Chinese oak silkmoth Antheraea pernyi, photographed by Tony Pittaway.

Belongs within: Saturnioidea.

Antheraea is a genus of large moths found mostly in Asia, with some species present in Europe and North America. Some species are important sources of silk.

Characters (from Seitz 1913): Palpi and frons with rather short scaling, not rough and woolly, end-segment of palpi distinctly marked. Antenna of male quadripectinate, the processes very long, with the exception of the seven to ten last segments, whose branches are so short that the apex of the antenna has the appearance of being simple; the distal branches are altogether absent on the last 6 to 8 segments. In the female also quadripectinate, but the distal branches of each segment always short and on the last 8 to 10 segments only vestigial: in the male and female the apical edge of the distal segments (about 10) produced below. Tibiae and tarsi laterally with rather long hair-like scales, rough, the spur of fore tibia not scaled, long and broad in the male, much shorter and slenderer in the female; tarsi with very few spines; fifth segment of fore tarsus of female scaled in the middle of the sole, but the narrow scales easily fall off. Forewing with three subcostals, the first (morphologically the second branch) originates from the cell, or from the stalk of 3 and 4, or directly outside the fork, in single specimens the rest of the real first subcostal (SC1) is indicated as a small branch thrown off from SC2. SC3 always absent, the branches forming the fork being SC4 and SC5, SC4 always distinctly bent down at the the tip, therefore ending in the outer margin, not in the apex, the stalk of the subcostal fork originates at the same level as the upper median, lower median from the middle of the cell, upper and lower radials separate, cross-vein present; costal vein of hindwing always terminating in the apex or outer margin, not in the costal margin, subcostal at the same level as the lower median or more proximal. Basal spur of forewing very well developed. Larva sparsely hairy, with six rows of warts bearing thorns and a few long hairs widened at the apex; above the stigmata a longitudinal line; upper lip with deep narrow incision; antenna long. Pupa short and broad, without distinctly marked cremaster, loose in the cocoon, not attached by the cremaster; the bristles at the anal end not hooked, and not united in two bundles. Cocoon very dense, covered with a loose web and usually wrapped in a few leaves of the food-plant, ovate, attached to a small twig with one end by means of a short or long stalk.

<==Antheraea DS73
    |--A. assamensis GE05
    |--A. eucalypti H74
    |--A. frithi H03
    |--A. mylytta GE05
    |--A. paphia DS73
    |--A. paukstadtorum RS10
    |--A. pernyi GE05
    |--A. polyphemus DS73
    |--A. roylei DS73
    |--A. simplex B88
    `--A. yamamai DS73

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

Seitz, A. 1913. The Macrolepidoptera of the World: A systematic description of the hitherto known Macrolepidoptera vol. 2. Verlag des Seitz'schen Werkes (Alfred Kernen): Stuttgart.


Trident leaf-nosed bats Asellia tridens, photographed by Drew Gardner.

Belongs within: Rhinolophoidea.
Contains: Rhinolophus, Hipposideros.

The Rhinolophidae, Old World leaf-nosed bats, get their vernacular name from the well-developed leaf-like structure at the end of their muzzle.

Characters (from Miller 1907, as separate families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae): Humerus with trochiter about as large as trochin and definitely articulating with scapula by an articular surface half as large as glenoid fossa, both tubercles rising slightly above level of head, epitrochlea large and with well-developed styloid process, capitellum nearly in line with shaft. Second manal digit consisting of well-developed metacarpal alone; third finger with two phalanges. Shoulder girdle highly abnormal, the seventh cervical vertebra and first dorsal so completely fused that their boundaries cannot be detected; in Rhinolophinae these are fused with first rib, which in turn is fused with presternum and ventral half of second rib, the region between which is completely filled with bone, the presternum appearing to be enlarged to form a broadly crescentic plate; in Hipposiderinae, the fusion of the first and second ribs incorporates the entire bone to and including the corresponding dorsal vertebrae, thus producing a solid ring of bone consisting of the seventh cervical vertebra, first and second dorsals, first and second ribs and entire presternum, the elements of the ring indicated by a slit-like vacuity above, between the ribs and one or two small roundish vacuities below. Foot normal, the hallux with two phalanges, the other toes with two (Hipposiderinae) or three (Rhinolophinae). Fibula complete, threadlike. Pelvis in Rhinolophinae abnormal, the ischium and pubis so reduced in size that dorsal and ventral profiles of innominate bone are nearly parallel, their width at the same time so increased that the thyroid foramen is scarcely more than twice as large as the acetabulum; that in Hipposiderinae like that of Rhinolophinae posteriorly, but anteriorly with a supplemental bridge of bone connecting acicular process with front of ilium and producing a pre-acetabular foramen slightly exceeding the thyroid foramen in size. Lumbar vertebrae in Rhinolophinae showing no tendency to become fused, but centrum of fifth or sixth, often of both, with distinct bifid or double hypophysis; in Hipposiderinae showing a marked tendency to become fused into a solid rod with hypophyses absent. Skull without postorbital processes and with premaxillaries represented by ligulate palatal branches only, the two bones partly cartilaginous, and fused neither with each other nor with maxillaries; palate so deeply emarginate both anteriorly and posteriorly that its median length is less than least distance between tooth rows; teeth normal; ears large, without tragus; muzzle with conspicuous leaflike cutaneous outgrowths consisting of a horizontal anterior horseshoe, a perpendicular median sella, and a posterior erect lancet.

Rhinolophidae [Rhinolophi, Rhinolophineae, Rhinolophini]
    |--Rhinolophinae KJ70
    |    |--Rhinolophus KJ70
    |    |--Paleonycteris KJ70
    |    |--Rhinomegalophus KJ70
    |    |--Anthops Thomas 1888 KJ70, M07
    |    |    `--*A. ornatus M07
    |    `--Asellia Gray 1838 KJ70, M07
    |         |--*A. tridens (see below for synonymy) M07
    |         |--A. murraiana M07
    |         |--A. patrizii IT07
    |         |--A. tricuspidata G66
    |         `--A. vetus Lavocat 1961 B78
    `--Hipposiderinae [Hipposideridae, Phyllorhinae, Phyllorhininae] KJ70
         |  i. s.: Miophyllorhina Hand 1997 LA02
         |           `--*M. riversleighensis Hand 1997 LA02
         |         Riversleigha Hand 1998 LA02
         |           `--*R. williamsi Hand 1998 LA02
         |         Xenorhinos Hand 1998 LA02
         |           `--*X. halli Hand 1998 LA02
         |         Brachipposideros Sigé 1968 LA02
         |           |--*B. collongensis (Depéret 1892) [=Hipposideros (*Brachipposideros) collongensis] LA02
         |           |--B. aguilari Legendre 1982 LA02
         |           |--B. branssatensis (Hugueney 1965) LA02
         |           |--B. dechaseauxi Sigé 1968 LA02
         |           |--B. khengkao Mein & Ginsburg 1997 LA02
         |           |--B. nooraleebus Sigé, Hand & Archer 1982 LA02
         |           |--B. omani Sigé et al. 1994 LA02
         |           `--B. watsoni Hand 1997 LA02
         |--Palaeophyllophorini KJ70
         |    |--Palaeophyllophora KJ70
         |    `--Paraphyllophora KJ70
         |--Coelopsini KJ70
         |    |--Paracoelops megalotis KJ70, IT07
         |    `--Coelops Blyth 1849 KJ70, B88
         |         |--*C. frithi [incl. C. bernsteini] M07
         |         |--C. hirsutus IT07
         |         `--C. robinsoni IT07
         `--Hipposiderini KJ70
              |--Hipposideros KJ70
              |--Cloeotis Thomas 1901 KJ70, M07
              |    `--*C. percivali M07
              |--Rhinonicteris Gray 1847 LA02 [=Rhinonycteris Gray 1866 KJ70, M07; Rhinonycterina]
              |    |--*R. aurantius (Gray 1845) LA02 [=Rhinolophus aurantius M07, *Rhinonycteris aurantius G66]
              |    `--R. tedfordi Hand 1997 LA02
              |--Triaenops Dobson 1871 KJ70, M07
              |    |--*T. persicus Dobson 1871 M07, K92 [incl. T. afer K92]
              |    `--T. furculus IT07
              `--Aselliscus KJ70
                   |--A. stoliczkanus IT07
                   `--A. tricuspidatus IT07
                        |--A. t. tricuspidatus M72
                        `--A. t. novehebridensis M72

*Asellia tridens [=Rhinolophus tridens, Hipposideros (*Asellia) tridens, Phyllorhina (*A.) tridens] M07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B78] Butler, P. M. 1978. Insectivora and Chiroptera. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 56-68. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G66] Gray, J. E. 1866. A revision of the genera of Rhinolophidae, or horseshoe bats. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 81-83.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

[KJ70] Koopman, K. F., & J. K. Jones, Jr. 1970. Classification of bats. In About Bats (Slaughter & Walton, eds) pp. 22-28. Southern Methodist University Press: Dallas.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[M72] McKean, J. L. 1972. Notes on some collections of bats (order Chiroptera) from Papua-New Guinea and Bougainville Island. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper 26: 1-35.

[M07] Miller, G. S., Jr. 1907. The families and genera of bats. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Bulletin 57: i-xvii, 1-282, pl. I-XIV.


Pigeon louse Columbicola columbae, photographed by Pfliegler Walter.

Belongs within: Philopteridae.

Columbicola is a genus of chewing lice found primarily on species of pigeons; Tendeiro (1962) regarded records on other bird species to represent strays.

Characters (from Tendeiro 1962): Generally elongate, sometimes broad and squat. Head configuration similar in both sexes. Antennae usually with marked sexual dimorphism. Two pairs of short setae present on clypeal region, the anterior pair lanceolate and the posterior pair pointed.

<==Columbicola Ewing 1929 (see below for synonymy) T62
    |--*C. columbae (Linnaeus 1958) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |    |--C. c. columbae (see below for synonymy) T62
    |    |--C. c. bacillus (Giebel 1866) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |    `--C. c. stresemanni Eichler 1942 T62
    |--C. angustus (Rudow 1869) [=Lipeurus angustus] T62
    |--C. baculoides (Paine 1912) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |--C. becheti Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. carrikeri Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. cavifrons (Taschenberg 1882) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |    |--C. c. cavifrons [incl. C. longiceps sikoraae Eichler 1947] T62
    |    `--C. c. harrisoni Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. claviformis (Denny 1842) [=Nirmus claviformis, C. columbae claviformis] T62
    |--C. clayae Tendeiro 1960 T62
    |    |--C. c. clayae T62
    |    `--C. c. insularis Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. elbeli Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |    |--C. e. elbeli T62
    |    `--C. e. phoenicopterae Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. emersoni Tendeiro 1960 T62
    |    |--C. e. emersoni T62
    |    `--C. e. curtus Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. exilicornis (Piaget 1880) [=Lipeurus exilicornis; incl. C. juliusriemeri Eichler & Bárbara Mrosek 1958] T62
    |--C. extinctus Malcomson 1937 T62
    |--C. fortis (Taschenberg 1882) (n. d.) [=Lipeurus fortis] T62
    |--C. fradei Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. fulmecki Eichler 1943 [=C. baculus fulmecki, C. bacillus fulmecki] T62
    |--C. gracilicapitis Carriker 1955 T62
    |--C. guimaraesi Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |    |--C. g. guimaraesi T62
    |    `--C. g. grandiusculus Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. hoogstraali Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |--C. keleri Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. longiceps (Rudow 1869) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |--C. longisetaceus (Piaget 1885) (n. d.) [=Lipeurus longisetaceus, C. lonigsetacea (l. c.)] T62
    |--C. macrourae (Wilson 1941) [=Esthiopterum (Columbicola) macrourae; incl. C. pseudolipeurusque Eichler 1952] T62
    |--C. meinertzhageni Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |    |--C. m. meinertzhageni T62
    |    |--C. m. longantennatus Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |    |--C. m. meridionalis Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |    `--C. m. parvus Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |--C. menura (Le Souëf & Bullen 1902) (n. d.) [=Lipeurus menura, Esthiopterum menura] T62
    |--C. mjoebergi Eichler 1943 T62
    |--C. orientalis Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. paradoxus Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. passerinae (Wilson 1941) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |--C. seta (Piaget 1880) (n. d.) [=Nirmus seta] T62
    |--C. streptopeliae (Clay & Meinertzhagen 1937) [=*Soricella streptopeliae] T62
    |    |--C. s. streptopeliae T62
    |    |--C. s. capicolae (Clay & Meinertzhagen 1937) [=Soricella streptopeliae capicolae, C. capicolae] T62
    |    |--C. s. oenae (Hopkins 1941) [=Soricella streptopeliae oenae, C. oenae] T62
    |    `--C. s. senegalensis Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. taschenbergi Eichler 1942 T62
    |--C. theresae Ansari 1955 T62
    |--C. timmermanni Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. tschulyschman Eichler 1942 [incl. C. montschadskyi Blagoveshtchensky 1951] T62
    |--C. turturis (Uchida 1917) [=Lipeurus turturis, C. bacillus turturis, C. baculus turturis] T62
    `--C. wardi Tendeiro 1962 T62

Columbicola Ewing 1929 [=Phagopterus Freire & Andrade 1944; incl. Soricella Clay & Meinertzhagen 1937, Parasoricella Eichler 1952] T62

Columbicola baculoides (Paine 1912) [=Lipeurus baculoides; incl. L. texanus McGregor 1917, Columbicola texanus, C. triangularis Hopkins & Clay 1953] T62

Columbicola cavifrons (Taschenberg 1882) [=Lipeurus baculus var. cavifrons, C. longiceps cavifrons, Esthiopterum cavifrons] T62

*Columbicola columbae (Linnaeus 1958) [=Pediculus columbae, Esthiopterum columbae, Lipeurus columbae, *Phagopterus columbae] T62

Columbicola columbae bacillus (Giebel 1866) [=Philopterus (Lipeurus) baculus de Haan in Lyonet 1829 non Nitzsch 1818, Lipeurus bacillus, Columbicola baculus bacillus; incl. C. bacillus confusissimus Eichler 1947, C. confusissimus, C. hopkinsi Ansari 1955] T62

*Columbicola columbae columbae (Linnaeus 1958) [incl. Lipeurus antennatus Giebel 1874, Columbicola antennatus, Philopterus (Lipeurus) baculus Nitzsch 1818, C. baculus, Esthiopterum baculum, Nirmus filiformis Olfers 1816, Columbicola columbae filiformis, C. filiformis, Esthiopterum filiforme, C. columbae juanfernandez Eichler 1952, C. juanfernandez] T62

Columbicola longiceps (Rudow 1869) [=Lipeurus longiceps, Ducula longiceps, Esthiopterum longiceps; incl. L. forficula Piaget 1885, Columbicola forficula, *Parasoricella wolffhuegelli Eichler 1952, Columbicola wolffhuegeli] T62

Columbicola passerinae (Wilson 1941) [=Esthiopterum (Columbicola) passerinae; incl. C. gymnopeliae Eichler in Niethammer 1953] T62

*Type species of generic name indicated


[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7-460.


Larva of Phyllocolpa leucapsis, photographed by Habropoda.

Belongs within: Tenthredinidae.

The Nematinae are a group of sawflies found primarily in the Holarctic region; they are the dominant sawfly group in the Arctic and Subarctic, but become less predominant in more southern regions (Smith 2003). Members of the genera Phyllocolpa, Pontania and Euura induce galls on willows and poplars (Kopelke 2007a).

Characters (from Smith 2003): Forewing with vein M meeting Sc+R basal to the point where Rs+M meets Sc+R; vein 2m-cu usually joins cell 1Rs; vein 2A+3A atrophied at base, present only as a straight stub or sometimes curved up and meeting 1A forming a small basal anal cell; veins M and 1m-cu markedly divergent; radial crossvein (2r) present or absent. Hindwing with cells RS and M both present; anal cell present. Epicnemium present, broad and triangular, separated from mesepisternum by suture; propleurae pointed on meson.

    |--Fallocampus Wong 1977 HP-W05
    |--Platycampus HP-W05
    |    |--P. luridiventris (Fallen 1808) HP-W05
    |    `--P. obscuripes Konow 1896 HP-W05
    |--Nematus HP-W05
    |    |--N. albipennis MS01
    |    |--N. capreae MS01
    |    |--N. histrio MS01
    |    |--N. melanaspis Hartig 1840 HP-W05
    |    |--N. myosotidis MS01
    |    |--N. pavidus Serv. 1823 HP-W05
    |    |--N. respondens Förster 1854 H04
    |    |--N. ribesii PK17
    |    `--N. rumicis MS01
    |--Pristiphora H04
    |    |--P. carpentieri Konow 1903 H04
    |    |--P. erichsonii (Hartig 1837) HP-W05
    |    |--P. geniculata (Hartig 1840) HP-W05
    |    |--P. kamtchatica Malaise 1931 H04
    |    |--P. nievesi Haris 2004 H04
    |    |--P. parnasia Konow 1902 H04
    |    |--P. subbifida (Thomson 1871) H04
    |    `--P. testacea Jurine 1807 HP-W05
    |--Pontania Costa 1859 K07a
    |    |--P. albopicta Malaise 1931 K07a
    |    |--P. apicifrons Malaise 1931 [incl. P. apicifrons var. punctifrons Malaise 1931] K07a
    |    |--P. auberti Zirngiebl 1957 K07a
    |    |--P. bridgmanii (Cameron 1883) [=Nematus bridgmanii; incl. P. kirchneri Zirngiebl 1959] K05
    |    |--P. excavata Marlatt 1896 K07a
    |    |--P. fibulata Konow 1901 K07a
    |    |--P. leucapsis [incl. P. leucapsis var. connata Enslin 1915] K07a
    |    |--P. obscura Kopelke 2005 K05
    |    |--P. proxima (Serville 1823) (see below for synonymy) K05
    |    |--P. sibirica Malaise 1931 K07a
    |    `--P. triandrae Benson 1941 K05
    |--Euura Newman 1837 K07a
    |    |--E. (Euura) K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) amerinae K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) angusta Hartig 1837 K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) atra (Jurine 1807) K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) auritae Kopelke 2000 K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) cinereae Kopelke 1996 K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) elaeagnos Kopelke 1996 K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) lapponica Kopelke 1996 K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) myrtilloides Kopelke 1996 K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) purpureae Kopelke 1996 K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) testaceipes K06
    |    |    |--E. (E.) venusta K06
    |    |    `--E. (E.) weiffenbachii Ermolenko 1988 K06
    |    `--E. (Gemmura Smith 1968) K06
    `--Phyllocolpa Benson 1960 K07b
         |--P. acutiserra (Lindquist 1948) [=Pontania acutiserra] K07b
         |--P. alienata (Förster 1854) [=Nematus alienatus; incl. N. (Pontania) coriaceus Benson 1953] K07b
         |--P. anomaloptera (Förster 1854) (see below for synonymy) K07c
         |--‘Nematus’ bipartitus Serville 1823 K07c
         |--P. carinifrons (Benson 1940) [=Pontania carinifrons] K07a
         |--P. crassispina (Thomson 1871) [=Nematus crassispinus] K07c
         |--P. erythropyga (Förster 1854) [=Nematus erythropygus] K07a
         |--P. ischnocera (Thomson 1862) [=Nematus ischnocerus; incl. N. leucostigmus Cameron 1875] K07a
         |--P. kopelkei (Lacourt 1996) [=Pontania (Phyllocolpa) kopelkei] K07a
         |--P. leucapsis (Tischbein 1846) [=Nematus leucapsis] K07b
         |--P. leucosticta (Hartig 1837) (see below for synonymy) K07a
         |--P. nudipectus (Vikberg 1965) [=Pontania nudipectus] K07c
         |--P. oblita (Serville 1823) [=Nematus oblitus; incl. N. pineti Hartig 1837, N. puella Thomson 1871] K07a
         |--P. piliserra (Thomson 1862) (see below for synonymy) K07c
         |--P. plicadaphnoides Kopelke 2007 K07a
         |--P. plicaglauca Kopelke 2007 K07c
         |--P. plicalapponum Kopelke 2007 K07a
         |--P. plicaphylicifolia Kopelke 2007 K07a
         |--P. polita (Zaddach 1883) (see below for synonymy) K07a
         |--P. prussica (Zaddach 1883) [=Nematus prussicus] K07a
         |--P. pschornwalcheri Kopelke 2007 K07b
         |--P. purpureae (Cameton 1884) [=Nematus purpureae; incl. Euura acuminata Enslin 1915] K07c
         |--P. rolleri Liston 2005 K07c
         |--P. scotaspis (Förster 1854) (see below for synonymy) K07c
         |--P. spirappendiculata Kopelke 2007 K07b
         |--P. spirhelvetica Kopelke 2007 K07b
         |--P. tuberculata (Benson 1953) [=Nematus (Pontania) tuberculatus] K07c
         |--P. ‘viminalis’ (Hartig 1840) non (Linnaeus 1758) K07b
         |--‘Nematus’ westermanni Thomson 1862 K07c
         `--‘Nematus’ xanthogaster Förster 1854 K07c

Phyllocolpa anomaloptera (Förster 1854) [=Nematus anomalopterus; incl. Pontania cyrnea Liston 2005, Po. joergenseni Enslin 1916, Amauronematus maidli Zirngiebl 1937] K07c

Phyllocolpa leucosticta (Hartig 1837) [=Nematus leucostictus; incl. N. crassulus Thomson 1862, N. ischnocerus var. nigrifrons Konow 1897] K07a

Phyllocolpa piliserra (Thomson 1862) [=Nematus piliserra; incl. Pontania piliserra var. mascula Enslin 1915, Po. piliserra var. tristis Enslin 1915] K07c

Phyllocolpa polita (Zaddach 1883) [=Nematus politus; incl. Pontania connata Enslin 1915, N. sieboldii Zaddach 1884] K07a

Phyllocolpa scotaspis (Förster 1854) [=Nematus scotaspis; incl. N. anglicus Cameron 1877, Phyllocolpa anglica, Pontania fibulata Konow 1901, Nematus nigrolineatus Cameron 1879] K07c

Pontania proxima (Serville 1823) [=Nematus proximus; incl. Euura flavipes Cameron 1885, N. vallisnerii Hartig 1837] K05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[H04] Haris, A. 2004. New sawflies from Spain (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Graellsia 60 (2): 163–165.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215–231.

[K05] Kopelke, J.-P. 2005. The species of the Pontania proxima group in Europe (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 85–95.

[K06] Kopelke, J.-P. 2006. Description of the female of Euura myrtilloides Kopelke 1996, with a key to the European species of the atra-group (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 75–84.

[K07a] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007a. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part I: the leucosticta-group (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 75–109.

[K07b] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007b. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part II: the leucaspis-group (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 149–161.

[K07c] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007c. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part III: the species-groups of crassispina, scotaspis, and piliserra (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 163–183.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

Smith, D. R. 2003. Synopsis of the sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of America south of the United States: Tenthredinidae (Nematinae, Heterarthrinae, Tenthredininae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 129 (1): 1–45.

Last updated: 3 October 2017.


Pink bottlebrush Beaufortia schaueri, photographed by Brian Walters.

Belongs within: Myrtaceae.
Contains: Melaleuca.

The Melaleuceae are a group of trees and shrubs bearing clustered flowers and very woody capsular fruits. Members of the genus Callistemon are commonly known as 'bottlebrushes' in reference to the cylindrical form of the flower spikes.

Characters (from Wilson et al. 2005): Trees or shrubs; leaves mostly spiral. Inflorescence often a spike-like (an aggregation of solitary flowers or triads commonly called "bottlebrushes") or head-like clusters of flowers; stamens often fasciculate, anthers fixed or versatile, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, pores or apical slits. Ovary inferior, 3-locular; ovules anatropous or hemitropous. Fruit a very woody capsule, often with delayed dehiscence; seeds linear.

<==Melaleuceae [Beaufortiinae, Callistemoninae, Calothamnineae, Melaleucinae] WO05
    |  i. s.: Eremaea pauciflora WO05, OS04
    |         Lamarchea WO05
    |         Petraeomyrtus WO05
    |         Phymatocarpus WO05
    |         Regelia ciliata WO05, RL05
    |--Callistemon WO05
    |    |--C. citrinum M08
    |    |--C. lanceolatus C08
    |    |--C. linearis H87
    |    |--C. paludosus R35
    |    |--C. phoeniceus OS04
    |    |--C. pityoides C08
    |    |--C. polandii WO05
    |    |--C. rigidus H87
    |    |--C. rugulosus KIW98
    |    |--C. saligna M08
    |    |    |--C. s. var. saligna B96
    |    |    `--C. s. var. angustifolia B96
    |    `--C. viminalis M65
    `--+--Melaleuca WO05
       |--Beaufortia WO05
       |    |--B. bracteosa OS04
       |    |--B. dampieri KM08
       |    |--B. elegans RL05
       |    |--B. incana OS04
       |    |--B. micrantha OS04
       |    |    |--B. m. var. micrantha OS04
       |    |    `--B. m. var. puberula OS04
       |    |--B. orbifolia WO05
       |    `--B. schaueri G04
       `--Calothamnus WO05
            |--C. gilesii S95
            |--C. lateralis GK00
            |--C. lehmannii GK00
            |--C. planifolius OS04
            |--C. preissii GK00
            |--C. quadrifidus OS04
            |--C. sanguineus RL05
            |--C. schaueri GK00
            |--C. tuberosus CH14
            `--C. validus WO05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[CH14] Car, C. A., & M. S. Harvey. 2014. The millipede genus Antichiropus (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae), part 2: species of the Great Western Woodlands region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (1): 20–77.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[M08] Mound, L. A. 2008. Identification and host associations of some Thysanoptera Phlaeothripinae described from Australia pre-1930. Zootaxa 1714: 41–60.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[S95] Smith, G. T. 1995. Species richness, habitat and conservation of scorpions in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 55–66.

[WO05] Wilson, P. G., M. M. O'Brien, M. M. Heslewood & C. J. Quinn. 2005. Relationships within Myrtaceae sensu lato based on a matK phylogeny. Plant Systematics and Evolution 251: 3–19.

Last updated: 29 January 2022.


California poppy Eschscholzia californica, copyright Kevin Stanchfield.

Belongs within: Ranunculales.
Contains: Meconopsis, Corydalis, Papaver.

The Papaveraceae are a mostly Northern Hemisphere family of flowering plants including the poppies and related taxa. Laticifers, latex-producing secretory cells, are present in the stems of members of the subfamilies Eschscholzioideae and Papaveroideae.

Characters (from M. Zhang et al.): Herbs, annual, biennial, monocarpic perennial, perennial, or shrubby. Laticifers or elongated idioblasts present. Leaves alternate or in a basal rosette, rarely opposite or whorled, usually without stipules; leaf blade entire to compound. Inflorescences racemes, panicles, dichasia, pseudoumbels, or solitary flowers. Flowers actinomorphic, bisymmetric, or zygomorphic, always bisexual, usually 2-merous, rarely 3- or 4-merous. Calyx caducous, green or petaloid. Corolla choripetalous or quasi-sympetalous, very rarely absent. Anthers opening by slits. Ovary superior, syncarpous with 2 to several carpels; placentation parietal.

    |--Hypecoum [Hypecoaceae, Hypecoideae] T00
    |    `--H. leptocarpum O88
    |--Eschscholzioideae T00
    |    |--Hunnemannia fumariifolia T00, H93
    |    |--Dendromecon T00
    |    |    |--D. harfordii (see below for synonymy) H93
    |    |    `--D. rigida H93
    |    `--Eschscholzia T00
    |         |--E. caespitosa H93
    |         |--E. californica H93 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. cristata [=Esholtzia (l. c.) cristata] C55
    |         |--E. glyptosperma H93
    |         |--E. hypecoides H93
    |         |--E. lemmonii H93
    |         |    |--E. l. ssp. lemmonii H93
    |         |    `--E. l. ssp. kernensis [=E. caespitosa ssp. kernensis] H93
    |         |--E. lobbii H93
    |         |--E. minutiflora [incl. E. minutiflora ssp. covillei, E. minutiflora ssp. twisselmannii] H93
    |         |--E. parishii H93
    |         |--E. ramosa H93
    |         `--E. rhombipetala H93
    |--Fumarioideae [Fumariaceae] T00
    |    |--Corydalis NDG98
    |    |--Dicentra NDG98
    |    |    |--D. chrysantha H93
    |    |    |--D. cucullaria HH03
    |    |    |--D. formosa [incl. D. formosa ssp. oregana] H93
    |    |    |--D. nevadensis H93
    |    |    |--D. ochroleuca H93
    |    |    |--D. pauciflora H93
    |    |    |--D. spectabilis H90
    |    |    `--D. uniflora H93
    |    `--Fumaria PP07
    |         |--F. bastardii H90
    |         |--F. capreolata OS04
    |         |--F. densiflora [incl. F. micrantha] H90
    |         |--F. indica [=F. vaillantii var. indica] H90
    |         |--F. macrocarpa PT98
    |         |--F. muralis [=F. caprolata ssp. muralis] C06
    |         |--F. officinalis ACW01
    |         |    |--F. o. ssp. officinalis H90
    |         |    `--F. o. ssp. wirtgenii H90
    |         |--F. pallidiflora R13
    |         `--F. parviflora PT98
    `--Papaveroideae [Platystemonoideae] T00
         |--Papaver H09
         |--Platystemon californicus (see below for synonymy) H93
         |--Canbya candida H93
         |--Stylomecon heterophylla H93
         |--Romneya H93
         |    |--R. coulteri H93
         |    `--R. trichocalyx H93
         |--Arctomecon H93
         |    |--A. californica H93
         |    `--A. merriamii H93
         |--Meconella H93
         |    |--M. californica H93
         |    |--M. denticulata [=M. oregana var. denticulata] H93
         |    `--M. linearis [=Hesperomecon linearis] H93
         |--Glaucium H93
         |    |--G. corniculatum Y98
         |    |--G. flavum V09
         |    |--G. luteum [incl. Chelidonium glaucium] C55
         |    `--G. violaceum C55
         `--Argemone H93
              |--A. alba J23
              |--A. corymbosa H93
              |--A. mexicana PP07
              |--A. munita [incl. A. munita ssp. argentea, A. munita ssp. robusta, A. munita ssp. rotundata] H93
              |--A. ochroleuca [=A. mexicana var. ochroleuca] H90
              `--A. subfusiformis H90

Papaveraceae incertae sedis:
  Sanguinaria canadensis BA03
  Bocconia frutescens BA03
  Stylophorum BA03
  Dicranostigma lactucoides O88
  Meconopsis O88
  Pseudofumaria alba GR98
  Glaucinia flava B88
  Macleaya cordata V09
  Chelidonium majus C06
  Capnites (DC.) Dumort. 1827 KC01

Dendromecon harfordii [=D. rigida ssp. harfordii; incl. D. harfordii var. rhamnoides, D. rigida ssp. rhamnoides] H93

Eschscholzia californica H93 [=Escholtzia (l. c.) californica C55; incl. Eschs. californica ssp. mexicana H93, Eschs. procera H93]

Platystemon californicus [incl. P. californicus var. ciliatus, P. californicus var. crinitus, P. californicus var. horridulus, P. californicus var. nutans, P. californicus var. ornithopus] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[BA03] Bergthorsson, U., K. L. Adams, B. Thomason & J. D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. Nature 424: 197–201.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728–755.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and '20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec'y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[NDG98] Neal, P. R., A. Dafni & M. Giurfa. 1998. Floral symmetry and its role in plant-pollinator systems: terminology, distribution, and hypotheses. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 345–373.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Last updated: 8 June 2022.


Korotnevella stella, from Microworld.

Belongs within: Amoebozoa.

The Paramoebidae are a family of flattened amoebae that produce finger-like anterior subpseudopodia. At least some paramoebids host minute endosymbionts close to the nucleus that were once mistaken for organelles, called parasomes.

Characters (from Microworld): Locomotive form with digitiform, blunt subpseudopodia frequently extending from the anterior hyaloplasm; temporarily lacking in some species. Floating form often with radiating pseudopodia. Uninucleate with central nucleolus. Surface layer complex, highly differentiated as a cuticle or as boat-shaped microscales discernable at the TEM level. Pseudopodia without a filamentous core.

    |--Janickina Chatton 1953 DF03
    |    |--J. chaetognathi (Grassi 1881) DF03
    |    `--J. pigmentifera (Grassi 1881) DF03
    |--Neoparamoeba Page 1987 DF03
    |    |--N. branchiphila SN05
    |    `--+--N. aestuarina DF03
    |       `--N. pemaquidensis (Page 1970) DF03
    |--Paramoeba Schaudinn 1896 DF03
    |    |--P. eilhardi Schaudinn 1896 DF03
    |    |--P. invadens Jones 1985 DF03
    |    `--P. perniciosa Sprague, Beckett & Sawyer 1969 DF03
    `--Korotnevella SN05
         |--K. hemistylolepis SN05
         `--+--K. monacantholepis KB05
            `--K. stella SN05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DF03] Dyková, I., I. Fiala, J. Lom & J. Lukeš. 2003. Perkinsiella amoebae-like endosymbionts of Neoparamoeba spp., relatives of the kinetiplastid Ichthyobodo. European Journal of Protistology 39 (1): 37-52.

[KB05] Kudryavtsev, A., D. Bernhard, M. Schlegel, E. E-Y. Chao & T. Cavalier-Smith. 2005. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the phylogeny of Amoebozoa. Protist 156: 215-224.

[SN05] Smirnov, A., E. Nassonova, C. Berney, J. Fahrni, I. Bolivar & J. Pawlowski. 2005. Molecular phylogeny and classification of the lobose amoebae. Protist 156: 129-142.


Hyphae of Trichoconis schnifferulae, from Deighton & Pirozynski (1972).

Belongs within: Fungi.

Trichoconis is an anamorphic genus of fungi that are hyperparasites on other plant-parasitic fungi.

Characters (from Deighton & Pirozynski 1972): Mycelial hyphae superficial, repent, septate, branched, smooth, colourless or almost so. Conidiophores well-developed, arising as lateral branches of the mycelial hyphae, simple or branched, septate or continuous, smooth, polyblastic, sympodial, denticulate. Denticles are narrow tubular separating cells cut off from conidiophore by basal thin septum or from conidium by another septum, cylindric or, in a few species, slightly conoid or obconoid, conidium shed by fracture of separating cell, sometimes about middle, sometimes near base and sometimes nearer or very close to base of conidium which leaves a longer or shorter tubular open-ended denticle attached to conidiophore and usually a longer or shorter portion attached to base of conidium; in some species (e.g Trichoconis angustispora and T. africana) the separating cell breaks so close to the base of the conidium that only a minute frill remains; in T. sigmoidea even this frill cannot be seen though old persistent fractured separating cels on conidiophore are open-ended denticles. Conidia more or less fusiform or filiform, colourless or nearly so, rarely (e.g. T. viridula) very dilute olivaceous, smooth, 1- to several-septate.

<==Trichoconis Clements 1909 DP72
    |--*T. caudata (Appel & Strunk) Clements 1909 [=Pyricularia caudata Appel & Strunk 1904] DP72
    |--T. africana (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis africana Hansford 1942] DP72
    |--T. angustispora (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis angustispora Hansford 1942] DP72
    |--T. appendiculata Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--T. englerulae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis englerulae Hansford 1945] DP72
    |--T. hamata (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis hamata Hansford 1942] DP72
    |--T. hibernica Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--T. malloti (Saccardo) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--T. schiffnerulae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--T. sigmoidea Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--T. trichiliae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis trichiliae Hansford 1942] DP72
    `--T. viridula Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72

Trichoconis malloti (Saccardo) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Ramularia malloti Saccardo 1919; incl. Eriomycopsis ugandae Hansford 1942] DP72

Trichoconis schiffnerulae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis schiffnerulae Hansford 1942; incl. Domingoella deightonii Hansford 1949] DP72

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1-110.


Trichothelium epiphyllum, photographed by Robert Lücking.

Belongs within: Ascomycota.
Contains: Porina.

The Trichotheliales is an order of lichenised fungi associated with trentepohlioid algae.

Characters (from McCarthy 2001): Trentepohlioid photobiont; perithecioid ascomata; largely unbranched hamathecium of paraphyses; thin-wwalled unitunicate asci.

    |  i. s.: Ascolacicola Ranghoo & Hyde 1998 JC03, E99
    |           |--*A. aquatica Ranghoo & Hyde 1998 [anam. Trichocladium uniseptatum] E99
    |           `--A. austriaca JC03
    |--Myeloconis [Myeloconidaceae] EB03
    `--Trichotheliaceae EB03
         |--Polycornum EB03
         |--Porina LV98
         |--Clathroporina LV98
         |    |--*C. eminentior LV98
         |    `--C. isidiifera Harris 1995 LV98
         `--Trichothelium LV98 [incl. Actiniopsis Starbäck 1899 RS99, Ophiodictyon RS99]
              |--T. epiphyllum [incl. *Actiniopsis bambusae Starbäck 1899] RS99
              |--T. horridulum [incl. Actiniopsis plumbea Starbäck 1899, *Ophiodictyon plumbea] RS99
              `--T. sipmanii LV98

*Type species of generic name indicated


[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[JC03] Jacobs, A., M. P. A. Coetzee, B. D. Wingfield, K. Jacobs & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among Phialocephala species and other ascomycetes. Mycologia 95 (4): 637-645.

[LV98] Lücking, R., & A. Vězda. 1998. Taxonomic status in foliicolous species of the genus Porina (lichenized Ascomycotina: Trichotheliaceae)—II. The Porina epiphylla group. Willdenowia 28: 181-226.

McCarthy, P. M. 2001. Myeloconaceae. In: McCarthy, P. M. (ed.) Flora of Australia vol. 58A. Lichens 3, pp. 104-105. ABRS/CSIRO Australia: Melbourne.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.


Female common pine sawfly Diprion pini, copyright Entomart.

Belongs within: Eusymphyta.
Contains: Pergidae, Argidae, Tenthredinidae.

The Tenthredinoidea are the most diverse living lineage of sawflies with larvae feeding on a wide variety of plant species, including ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Notable subgroups of the Tenthredinoidea include the Diprionidae, conifer-feeding sawflies with more than thirteen antennal segments, the antennae being serrate in females and pectinate or bipectinate in males. The Cimbicidae have clubbed antennae and a laterally carinate abdomen (Richards & Davies 1977); their larvae feed externally on woody flowering plants.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pronotum deeply curved, with lateral concavities for reception of prothoracic spiracle; forewing with crossvein 2r-rs distad of 2rs-m.

Tenthredinoidea [Strophandria]
    |  i. s.: Aproceros leucopoda PK17
    |--Xyelotomidae NPH04
    |    |--Pseudoxyelocerus Nel, Petrulevicius & Henrotay 2004 NPH04
    |    |    `--*P. bascharagensis Nel, Petrulevicius & Henrotay 2004 NPH04
    |    |--Xyelotoma Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*X. nigricornis Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Xyelocerus Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*X. admirandus Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Pseudoxyela Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*P. heteroclita Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Dahurotoma Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |    |    `--*D. robusta Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |    |--Vitimilarva Rasnitsyn 1969 NPH04
    |    |    `--*V. paradoxa Rasnitsyn 1969 NPH04
    |    `--Kuengilarva Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |         `--*K. inexpectata Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    `--+--Liaotoma Ren et al. 1995 NPH04
       |    `--*L. linearis Ren et al. 1995 NPH04
       |--Leridatoma Rasnitsyn & Ansorge 2000 NPH04
       |    `--*L. pulcherrima Rasnitsyn & Ansorge 2000 NPH04
       |--Davidsmithia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 (see below for synonymy) NPH04
       |    `--*D. suni (Hong 1982) [=*Protenthredo suni, *Thomasia suni] NPH04
       |--Undatoma Rasnitsyn 1977 NPH04
       |    |--*U. dahurica Rasnitsyn 1977 NPH04
       |    |--U. bicolor Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    |--U. rudwickensis Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    |--U. taksha Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
       |    |--U. stigmatica Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    `--U. undurgensis Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
       `--+--Blasticotomidae HR11
          |    |--Blasticotoma filiceti PK17
          |    `--Runaria reducta HR11
          `--+--+--Electrotoma Z02 [Electrotomidae GE05]
             |  |    `--E. succini Rasnitsyn 1977 P92
             |  `--+--Pergidae GE05
             |     `--Argidae GE05
             `--+--Tenthredinidae HR11
                `--+--Cimbicidae HR11
                   |    |--Corynis crassicornis HR11
                   |    |--Cimbex PK17
                   |    |    |--C. lutea (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Tenthredo lutea L02]
                   |    |    |--C. rubida PK17
                   |    |    `--C. variabilis A83
                   |    `--Abia Leach 1817 BD17, M99
                   |         |--A. aenea (Klug 1829) M99
                   |         |--A. fasciata MS01
                   |         |--A. lonicerae BD17
                   |         |--A. nigricornis MS01
                   |         `--A. sericea (Linné 1758) M99
                   `--Diprionidae HR11
                        |--Monoctenus juniperi HR11
                        |--Gilpinia Benson 1939 RD77, M99
                        |    |--G. hercyniae F92
                        |    `--G. polytoma (Hartig 1837) M99
                        |--Neodiprion TW05
                        |    |--N. abietis FM80
                        |    |--N. banksiana G38
                        |    |--N. lecontei BD17
                        |    |--N. serti TM96
                        |    `--N. tsugae G38
                        `--Diprion PK17 [incl. Lophyrus Latreille 1802 non Poli 1791 RD77, L02]
                             |--D. frutetorum F92
                             |--D. hercyniae C81
                             |--D. laricis F92
                             |--D. pallidus F92
                             |--D. pini (Linnaeus 1758) A71, L58 [=Tenthredo pini L02, *Lophyrus pini L02]
                             |--D. polytomum F92
                             `--D. rufus F92

Davidsmithia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 [=Protenthredo Hong 1982 non Pongracz 1928, Thomasia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 nec Poche 1908 nec Lambert 1918 nec Frederiks 1929; Protenthredinidae] NPH04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A83] Adolph, E. 1883. Zur Morphologie der Hymenopterenflügel. Zugleich ein Beitrag zu den Fragen der Speciesbildung und des Atavismus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher [Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum] 46 (2): 41–132, pls 1–6.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[G38] Gahan, A. B. 1938. Notes on some genera and species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 209–227.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M99] Magis, N. 1999. Répertoire des mouches à scie reconnues en Belgique et au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Additions et corrections. Notes Fauniques de Gembloux 36: 85–93.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NPH04] Nel, A., J. F. Petrulevicius & M. Henrotay. 2004. New Early Jurassic sawflies from Luxembourg: the oldest record of Tenthredinoidea (Hymenoptera: “Symphyta”). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 283–288.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[TM96] Tsunoda, T., & K. Mori. 1996. Seasonal activity of a few sympatric ticks (Ixodidae) on plants. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 37–41. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 21 March 2021.


Porina nucula, photographed by Harrie Sipman.

Belongs within: Trichotheliales.

Porina is a genus of lichenised fungi found primarily in shaded habitats in tropical and subtropical regions (P. M. McCarthy).

Characters (from P. M. McCarthy): Thallus corticolous, saxicolous or foliicolous (rarely bryophilous or terricolous). Algae Trentepohlia (mainly in corticolous and saxicolous spp.) or Phycopeltis (in most foliicolous spp.). Perithecia immersed in the thallus or in thallus-dominated verrucae, or superficial on the thallus. Involucrellum vestigial to well-developed and almost completely enclosing the exciple, pale to dark orange-brown, red-brown, brown, green-black, purple-black or jet-black; surface smooth to uneven, lacking whorls of stiff subapical setae (rarely with a more uniformly distributed and delicate pilose or ± tomentose covering). Ascospores with 3 or more transverse septa, or submuriform to muriform.

<==Porina [incl. Phragmopeltheca] E99
    |  i. s.: P. americana LV98
    |         P. applanata LV98
    |         P. epilucida LV98
    |         P. fulvella LV98
    |         P. fusca Lücking 1991 LV98
    |         P. guaranitica LV98
    |         P. guentheri JC03
    |         P. heterospora LV98
    |         P. mastoidea LV98
    |         P. nuculastrum LV98
    |         P. rufula LV98
    |         P. rugosa Ach. 1814 LV98
    |         P. simulans LV98
    |--+--+--P. curtula Malme 1929 LV98
    |  |  `--P. tetracerae (Afz.) Mueller 1885 [=Verrucaria tetracerae Afz. in Ach. 1803; incl. P. variegata] LV98
    |  `--+--P. distans Vězda & Vivant 1994 LV98
    |     |--P. exasperatula Vainio 1914 LV98
    |     `--+--P. conspersa Malme 1929 LV98
    |        `--P. imitatrix Mueller 1890 (see below for synonymy) LV98
    `--+--+--P. subnucula Lumbsch, Lücking & Vězda in Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
       |  `--+--P. verruculosa Mueller 1890 LV98
       |     `--+--P. rudiuscula (Nyl.) Mueller 1892 [=Verrucaria rudiuscula Nyl. 1868] LV98
       |        `--+--*P. nucula Ach. 1814 LV98
       |           `--P. pocsii Vězda 1984 LV98
       `--+--+--+--P. follmanniana Becker & Lücking in Daniels et al. 1995 LV98
          |  |  `--P. radiata Kalb, Lücking & Vězda in Lücking & Vězda 1998 (see below for synonymy) LV98
          |  `--+--+--P. epiphylloides Vězda 1975 LV98
          |     |  `--P. guianensis Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
          |     `--+--P. longispora Vězda 1975 LV98
          |        `--P. mazosioides Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
          `--+--P. foliicola (Vězda) Lücking & Vězda 1998 [=Clathroporina foliicola Vězda 1977] LV98
             `--+--+--P. andreana Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                |  `--P. mirabilis Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                `--+--+--P. conica Sant. 1952 LV98
                   |  `--P. subepiphylla Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                   `--+--+--P. atriceps (Vainio) Vainio 1921 (see below for synonymy) LV98
                      |  `--P. atropunctata Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                      `--+--P. virescens (Kremp.) Mueller 1883 (see below for synonymy) LV98
                         `--+--P. similis Kalb & Vězda 1991 LV98
                            `--+--P. lucida Sant. 1952 [incl. P. lenticulata Lücking 1994 (n. n.)] LV98
                               |    |--P. l. var. lucida LV98
                               |    `--P. l. var. australiensis Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                               `--+--P. albicera (Kremp.) Overeem 1922 (see below for synonymy) LV98
                                  `--+--P. epiphylla (Fée) Fée 1837 (see below for synonymy) LV98
                                     `--P. minutissima Henssen, Lücking & Vězda in Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98

Porina albicera (Kremp.) Overeem 1922 [=Verrucaria albicera Kremp. 1874; incl. Phylloporina myriocarpa Mueller 1891] LV98

Porina atriceps (Vainio) Vainio 1921 [=P. epiphylla var. atriceps Vainio 1896; incl. Phylloporina cupreofusca Zahlbr. 1928] LV98

Porina epiphylla (Fée) Fée 1837 [=Porina americana var. epiphylla Fée in Bory de Saint-Vincent et al. 1831; incl. P. insperata Mueller 1883, P. ephiphylla var. major Vainio 1921, Verrucaria praestans Nyl. 1868, Micropeltis schmidtiana Rostr. 1902] LV98

Porina imitatrix Mueller 1890 [incl. Po. affinis Schill. 1927, Phylloporina caerulescens Mueller 1890, Po. hypothetica Vainio 1921, Ph. schiffneri Zahlbr. 1909] LV98

Porina radiata Kalb, Lücking & Vězda in Lücking & Vězda 1998 [=P. rugosa Kalb & Vězda 1992 non Ach. 1814] LV98

Porina virescens (Kremp.) Mueller 1883 [=Verrucaria virescens Kremp. 1874; incl. P. multiseptata Mueller 1883, P. pandanorum Vainio 1921] LV98

*Type species of generic name indicated


[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[JC03] Jacobs, A., M. P. A. Coetzee, B. D. Wingfield, K. Jacobs & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among Phialocephala species and other ascomycetes. Mycologia 95 (4): 637-645.

[LV98] Lücking, R., & A. Vězda. 1998. Taxonomic status in foliicolous species of the genus Porina (lichenized Ascomycotina: Trichotheliaceae) - II. The Porina epiphylla group. Willdenowia 28: 181-226.