [Nasikabatrachidae PW11]
         |  |    `--*N. sahyadrensis Biju & Bossuyt 2003 BB03
         |  `--Sooglossidae [Sooglossinae] PW11
         |       |--Sooglossus Boylenger 1906 [incl. Nesomantis Boulenger 1909] NW07
         |       |    |--*S. sechellensis (Boettger 1896) [=Arthroleptis sechellensis] NW07
         |       |    `--S. thomasseti (Boulenger 1909) [=*Nesomantis thomasseti] NW07
         |       `--Sechellophryne Nussbaum & Wu 2007 NW07
         |            |--*S. gardineri (Boulenger 1911) [=Nectophryne gardineri, Sooglossus gardineri] NW07
         |            `--S. pipilodryas (Gerlach & Willi 2002) [=Sooglossus pipilodryas] NW07
         `--+--Ranoidea EJK08
            `--+--Hyloidea PW11
               `--+--Calyptocephallelidae [Calyptocephalellinae, Calyptocephalellini] PW11
                  |    |--Calyptocephalella Strand 1928 FG06
                  |    |    `--C. gayi PW11
                  |    `--Telmatobufo Schmidt 1952 PW11, FG06
                  |         |--T. bullocki PW11
                  |         `--T. venustus FG06
                  `--Myobatrachidae [Australobatrachia, Myobatrachoidea] PW11
                       |  i. s.: Kankanophryne Heyer & Liem 1976 FKM82
                       |           `--*K. occidentalis FKM82
                       |         Glauertia FKM82
                       |--Limnodynastinae PW11
                       `--Myobatrachinae PW11

Phthanobatrachia [Athesphatanura, Ceratophrydes, Chthonobatrachia, Cladophrynia, Diphyabatrachia, Hyloides, Leptodactyliformes, Meridianura, Nobleobatrachia, Notogaeanura, Tinctanura] FG06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB03] Biju, S. D., & F. Bossuyt. 2003. New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles. Nature 425: 711–714.

[EJK08] Evans, S. E., M. E. H. Jones & D. W. Krause. 2008. A giant frog with South American affinities from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (8): 2951–2956.

[FKM82] Farris, J. S., A. G. Kluge & M. F. Mickevich. 1982. Phylogenetic analysis, the monothetic group method, and myobatrachid frogs. Systematic Zoology 31 (3): 317–327.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[NW07] Nussbaum, R. A., & S.-H. Wu. 2007. Morphological assessments and phylogenetic relationships of the Seychellean frogs of the family Sooglossidae (Amphibia: Anura). Zoological Studies 46 (3): 322–335.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.