Colihue Chusquea culeou, photographed by Paul Lowry.

Belongs within: Poaceae.

The Bambusoideae are a clade within the grasses uniting the woody bamboos (Bambuseae) with the herbaceous Olyreae of the American tropics. The clade is supported by the secondary gain of the pseudopetiole and the secondary loss of the lamina of the first seedling leaf (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Earlier authors have united a broader group of taxa into the Bambusoideae by the shared presence of fusoid and arm cells in the leaves; however, this leaf anatomy is plesiomorphic within the Poaceae and Bambusoideae has been restricted to a smaller monophyletic group.

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Plants perennial (rarely annual), rhizomatous, herbaceous or woody, of temperate and tropical forests, tropical high montane grasslands, riverbanks, and sometimes savannas. Culms hollow or solid. Leaves distichous; abaxial ligule absent (Olyreae) or present (Bambuseae); adaxial ligule membranous or chartaceous, fringed or unfringed; blades usually relatively broad, pseudopetiolate, venation parallel; sheaths often auriculate. Inflorescences spicate, racemose or paniculate, completing development of all spikelets in one period of growth and subtending bracts and prophylls usually absent, or pseudospikelets with basal bud-bearing bracts producing two or more orders of spikelets with different phases of maturity and subtending bracts and prophylls usually present. Spikelets (or spikelets proper of the pseudospikelets) bisexual (Bambuseae) or unisexual (Olyreae), consisting of 0, 1, 2 or several glumes, 1 to many florets; lemma lacking uncinate macrohairs, if awned, the awns single; palea well developed; lodicules usually 3 (rarely 0 to 6 or many), membranous, vascularized, often ciliate; stamens usually 2, 3, or 6 (10 to 40 in Pariana, 6 to 120 in Ochlandra); ovary glabrous or hairy, sometimes with an apical appendage, haustorial synergids absent, styles 2 or 3, sometimes very short but close, stigmas 2 or 3. Caryopsis with hilum linear (or rarely punctate), extending its full length (or rarely less than full length); endosperm hard, without lipid, containing compound starch grains; embryo small, epiblast present, scutellar cleft present, mesocotyl internode absent, embryonic leaf margins overlapping. Basic chromosome numbers: x = 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12.
Foliar anatomy. Mesophyll nonradiate, an adaxial palisade layer absent, fusoid cells large and well developed, arm cells usually well developed and strongly invaginated; Kranz anatomy absent; midrib complex or simple; adaxial bulliform cells present.
Foliar micromorphology. Stomata with domeshaped, triangular, or parallel-sided subsidiary cells; bicellular microhairs present, panicoid-type; papillae common and abundant.
Photosynthetic pathway C3.

<==Bambusoideae [Olyroideae, Parianoideae]
    |--Olyreae GPWG01
    |    |--Buergersiochloa [Buergersiochloeae] GPWG01
    |    |    `--B. bambusoides GPWG01
    |    `--+--+--Eremitis GPWG01
    |       |  `--Pariana [Parianeae] GPWG01
    |       |       `--P. radiciflora GPWG01
    |       `--+--Olyra latifolia GPWG01
    |          `--Lithachne GPWG01
    |               |--L. humilis GPWG01
    |               `--L. pauciflora GPWG01
    `--+--Pseudosasa japonica GPWG01
       `--Chusquea GPWG01
            |--C. abietifolia J87
            |--C. circinata GPWG01
            |--C. culeou KK03
            |--C. exasperata GPWG01
            |--C. latifolia GPWG01
            |--C. oxylepis GPWG01
            |--C. quila D03
            |--C. subulata GPWG01
            `--C. valdiviensis D03

Bambusoideae incertae sedis:
  Bambuseae GPWG01
    |--Yushania GPWG01
    `--Bambusa GPWG01
         |--B. arundinacea SK02
         |--B. blumeana K03
         |--B. multiplex GPWG01
         |--B. polymorpha DK08
         |--B. tulda P03
         `--B. vulgaris GPWG01
  Gigantochloa DK08
    |--G. latifolia DK08
    |--G. levis K03
    `--G. scortechinii DK08
  Schizostachyum K03
    |--S. brachycladum K03
    `--S. pilosum K03
  Guadua GPWG01
    |--G. chacoensis GPWG01
    `--G. taguara KO06
  Ochlandra setigera GPWG01, S03
  Dendrocalamus DK08
    |--D. giganteus DK08
    |--D. pendulus DK08
    `--D. strictus DK08
  Cephalostachyum pergracile DK08

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311-318.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373-457.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KK03] Karsholt, O., & N. P. Kristensen. 2003. Plesiozela, gen. nov. from temperate South America: Apparent sister-group of the previously known Heliozelidae (Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea: Heliozelidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 39-46.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[KO06] Kury, A. B., & V. G. D. Orrico. 2006. A new species of Lacronia Strand, 1942 from the highlands of Rio de Janeiro (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 13: 147-153.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 143-164.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408-412.

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