Bambusa oldhamii, copyright Stan Shebs.

Belongs within: Poaceae.

The Bambusoideae are a clade within the grasses uniting the woody bamboos (Bambuseae) with the herbaceous Olyreae of the American tropics. The clade is supported by the secondary gain of the pseudopetiole and the secondary loss of the lamina of the first seedling leaf (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Earlier authors have united a broader group of taxa into the Bambusoideae by the shared presence of fusoid and arm cells in the leaves; however, this leaf anatomy is plesiomorphic within the Poaceae and Bambusoideae has been restricted to a smaller monophyletic group. The bamboos of the Bambuseae are most familiar as erect, arborescent plants but the genus Bonia, at least, has a scrambling habit (Sungkaew et al. 2008).

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Plants perennial (rarely annual), rhizomatous, herbaceous or woody, of temperate and tropical forests, tropical high montane grasslands, riverbanks, and sometimes savannas. Culms hollow or solid. Leaves distichous; abaxial ligule absent (Olyreae) or present (Bambuseae); adaxial ligule membranous or chartaceous, fringed or unfringed; blades usually relatively broad, pseudopetiolate, venation parallel; sheaths often auriculate. Inflorescences spicate, racemose or paniculate, completing development of all spikelets in one period of growth and subtending bracts and prophylls usually absent, or pseudospikelets with basal bud-bearing bracts producing two or more orders of spikelets with different phases of maturity and subtending bracts and prophylls usually present. Spikelets (or spikelets proper of the pseudospikelets) bisexual (Bambuseae) or unisexual (Olyreae), consisting of 0, 1, 2 or several glumes, 1 to many florets; lemma lacking uncinate macrohairs, if awned, the awns single; palea well developed; lodicules usually 3 (rarely 0 to 6 or many), membranous, vascularized, often ciliate; stamens usually 2, 3, or 6 (10 to 40 in Pariana, 6 to 120 in Ochlandra); ovary glabrous or hairy, sometimes with an apical appendage, haustorial synergids absent, styles 2 or 3, sometimes very short but close, stigmas 2 or 3. Caryopsis with hilum linear (or rarely punctate), extending its full length (or rarely less than full length); endosperm hard, without lipid, containing compound starch grains; embryo small, epiblast present, scutellar cleft present, mesocotyl internode absent, embryonic leaf margins overlapping. Basic chromosome numbers: x = 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12.
Foliar anatomy. Mesophyll nonradiate, an adaxial palisade layer absent, fusoid cells large and well developed, arm cells usually well developed and strongly invaginated; Kranz anatomy absent; midrib complex or simple; adaxial bulliform cells present.
Foliar micromorphology. Stomata with domeshaped, triangular, or parallel-sided subsidiary cells; bicellular microhairs present, panicoid-type; papillae common and abundant.
Photosynthetic pathway C3.

<==Bambusoideae [Olyroideae, Parianoideae]
    |--Olyreae GPWG01
    |    |--Buergersiochloa [Buergersiochloeae] GPWG01
    |    |    `--B. bambusoides GPWG01
    |    `--+--+--Eremitis GPWG01
    |       |  `--Pariana [Parianeae] GPWG01
    |       |       `--P. radiciflora GPWG01
    |       `--+--Olyra latifolia GPWG01
    |          `--Lithachne GPWG01
    |               |--L. humilis GPWG01
    |               `--L. pauciflora GPWG01
    `--Bambuseae GPWG01
         |  i. s.: Yushania niitakayamensis GPWG01, CP02
         `--Bambusinae ST08
              |  i. s.: Dendrocalamus ST08
              |           |--D. giganteus DK08
              |           |--D. pendulus DK08
              |           `--D. strictus DK08
              |         Bonia ST08
              |--+--Phuphanochloa Sungkaew & Teerawatananon in Sungkaew, Teerawatananon et al. 2008 ST08
              |  |    `--*P. speciosa Sungkaew & Teerawatananon in Sungkaew, Teerawatananon et al. 2008 ST08
              |  `--Bambusa ST08
              |       |  i. s.: B. angustifolia F11
              |       |         B. arundinacea SK02
              |       |         B. blumeana K03
              |       |         B. multiplex GPWG01
              |       |         B. polymorpha DK08
              |       |         B. vulgaris GPWG01
              |       |--B. (subg. Bambusa) malingensis ST08
              |       |--B. subg. Dendrocalamopsis ST08
              |       |    |--B. beecheyana ST08
              |       |    `--B. oldhamii ST08
              |       `--B. (subg. Lingnania) emeiensis [incl. Neosinocalamus affinis] ST08
              `--+--+--Oreobambos buchwaldii ST08
                 |  `--Oxytenanthera ST08
                 |       |--O. abyssinica ST08
                 |       `--O. monadelpha S03
                 `--+--‘Bambusa’ bambos ST08
                    |--‘Bambusa’ tulda ST08
                    |--Thyrsostachys siamensis ST08
                    |--Vietnamosasa ST08
                    |    |--V. ciliata ST08
                    |    `--V. pusilla ST08
                    `--Gigantochloa ST08
                         |--G. latifolia DK08
                         |--G. levis K03
                         |--G. ligulata ST08
                         `--G. scortechinii DK08

Bambusoideae incertae sedis:
  Schizostachyum K03
    |--S. brachycladum K03
    `--S. pilosum K03
  Guadua GPWG01
    |--G. angustifolia RJ11
    |--G. chacoensis GPWG01
    |--G. latifolia RJ11
    |--G. taguara KO06
    `--G. weberbaueri G09
  Ochlandra setigera GPWG01, S03
  Cephalostachyum pergracile DK08
  Pseudosasa japonica GPWG01
  Chusquea GPWG01
    |--C. abietifolia J87
    |--C. circinata GPWG01
    |--C. culeou KK03
    |--C. exasperata GPWG01
    |--C. latifolia GPWG01
    |--C. oxylepis GPWG01
    |--C. quila D03
    |--C. subulata GPWG01
    |--C. tenella RJ11
    |--C. tesellata F11
    `--C. valdiviensis D03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CP02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[G09] Gelhaus, J. K. 2009. Tipulidae (crane flies, tipúlidos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 193–236. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KK03] Karsholt, O., & N. P. Kristensen. 2003. Plesiozela, gen. nov. from temperate South America: Apparent sister-group of the previously known Heliozelidae (Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea: Heliozelidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 39–46.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[KO06] Kury, A. B., & V. G. D. Orrico. 2006. A new species of Lacronia Strand, 1942 from the highlands of Rio de Janeiro (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 13: 147–153.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 143–164.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408–412.

[ST08] Sungkaew, S., A. Teerawatananon, J. A. N. Parnell, C. M. A. Stapleton & T. R. Hodkinson. 2008. Phuphanochloa, a new bamboo genus (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) from Thailand. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 669–673.

Last updated: 27 June 2018.

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