Plantings of Aloe vera, photographed by Wouter Hagens.

Belongs within: Alooideae.

Aloe is a genus of more or less succulent, spiny-leaved plants native to sub-Saharan Africa and Arabia.

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Acaulescent or caulescent, more or less succulent perennials, with or without offsets, stems if present simple or branched. Leaves usually sharp-pointed, margins sinuate-dentate, in rosettes. Racemes terminal or lateral, capitate to long-cylindrical, or inflorescence corymbose. Flowers showy, yellowish or reddish, more or less zygomorphic, pedicellate, bracts scarious; segments free or connate below into curved or straight tube, lobes spreading. Stamens 6, hypogynous, included or exserted. Ovary many-seeded. Capsule oblong to sub-globose. Seeds many, often winged.

Aloe Linnaeus 1753 [=Aloe sect. Grandiflorae Haworth 1804] TS03
    |--+--A. glauca TS03
    |  `--A. lineata TS03
    `--+--+--Chortolirion angolense TS03
       |  `--+--A. boylei TS03
       |     `--A. verecunda TS03
       `--+--+--A. striata TS03
          |  |    |--A. s. ssp. striata TS03
          |  |    `--A. s. ssp. karasbergensis TS03
          |  `--+--+--A. sinkatana TS03
          |     |  `--A. vera TS03
          |     |       |--A. v. var. vera K10
          |     |       `--A. v. var. officinalis K10
          |     `--+--A. forbesii TS03
          |        `--+--A. inermis TS03
          |           `--A. scobinifolia TS03
          `--+--Lomatophyllum TS03
             |    |--L. macrum TS03
             |    `--L. occidentale TS03
             `--+--A. conifera TS03
                `--+--A. bulbillifera TS03
                   `--+--A. deltoideodonta TS03
                      `--A. viguieri TS03

Aloe incertae sedis:
  A. africana TS03
  A. arborescens TS03
  A. argenticauda CV06
  A. asperifolia CV06
  A. corallina CV06
  A. dewinteri CV06
  A. dinteri CV06
  A. erinacea CV06
  A. ferox TS03
  A. greenii SC06
  A. hereroensis CV06
  A. littoralis B14
  A. merlotii TS03
  A. namibensis CV06
  A. omavandae CV06
  A. pachygaster CV06
  A. saponaria (Aiton) Haworth 1804 [incl. A. latifolia] HE80
  A. sladeniana CV06
  A. vanrooyenii SC06
  A. variegata TS03
  A. viridiflora CV06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[K10] Keighery, G. 2010. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 299–311.

[SC06] Smith, G. F., & N. R. Crouch. 2006. Asphodelaceae. Corrections to the eponymy and geographical distribution of Aloe vanrooyenii. Bothalia 36 (2): 174.

[TS03] Treutlein, J., G. F. Smith, B.-E. van Wyk & M. Wink. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Asphodelaceae (subfamily Aloooideae) inferred from chloroplast DNA sequences (rbcL, matK) and from genomic fingerprinting (ISSR). Taxon 52: 193–207.


Hyphoderma setigerum, copyright Heino Lepp.

Belongs within: Homobasidiomycetes.
Contains: Ganodermataceae, Polyporus, Phlebia.

The Polyporales are a diverse clade of fungi supported by molecular data, commonly associated with rotting wood, some species of which cause economic damage to timber and/or living hardwoods. Many familiar members of this clade produce perennial, bracket-shaped fruiting bodies but others produce more ephemeral fruiting bodies or grow as crust-like forms without discrete fruiting bodies.

See also: The colours of rot.

Polyporales [Polyporaceae] AHR03
    |  i. s.: Coriolopsis rigida AS12, AHR03
    |         Donkioporia expansa AS12, BH05
    |--+--+--+--Tyromyces BH05
    |  |  |  |    |--T. albogilvus AHR03
    |  |  |  |    `--T. chioneus BH05
    |  |  |  `--Skeletocutis BH05
    |  |  |       |--S. amorpha BH05
    |  |  |       `--S. subincarnata BH05
    |  |  `--+--+--‘Trametes’ versicolor BH05
    |  |     |  `--Sparassis BH05
    |  |     |       |--S. brevipes BH05
    |  |     |       |--S. crispa LK04
    |  |     |       `--S. spathulata BH05
    |  |     `--+--+--Diplomitoporus BH05
    |  |        |  |    |--D. crustulinus BH05
    |  |        |  |    `--D. lindbladii BH05
    |  |        |  `--+--‘Dendrocorticium’ sulphurellum BH05
    |  |        |     `--Dendrodontia BH05
    |  |        `--+--+--Lenzites BH05
    |  |           |  |    |--L. betulina BH05
    |  |           |  |    `--L. salpiara J87
    |  |           |  `--+--Pycnoporus BH05
    |  |           |     |    |--P. cinnabarinus BH05
    |  |           |     |    `--P. sanguineus AHR03
    |  |           |     `--+--+--Ganodermataceae BH05
    |  |           |        |  `--+--Grammothele fuligo BH05
    |  |           |        |     `--+--‘Polyporus’ arcularius BH05
    |  |           |        |        `--Lentinus BH05
    |  |           |        |             |--L. crinitus AHR03
    |  |           |        |             `--L. tigrinus BH05
    |  |           |        `--+--Polyporus BH05
    |  |           |           `--+--Daedaleopsis confragosa BH05
    |  |           |              `--+--+--Cryptoporus volvatus BH05
    |  |           |                 |  `--Perenniporia [Perenniporiaceae] BH05
    |  |           |                 |       |--P. inflexibilis AHR03
    |  |           |                 |       |--P. martius AHR03
    |  |           |                 |       `--P. medulla-panis BH05
    |  |           |                 `--Fomes BH05
    |  |           |                      |--F. fasciatus AHR03
    |  |           |                      |--F. fomentarius BH05
    |  |           |                      |--F. fraxineus PHK96
    |  |           |                      |--F. grenadensis J87
    |  |           |                      |--F. pinicola D90
    |  |           |                      |--F. robiniae D90
    |  |           |                      `--F. subroseus J87
    |  |           `--+--Junghuhnia subundata BH05
    |  |              `--+--Trametes BH05
    |  |                 |    |--T. elegans AHR03
    |  |                 |    |--T. gibbosa B30
    |  |                 |    |--T. hirsuta LK04
    |  |                 |    |--T. lactinea AHR03
    |  |                 |    |--T. membranacea AHR03
    |  |                 |    |--T. menziezii AHR03
    |  |                 |    |--T. modesta AHR03
    |  |                 |    |--T. pavonia AHR03
    |  |                 |    |--T. suaveolens BH05
    |  |                 |    `--T. villosa AHR03
    |  |                 `--+--Wolfiporia cocos BH05
    |  |                    `--‘Physalacria’ inflata BH05
    |  `--+--+--Neolentiporus maculatissimus BH05
    |     |  `--+--Daedalea BH05
    |     |     |    |--D. quercina BH05
    |     |     |    `--D. sprucei AHR03
    |     |     `--+--‘Antrodia’ serialis BH05
    |     |        `--+--Piptoporus betulinus BH05
    |     |           `--Fomitopsis JK06
    |     |                |--F. nivosa AHR03
    |     |                `--F. pinicola JK06
    |     `--+--+--Parmastomyces transmutans BH05
    |        |  `--+--+--Laetiporus sulphureus BH05
    |        |     |  `--Phaeolus schweinitzii BH05
    |        |     `--+--Pycnoporellus BH05
    |        |        |    |--P. alboluteus B14
    |        |        |    `--P. fulgens BH05
    |        |        `--Grifola JK06
    |        |             |--G. frondosa JK06
    |        |             `--G. sordulenta JK06
    |        `--+--+--Cyphella [Cyphellaceae] BH05
    |           |  |    `--*C. digitalis BH05
    |           |  `--Antrodia BH05
    |           |       |--A. xantha BH05
    |           |       `--+--A. carbonica BH05
    |           |          `--+--‘Phlebia’ griseoflavescens BH05
    |           |             `--‘Oligoporus’ placentus BH05
    |           `--+--+--Auriporia aurea BH05
    |              |  `--Amylocystis lapponica BH05
    |              `--+--+--Ischnoderma benzoinum BH05
    |                 |  `--Dacryobolus Fries 1849 BH05, C59
    |                 |       |--D. karstenii BH05
    |                 |       `--D. sudans BH05
    |                 `--Oligoporus BH05
    |                      |  i. s.: O. leucospongia B14
    |                      |--O. caesius BH05
    |                      `--+--O. rennyi BH05
    |                         `--+--+--O. balsameus BH05 [=Postia balsamea HB02]
    |                            |  `--Climacocystis BH05
    |                            `--+--O. lacteus BH05
    |                               `--O. leucomallelus BH05 [=Postia leucomallela HB02]
    `--+--+--‘Candelabrochaete’ africana BH05
       |  `--+--+--Gelatoporia pannocincta BH05
       |     |  `--+--‘Mycoacia’ fuscoatra BH05
       |     |     `--+--‘Phanerochaete’ chrysorhiza BH05
       |     |        `--+--Scopuloides hydnoides BH05
       |     |           `--Phlebia BH05
       |     `--+--+--Bjerkandera BH05
       |        |  |    |--B. adusta BH05
       |        |  |    `--B. fumosa LJ03
       |        |  `--+--+--‘Sistotrema’ musicola BH05
       |        |     |  `--Phanerochaete [Phanerochaetales] BH05
       |        |     |       |--P. chrysosporium JK06
       |        |     |       `--P. sordida BH05
       |        |     `--+--+--Pulcherricium caeruleum BH05
       |        |        |  `--‘Phlebia’ deflectens BH05
       |        |        `--+--Phlebiopsis gigantea BH05
       |        |           `--Hapalopilus nidulans BH05
       |        `--+--+--+--‘Phlebia’ lilascens BH05
       |           |  |  `--Ceraceomyces BH05
       |           |  |       |--C. eludens BH05
       |           |  |       |--C. microsporus BH05
       |           |  |       `--C. tessulatus BH05
       |           |  `--+--‘Ceraceomyces’ serpens BH05
       |           |     `--+--+--‘Phlebia’ albomellea BH05
       |           |        |  `--‘Phlebia’ nitidula BH05
       |           |        `--+--Cystidiodontia isabellina BH05
       |           |           `--Ceriporiopsis subvermispora BH05
       |           `--+--+--‘Ceriporia’ viridans BH05
       |              |  `--+--Byssomerulis corium BH05
       |              |     `--Gloeoporus BH05
       |              |          |--G. taxicola BH05
       |              |          `--G. thelephoroides AHR03
       |              `--+--‘Ceriporia’ purpurea BH05
       |                 `--+--Leptoporus mollis BH05
       |                    `--+--‘Phlebia’ centrifuga BH05
       |                       `--+--Lindtneria trachyspora BH05
       |                          `--Cristinia BH05
       `--+--+--+--Junghuhnia nitida BH05
          |  |  `--‘Antrodiella’ semisupina BH05
          |  `--+--+--+--‘Albatrellus’ syringae BH05
          |     |  |  `--‘Phlebia’ queletii BH05
          |     |  `--+--Ceriporiopsis gilvescens BH05
          |     |     `--+--Steccherinum fimbriatum BH05
          |     |        `--‘Phanerochaete’ sanguinea BH05
          |     `--+--Antrodiella BH05
          |        |    |--A. americana BH05
          |        |    |--A. hydrophila AHR03
          |        |    |--A. liebmannii AHR03
          |        |    `--A. romellii BH05
          |        `--+--Panus rudis BH05
          |           `--Spongipellis BH05
          |                |--S. pachyodon BH05
          |                `--S. unicolor SSW01
          `--+--+--‘Hypochnicium’ polonense BH05
             |  `--+--Abortiporus biennis BH05
             |     `--Podoscyphaceae BH05
             |          |--Podoscypha petalodes BH05
             |          |--Cymatoderma caperatum BH05
             |          `--Caripia [incl. Hypolyssus Persoon 1825] RS99
             |               `--‘*Hypolyssus’ undulatus Persoon 1825 RS99
             `--+--+--‘Phlebia’ bresadolae BH05
                |  `--Hypochnicium BH05
                |       |--H. cystidiatum BH05
                |       |--H. eichleri BH05
                |       `--H. geogenium BH05
                `--+--+--Meripilus giganteus BH05
                   |  `--Physisporinus sanguinolentus BH05
                   `--Hyphoderma BH05
                        |  i. s.: H. guttuliferum BH05
                        |         H. incrustatum BH05
                        |         H. nemorale BH05
                        |         H. obtusum BH05
                        |         H. occidentale BH05
                        |         H. roseocremeum BH05
                        |--H. definitum BH05
                        `--+--H. nudicephalum BH05
                           `--H. setigerum BH05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[AHR03] Aime, M. C., T. W. Henkel & L. Ryvarden. 2003. Studies in neotropical polypores 15: new and interesting species from Guyana. Mycologia 95 (4): 614–619.

[BH05] Binder, M., D. S. Hibbett, K.-H. Larsson, E. Larsson, E. Langer & G. Langer. 2005. The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes). Systematics and Biodiversity 3 (2): 113–157.

[B30] Bose, S. R. 1930. The biology of wood-rotting fungi. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 33.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C59] Cunningham, G. H. 1959. Hydnaceae of New Zealand. Part II.—The genus Odontia. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 65–103, pl. 10.

[D90] Dybas, H. S. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Ptiliidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1093–1112. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[HB02] Hibbett, D. S., & M. Binder. 2002. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 269: 1963–1969.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818–822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LJ03] Lim, Y. W., & H. S. Jung. 2003. Irpex hydnoides, sp. nov. is new to science, based on morphological, cultural and molecular characters. Mycologia 95 (4): 694–699.

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446–1480.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1–248.

[SSW01] Schüßler, A., D. Schwarzott & C. Walker. 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycological Research 105 (12): 1413–1421.


Phlebia radiata, copyright Jacy.

Belongs within: Polyporales.

Phlebia is a genus of corticioid (crust-like) fungi with basidia forming a dense palisade on the hymenium, and associated with a white rot (Binder et al. 2005).

    |  i. s.: P. albida RS99
    |         P. merismoides B14
    |         P. subochracea BH05
    |--+--+--P. chrysocreas BH05
    |  |  `--P. uda BH05
    |  `--+--P. subserialis BH05
    |     `--+--P. livida BH05
    |        `--+--‘Mycoacia’ aurea BH05
    |           `--Phlebiella HB02
    |                |--P. griseofulva HB02
    |                `--P. pseudotsugae BH05
    `--+--+--Climacodon septentrionalis BH05
       |  `--‘Candelabrochaete’ septocystidia HB02
       `--+--P. tremellosa BH05
          `--+--P. radiata BH05
             `--+--+--P. acerina BH05
                |  `--P. rufa BH05
                `--+--P. lindtneri BH05
                   `--P. rufa BH05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BH05] Binder, M., D. S. Hibbett, K.-H. Larsson, E. Larsson, E. Langer & G. Langer. 2005. The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes). Systematics and Biodiversity 3 (2): 113–157.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[HB02] Hibbett, D. S., & M. Binder. 2002. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 269: 1963–1969.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1–248.


Leptogenys workers collecting a millipede, copyright Christian Peeters. Some individuals have been marked with red paint for study purposes.

Belongs within: Ponerinae.

Leptogenys is a pantropical genus of ants in which the tarsal claws have at least one ventral tooth and are usually pectinate. In a number of species the mandibles are remarkably long and edentate with an acute apex; species that retain a more or less distinct, generally toothed masticatory margin at the apex have historically been treated as a distinct genus Lobopelta (Bingham 1903).

<==Leptogenys Roger 1861 FT08 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*L. falicigera Roger 1861 Z01
    |--L. acutangula (Emery 1914) [L. (Lobopelta) acutangula; incl. L. acutangula var. brevinoda Emery 1914] E14
    |--‘Lobopelta’ altisquamis Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. angustinoda Clark 1934 [=L. (Lobopelta) angustinoda] TB85
    |--L. anitae Forel 1915 [=L. (Lobopelta) anitae] TB85
    |--‘Lobopelta’ aspera André 1889 B03
    |--‘Lobopelta’ assamensis Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. bidentata Forel 1900 [=L. (Lobopelta) bidentata] TB85
    |--‘Lobopelta’ binghami Forel 1900 B03
    |--‘Lobopelta’ birmana Forel 1900 B03
    |--‘Lobopelta’ castanea B03
    |--L. chelifer (Santschi 1928) [=Pseudoponera chelifer] TB85
    |--L. chinensis (Mayr 1870) [=Lobopelta chinensis] Z01
    |--L. clarki Wheeler 1933 TB85
    |--L. conigera (Mayr 1876) [=Lobopelta conigera] TB85
    |    |--L. c. conigera TB85
    |    |--L. c. adlerzi Forel 1900 [=L. (Lobopelta) conigera adlerzi] TB85
    |    |--L. c. centralis Wheeler 1915 [=L. (Lobopelta) conigera centralis] TB85
    |    |--L. c. exigua Crawley 1921 [=L. (Lobopelta) conigera exigua] TB85
    |    `--L. c. mutans Forel 1900 [=L. (Lobopelta) conigera mutans] TB85
    |--‘Lobopelta’ coonoorensis Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. crassicornis Emery 1894 [=Lobopelta crassicornis] B03
    |--‘Lobopelta’ dalyi Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. darlingtoni Wheeler 1933 [=L. (Lobopelta) darlingtoni] TB85
    |--‘Lobopelta’ dentilobis Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. diminuta (Smith 1857) Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--L. d. diminuta TB85
    |    `--L. d. yarrabahna Forel 1915 [=L. (Lobopelta) diminuta yarrabahna] TB85
    |--‘Lobopelta’ distinguenda Emery 1887 B03
    |--L. ebenina Forel 1915 [=L. (Lobopelta) ebenina] TB85
    |--‘Lobopelta’ emiliae Forel 1902 B03
    |--L. excisa (Mayr 1876) [=Lobopelta excisa] TB85
    |    |--L. e. excisa TB85
    |    `--L. e. major Forel 1910 [=L. (Lobopelta) excisa major] TB85
    |--L. fallax (Mayr 1876) [=Lobopelta fallax] TB85
    |    |--L. f. fallax TB85
    |    `--L. f. fortior Forel 1900 [=L. (Lobopelta) fallax fortior] TB85
    |--L. hackeri Clark 1934 [=L. (Lobopelta) hackeri] TB85
    |--L. harmsi Donisthorpe 1935 FT08
    |--L. hezhouensis Zhou 2001 Z01
    |--‘Lobopelta’ hodgsoni Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. huapingensis Zhou 2001 Z01
    |--L. hysterica (Forel 1900) Z01, B03 [=Lobopelta hysterica B03]
    |--L. intricata Viehmeyer 1924 [=L. (Lobopelta) intricata] TB85
    |--L. kitteli (Mayr 1870) [=Lobopelta kitteli] Z01
    |--L. kraepalini N-ZLI11
    |--L. lucidula Emery 1894 [=Lobopelta lucidula] B03
    |--L. magna Forel 1900 [=L. (Lobopelta) magna] TB85
    |--L. minchinii (Forel 1900) [=Lobopelta minchinii] Z01
    |--L. mjobergi Forel 1915 [=L. (Lobopelta) mjobergi] TB85
    |--L. mutabilis N-ZLI11
    |--‘Lobopelta’ moelleri Bingham 1903 B03
    |--L. myops N-ZLI11
    |--L. neutralis Forel 1907 [=L. (Lobopelta) neutralis] TB85
    |--‘Lobopelta’ ocellifera Roger 1861 [incl. L. distinguenda var. andrei Emery 1887] B03
    |--‘Lobopelta’ palliseri Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. parvula N-ZLI11
    |--‘Lobopelta’ peuqueti André 1887 B03
    |--L. pruinosa Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. punctata Emery 1914 [=L. (Lobopelta) punctata] E14
    |--‘Lobopelta’ punctiventris Mayr 1878 B03
    |--‘Lobopelta’ roberti Forel 1900 B03
    |--L. sjostedti Forel 1915 TB85
    |--L. strena Zhou 2001 Z01
    |--L. striatula Emery 1894 [=Lobopelta striatula] B03
    |--L. tricosa Taylor 1969 [=*Dorylozelus mjobergi Forel 1915 non L. mjobergi Forel 1915] TB85
    |--L. turneri Forel 1900 [=L. (*Odontopelta) turneri] TB85
    |    |--L. t. turneri TB85
    |    `--L. t. longensis Forel 1915 [=L. (Odontopelta) turneri longensis] TB85
    |--‘Lobopelta’ watsoni Forel 1900 B03
    |--‘Lobopelta’ woodmasoni Forel 1886 B03
    `--L. yerburyi (Forel 1900) Z01, B03 [=Lobopelta yerburyi B03]

Leptogenys Roger 1861 FT08 [incl. Dorylozelus Forel 1915 TB85, Lobopelta Mayr 1862 B03, Machaerogenys Emery 1911 Z01, Microbolbos Donisthorpe 1948 Z01, Odontopelta Mayr 1866 Z01, Prinogenys Emery 1911 Z01]

Leptogenys diminuta (Smith 1857) Z01 [=Ponera diminuta TB85, *Lobopelta diminuta B03; incl. Leptogenys diminuta amboinensis Karavajew 1925 Z01, Le. diminuta var. bismarckensis Forel 1901 Z01, Ponera ferox Smith 1865 Z01, Le. diminuta fruhstorferi var. huruensis Karavajew 1925 Z01, P. laeviceps Smith 1857 B03, Lobopelta diminuta var. opacinodis Emery 1887 B03, Leptogenys diminuta var. santischii Mann 1919 Z01, Lo. diminuta var. sarasinorum Forel 1901 B03, Ponera simillima Smith 1860 Z01, Lo. simillima Z01, Leptogenys diminuta var. stitzi Viehmeyer 1924 Z01, Le. diminuta var. yarrahahna Forel 1915 Z01]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Last updated: 14 June 2020.


Painted pine moth Orgyia australis, copyright Buck Richardson.

Belongs within: Erebidae.

The Lymantriidae, the tussock moths, are a group of moths whose larvae often feed on trees; the name 'tussock moth' refers not to their feeding habits but to the 'tussocks' or dense tufts of urticating setae possessed by caterpillars of many species. The adults usually lack a proboscis and do not feed. They commonly rest with the wings flattened against the substrate to form a triangle and the fore legs extended forwards (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; ocelli absent; antennae bipectinate to tip in male and usually in female, usually with one to three long terminal setae on each antennal branch; proboscis usually absent; maxillary palps 1-segmented or absent; epiphysis present in male, reduced or absent in female, tibial spurs short, 0-2-4, rarely 0-2-2; females sometimes brachypterous, flightless; fore wing often with areole, R3 and R4 stalked from discal cell or areole, 1A+2A simple; hind wing with Sc diverging from Rs at base but approximated to, and usually connected with, Rs by R1 towards middle of discal cell, rarely fusing with Rs for short distance, Rs and M1 usually stalked, M2 arising nearer to M3 than to M1; thorax and abdomen densely hairy; abdomen with counter-tympanal hood prespiracular, abdominal segment 4 usually with pair of pockets, in female with dense anal tuft. Egg often hemispherical, rounded or subcylindrical, laid in cluster, usually covered in hair-scales from anal tuft. Larva with densely tufted secondary setae, often with four long dense dorsal tufts or with hair-pencils, a coloured dorsal gland on abdominal segment 6 and usually also on 7; external feeders, often arboreal. Pupa stout, hairy, in silken cocoon incorporating larval hairs.

<==Lymantriinae [Lymantriidae, Ocneriidae] ZK11
    |--Arctornis [Arctornithini] ZK11
    `--+--+--Leucoma [Leucomini] ZK11
       |  |    `--L. salicis ZK11
       |  `--Lymantria [Lymantriini] ZK11
       |       |--L. antennata ZS10
       |       |--L. dispar KP99
       |       |--L. dissoluta F92
       |       |--L. monacha V09
       |       `--L. reducta P27
       `--+--Nygmia [Nygmiini] ZK11
          |    |--N. phaeorrhoea F62 [=Lymantria phaeorrhoea F92]
          |    `--N. plana ZK11
          `--Orgyia [Orgyiini] ZK11
               |--O. anartoides C70
               |--O. antiqua D37
               |--O. athlophora C70
               |--O. australis P27
               |--O. ericae F92
               |--O. gonostigma F92
               |--O. media F92
               |--O. pseudotsugata KP99
               |--O. thyellina D37
               `--O. vetusta G05

Lymantriinae incertae sedis:
  Acyphas chionitis G84, P27
  Olene mendosa G84
  Leptocneria reducta NC91
  Iropoca rotundata NC91
  Icta fulviceps NC91
  Dura NC91
  Laelia P27
    |--L. obsoleta P27
    `--L. saturnioides Snellen 1879 M86
  Teia NC91
    |--T. anartoides NC91
    `--T. athlophora NC91
  Porthesia YS10
    |--P. chrysorrhoea YS10
    |--P. fimbriata P27
    |--P. lutea P27
    |--P. paradoxa C70
    `--P. similis F92 [=Euproctis similis RD77]
  Euproctis NC91
    |--E. chrysorrhoea B14
    |--E. conspersa S01
    |--E. cryptosticta F92
    |--E. edwardsii NC91
    |--E. flava F92
    |--E. flavociliata Swinhoe 1901 S01
    |--E. lucifuga NC91
    |--E. minor F92
    |--E. paradoxa NC91
    |--E. phaeorrhaea F92
    `--E. pseudoconspersa F92
  Ocneria F92
    |--O. detrita F92
    `--O. dispar F92
  Hemerocampa RD77
    |--H. pseudotsugae G05
    `--H. vetusta RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F62] Flanders, S. E. 1962. Did the caterpillar exterminate the giant reptile? Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 1 (1): 85–88.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[KP99] Kuzio, J., M. N. Pearson, S. H. Harwood, C. J. Funk, J. T. Evans, J. M. Slavicek & G. F. Rohrmann. 1999. Sequence and analysis of the genome of a baculovirus pathogenic for Lymantria dispar. Virology 253: 17–34.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S01] Swinhoe, C. 1901. New genera and species of eastern and Australian moths. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 463–473.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A. & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 21 February 2021.


Notaphus varius, copyright Udo Schmidt.

Belongs within: Conjunctae.
Contains: Elaphropus, Pericompsus, Tachys, Philipis, Bembidion, Peryphus.

The Bembidiini are a group of carabid beetles with reduced terminal segments on the labial and maxillary palps, and two unequally dilated segments in the tarsi of males. The majority of bembidiins are surface-dwelling hygrophiles though some are xerophilous and others are endogeous (Ball & Bousquet 2001). Members of the genus Micratopus have truncate elytra and a single pair of supraorbital setae whereas other Bembidiini possess two pairs of supraorbital setae and the elytra are not truncate (Bell 1990). Members of the subtribe Tachyina are characterised by an apicolateral notch on the protibiae, and usually an apical recurrent groove on the elytra.

<==Bembidiini [Bembidiinae]
    |--Gouleta [Xystosomina] R-JC01
    |    `--G. cayennensis R-JC01
    |--Tachyina R-JC01
    |    |--Pericompsus R-JC01
    |    |--Tachys BB01
    |    `--Philipis B02
    `--Bembidiina R-JC01
         |--Bembidion LM87
         |--Notaphus Dejean 1821 R-JC01, BB01
         |    |--N. varius (Olivier 1795) LM87 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--N. brullei (Gemminger & Harold 1868) (see below for synonymy) LM87
         |    `--N. convergens [=Austronotaphus convergens] R-JC01
         `--Peryphus R-JC01

Bembidiini incertae sedis:
  Lymnastis Motschulsky 1862 B08
    |--*L. indicus (Motschulsky 1851) [=Lymnaeum indicum] B08
    |--L. atricapillus B08
    |--L. brooksi Baehr 2008 B08
    |--L. coomani B08
    |--L. decorsei B55
    |--L. inops B08
    |--L. macrops B55
    |--L. niloticus B55
    |--L. pilosus Bates 1892 [incl. Tachys setiger Sloane 1903] LM87
    `--L. pullulus B08
  Brachytachys Basilewsky 1953 B55
    |--B. curtulus Basilewsky 1953 B55
    `--B. villiersi Basilewsky 1953 B55
  Sphaerotachys B55
    |--S. fumigatus B55
    `--S. haemorrhoidalis B55
  Micratopus Casey 1914 [Micratopini] BB01
    `--M. aenescens (LeConte 1848) BB01
  Anillinus Casey 1918 [incl. Troglanillus Jeannel 1963] BB01
    `--A. valentinei (Jeannel 1963) BB01
  Asaphidion des Gozis 1886 BB01
    |--A. cyanicorne F05
    |    |--A. c. cyanicorne F05
    |    `--A. c. atlanticum Ortuño & Toribio 2005 F05
    |--A. flavipes (Linnaeus 1761) [=Cicindela flavipes] B55
    `--A. stierlini (Heyden 1880) VPB11
  Mioptachys Bates 1882 [incl. Tachymenis Motschulsky 1862 (preoc.)] BB01
    `--M. flavicauda (Say 1823) B14
  Tachyta Kirby 1837 B90, LM87
    |  i. s.: T. subvirens B55
    `--T. (Tachyta) LM87
         |--T. (T.) nana LM87
         |    |--T. n. nana LM87
         |    `--T. n. inornatus (Say 1823) [incl. *T. picipes Kirby 1837] LM87
         `--T. (T.) brunnipennis (Macleay 1871) [=Bembidium brunnipenne] LM87
  Porotachys Netolitzky 1914 BB01
    `--P. bisulcatus (Nicolai 1822) BB01
  Illaphanus Macleay 1865 LB91, LM87
    |--*I. stephensii Macleay 1865 LM87
    `--I. macleayi Lea 1906 LM87
  Phrypeus Casey 1924 BB01
    `--P. rickseckeri (Hayward 1897) BB01
  Elaphropus BB01
  Polyderis Motschulsky 1862 [incl. Microtachys Casey 1918] BB01
    |--*P. brevicornis (Chaudoir 1846) [=Tachys brevicornis] LM87
    |--P. antigua Erwin 1971 BB01
    |--P. laevis (Say 1823) BB01
    `--P. leleupi Basilewsky 1953 B55
  Paratachys Casey 1918 BB01
    `--*P. austinicus Casey 1918 LM87
  Micranillodes Jeannel 1963 BB01
    `--M. depressus Jeannel 1963 BB01
  Anillodes Jeannel 1963 BB01
  Serranillus Barr 1995 BB01
    `--S. jeanneli Barr 1995 BB01
  Anillaspis Casey 1918 BB01
  Horologion Valentine 1932 BB01
    `--H. speokoites Valentine 1932 BB01

Notaphus brullei (Gemminger & Harold 1868) [=Bembicidium brullei, Bembidion (Notaphus) brullei, Bembidion variegatum Brullé 1838 non Say 1823] LM87

Notaphus varius (Olivier 1795) LM87 [=Carabus varius LM87, Bembidion (*Notaphus) varium LM87, Elaphrus (Bembidion) varius G20]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B02] Baehr, M. 2002. New species and additional records of the tachyine Philipis Erwin (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 48: 1–7.

[B08] Baehr, M. 2008. A new cavernicolous and eyeless species of the genus Lymnastis from Christmas Island, Australia (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 199–203.

[BB01] Ball, G. E., & Y. Bousquet. 2001. Carabidae Latreille, 1810. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 32–132. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[B55] Basilewsky, P. 1955. Carabidae (Coleoptera) de l’Angola (première partie). Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 91–137.

[B90] Bell, R. T. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Carabidae adults and larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1053–1092. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[R-JC01] Roig-Juñent, S., & A. C. Cicchino. 2001. Chaltenia patagonica, new genus and species belonging to Chalteniina, a new subtribe of Zolini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Canadian Entomologist 133: 651–670.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236–243.

Last updated: 20 December 2020.


Necrophilus hydrophiloides, copyright Michael K. Oliver.

Belongs within: Leiodidae.

The Agyrtidae are a group of beetles found primarily in northern temperate regions, associated with decaying organic material (Peck 2001).

Characters (from Peck 2001): Oval to oblong-elongate, slightly flattened; brownish, usually shiny. Head projecting or deflexed; eyes conspicuous, usually protruding; frontoclypeal suture distinct. Antennae usually ending in distinct four- or five-segmented club, sometimes almost filiform or weakly clubbed; antennal sensilla usually located in apical grooves on club segments; antennal insertions more or less exposed. Thorax with pronotum larger than head. Pronotum with complete lateral edges, notosternal suture distinct. Prosternum short in front of coxae, bearing narrow but complete intercoxal process. Procoxae transverse, projecting, subcontiguous, with large, exposed trochantins; procoxal cavities narrowly open posteriorly and open internally. Mesocoxae narrowly separated. Elytra completely covering abdomen; punctation striate, as nine or ten longitudinal rows of punctures; epipleura well developed and complete, or extending to posterior four fifths. Metacoxae barely excavate mesally, contiguous, extending laterally to meet elytra. Hindwing with large, discrete jugal lobe, four anal veins, and simple, concave and convex, transverse folds; occasionally absent. Abdomen with five (or rarely six) visible abdominal sterna; lateral portions of sternum 2 present beneath the metacoxae. Intersegmental areas lacking pattern of microsclerites. Several basal terga membranous. Aedeagus may or may not have separate basal piece; parameres may be vestigial, fused, or absent. Larva campodeiform; with moderately sclerotised terga and sterna; mandibles bearing several apical teeth; prostheca narrow and acute, associated with brush of hairs; mandibles possessing large and tuberculate molar part with dorsal and ventral rows of denticles; maxilla with distinct galea and lacinia; galea usually fringed; labium with strongly bilobed ligula; six ocelli on each side of head; urogomphi two-segmented, often with multiannulate apical segment. Spiracles placed in posterolateral emarginations of terga. Abdomen segment ten elongate and cylindrical, with eversible membranous lobes bearing numerous minute hooks.

<==Agyrtidae P90
    |  i. s.: Mesecanus P01
    |         Zeanecrophilus P01
    |--Pterolomatinae P01
    |    |--Pteroloma Gyllenhal 1827 [incl. Adolus Fischer 1828, Holocnemis Schilling 1829] P01
    |    |    `--P. nebrioides Brown 1933 P01
    |    `--Apteroloma Hatch 1927 MW15, P90 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--A. arizonicum P90
    |         |--A. caraboides P90
    |         |--A. tahoecum P90
    |         `--A. tenuicorne P90
    `--+--Necrophilus Latreille 1829 MW15, P90 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--N. hydrophiloides Guérin-Méneville 1835 GN09
       |    |--N. pettitii Horn 1880 P01
       |    |--N. prolongatus R60
       |    `--N. subterraneus (Dahl 1807) B14
       `--Agyrtinae B14
            |--Ipelates Reitter 1884 MW15, P90 (see below for synonymy)
            |    `--I. latus P90
            |--Agyrtes Frölich 1799 [incl. Agyrtecanus Reitter 1901, Lendomus Casey 1924] P01
            |    |--A. longulus P90
            |    `--A. similis P90
            `--Lyrosoma Mannherheim 1953 B14, P90 [Lyrosominae]
                 |--L. opacum Mannerheim 1853 B14
                 `--L. pallidum B14

Apteroloma Hatch 1927 MW15, P90 [incl. Alloloma Semenov-Tian-Shanskij 1932 P01, Garytes Mroczkowski 1966 P01, Pterolorica Hlisnikovsky 1968 P01]

Ipelates Reitter 1884 MW15, P90 [incl. Brachyloma Portevin 1914 non Chambers 1878 P01, Necrophilodes Champion 1933 P01, Necrophiloides (l. c.) P01, Pelates Horn 1888 non Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829 P01, Pelatines Cockerell 1906 P01, Sphaeroloma Portevin 1905 P01]

Necrophilus Latreille 1829 MW15, P90 [incl. Necrobius Gistel 1834 P01, Paranecrophilus Shibata 1969 P01, Pseudosilpha Schawaller 1978 P01; Necrophilinae B14]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[GN09] Grebennikov, V. V., & A. F. Newton. 2009. Good-bye Scydmaenidae, or why the ant-like stone beetles should become megadiverse Staphylinidae sensu latissimo (Coleoptera). European Journal of Entomology 106: 275–301.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[P90] Peck, S. B. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Silphidae and the associated families Agyrtidae and Leiodidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1113–1136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P01] Peck, S. B. 2001. Agyrtidae C.G. Thomson, 1859. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 247–249. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[R60] Richards, A. M. 1960. Observations on the New Zealand glow-worm Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse) 1890. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 559–574.