Archosauromorpha

Skeleton of the Early Triassic rhynchosaur Mesosuchus browni, from Dilkes (1998) via Tetrapod Zoology.


Belongs within: Neodiapsida.
Contains: Archosauria.

The Archosauromorpha is the total group of all animals more closely related to the living archosaurs (crocodilians and birds) than to the lepidosaurs (lizards and related taxa). As well as the archosaurs, archosauromorphs included such animals as the beaked, herbivorous Rhynchosauria and the aquatic Thalattosauria. The Choristodera are small, superficially crocodilian-like, semi-aquatic reptiles known from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Miocene.

Synapomorphies (from Schoch & Sues 2015): Premaxilla large, forming most of the snout, contributing to posterior border of external naris; nasal significantly longer than frontal; Frontal with posterolateral process present; paroccipital process deflected posterolaterally at angle of about 20° from transverse width of skull; cervical ribs with anterior processes; calcaneal tubercle present.

<==Archosauromorpha
    |--Choristodera SS15
    |    |--Simoedosaurus E88
    |    |--Tchoiria E88
    |    `--Champsosaurus Cope 1876 D07
    |         |--C. gigas D07
    |         |--C. laramiensis D07
    |         |--C. lindoei D07
    |         `--C. profundus D07
    `--+--Prolacertiformes SS15
       `--+--+--Trilophosaurus Gregory 1945 SS15, D07
          |  |    |--T. buettneri D07
          |  |    `--T. jacobsi D07
          |  `--Rhynchosauria SS15
          |       |  i. s.: Hyperodapedon Huxley 1859 D07
          |       |           |--H. gordoni B04
          |       |           |--H. huenei D07
          |       |           `--H. huxleyi DDL04
          |       |         Scaphonyx J94
          |       |         Paradapedon J94
          |       |--Noteosuchus E88
          |       `--+--Mesosuchus Watson 1912 E88, D07
          |          |    `--M. browni S04
          |          `--+--Howesia E88
          |             `--Rhynchosaurus Owen 1841 E88, D07 [Rhynchosauridae]
          |                  |--R. articeps W70
          |                  |--R. brodiei D07
          |                  `--R. spenceri SS02
          `--Archosauriformes [Erythrosuchia, Euparkeriidae, Proterosuchia, Thecodontia] SS15
               |  i. s.: Seemannia R72
               |         Crenelosaurus R72
               |         Ocoyuntaia Rusconi 1947 R72
               |         Clarencea R72
               |         Ctenosauriscus R72
               |         Hypselorhachis R72
               |--Proterosuchidae B04
               |    |--Proterosuchus [incl. Ankistrodon, Chasmatosaurus Haughton 1924, Epicampodon] R72
               |    |    `--P. fergusi B04
               |    |--Elaphrosuchus R72
               |    |--Chasmatosuchus R72
               |    `--Archosaurus R72
               `--+--+--Euparkeria Broom 1913 B04, D07 [incl. Browniella R72]
                  |  |    `--E. capensis B04
                  |  `--+--Archosauria B04
                  |     `--+--Doswellia Weems 1980 J94, D07
                  |        |    `--D. kaltenbachi D07
                  |        `--Proterochampsidae B04
                  |             |--Chanaresuchus bonapartei B04
                  |             |--Gualosuchus J94
                  |             |--Proterochampsa barrionuevoi B04
                  |             `--Rhadinosuchus Huene 1944 R72
                  `--Erythrosuchidae B04
                       |--Cuyosuchus Rieg 1961 J94, R72
                       |--Fugusuchus J94
                       |--Chalishevia J94
                       |--Erythrosuchus Broom 1905 D07
                       |    `--E. africanus B04
                       |--Garjainia Ochev 1958 [incl. Vjushkovia Huene 1960] G00
                       |    `--*G. prima Ochev 1958 [incl. Vjushkovia triplicostata Huene 1960] G00
                       `--Shansisuchus G00
                            |--*S. shansisuchus [incl. Fenhosuchus cristatus Young 1964] G00
                            `--S. heiyuekouensis G00

Archosauromorpha incertae sedis:
  Elachistosuchus E88
  Protorasaurus speneri MJ11
  Thalattosauria E88
    |  i. s.: Nectosaurus E88
    |         Clarazia Peyer 1936 E88
    |         Hescheleria Peyer 1936 E88
    |--Endennasaurus Renesto 1989 [Endennasauridae] D07
    |    `--E. acutirostris D07
    |--Askeptosauridae D07
    |    |--Askeptosaurus italicus D07
    |    `--Anshunsaurus Liu 1999 D07
    |         `--A. huangguoshouensis D07
    `--Thalattosauridae D07
         |--Thalattosaurus E88
         `--Xinpusaurus Yin 2000 D07
              |--X. kohi D07
              `--X. suni D07

Inorganic: Chasmatosaurus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B04] Benton, M. J. 2004. Origin and relationships of Dinosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 7–19. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[DDL04] Datta, P. M., D. P. Das & Z.-X. Luo. 2004. A Late Triassic dromatheriid (Synapsida: Cynodontia) from India. Annals of Carnegie Museum 73 (2): 12–24.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[E88] Evans, S. E. 1988. The early history and relationships of the Diapsida. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds pp. 221–260. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[G00] Gower, D. J. 2000. Rauisuchian archosaurs (Reptilia, Diapsida): an overview. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 218 (3): 447–488.

[J94] Juul, L. 1994. The phylogeny of basal archosaurs. Palaeontologia Africana 31: 1–38.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[R72] Romer, A. S. 1972. The Chañares (Argentina) Triassic reptile fauna. XVI. Thecodont classification. Breviora 395: 1–24.

[SS15] Schoch, R. R., & H.-D. Sues. 2015. A Middle Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the turtle body plan. Nature 523: 584–587.

[S04] Senter, P. 2004. Phylogeny of Drepanosauridae (Reptilia: Diapsida). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2: 257–268.

[SS02] Spencer, P. S., & G. W. Storrs. 2002. A re-evaluation of small tetrapods from the Middle Triassic Otter Sandstone Formation of Devon, England. Palaeontology 45 (3): 447–467.

[W70] Wills, L. J. 1970. The Triassic succession in the central Midlands in its regional setting. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 126: 225–283.

Last updated: 10 April 2017.

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