Skeleton of the Early Triassic rhynchosaur Mesosuchus browni, from Dilkes (1998) via Tetrapod Zoology.

Belongs within: Neodiapsida.
Contains: Archosauriformes.

The Archosauromorpha is the total group of all animals more closely related to the living archosaurs (crocodilians and birds) than to the lepidosaurs (lizards and related taxa). As well as the archosaurs, archosauromorphs included such animals as the beaked, herbivorous Rhynchosauria and the aquatic Thalattosauria. The Choristodera are small, superficially crocodilian-like, semi-aquatic reptiles known from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Miocene. The Triassic Tanystropheidae are a group of mostly semi-aquatic reptiles, a number of which had remarkably extended, stiff necks that might be longer than the rest of the animal.

Synapomorphies (from Schoch & Sues 2015): Premaxilla large, forming most of the snout, contributing to posterior border of external naris; nasal significantly longer than frontal; Frontal with posterolateral process present; paroccipital process deflected posterolaterally at angle of about 20° from transverse width of skull; cervical ribs with anterior processes; calcaneal tubercle present.

<==Archosauromorpha [Parathecodontia, Prolacertiformes]
    |--+--Cteniogenys NB17
    |  `--Choristodera SS15
    |       |--Simoedosaurus lemoinei E88, NB17
    |       |--Tchoiria E88
    |       `--Champsosaurus Cope 1876 D07
    |            |--C. gigas D07
    |            |--C. laramiensis D07
    |            |--C. lindoei D07
    |            `--C. profundus D07
    `--+--Aenigmastropheus parringtoni NB17
       `--+--Protorosaurus speneri NB17
          `--+--Prolacertoides jimusarensis NB17
             |--Jesairosaurus lehmani NB17
             |--+--Pamelaria dolichotracheia NB17
             |  `--+--Trilophosaurus Gregory 1945 NB17, D07
             |     |    |--T. buettneri D07
             |     |    `--T. jacobsi D07
             |     `--Azendohsaurus Dutuit 1972 NB17, GU04
             |          |--A. laarousii Dutuit 1972 GU04
             |          `--A. madagaskarensis NB17
             |--Tanystropheidae S04
             |    |  i. s.: Langobardisaurus Renesto 1994 S04, D07
             |    |           |--L. pandolfi S04
             |    |           `--L. tonelloi D07
             |    |         Amotosaurus rotfeldensis NB17
             |    |--Macrocnemus Nopcsa 1930 E88, D07
             |    |    |--M. bassanii S04
             |    |    `--M. obristi DS16
             |    `--+--Cosesaurus Ellenberger & de Villalta 1974 E88, D07
             |       |    `--C. aviceps D07
             |       `--+--Tanytrachelos Olsen 1979 E88, D07
             |          |    `--T. ahynis D07
             |          `--Tanystropheus Meyer 1852 NB17, D07 [incl. Tribelesodon W91]
             |               |--T. antiquus E88
             |               |--T. fossai D07
             |               |--T. longobardicus W91 [=Tribelesodon longobardicus W91; incl. Ta. conspicuus E88]
             |               `--T. meridensis D07
             `--+--Rhynchosauria SS15
                |       |  i. s.: Hyperodapedon Huxley 1859 D07
                |       |           |--H. gordoni B04
                |       |           |--H. huenei D07
                |       |           `--H. huxleyi DDL04
                |       |         Scaphonyx J94
                |       |         Paradapedon J94
                |       |--Noteosuchus colletti NB17
                |       `--+--Mesosuchus Watson 1912 E88, D07
                |          |    `--M. browni S04
                |          `--+--Howesia browni NB17
                |             `--+--Eohyosaurus wolvaardti NB17
                |                `--+--Bentonyx sidensis NB17
                |                   `--Rhynchosaurus Owen 1841 NB17, D07 [Rhynchosauridae]
                |                        |--R. articeps D07
                |                        |--R. brodiei D07
                |                        `--R. spenceri SS02
                `--+--Boreopricea funerea NB17
                   `--+--Prolacerta Parrington 1935 NB17, E88 [incl. Pricea J94; Prolacertidae]
                      |    `--P. broomi B04
                      `--+--Tasmaniosaurus triassicus NB17
                         `--Archosauriformes NB17

Archosauromorpha incertae sedis:
  Elachistosuchus E88
  Thalattosauria E88
    |  i. s.: Nectosaurus E88
    |         Clarazia Peyer 1936 E88
    |         Hescheleria Peyer 1936 E88
    |--Endennasaurus Renesto 1989 [Endennasauridae] D07
    |    `--E. acutirostris D07
    |--Askeptosauridae D07
    |    |--Askeptosaurus italicus E88, D07
    |    `--Anshunsaurus Liu 1999 D07
    |         `--A. huangguoshouensis D07
    `--Thalattosauridae D07
         |--Thalattosaurus E88
         `--Xinpusaurus Yin 2000 D07
              |--X. kohi D07
              `--X. suni D07
  Sharovipterygidae DS16
    |--Sharovipteryx Cowen 1981 BC03, W91 [=Podopteryx Sharov 1971 (preoc.) W91]
    |    `--S. mirabilis W13
    `--Ozimek Dzik & Sulej 2016 DS16
         `--*O. volans Dzik & Sulej 2016 DS16
  Malerisaurus E88
  Trachelosaurus E88
  Kadimakara E88
  Dinocephalosaurus Li 2002 D07
    `--D. orientalis D07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B04] Benton, M. J. 2004. Origin and relationships of Dinosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 7–19. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BC03] Bonde, N., & P. Christiansen. 2003. The detailed anatomy of Rhamphorhynchus: axial pneumaticity and its implications. In: Buffetaut, E., & J.-M. Mazin (eds) Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society Special Publications 217: 217–232. The Geological Society: London.

[DDL04] Datta, P. M., D. P. Das & Z.-X. Luo. 2004. A Late Triassic dromatheriid (Synapsida: Cynodontia) from India. Annals of Carnegie Museum 73 (2): 12–24.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[DS17] Dzik, J., & T. Sulej. 2016. An early Late Triassic long-necked reptile with a bony pectoral shield and gracile appendages. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 61 (4): 805–823.

[E88] Evans, S. E. 1988. The early history and relationships of the Diapsida. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds pp. 221–260. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[GU04] Galton, P. M., & P. Upchurch. 2004. Prosauropoda. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 232–258. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[J94] Juul, L. 1994. The phylogeny of basal archosaurs. Palaeontologia Africana 31: 1–38.

[NB17] Nesbitt, S. J., R. J. Butler, M. D. Ezcurra, P. M. Barrett, M. R. Stocker, K. D. Angielczyk, R. M. H. Smith, C. A. Sidor, G. Niedźwiedzki, A. G. Sennikov & A. J. Charig. 2017. The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan. Nature 544: 484–487.

[SS15] Schoch, R. R., & H.-D. Sues. 2015. A Middle Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the turtle body plan. Nature 523: 584–587.

[S04] Senter, P. 2004. Phylogeny of Drepanosauridae (Reptilia: Diapsida). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2: 257–268.

[SS02] Spencer, P. S., & G. W. Storrs. 2002. A re-evaluation of small tetrapods from the Middle Triassic Otter Sandstone Formation of Devon, England. Palaeontology 45 (3): 447–467.

[W91] Wellnhofer, P. 1991. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Pterosaurs.  Salamander Books: London (reprinted 2000. In: Norman, D., & P. Wellnhofer. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books).

[W13] Witton, M. P. 2013. Pterosaurs: Natural History, Evolution, Anatomy. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

Last updated: 11 July 2018.

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