11 cm high rudist, probably Hippurites socialis, from here.

Belongs within: Heterodonta.

The Hippuritacea, commonly known as rudists, were a group of highly derived bivalves found from the Upper Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous. Their overall form became tubular, coiled or conical, with one valve often attached to their substrate. Many species were colonial, forming significant reefs.

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Inequivalve bivalves, most commonly attached to substrate by either right or left valve, but in rare instances free; solitary or gregarious. Hinge with two teeth and one socket in free valve and two sockets and one tooth in attached valve, except in Diceras in which right valve invariably has two teeth and left valve only one. Two adductor muscles present, inserted directly on shell wall or on projecting myophores.

<==Hippuritacea [Hippuritoida]
    |  i. s.: Eodiceras perversum S79
    |         Hippuritella toucasi S79
    |         Megalodon S79
    |         Diceras S79
    |         Monopleura S79
    |           |--M. marcida S79
    |           `--M. urgonensis S79
    |         Requienia ammonia S79
    |         Toucasia texana S79
    |         Titanosarcolites S79
    |--Hippuritidae D-DP03
    |    |--Barrettia multilirata S79
    |    |--Vaccinites S79
    |    |    |--V. giganteus S79
    |    |    `--V. gosaviensis S79
    |    `--Hippurites Lamarck 1801 D-DP03
    |         |--H. bioculata Lamarck 1801 D-DP03
    |         |--H. lapeirousei Goldfuss 1840 D-DP03
    |         |--H. socialis S79
    |         `--H. turgidus Roland du Roquan 1841 D-DP03
    |--Radiolitidae D-DP03
    |    |--Biradiolites S79
    |    |--Eoradiolites S79
    |    |    |--E. davidsoni S02
    |    |    `--E. katzeri HS02
    |    |--Sauvagesia S79
    |    |    |--S. tellensis HS02
    |    |    `--S. texana S02
    |    `--Radiolites Lamarck 1801 [Radiolitidae] D-DP03
    |         |--*R. angeiodes [=Ostracites angeiodes] D-DP03
    |         |--R. abraensis S02
    |         |--R. costata S02
    |         `--R. sauvagesii [=Hippurites sauvagesii] D-DP03
    `--Caprinidae S02
         |  i. s.: Ichthyosarcolites [incl. Caprinella] S02
         |           `--I. anguis Roemer 1888 (n. d.) [=Caprinula anguis, Caprinuloidea anguis] S02
         |         Sphaerucaprina S02
         |           |--S. seafieldensis Chubb 1967 S02
         |           `--S. whitei Boehm 1898 [=Caprinuloidea whitei, Mexicaprina whitei] S02
         |         Caprinuloidea S02
         |           |--C. felixi (Boehm 1898) [=Sphaerucaprina felixi] S02
         |           |--C. lenki (Boehm 1898) [=Sphaerucaprina lenki] S02
         |           |--C. multitubifera Palmer 1928 S02
         |           `--C. perfecta Palmer 1928 (see below for synonymy) S02
         |         Planocaprina trapezoides Palmer 1928 S02
         |         Jalpania queretana Alencáster & Aguilar-Pérez 1995 S02
         |         Guzzyella S02
         |           |--G. acuminata Alencáster 1998 S02
         |           `--G. bisulcata Alencáster 1998 S02
         |         Muelleriedia boesei Alencáster 1998 S02
         |         *Caprinula boissyi S02
         |--Caprina d’Orbigny 1822 [Caprininae] S02
         |    |--*C. adversa S02
         |    |--C. aguilloni S02
         |    |--C. choffati HS02
         |    |--C. crassifibra Roemer 1849 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) S02
         |    |--C. guadelupae Roemer 1849 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) S02
         |    `--C. planata Conrad 1855 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) S02
         `--Coalcomaninae S02
              |  i. s.: ‘Caprina’ occidentalis Conrad 1855 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) S02
              |--Coalcomana ramosa (Boehm 1898) [=Caprina ramosa; incl. Co. texana Whitney 1952] S02
              |--Retha tulae S02
              |--Amphitricoelus waringi S02
              |--Kimbleia Coogan 1973 S02
              |    |--*K. capacis Coogan 1973 S02
              |    `--K. albrittoni (Perkins 1961) [=Caprinuloidea albrittoni] S02
              |--Texicaprina Coogan 1973 S02
              |    |--*T. vivari (Palmer 1928) (see below for synonymy) S02
              |    |--T. kugleri (Bouwman 1937) [=Sabinia kugleri] S02
              |    `--T. orbiculata (Palmer 1928) [=Sabinia orbiculata] S02
              `--Mexicaprina Coogan 1973 S02
                   |--*M. cornuta Coogan 1973 S02
                   |--M. minuta Coogan 1973 S02
                   `--M. quadrata Alencáster & Oviedo-García 1998 S02

Caprina crassifibra Roemer 1849 (n. d.) [=Caprinula crassifibra, Caprinuloidea crassifibra, Ichthyosarcolites crassifibra] S02

Caprina guadelupae Roemer 1849 (n. d.) [=Caprinula guadelupae, Caprinuloidea guadelupae, Ichthyosarcolites guadelupae] S02

‘Caprina’ occidentalis Conrad 1855 (n. d.) [=Caprinula occidentalis, Caprinuloidea occidentalis, Ichthyosarcolites occidentalis, Kimbleia occidentalis] S02

Caprina planata Conrad 1855 (n. d.) [=Caprinula planata, Caprinuloidea planata, Ichthyosarcolites planata] S02

Caprinuloidea perfecta Palmer 1928 [incl. C. bisulcata Palmer 1928, C. costata Palmer 1928, C. perfecta gracilis Palmer 1928, C. septata Palmer 1928] S02

Texicaprina vivari (Palmer 1928) [=Sabinia vivari; incl. S. totiseptata Palmer 1928, Texicaprina totiseptata] S02

*Type species of generic name indicated


Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[D-DP03] Durand-Delga, M., & J. Philip. 2003. Le rôle précurseur de Philippe Picot de Lapeyrouse, naturaliste toulousain du Siècle des lumières, dans la paléontologie des rudistes. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 181-196.

[HS02] Höfling, R., & R. W. Scott. 2002. Early and Mid-Cretaceous buildups. SEPM Special Publication 72: 521-548.

[S02] Scott, R. W. 2002. Albian caprinid rudists from Texas re-evaluated. Journal of Paleontology 76 (3): 408-423.

[S79] Skelton, P. W. 1979. Gregariousness and proto-cooperation in rudists (Bivalvia). In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 257-279. Academic Press: London.

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