Sweet flag Acorus calamus, photographed by Robert Svensson.

Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Alismatanae, Liliidae.

The Monocotyledoneae are a well-defined clade of flowering plants, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the least inclusive clade containing Acorus calamus, Gymnostachys anceps, Tofieldia glutinosa and Lilium superbum. Most monocots are distinguished from other flowering plants by their elongate leaves with parallel veins, and flowers with parts (sepals, petals, etc.) in multiples of three. Most recent studies agree in placing the sweet flags Acorus, a genus of rhizomatous plants found in wetlands of Eurasia and North America, as the sister clade to other living monocots.

See also: Reference review: The monocot tree.

Synapomorphies (from Cantino et al. 2007): Embryo with single cotyledon; parallel-veined leaves; stem with scattered vascular bundles; sieve tube plastids with cuneate proteinaceous crystalloids.

<==Monocotyledoneae [Acoranae, Alismatidae, Arecidae, Liliopsida, Monocotyledones, Nudiflorae, Triurididae]
    |--Acorus [Acoraceae, Acorales] CD07
    |    |  i. s.: A. americanus WM14
    |    |--A. calamus Linnaeus 1753 DS04, CD07
    |    `--+--A. gramineus DS04
    |       `--A. tatarinowii DS04
    `--Nartheciidae CD07
         |--Alismatanae CD07
         `--Petrosaviidae CD07
              |--Liliidae DS04
              `--Petrosaviaceae [Petrosaviales, Petrosavianae] DS04
                   |--Japonolirion osense DS04
                   `--Petrosavia stellaris Becc. 1871 CD07

Monocotyledoneae incertae sedis:
  Clivia C02
  Eriophorum K02
    |--E. alpinum T30
    |--E. angustifolium CS77
    |--E. scheuchzeri CS77
    `--E. vaginatum RKD02
  Odyssea R-S02
  Hosta BA03
  Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus K86
  Syringodium L85
    |--S. filiforme CH97
    `--S. isoetifolium L85
  Acaciaephyllum FPC04
  Pennistemon FPC04
  Caulinities loipopytis S89
  Thoracostachyum sumatranum C78
  Dichelostemma congestum MGF04
  Triteleia lemmonae MGF04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BA03] Bergthorsson, U., K. L. Adams, B. Thomason & J. D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. Nature 424: 197–201.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[C02] Coetzee, J. H. 2002. Benefit sharing from flowering bulb—is it still possible? In: Littlejohn, G., et al. (eds) Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Flowerbulbs. Acta Horticulturae 570: 21–27.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[FPC04] Friis, E. M., K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane. 2004. Araceae from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal: evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (47): 16565–16570.

[K86] Knott, B. 1986. Isopoda: Phreatoicidea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 486–492. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[L85] Lowry, J. K. 1985. Two new species of Cerapus from Samoa and Fiji (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Ischyroceridae). Records of the Australian Museum 36: 157–168.

[MGF04] Manning, J. C., P. Goldblatt & M. F. Fay. 2004. A revised generic synopsis of Hyacinthaceae in sub-Saharan Africa, based on molecular evidence, including new combinations and the new tribe Pseudoprospereae. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60 (3): 533–568.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[R-S02] Russell-Smith, A. 2002. A comparison of the diversity and composition of ground-active spiders in Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania and Etosha National Park, Namibia. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 383–388.

[S89] Squinabol, S. 1889. Res Ligusticae. VII.—Cenno preliminare sulla flora fossile di Santa Giustina. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 73–76.

[T30] Taylor, G. 1930. Scottish plants growing in their native habitats. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 30–31.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.

Last updated: 27 July 2017.

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