Leptodinioideae

Cyst of Litosphaeridium arundum, from here.


Belongs within: Gonyaulacida.

The Leptodinioideae are a group of dinoflagellates known as fossil cysts from the Middle Jurassic to the Miocene (Fenson et al. 1993).

Characters (from Fensome et al. 1993): L-type ventral organisation; neutral to sinistral torsion. Four climactal (1u, B, C, A) plates present contacting the apical pore complex, not including Cv which may or may not be present; first apical homologue (1u) not significantly reduced in size compared to other apical plates. Six precingular plates, of which the distalmost, the sixth precingular homologue (li) is pentagonal and broadly geniculate at its anterior; sixth precingular homologue almost invariably contacts first apical homologue (1u). Six cingular plates; ends of cingulum not overhanging each other, sulcus straight and relatively broad throught its length. Five or six Kofoid postcingular plates; first postcingular homologue (Iu) almost invariably small, commonly within the sulcus. Fundital plates in sexiform configuration.

Leptodinioideae
    |--Ambonosphaera Fensom 1979 FT93
    |--Acanthaulax Sarjeant 1968 [=Acanthogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966 non (Kofoid) Graham 1942] FT93
    |--Amphorula Dodekova 1969 FT93
    |--Carpodinium Cookson & Eisenack 1962 FT93
    |--Cernicysta Stover & Helby 1987 FT93
    |--Clathroctenocystis Wiggins 1972 FT93
    |--Cymososphaeridium Davey 1982 FT93
    |--Diacanthum Habib 1972 FT93
    |--Dichadogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966 [incl. Brotzenia Horowitz 1975 non Hofker 1954 (ICZN)] FT93
    |--Durotrigia Bailey 1987 FT93
    |--Eatonicysta Stover & Evitt 1978 FT93
    |--Egmontodinium Gitmez & Sarjeant 1972 FT93
    |--Emmetrocysta Stover 1975 FT93
    |--Energlynia Sarjeant 1976 FT93
    |--Eodinia Eisenack 1936 FT93
    |--Lanterna Dodekova 1969 FT93
    |--Limbodinium Riding 1987 FT93
    |--Lophocysta Manum 1979 FT93
    |--Meiourogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966 FT93
    |--Occisucysta Gitmez 1970 FT93
    |--Omatia Cookson & Eisenack 1958 FT93
    |--Perisseiasphaeridium Davey & Williams 1966 FT93
    |--Rotosphaeropsis Davey 1988 FT93
    |--Stiphrosphaeridium Davey 1982 FT93
    |--Tehamadinium Jan du Chêne, Becheler et al. in Jan du Chêne, Masure et al. 1986 FT93
    |    `--T. brixii (Below 1982) Jan du Chêne et al. 1986 FT93
    |--Lithodinia Eisenack 1935 FT93
    |    `--L. jurassica Eisenack 1965 FT93
    |--Endoscrinium (Klement 1960) Vozzhenikova 1967 [incl. Athigmatocysta Duxbury 1977] FT93
    |    `--E. luridum (Deflandre 1939) Gocht 1970 RC02
    |--Conosphaeridium Cookson & Eisenack 1969 FT93
    |    `--C. striatoconum (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Cookson & Eisenack 1969 RC02
    |--Herendeenia Wiggins 1969 FT93
    |    `--H. postprojecta Stover & Helby 1987 RC02
    |--Ochetodinium Damassa 1979 FT93
    |    `--O. romanum Damassa 1979 FT93
    |--Rigaudella Below 1982 FT93
    |    `--R. aemula (Deflandre 1939) Below 1982 RC02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Sirmiodinium Alberti 1961 FT93
    |    `--S. grossii Alberti 1961 RC02
    |--Systematophora Klement 1960 [incl. Polystephanosphaera Sarjeant 1960] FT93
    |    `--S. placacantha (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Davey et al. 1969 FT93
    |--Wanaea Cookson & Eisenack 1958 FT93
    |    `--W. acollaris Dodekova 1975 RC02
    |--Leptodinium Klement 1960 FT93
    |    |--L. mirabile Klement 1960 FT93
    |    `--L. posterosulcatum Snape 1972 RC02
    |--Ctenidodinium Deflandre 1939 [incl. Hystrichogonyaulax Sarjeant 1969] FT93
    |    |--C. combazii Dupin 1968 FT93
    |    `--C. ornatum (Eisenack 1935) Deflandre 1939 FT93
    |--Rhynchodiniopsis Deflandre 1935 FT93
    |    |--R. aptiana Deflandre 1935 FT93
    |    `--R. cladophora (Deflandre 1939) Below 1981 FT93
    |--Oligosphaeridium Davey & Williams 1966 FT93
    |    |--O. abaculum Davey 1979 FT93
    |    |--O. complex (White 1842) Davey & Williams 1966 RC02
    |    `--O. pulcherrimum (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Davey & Williams 1966 RC02
    |--Areosphaeridium Eaton 1971 FT93
    |    |--A. arcuatum Eaton 1971 FT93
    |    |--A. diktyoplokus (Klumpp 1953) Eaton 1971 FT93
    |    `--A. multicornutum Eaton 1971 FT93
    |--Kleithriasphaeridium Davey 1974 [incl. Diversispina Benson 1976] FT93
    |    |--K. eoinodes (Eisenack 1958) Davey 1974 RC02
    |    |--‘Hystrichosphaeridium’ readei Davey & Williams 1966 FT93
    |    `--K. tubulosum (Cookson & Eisenack 1969) Stover & Evitt 1978 RC02
    `--Litosphaeridium Davey & Williams 1966 FT93
         |--L. arundum (Eisenack & Cookson 1960) Davey 1979 RC02
         |--L. conispinum Davey & Verdier 1973 RC02
         `--L. siphoniphorum (Cookson & Eisenack 1958) Davey & Williams 1966 RC02

Rigaudella aemula (Deflandre 1939) Below 1982 RC02 [=Adnatosphaeridium aemulum (Deflandre) Williams & Downie 1969 FT93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[RC02] Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early–Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 23: 739-760.

Thomasomys

Thomasomys niveipes, photographed by Miguel E. Rodríguez Posada.


Belongs within: Cricetidae.

Thomasomys is a genus of mice found on the eastern slopes of the Andes.

Characters (from Nowak 1999): Head and body length about 90-230 mm, tail length 85-329 mm. Tail normally longer than head and body. Fur usually thick and soft. Head with hourglass-shaped interorbital region; relatively long and robust molar rows. Coloration above varies from olivaceous gray, dull olive fulvous, yellowish rufous, orange rufous, golden brown, reddish brown, and grayish brown to dark brown or almost black. Middorsal region usually slightly darker than rest of body. Sides blend into the underparts, which are silvery grayish, soiled grayish, yellow, buffy, ochraceous buff, dark gray, or dark brownish. Underparts usually not much paler than upper parts. Hands and feet about the same colour as underparts; often central part of upper surface darker and fingers and toes lighter, sometimes whitish. Coloration of tail varies from slightly paler than back to slightly darker; tail normally moderately haired. Female with six or eight mammae.

<==Thomasomys IT07
    |--T. aureus PL07
    |--T. baeops PL07
    |--T. bombycinus IT07
    |--T. cinereiventer IT07
    |--T. cinereus IT07
    |--T. cinnameus PL07
    |--T. daphne IT07
    |--T. eleusis IT07
    |--T. erro PL07
    |--T. gracilis IT07
    |--T. hylophilus IT07
    |--T. incanus IT07
    |--T. ischyurus IT07
    |--T. kalinowskii IT07
    |--T. ladewi IT07
    |--T. laniger IT07
    |--T. monochromos IT07
    |--T. niveipes IT07
    |--T. notatus IT07
    |--T. oreas IT07
    |--T. paramorum PL07
    |--T. pyrrhonotus IT07
    |--T. rhoadsi IT07
    |--T. rosalinda IT07
    |--T. silvestris IT07
    |--T. taczanowskii IT07
    |--T. ucucha Voss 2003 N10
    `--T. vestitus IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed., vol. 1. John Hopkins University Press.

[PL07] Packer, J. B., & T. E. Lee, Jr. 2007. Neusticomys monticolus. Mammalian Species 805: 1-3.

Indridae

Silky sifakas Propithecus diadema candidus, photographed by Jeff Gibbs.


Belongs within: Lemuriformes.

The Indridae is a family of lemurs including the indri (Indri indri), woolly lemurs (Avahi) and sifakas (Propithecus). They characterised by a relatively low number of teeth compared to other lemurs, and hind legs that are significantly longer than the forelegs.

See also: There he goes! (Taxon of the Week: Indriidae); Why are there so many avahis?

Characters (from Mivart 1866): Dental formula I2/2, C1/1, P2/2, I3/3. Ears short; muzzle long, moderate or short; hind legs much longer than fore limbs; index very short, much shorter than fifth digit; pollex short and placed far back; hallux very long and covered with hair; tail long, or very short and rudimentary; internal condyle of the humerus perforated; carpus destitute of an os intermedium; tarsus short; first upper molar with four large and four small prominences, no internal cingulum; last upper molar with two large anterior cusps and three very small posterior prominences; each lower incisor with its outer surface longitudinally grooved; lower premolar much antero-posteriorly extended; first lower molar with four or five cusps; last lower molar quinquecuspid; paramastoid process present; malar foramen absent; lachrymal foramen very near margin of orbit; masseteric surface of malar wide and ridged; process depending from zygoma just in front of, and external to, glenoid surface; postglenoidal foramen present; anterior palatine foramina very large; mandibular symphysis very long; condyle rounded, not transversely extended; articular surface prolonged somewhat down the back of ascending ramus; digastric fossa deep.

Indridae [Indriidae, Indriinae, Indrisinae]
    |--Indri indri IT07
    |--Mesopropithecus Standing 1905 [incl. Neopropithecus Lamberton 1937] AC98
    |    |--*M. pithecoides Standing 1905 AC98
    |    `--M. globiceps (Lamberton 1939) [incl. M. platyfrons] AC98
    |--Microrhynchus M66 [incl. Avahi Jourdan 1834 M66, N10, Semnocebus Lesson 1840 N10]
    |    `--M. laniger M66 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--M. l. laniger PRM84
    |         `--‘Avahi’ l. occidentalis PRM84
    `--Propithecus Bennet 1832 M66, SKS05
         |--P. diadema M66
         |    |--P. d. diadema BP87
         |    |--P. d. candidus PRM84
         |    |--P. d. edwardsi G91
         |    |--P. d. holomelas G91
         |    `--P. d. perrieri BP87
         |--P. tattersalli Y94
         `--P. verreauxi IT07
              |--P. v. verreauxi [incl. P. v. majori] G91
              |--P. v. coquereli G91
              |--P. v. coronatus BP87
              `--P. v. deckeni BP87

Microrhynchus laniger M66 [=Lemur laniger M66, Avahi laniger IT07, Avahis laniger M66, Indri laniger M66, Indris laniger M66, Lichanotus laniger M66, Semnocebus laniger M66; incl. Li. avahi M66, S. avahi M66, Lemur lanatus M66, Hadrocebus lanatus M66, Indris longicaudatus M66]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1-29.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[M66] Mivart, St. G. J. 1866. On the structure and affinities of Microrhynchus laniger. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 151-167.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[PRM84] Pollock, J. I., A. F. Richard & R. D. Martin. 1984. Lemurs. In All the World’s Animals: Primates (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 24-35. Torstar Books: New York.

[SKS05] Scherf, H., B. Koller & F. Schrenk. 2005. Locomotion-related structures in the femoral trabecular architecture of primates and insectivores (Mammalia, Primates and Insectivora). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 101-112.

[Y94] Yoder, A. D. 1994. Relative position of the Cheirogaleidae in strepsirhine phylogeny: a comparison of morphological and molecular methods and results. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 94: 25-46.

Cercopithecidae

Red-shanked douc Pygathrix nemaeus, photographed by Jurgen & Christine Sohns.


Belongs within: Catarrhini.
Contains: Presbytis, Procolobus, Trachypithecus, Cercopithecus, Papio, Macaca.

The Cercopithecidae include the Old World monkeys, found in Africa and Asia. They can be divided between the often generalised Cercopithecinae, including baboons, macaques and guenons, and the often more strictly herbivorous Colobinae, including the colobus monkeys and langurs.

Characters (from Clutton-Brock 1984): Dental formula I2/2, C1/1, P2/2, M3/3; molars bilophodont, with the four cusps joined in pairs by transverse ridges. Ischial callosities (hard pads on lower side of buttocks) present.

REFERENCE

Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1984. Monkeys. In All the World’s Animals: Primates (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 44-45. Torstar Books: New York.

Ichthyomyini

Peruvian fish-eating rat Neusticomys peruviensis, photographed by Carlos Boada.


Belongs within: Cricetidae.

The Ichthyomyini are a group of semi-aquatic rats found in Central and South America that mostly feed on aquatic invertebrates, with some species also taking small fish. They have small eyes and ears, and partially webbed hind feet fringed with stiff hairs. Members of the genus Neusticomys have a narrower pes than other genera in the group, and may be less specialised for a subaquatic lifestyle (Packer & Lee 2007).

<==Ichthyomyini
    |--Anotomys leander PL07
    |--Chibchanomys PL07
    |    |--C. orcesi Jenkins & Barnett 1997 N10
    |    `--C. trichotis PCS05
    |--Ichthyomys PL07
    |    |--I. hydrobates PL07
    |    |--I. pittieri PCS05
    |    |--I. stolzmanni IT07
    |    `--I. tweedii IT07
    |--Rheomys N10
    |    |--R. (Neorheomys) mexicanus G69
    |    |--R. raptor IT07
    |    |--R. thomasi IT07
    |    `--R. underwoodi IT07
    `--Neusticomys Anthony 1921 [incl. Daptomys Anthony 1929] PL07
         |--*N. monticolus Anthony 1921 PL07
         |--N. ferreirai Percequillo, Carmignotto & Silva 2005 PCS05
         |--N. mussoi Ochoa G. & Soriano 1991 PCS05
         |--N. oyapocki (Dubost & Petter 1978) PCS05 [=Daptomys oyapocki BP87]
         |--N. peruviensis (Musser & Gardner 1974) PCS05 [=Daptomys peruviensis BP87]
         `--N. venezuelae (Anthony 1929) [=*Daptomys venezuelae] PL07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[PL07] Packer, J. B., & T. E. Lee, Jr. 2007. Neusticomys monticolus. Mammalian Species 805: 1–3.

[PCS05] Percequillo, A. R., A. P. Carmignotto & M. J. de J. Silva. 2005. A new species of Neusticomys (Ichthyomyini, Sigmodontinae) from central Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 873–880.

Afrotheria

Aardvark Orycteropus afer, photographed by Beverly Joubert.


Belongs within: Placentalia.
Contains: Sirenia, Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, Afrosoricida, Macroscelididae.

The Afrotheria is a clade of mammals united by molecular analyses, though morphological support for the clade remains elusive. Most phylogenies support division of the afrotherians between the insectivorous taxa—Afrosoricida (golden moles and tenrecs), Macroscelididae (elephant shrews) and Orycteropus afer (aardvark)—and the herbivorous Paenungulata. The Paenungulata contains the living orders Hyracoidea, Proboscidea and Sirenia, as well as the fossil Desmostylia and (possibly) Embrithopoda. Two of the orders, Sirenia and Desmostylia, are primarily aquatic (entirely so in the case of sirenians except for the basalmost fossil members).

Neosauropoda

Mounted skeleton of Diplodocus carnegii at Carnegie Museum of Natural History, photographed by Scott Robert Anselmo.


Belongs within: Eusauropoda.
Contains: Camarasauromorpha.

The Neosauropoda is defined as the most exclusive clade containing Diplodocus and Saltasaurus. This clade includes many of the most familiar sauropod genera. Its members are divided between two stem-defined clades: Diplodocoidea includes all taxa closer to Diplodocus than Saltasaurus, whereas Macronaria has the inverse definition (Upchurch et al. 2004). The name of the latter clade refers to one of the characteristic features of many of its members, the marked enlargement of the nares in the skull.

Characters (from Upchurch et al. 2004): Subnarial foramen present on premaxilla-maxilla suture facing dorsally; platelike projections at base of maxillary ascending processes meeting each other on midline; canal or preantorbital fenestra present in base of maxillary ascending process; rostral process of quadratojugal contacting caudal end of maxilla; rostroventral corner of infratemporal fenestra terminating level with or in front of rostral rim of orbit; lateral end of ectopterygoid contacting medial surface of maxilla; ascending process of astragalus terminating level with caudal edge; pedal digit V with two phalanges or fewer.

<==Neosauropoda [Homalosauropodidae]
    |  i. s.: Neosodon Moussaye 1885 APS03, UBD04
    |           `--N. praecursor (n. d.) APS03
    |         Tienshanosaurus chitaiensis Young 1937 (n. d.) N85, UBD04
    |         Asiatosaurus (n. d.) N85
    |           |--A. kwangshiensis Hou, Yeh & Zhao 1975 (n. d.) UBD04
    |           `--A. mongoliensis Osborn 1924 (n. d.) UBD04
    |--Macronaria [Camarasauridae] SL01
    |    |  i. s.: Abrosaurus Ouyang 1989 UBD04
    |    |           `--A. dongpoi Ouyang 1989 UBD04
    |    |         ‘Apatosaurus’ minimus Mook 1917 UBD04
    |    |         Volkheimeria Bonaparte 1979 D07, UBD04
    |    |           `--V. chubutensis Bonaparte 1979 UBD04
    |    |         Europasaurus Mateus, Laven & Knötschke 2006 D07
    |    |           `--E. holgeri D07
    |    |--Camarasauromorpha R-TCA06
    |    `--Haplocanthosaurus Hatcher 1903 R-TCA06, UBD04 [incl. Haplocanthus Hatcher 1903 UBD04]
    |         |--H. delfsi McIntosh & Williams 1988 UBD04
    |         `--H. priscus (Hatcher 1903) (see below for synonymy) UBD04
    `--Diplodocoidea [Diplodocimorpha] R-TCA06
         |  i. s.: Atlantosaurus Marsh 1877 [=Titanosaurus Marsh 1877 non Lydekker 1877] N85
         |           `--*A. montanus (Marsh 1877) [=Titanosaurus montanus] UBD04
         |--Amphicoelias Cope 1877 RR05, UBD04
         |    `--A. altus Cope 1877 [incl. A. fragillimus Cope 1878] UBD04
         `--+--Rebbachisauridae UBD04
            |    |--Rebbachisaurus Lavocat 1954 RR05, UBD04
            |    |    `--*R. garasbae Lavocat 1954 WS98
            |    |--Nigersaurus Sereno, Beck et al. 1999 UBD04
            |    |    `--N. taqueti Sereno, Beck et al. 1999 [incl. Rebbachisaurus tamesnensis Lapparent 1960] UBD04
            |    `--Rayososaurus Bonaparte 1996 [incl. Limaysaurus Calvo & Salgado in Novas 1997] UBD04
            |         |--R. agrioensis Bonaparte 1996 UBD04
            |         `--R. tessonei (Calvo & Salgado 1995) [=Rebacchisaurus tessonei, Limaysaurus tessonei] UBD04
            `--Flagellicaudata HD04
                 |--Dicraeosauridae RR05
                 |    |--Amargasaurus Salgado & Bonaparte 1991 RR05, UBD04
                 |    |    |--A. cazaui Salgado & Bonaparte 1991 UBD04
                 |    |    `--A. groeberi D07
                 |    `--+--Brachytrachelopan Rauhut, Remes et al. 2005 RR05
                 |       |    `--*B. mesai Rauhut, Remes et al. 2005 RR05
                 |       `--Dicraeosaurus Janensch 1914 RR05, UBD04 [Dicraeosaurinae]
                 |            |--D. hansemani Janensch 1914 UBD04
                 |            `--D. sattleri Janensch 1914 UBD04
                 `--Diplodocidae RR05
                      |  i. s.: Dyslocosaurus McIntosh, Coombs & Russell 1992 UBD04
                      |           `--D. polyonychius McIntosh, Coombs & Russell 1992 UBD04
                      |         Seismosaurus Gillette 1991 UBD04
                      |           `--S. halli Gillette 1991 UBD04
                      |         Supersaurus Jensen 1985 UBD04
                      |           `--S. vivianae Jensen 1985 [incl. Ultrasauros macintoshi Jensen 1985] UBD04
                      |--Suuwassea Harris & Dodson 2004 RR05, HD04
                      |    `--*S. emilieae Harris & Dodson 2004 HD04
                      `--+--Apatosaurus Marsh 1877 RR05, UBD04 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--A. ajax Marsh 1877 (see below for synonymy) UBD04
                         |    |--A. excelsus (Marsh 1879) (see below for synonymy) UBD04
                         |    |--A. louisae Holland 1915 UBD04
                         |    `--A. montanus D07
                         `--Diplodocinae HD04
                              |--Barosaurus Marsh 1890 UBD04
                              |    `--B. lentus Marsh 1890 [incl. B. affinis Marsh 1899] UBD04
                              |--Dinheirosaurus Bonaparte & Mateus 1999 RR05, UBD04
                              |    `--D. lourinhanensis Bonaparte & Mateus 1999 UBD04
                              |--Tornieria Sternfeld 1911 RR05, UBD04
                              |    `--T. africana (Fraas 1908) [=Gigantosaurus africanus, Barosaurus africanus] UBD04
                              `--Diplodocus Marsh 1878 RR05, UBD04
                                   |--D. carnegii Hatcher 1901 UBD04
                                   |--D. hayi Holland 1924 UBD04
                                   |--D. lacustris Marsh 1884 UBD04
                                   `--D. longus Marsh 1878 UBD04

Inorganic: Brontosaurus excelsus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Apatosaurus Marsh 1877 RR05, UBD04 [incl. Brontosaurus Marsh 1879 UBD04, Elosaurus Peterson & Gilmore 1902 UBD04; Apatosauridae, Apatosaurinae]

Apatosaurus ajax Marsh 1877 [incl. Atlantosaurus immanis Marsh 1878, Ap. laticollis Marsh 1879] UBD04

Apatosaurus excelsus (Marsh 1879) [=Brontosaurus excelsus; incl. B. amplus Marsh 1879, Elosaurus parvus Peterson & Gilmore 1902] UBD04

Haplocanthosaurus priscus (Hatcher 1903) [=Haplocanthus priscus; incl. Haplocanthosaurus utterbacki Hatcher 1903] UBD04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[APS03] Allain, R., & X. Pereda Suberbiola. 2003. Dinosaurs of France. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2 (1): 27–44.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[HD04] Harris, J. D., & P. Dodson. 2004. A new diplodocoid sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Montana, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 197–210.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[RR05] Rauhut, O. W. M., K. Remes, R. Fechner, G. Cladera & P. Puerta. 2005. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia. Nature 435: 670–672.

[R-TCA06] Royo-Torres, R., A. Cobos & L. Alcalá. 2006. A giant European dinosaur and a new sauropod clade. Science 314: 1925–1927.

[SL01] Smith, J. B., M. C. Lamanna, K. J. Lacovara, P. Dodson, J. R. Smith, J. C. Poole, R. Giegengack & Y. Attia. 2001. A giant sauropod dinosaur from an Upper Cretaceous mangrove deposit in Egypt. Science 292: 1704–1706.

[UBD04] Upchurch, P., P. M. Barrett & P. Dodson. 2004. Sauropoda. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 259–322. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[WS98] Wilson, J. A. & P. C. Sereno. 1998. Early evolution and higher-level phylogeny of sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18 (2 Suppl.): 1–68.

Last updated: 6 August 2017.

Sauropoda

Reconstructed skeleton of Kotasaurus yamanpalliensis at B. M. Birla Science Centre.


Belongs within: Sauropodomorpha.
Contains: Eusauropoda.

The Sauropoda were a group of mostly very large, herbivorous dinosaurs that include the largest terrestrial animals known to have existed. They appear in the fossil record during the Upper Triassic, with the South African Antetonitrus ingenipes being the earliest known species (Yates & Kitching 2003). Other Triassic sauropods include Blikanasaurus cromptoni from South Africa and Isanosaurus attavipachi from Thailand (Upchurch et al. 2004). Vulcanodon karibaensis is known from the Early Jurassic of Zimbabwe; ironically, despite its generic name meaning 'volcano tooth', the skull of this species is unknown.

Synapomorphies (from Yates & Kitching 2003): Suprapostzygapophyseal laminae present on the dorsal vertebrae; humerus greater than 80% length of femur; long cranial process present on proximal ulna; femur with elliptical cross-section; third metatarsal less than 40% length of tibia; midshaft of metatarsal 1 broader than all other metatarsals; pedal ungual I longer than metatarsal I.

<==Sauropoda [Atlantosauridae, Vulcanodontidae]
    |--Antetonitrus Yates & Kitching 2003 YK03
    |    `--*A. ingenipes Yates & Kitching 2003 YK03
    `--+--Isanosaurus Buffetaut, Suteethorn et al. 2000 YK03, UBD04
       |    |--*I. attavipachi Buffetaut, Suteethorn et al. 2000 BS00
       |    `--I. russelli D07
       `--+--Vulcanodon Raath 1972 UBD04
          |    `--V. karibaensis Raath 1972 UBD04
          `--+--Eusauropoda R-TCA06
             `--Kotasaurus Yadagiri 1988 UBD04
                  `--K. yamanpalliensis Yadagiri 1988 UBD04

Sauropoda incertae sedis:
  Rhoetosaurus Longman 1926 UBD04
    `--R. brownei Longman 1926 UBD04
  Zizhongosaurus chuanchengensis Dong, Zhou & Zhang 1983 (n. d.) UBD04
  Chinshakiangosaurus chunghoensis Dong 1992 (n. d.) UBD04
  Dystrophaeus Cope 1877 UBD04
    `--*D. viaemalae Cope 1877 C77
  Clasmodosaurus spatula Ameghino 1899 (n. d.) UBD04
  Datousaurus Dong & Tang 1984 UBD04
    `--D. bashanensis Dong & Tang 1984 UBD04
  Morinosaurus typus Sauvage 1874 (n. d.) UBD04
  Ohmdenosaurus Wild 1978 UBD04
    `--O. liasicus Wild 1978 UBD04
  Sanpasaurus yaoi Young 1944 (n. d.) UBD04
  Tapinosaurus (n. d.) N85
  Blikanasaurus Galton & Heerden 1985 UBD04
    `--B. cromptoni Galton & Heerden 1985 UBD04
  Sonidosaurus XT07
  Gongxianosaurus He, Wang et al. 1998 UBD04
    `--G. shibeiensis He, Wang et al. 1998 UBD04
  Xenoposeidon proneneukos Taylor & Naish 2007 N10
  Cardiodon Owen 1840-1845 UBD04
    `--C. rugulosus Owen 1840-1845 [=Cetiosaurus rugulosus] UBD04
  Chuanjiesaurus Fang, Pang et al. 2000 UBD04
    `--C. anaensis Fang, Pang et al. 2000 UBD04
  Tendaguria Bonaparte, Heinrich & Wild 2000 UBD04
    `--T. tanzaniensis Bonaparte, Heinrich & Wild 2000 UBD04
  Gigantosaurus megalonyx Seeley 1869 (n. d.) UBD04
  Histriasaurus boscarollii Dalla Vecchia 1998 (n. d.) UBD04
  ‘Iguanodon’ praecursor Sauvage 1876 (n. d.) UBD04
  Ischyrosaurus manseli Hulke in Ludekker 1888 (n. d.) UBD04
  Kunmingosaurus wudingensis Dong 1992 (n. d.) UBD04
  Protognathosaurus oxyodon Zhang 1988 (n. d.) UBD04
  Pukyongosaurus millenniumi Dong, Paik & Kim 2001 (n. d.) UBD04
  Qinlingosaurus luonanensis Xue, Zhang & Bi 1996 (n. d.) UBD04
  Sonorasaurus thompsoni Ratkevich 1998 (n. d.) UBD04
  Ultrasaurus tabriensis Kim 1983 (n. d.) UBD04
  Dinodocus mackesoni Owen 1884 (n. d.) [=Pelorosaurus mackesoni] UBD04
  Tazoudasaurus Allain 2003 D07
    `--T. naimi D07
  Ferganasaurus Alifanov & Averianov 2003 D07
    `--F. verzilini D07
  Chiayusaurus UBD04
    |--C. asianensis Lee, Yang & Park 1997 UBD04
    `--C. lacustris Bohlin 1953 UBD04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS00] Buffetaut, E., V. Suteethorn, G. Cuny, H. Tong, J. Le Loueff, S. Khansubha & S. Jongautchariyakul. 2000. The earliest known sauropod dinosaur. Nature 407: 72–74.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[R-TCA06] Royo-Torres, R., A. Cobos & L. Alcalá. 2006. A giant European dinosaur and a new sauropod clade. Science 314: 1925–1927.

[UBD04] Upchurch, P., P. M. Barrett & P. Dodson. 2004. Sauropoda. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 259–322. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[XT07] Xu, X., Q. Tan, J. Wang, X. Zhao & L. Tan. 2007. A gigantic bird-like dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of China. Nature 447: 844–847.

[YK03] Yates, A. M., & J. W. Kitching. 2003. The earliest known sauropod dinosaur and the first steps towards sauropod locomotion. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 270: 1753–1758.

Last updated: 6 August 2017.

Erythropsidinium

Erythropsidinium agile, from here.


Belongs within: Gymnodiniales.

Erythropsidinium is a genus of marine phagotrophic dinoflagellates found in warm and temperate waters, characterised by the possession of a complex ocelloid and a contractile tentacle-like structure called a piston (Gómez 2008).

Characters (from Gómez 2008): Cell body globular, gymnodinioid, 70-120 µm in length (excluding piston), ~45-60 µm in width. Cell body mostly occupied by hyposome; episome less than 1/4 size of hyposome. Ocelloid present at left side of cell in ventral view; ocelloid composed of one or several hyaline lenses (hyalosome) and a highly pigmented region (melanosome). Nucleus ellipsoidal, usually located at right side of cell. Piston projecting from posteroventral invagination in hyposome; piston length highly variable, tending to be inversely proportional to thickness; piston may be enlarged in distal and/or proximal parts and with intermediate knobs; end may be capitate, with flattened thickening or papillae; distal end may show a terminal stylet. Contour of cell body may show an anterior lamella or horn; lamella (if present) pointed, arising from a lanceolate peduncle. Chromatophores absent.

Erythropsidinium Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis Hertwig 1884 non Lindley ex Schott & Endlicher 1832] FT93
    |--E. agile (Hertwig) Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis agilis] S73
    |--E. cochlea (Schütt) Silva 1960 [=Pouchetia cochlea] S73
    |--E. cornutum (Schütt) Silva 1960 [=Pouchetia cornuta] S73
    |--E. extrudens (Kofoid & Swezy) Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis extrudens] S73
    |--E. hispidum (Kofoid & Swezy) Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis hispida] S73
    |--E. labrum (Kofoid & Swezy) Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis labrum] S73
    |--E. minus (Kofoid & Swezy) Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis minor] S73
    |--E. pavillardii (Kofoid & Swezy) Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis pavillardii] S73
    |--E. richardii (Kofoid & Swezy) Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis richardii] S73
    `--E. scarlatinum (Kofoid & Swezy) Silva 1960 [=Erythropsis scarlatina] S73

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

Gómez, F. 2008. Erythropsidinium (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) in the Pacific Ocean, a unique dinoflagellate with an ocelloid and a piston. European Journal of Protistology 44: 291-298.

[S73] Sournia, A. 1973. Catalogue des espèces et taxons infraspécifiques de Dinoflagellés marins actuels publiés depuis la révision de J. Schiller. I. Dinoflagellés libres. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 48: 1-92.

Oviraptorosauria

Reconstruction of Caudipteryx zoui, by Matt Martyniuk.


Belongs within: Maniraptora.

The Oviraptorosauria are a group of cursorial theropods known from the Cretaceous of Eurasia and North America. Mostly less than two metres in length, they are characterised by deep, short skulls with the dentition reduced or absent. The ecology of oviraptorosaurs has been subject to much debate; they may have included herbivorous or omnivorous forms.

The majority of oviraptorosaurs belong to a clade Caenagnathoidea, which has been defined as the least inclusive clade including Oviraptor philoceratops and Caenagnathus collinsi. This clade is supported by several synapomorphies, including the presence of two longitudinal ridges and a toothlike ventral process on the palatal shelf of the maxilla, and a jaw joint close to the midline of the skull (Osmólska et al. 2004).

Synapomorphies (from Osmólska et al. 2004): Premaxilla with crenulated ventral margin; parietal at least as long as frontal; ascending process of quadratojugal bordering more than three-quarters of infratemporal fenestra; U-shaped mandibular symphysis present; dentary edentulous; pubic foot with cranial process longer than caudal process.

<==Oviraptorosauria
    |  i. s.: Thecocoelurus Huene 1923 OCB04
    |           `--*T. daviesi (Seeley 1888) OCB04 [=Thecospondylus daviesi OCB04, Coelurus daviesi N02]
    |--+--Protarchaeopteryx Ji & Ji 1997 ZZ08, P04
    |  |    `--P. robusta Ji & Ji 1997 P04
    |  `--Incisivosaurus Xu, Cheng et al. 2002 XT07, OCB04
    |       `--*I. gauthieri Xu, Cheng et al. 2002 XC02
    `--+--Similicaudipteryx GC13
       |--Avimimus Kurzanov 1981 [Avimimidae] OCB04
       |    `--A. portentosus Kurzanov 1981 OCB04
       `--+--Caudipteryx Ji, Currie et al. 1998 XT07, OCB04 [Caudipterygidae]
          |    |--C. dongi Zhou & Wang 2000 OCB04
          |    `--C. zoui Ji, Currie et al. 1998 OCB04
          `--Caenagnathoidea [Caenagnathinae, Oviraptoroidea] OCB04
               |  i. s.: Shixinggia oblita N10
               |--Caenagnathidae [Elmisauridae] OCB04
               |    |--Hagryphus giganteus N10
               |    |--Elmisaurus Osmólska 1981 MOW02, OCB04
               |    |    `--E. rarus Osmólska 1981 OCB04 [=Chirostenotes rarus P88]
               |    |--Caenagnathasia Currie, Godfrey & Nessov 1993 OCB04
               |    |    `--C. martinsoni Currie, Godfrey & Nessov 1993 1994 OCB04
               |    |--Nomingia Barsbold, Osmólska et al. 2000 OCB04
               |    |    `--N. gobiensis Barsbold, Osmólska et al. 2000 OCB04
               |    `--Chirostenotes Gilmore 1924 OCB04 (see below for synonymy)
               |         |--C. elegans (Parks 1933) OCB04 (see below for synonymy)
               |         `--C. pergracilis Gilmore 1924 (see below for synonymy) OCB04
               `--Oviraptoridae XT07
                       |  i. s.: Nemegtomaia barsboldi (Lü et al. 2004) [=Nemegtia barsboldi] N10
                       |--Gigantoraptor Xu, Tan et al. 2007 XT07
                       |    `--*G. erlianensis Xu, Tan et al. 2007 XT07
                       |--Microvenator Ostrom 1970 ZZ08, OCB04
                       |    `--M. celer Ostrom 1970 OCB04
                       `--+--Oviraptorinae OCB04
                          |    |--Oviraptor Osborn 1924 OCB04
                          |    |    `--O. philoceratops Osborn 1924 OCB04
                          |    |--Rinchenia Barsbold 1997 OCB04
                          |    |    `--R. mongoliensis (Barsbold 1986) [=Oviraptor mongoliensis] OCB04
                          |    `--Citipati Clark, Norell & Barsbold 2001 OCB04
                          |         `--C. osmolskae Clark, Norell & Barsbold 2001 OCB04
                          `--Ingeniinae OCB04
                               |--+--Conchoraptor Barsbold 1986 OCB04
                               |  |    `--C. gracilis Barsbold 1986 OCB04
                               |  `--Khaan Clark, Norell & Barsbold 2001 OCB04
                               |       `--K. mckennai Clark, Norell & Barsbold 2001 OCB04
                               `--+--‘Ingenia’ Barsbold 1981 non Gerlach 1957 OCB04
                                  |    `--I. yanshini Barsbold 1981 OCB04 [=Oviraptor (Ingenia) yanshini P88]
                                  `--Heyuannia Lü 2003 ZZ08, OCB04
                                       `--H. huangi Lü 2003 OCB04

Chirostenotes Gilmore 1924 OCB04 [incl. Caenagnathus Sternberg 1940 OCB04, Macrophalangia Sternberg 1932 N85]

Chirostenotes elegans (Parks 1933) OCB04 [=Ornithomimus elegans OCB04; incl. Caenagnathus sternbergi Cracraft 1971 OCB04, Chirostenotes sternbergi D07]

Chirostenotes pergracilis Gilmore 1924 [incl. Caenagnathus collinsi Sternberg 1940, Macrophalangia canadensis Sternberg 1932] OCB04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[GC13] Godefroit, P., A. Cau, Hu D.-Y., F. Escuillié, Wu W. & G. Dyke. 2013. A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds. Nature 498: 359–362.

[MOW02] Maryańska, T., H. Osmólska & M. Wolsan. 2002. Avialan status for Oviraptorosauria. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (1): 97–116.

[N02] Naish, D. 2002. The historical taxonomy of the Lower Cretaceous theropods (Dinosauria) Calamospondylus and Aristosuchus from the Isle of Wight. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 113: 153–163.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[OCB04] Osmólska, H., P. J. Currie & R. Barsbold. 2004. Oviraptorosauria. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 165–183. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[P04] Padian, K. 2004. Basal Avialae. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 210–231. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[P88] Paul, G. S. 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World: A Complete Illustrated Guide. Simon & Schuster: New York.

[XC02] Xu, X., Y.-N. Cheng, X.-L. Wang & C.-H. Chang. 2002. An unusual oviraptorosaurian dinosaur from China. Nature 419: 291–293.

[XT07] Xu, X., Q. Tan, J. Wang, X. Zhao & L. Tan. 2007. A gigantic bird-like dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of China. Nature 447: 844–847.

[ZZ08] Zhang, F., Z. Zhou, X. Xu, X. Wang & C. Sullivan. 2008. A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran from China with elongate ribbon-like feathers. Nature 455: 1105–1108.

Last updated: 28 March 2017.

Furnariidae

Rufous horneros Furnarius rufus, photographed by Dario Sanches.


Belongs within: Furnarioidea.
Contains: Geositta, Dendrocolaptinae, Automolus, Philydor, Cinclodes, Leptasthenura, Phacellodomus, Asthenes, Synallaxeinae.

The Furnariidae are a family of mostly grey to brown insectivorous birds found in Central and South America. They often have short rounded wings, strong legs and feet, and relatively long tails in which the feather shafts may be strengthened (Internet Bird Collection). They are often referred to as 'ovenbirds', in reference to the oven-like mud nests built by the horneros Furnarius, but other furnariid genera build different nest types. The leaftossers of the genus Sclerurus are primarily terrestrial birds that get their vernacular name from their manner of foraging among leaf litter.

Furnariidae [Furnariinae, Philydorinae, Scleruridae, Sclerurinae, Synallaxeidae, Upucerthiidae]
    |--+--Geositta JT12
    |  `--Sclerurus Swainson 1827 JT12, B94
    |       |  i. s.: S. caudacutus JT12
    |       |         S. rufigularis JT12
    |       |--S. mexicanus JT12
    |       `--+--S. guatemalensis JT12
    |          `--+--S. albigularis BKB15
    |             `--S. scansor JT12
    `--+--Dendrocolaptinae JT12
       `--+--Xenops Illiger 1811 JT12, B94 [Xenopinae]
          |    |--X. approximans SS66a
          |    |--X. genibarbis S18
          |    |    |--X. g. genibarbis S18
          |    |    `--X. g. mexicanus S18
          |    |--X. heterurus SS66b
          |    |--X. minutus A61
          |    |--X. rutilans JT12
          |    `--X. tenuirostris JT12
          `--+--+--‘Xenops’ milleri JT12
             |  `--+--Pygarrhichas Burmeister 1837 JT12, B94 [Pygarrhichadinae]
             |     |    `--P. albogularis JT12
             |     `--Ochetorhynchus JT12
             |          |--O. melanurus BKB15
             |          `--+--O. andaecola JT12
             |             `--+--O. phoenicurus JT12
             |                `--O. ruficaudus JT12
             `--+--Berlepschia rikeri BKB15
                `--+--+--+--Anabazenops dorsalis BKB15
                   |  |  `--+--+--‘Philydor’ ruficaudatum JT12
                   |  |     |  `--+--Automolus BKB15
                   |  |     |     `--+--Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides JT12
                   |  |     |        `--+--‘Automolus’ rubiginosus JT12
                   |  |     |           `--Hylocryptus JT12
                   |  |     |                |--H. erythrocephalus JT12
                   |  |     |                `--H. rectirostris JT12
                   |  |     `--+--Ancistrops BKB15
                   |  |        |    |--A. lineaticeps SS66b
                   |  |        |    `--A. strigilatus JT12
                   |  |        `--+--Philydor BKB15
                   |  |           `--+--+--Anabazenops fuscus BKB15
                   |  |              |  `--Megaxenops parnaguae BKB15
                   |  |              `--+--‘Philydor’ lichtensteini BKB15
                   |  |                 `--+--Anabacerthia BKB15
                   |  |                    |    |--A. amaurotis JT12
                   |  |                    |    |--A. striaticollis JT12
                   |  |                    |    `--A. variegaticeps JT12
                   |  |                    `--+--Simoxenops JT12
                   |  |                       |    |--S. striatua JT12
                   |  |                       |    `--S. ucayalae JT12
                   |  |                       `--Syndactyla JT12
                   |  |                            |--S. dimidiata JT12
                   |  |                            |--S. guttulata JT12
                   |  |                            |--S. ruficollis JT12
                   |  |                            |--S. rufosuperciliata JT12
                   |  |                            `--S. subalaris JT12
                   |  `--+--+--Pseudocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 BKB15, B94 [Pseudocolaptinae]
                   |     |  |    |--P. boissonneautii JT12
                   |     |  |    |--P. johnsoni JT12
                   |     |  |    `--P. lawrencii JT12
                   |     |  `--+--Premnornis guttuligera JT12
                   |     |     `--Tarphonomus JT12
                   |     |          |--T. certhioides JT12
                   |     |          `--T. harterti JT12
                   |     `--+--+--Furnarius Vieillot 1816 BKB15, B94
                   |        |  |    |  i. s.: F. cinnamomeus JT12
                   |        |  |    |         F. longirostris JT12
                   |        |  |    |         F. minor SS66a
                   |        |  |    |         F. torridus Sclater & Salvin 1866 SS66a
                   |        |  |    |--F. leucopus BKB15
                   |        |  |    `--+--F. figulus BKB15
                   |        |  |       `--+--F. cristatus BKB15
                   |        |  |          `--F. rufus JT12
                   |        |  `--+--Lochmias nematura BKB15
                   |        |     `--+--Limnornis curvirostris JT12
                   |        |        `--Phleocryptes melanops JT12
                   |        `--+--Geocerthia serrana BKB15 [=Upucerthia serrana JT12]
                   |           `--+--Cinclodes JT12
                   |              `--Upucerthia Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1832 JT12, B94 [Upucerthiinae]
                   |                   |  i. s.: U. saturatior JT12
                   |                   |--+--U. albigula JT12
                   |                   |  `--U. dumetaria Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire JT12, MW91
                   |                   `--+--U. jelskii JT12
                   |                      `--U. validirostris JT12
                   `--+--+--Premnoplex BKB15
                      |  |    |--P. brunnescens JT12
                      |  |    `--P. tatei JT12
                      |  `--Margarornis Reichenbach 1853 JT12, B94 [Margarornithinae]
                      |       |  i. s.: M. stellatus JT12
                      |       |--M. rubiginosus JT12
                      |       `--+--M. bellulus JT12
                      |          `--M. squamiger JT12
                      `--+--Aphrastura BKB15
                         |    |--A. masafuerae (Philippi & Landbeck 1866) HRS06
                         |    `--A. spinicauda N10
                         `--+--Leptasthenura BKB15
                            `--+--Phacellodomus BKB15
                               `--+--+--Hellmayrea gularis BKB15
                                  |  `--+--Coryphistera alaudina JT12
                                  |     `--Anumbius annumbi JT12
                                  `--+--Asthenes BKB15
                                     `--Synallaxeinae BKB15

Furnariidae incertae sedis:
  Leptoxyura cinnamomea SS66a
  Dendrornis SS66a
    |--D. palliata SS66a
    `--D. rostripallens SS66a
  Cichlocolaptes leucophrus JT12
  Geobamon rufipennis S66
  Geobates Swainson 1838 S66
    |--G. poecilopterus Maximilian 1830 (see below for synonymy) S66
    `--‘Anthus’ fuscus (n. d.) S66
  Schizoeaca JT12
    |--S. coryi JT12
    |--S. fuliginosa JT12
    |--S. griseomurina JT12
    |--S. palpebralis JT12
    |--S. perijana JT12
    `--S. vilcabambae JT12

Geobates poecilopterus Maximilian 1830 [=Anthus poecilopterus; incl. *Geobates brevicauda Swainson 1838, Geositta brevicauda] S66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[HRS06] Hahn, I., U. Römer & R. P. Schlatter. 2006. Population numbers and status of land birds of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile (Aves: Falconiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Passeriformes). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 109–125.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[MW91] Millener, P. R., & T. H. Worthy. 1991. Contributions to New Zealand’s late Quaternary avifauna. II: Dendroscansor decurvirostris, a new genus and species of wren (Aves: Acanthisittidae). Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 21: 179–200.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Notes on the genus Geobates of Swainson. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 204–205.

[SS66a] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866a. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SS66b] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866b. On some additions to the catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Ucayali. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 566–567.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

Troglodytes

Northern house wren Troglodytes aedon, photographed by Blair Wainman.


Belongs within: Troglodytidae.
Contains: Troglodytes troglodytes.

Troglodytes is a genus of small wrens, mostly found in cooler habitats. They are brown in colouration and relatively unpatterned.

<==Troglodytes Vieillot 1807 M02 [incl. Anorthura Rennie 1831 B94, Nannus Billberg 1828 B94; Anorthuridae]
    |  i. s.: T. cobbi N10
    |         T. furvus SS66
    |         T. gracilis Brunner 1958 M02
    |         ‘Nannus’ hiemalis CM07
    |         T. monticola JT12
    |         T. sissonii JT12
    |         T. tanneri JT12
    |--+--T. troglodytes JT12
    |  `--Cistothorus JT12
    |       |--C. apolinari Chapman 1914 L03
    |       |--C. brevis FP64
    |       |--C. meridae Hellmayr 1907 [=C. platensis meridae] L03
    |       |--C. palustris L03
    |       |    |--C. p. palustris L03
    |       |    `--C. p. marianae Scott 1888 L03
    |       `--C. platensis L03
    |            |--C. p. platensis L03
    |            |--C. p. aequatorialis Lawrence 1871 L03
    |            |--C. p. alticola Salvin & Goodman 1883 [incl. C. p. caracasensis Chapman 1921] L03
    |            |--C. p. falklandicus Chapman 1934 L03
    |            |--C. p. jalapensis Dickerman 1975 L03
    |            |--C. p. tucumanus Hartert in Hartert & Venturi 1909 L03
    |            `--C. p. warneri Dickerman 1975 L03
    `--+--+--T. brunneicollis JF06
       |  `--+--*T. aedon L03, JT12
       |     |    |--T. a. aedon L03
       |     |    |--T. a. albicans Berlepsch & Taczanowski 1884 (see below for synonymy) L03
       |     |    |--T. a. atopus Oberholser 1904 [=T. musculus atopus] L03
       |     |    |--T. a. carabayae Chapman & Griscom 1924 [=T. musculus carabayae] L03
       |     |    |--T. a. inquietus Lawrence ex Baird 1864 [=T. musculus inquietus] L03
       |     |    |--T. a. intermedius Cabanis 1860 [incl. T. musculus oreopolus Chapman & Griscom 1924] L03
       |     |    |--T. a. parkmanii Audubon 1839 [incl. T. a. marianae Scott 1885] L03
       |     |    `--T. a. tobagensis Lawrence 1888 L03
       |     `--T. musculus Naumann 1823 JF06, L03
       |          |--T. m. musculus (see below for synonymy) L03
       |          |--T. m. grenadensis MS55
       |          |--T. m. guadeloupensis MS55 [=T. aedon guadeloupensis USDI77]
       |          `--T. m. mesoleucus MS55 [=T. aedon mesoleucus USDI77]
       `--+--T. solstitialis JT12
          |    |--T. s. solstitialis L03
          |    `--T. s. solitarius Todd 1912 [incl. T. s. pallidipectus Chapman 1912] L03
          `--+--+--Thryorchilus browni JT12
             |  `--T. rufociliatus JT12
             |       |--T. r. rufociliatus FS55
             |       `--T. r. nannoides FS55
             `--+--T. ochraceus JT12
                |    |--T. o. ochraceus L03
                |    `--T. o. ligea Bangs 1908 [incl. T. o. remotus Griscom 1924] L03
                `--T. rufulus JT12
                     |--T. r. rufulus L03
                     `--T. r. duidae Chapman 1929 L03

Troglodytes aedon albicans Berlepsch & Taczanowski 1884 [incl. T. musculus chapmani Stone 1918, T. musculus clarus, T. musculus neglectus Chapman 1917 non T. neglectus Brooke 1872] L03

Troglodytes musculus musculus
Naumann 1831 [incl. Thryothorus platensis Wied 1831, Th. wiedi Berlepsch 1873, Tr. musculus wiedi] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds) pp. 339-373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 241-265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.