Asilidae

Leptogaster cylindrica, copyright Fritz Geller-Grimm.


Belongs within: Asiloidea.
Contains: Dioctriinae, Stenopogoninae, Laphriinae, Dasypogoninae, Apocleinae, Asilinae.

The Asilidae, robber flies, are a group of predatory flies characterised by a moustache of bristles across the lower margin of the face.

Characters (from Wood 1981): Small (3 mm) to very large (over 50 mm) flies, averaging 9-15 mm in length, long and slender to short, robust, and bee-like. Head with compound eyes large, usually widely separated, equally so in both sexes; eye facets enlarged medially; eye extending dorsally above level of vertex, causing vertex to appear excavated when viewed anteriorly; ocellar tubercle prominent; median ocellus enlarged; vestiture of ocellar tubercle of fine pile, often mixed with bristles. Face extensively developed, often convexly protuberant (gibbous); facial protuberance, or gibbosity, with a characteristic group of stout anteroventrally directed hairs or bristles, the mystax, arranged as a cluster on lower part of face. Clypeus reduced, concave or flat, folded posteroventrally below lower facial margin. Antenna held erect; scape and pedicel each usually with long or short pile, often with stout bristles; first flagellomere elongate or oval, pubescent or tomentose but without pile or bristles, usually longer than either scape or pedicel. Bent apical or subapical stylus usually present on first flagellomere, typically two-segmented, occasionally one-segmented, apparently absent in Laphriinae. A minute spine, often in a pit, present at apex of antenna on either first or succeeding flagellomeres. Mouthparts adapted for stabbing and sucking prey. Mandible absent; stabbing function performed by needle-like hypopharynx that injects a paralyzing saliva. Proboscis elongate, heavily sclerotized, formed from ventromedial fusion of prementum and labella as continuous tube open at apex and dorsomedially, enclosing maxillae and hypopharynx; tip of labella pointed or rounded, usually surrounded with sensory hairs; ventral surface of labella and most of prementum pilose. Palpus usually slender or clavate, setose. Thorax with notopleural, supra-alar, and postalar bristles almost always present; dorsocentral bristles usually present. Scutellum usually pruinose but sometimes shiny, almost always with hairs or bristles along its margin especially at apex; katatergite almost always with a row or group of bristles. Legs raptorial, stout, frequently with numerous stour bristles; all tibiae with several stout bristles at apices. Wing venation with R always four-branched, with R2+3 unbranched. Abdomen with dight segments usually present in both male and female, with remaining two segments incorporated into terminalia. Larva elongate, subcylindrical to somewhat dorsoventrally flattened, often tapering at each end; colour white to yellowish, sometimes with a few fine longitudinal streaks. Head capsule much narrower than prothorax, usually exerted, directed ventrally. Nine abdominal segments apparently present, with eighth and ninth partly fused; length of segments increasing toward seventh. Respiratory system functionally amphipneustic, although vestigial spiracles are present on first seven abdominal segments.

Asilidae BT04
    |--+--+--Stenopogoninae BT04
    |  |  `--+--Laphriinae BT04
    |  |     `--Dasypogoninae BT04
    |  `--+--+--Apocleinae BT04
    |     |  `--+--Asilinae BT04
    |     |     `--Ommatius [Ommatiinae, Ommatiini] BT04
    |     |          |--O. mackayi ZS10
    |     |          |--O. megacephalus F09
    |     |          `--O. tibialis W81
    |     `--Trigonomiminae [Damalinae, Damalini] F09
    |          |--Haplopogon W81
    |          |--Bromleyus flavidorsus W81
    |          |--Holcocephala BT04
    |          |    |--H. abdominalis BT04
    |          |    `--H. affinis F09
    |          `--Orrhodops W81
    |               |--O. americanus W81
    |               `--O. occidentalis F09
    `--Leptogastrinae [Leptogastridae, Leptogastrini] BT04
         |--Psilonyx annulatus BT04 [=Leptogaster (Psilonyx) annulatus W81]
         |--Beameromyia bifida F09
         |--Eurhabdus zephyreus F09
         |--*Tipulogaster glabrata F09 [=Leptogaster (Tipulogaster) glabrata W81]
         |--Apachekolos F09
         |    |--A. crinitus F09 [=Leptogaster (Apachekolos) crinita W81]
         |    `--A. scapularis F09
         |--Schildia F09
         |    |--*S. microthorax F09
         |    |--S. guatemalae F09
         |    `--S. zonae F09
         |--Leptopteromyia W81
         |    |--L. americana W81
         |    |--L. gracilis F09
         |    |--L. mexicanae F09
         |    `--L. peruae F09
         `--Leptogaster BT04
              |--*L. cylindrica W81
              |--L. flavipes F09
              |--L. nigricornis K01
              |--L. spinitarsis F09
              `--L. titanus [=Tipulogaster titanus] F09

Asilidae incertae sedis:
  Araripogon axelrodi GE05
  Dioctriinae BT04
  Stizochimus salinator ZS10
  Brachyrhopala ZS10
  Deromyia discolor BM76
  Coleomyia setigera W81
  Itolia maculata W81
  Sintoria emeralda W81
  Hodophylax W81
  Parataracticus W81
  Willistonina bilineata W81
  Nannocyrtopogon neoculatus W81
  Metapogon gilvipes W81
  Callinicus pollenius W81
  Backomyia limpidipennis W81
  Pritchardomyia vespoides W81
  Lophonotus punctipennis K01
  Eutolmus sedakoffi K01
  Phinocus BW09
  Habropogon [Eremocneminae] J61
    |--H. appendiculatus J61
    |--H. exquisitus J61
    `--H. striatus J61
  Selidopogon [Acanthocneminae] J61
    |--S. crassus J61
    |--S. diadema J61
    `--S. octonotatus J61
  Codula limbipennis C91
  Chrysopogon crabroniformis C91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[BT04] Bybee, S. M., S. D. Taylor, C. R. Nelson & M. F. Whiting. 2004. A phylogeny of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) at the subfamilial level: molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 789–797.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[J61] Janssens, E. 1961. Sur quelques asilides mediterranees. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 29–36.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[W81] Wood, G. C. 1981. Asilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 549–573. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Asilinae

Asilus crabroniformis, copyright António A. Gonçalves.


Belongs within: Asilidae.

The Asilinae are a group of robber flies with a long, bare stylus on the antenna (Wood 1981).

Characters (from Wood 1981, as Asilini): Apex of antenna with long slender bristle-like stylus; antennal stylus bare. Palpus one-segmented. Postmetacoxal area membranous. Wing with R2+3 joining R1 proximal to end of R1, with cell r thus separated from wing margin; crossvein m-cu absent, and veins M3 and CuA1 joined together.

<==Asilinae [Asilini] BT04
    |--Asilopsis W81
    |--Senoprosopis W81
    |--Promachella pilosa W81
    |--Promachina trapezoidalis W81
    |--Mallophorina frustra W81
    |--Proctacanthella cacopiloga W81
    |--Rhadiurgus variabilis W81
    |--Polacantha (Echinitropis) xanthocera W81, F09
    |--Antipalus varipes F09
    |--Anarmostus iopterus F09
    |--Prolatiforceps anonyma F09
    |--Talamancasilus clavatus F09
    |--Threnia F09
    |--Pamponerus germanicus J61
    |--Acanthopleura brunnipes J61
    |--Colepia CM91
    |--Zosteria CM91
    |--Blepharotes CM91
    |--Neoaratus hercules CM70
    |--Cerdistus [incl. Neomochtherus] W81
    |    |--C. elegans J61
    |    `--‘Neomochtherus’ ochriventris J61
    |--Philonicus BT04
    |    |--P. albiceps F09
    |    `--P. arizonensis BT04
    |--Wyliea W81
    |    |--W. chrysauges F09
    |    `--W. mydas W81
    |--Neoitamus W81
    |    |--N. cyanurus V09
    |    `--N. orphne W81
    |--Dysmachus J61
    |    |--D. dasynotus J61
    |    `--D. forcipula K01
    |--Machimus BT04 [incl. Tolmerus W81]
    |    |--M. achterbergi Tomasovic 2004 F05
    |    |--M. gertschi F09
    |    |--M. paropus [=Asilus (Machimus) paropus] W81
    |    |--M. perplexus J61
    |    |--M. rusticus K01
    |    `--M. soikai Janssens 1961 J61
    `--Asilus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. ater Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. aureus L02
         |--A. auriannulatus W81
         |--A. barbarus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. bipartitus Macquart 1849 E12
         |--A. blantoni W81
         |--A. crabroniformis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. flavopilosus Macquart 1849 E12
         |--A. forcipatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. germanicus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. gibbosus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. gilvus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. hirtipes Macquart 1849 E12
         |--A. marginatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. maurus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. morio Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. oelandicus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--A. periscelis Macquart 1849 E12
         |--A. teutonus L02
         `--A. tipuloides Linnaeus 1758 L58

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BT04] Bybee, S. M., S. D. Taylor, C. R. Nelson & M. F. Whiting. 2004. A phylogeny of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) at the subfamilial level: molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 789–797.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[J61] Janssens, E. 1961. Sur quelques asilides mediterranees. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 29–36.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[W81] Wood, G. C. 1981. Asilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 549–573. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Laphriinae

Andrenosoma fulvicaudum, copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Asilidae.
Contains: Atomosini.

The Laphriinae are a group of robber flies lacking a stylus on the antenna (Wood 1981).

Characters (from Wood 1981): Antenna blunt apically, without stylus, or with one or two abruptly tapered short microsegments. Palpus two-segmented. Wing with R2+3 joining R1 proximal to end of R1, with cell r thus separated from wing margin; crossvein m-cu present; thus apex of cell bm closed by three veins. Male terminalia rotated 180° permanently.

<==Laphriinae BT04
    |  i. s.: Smeryngolaphria [Dasytrichini] F09
    |           `--S. numitor F09
    |--+--Atomosini BT04
    |  `--Laphriini [Dasylechiini] BT04
    |       |--Maira BT04
    |       |--Dasylechia W81
    |       |--Orthogonis stygia W81
    |       |--Ichneumolaphria fascipennis F09
    |       |--*Phellopteron farri F09
    |       |--Rhopalogaster F09
    |       |    |--R. araujoi F09
    |       |    `--R. micronyx F09
    |       |--Lampria W81
    |       |    |--L. aurifex F09
    |       |    |--L. clavipes F09
    |       |    `--L. rubriventris W81
    |       `--Laphria BT04
    |            |--L. bomboides Macquart 1849 E12
    |            |--L. gilva K01
    |            |--L. hirta C91
    |            |--L. sadales W81
    |            `--L. thoracica CW09
    `--Andrenosomatini F09
         |--Cerotainiops F09
         |--Exodasyllis F09
         |--Neophoneus [Neophoneini] F09
         |    `--N. amandus F09
         |--Pilica F09
         |    |--P. erythrogaster F09
         |    `--P. formidolosa F09
         |--Dasandra F09
         |    |--*D. ayalai F09
         |    |--D. hespenheidei F09
         |    `--D. zanutoi F09
         |--Dasyllis F09
         |    |--D. corallia F09
         |    |--D. funebris F09
         |    |--D. haemorrhoa F09
         |    `--D. phoenicogaster F09
         |--Eurycheilis F09
         |    |--E. bromleyi F09
         |    |--E. collini F09
         |    |--E. eufriesiae F09
         |    `--E. nigra F09
         `--Andrenosoma BT04
              |--*A. (Andrenosoma) atrum F09
              |--A. cinereum F09
              |--A. fulvicaudum F09
              |--A. (Pogonosoma) ridingsi W81
              |--A. sarcophagum F09
              `--A. xanthocnemum F09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BT04] Bybee, S. M., S. D. Taylor, C. R. Nelson & M. F. Whiting. 2004. A phylogeny of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) at the subfamilial level: molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 789–797.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CW09] Cumming, J. M., & D. M. Wood. 2009. Adult morphology and terminology. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–50. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[W81] Wood, G. C. 1981. Asilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 549–573. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Stratiomyidae

Barred snout Nemotelus uliginosus, copyright David Gould.


Belongs within: Stratiomyomorpha.
Contains: Stratiomyini, Oxycerini.

The Stratiomyidae, soldier flies, are an ecologically diverse group of often colourful flies.

Characters (from James 1981): Slender to quite robust flies, 2-18 mm long. Colour usually yellow, green, blue, or black, sometimes metallic, frequently with variegated color patterns particularly on abdomen. Bristles not developed, though body, especially thorax, sometimes densely pilose. Head usually as broad as thorax but sometimes broader, hemispherical to spherical. Occipital (postocular) orbit often well-developed, especially in female. Eyes ranging from bare to densely hairy, widely separated in female, more narrowly separated or contiguous in male, each eye in male often divided into an upper area comprising large facets and a lower area of small facets; ocelli present. Antenna inserted at or below middle of head; scape and pedicel unmodified except in respect to elongation; flagellum consisting of five to eight flagellomeres. Proboscis usually fleshy, sometimes atrophied, sometimes elongated, never adapted for sucking blood; palpus one- or two-segmented, not conspicuous. Thorax rectangular-oval in dorsal outline, sometimes elongated. Scutellum sometimes with one to three pairs of apical spines. Wing well-developed (rarely absent); C not reaching beyond apex of wing; stronger veins crowded anteriorly; branches of R always meeting wing margin well before wing apex; Rs usually arising from R1 shortly before base of cell d or dm; R4 short, often indistinct or wanting; veins toward posterior margin of wing weak, tending to evanesce. Legs simple, at most with certain segrnents or tarsomeres inflated or elongated, never densely pilose; fore coxa never unusually elongated; pulvilli and empodia pad-like; tibial spurs only rarely developed. Abdomen composed of five to eight visible segments, with the remaining segments telescoped into visible ones or forming terminalia; outline from dorsal view varying from almost round to elongate-oval, sometimes petiolate or spatulate; vestiture moderate, never dense. Male terminalia usually small, rather simple; surstylus simple and ventral; aedeagus two- or three-pronged; cercus simple. Terminal female segments forming at most a simple weakly developed ovipositor. Larva elongated, flattened, composed of head capsule and ll body segments; integument shagreened from deposit of calcium carbonate plates; head capsule well-developed, although broadly open posteroventrally, retracted more than half its length within thorax, but not functionally retractile; anterior exposed portion elongated and narrow except for ocular prominences, broadened posteriorly; mandible and maxilla more or less completely fused, operating vertically; maxillary palpus distinct; no free pharyngeal skeleton within head capsule; antenna usually located anterolaterally. Prothorax broader than head, with remainder of body either parallel-sided to near apex or attaining maximum width at abdominal segment 2; prominent lateral spiracles present on prothorax; lateral spiracles sometimes present on metathorax and on abdominal segments l-6 or 1-7, but small and probably not functional; posterior spiracles functional, located in transverse cleft on terminal abdominal segment; prolegs lacking, although ventral hooks sometimes present, especially on penultimate or antepenultimate segment, or both. Pupation occurring within last larval integument.

Stratiomyidae J81
    |  i. s.: Barbiellinia Bezzi 1922 K03
    |           `--*B. hirta Bezzi 1922 K03
    |         Cretaceogaster pygmaeus GE05
    |         Montsecia martinezdelclosi GE05
    |         Syndipnomyia auricincta C91
    |         Lysozus W09
    |         Pedinocera W09
    |         Exaireta spiniger CM91
    |         Neoexaireta spinigera CM70
    |--Parhadrestiinae BLM02
    |--Chrysochlorina J81 [Chrysochlorininae W09]
    |    |--C. haterius W09
    |    `--C. quadrilineata J81
    |--Chiromyzinae W09
    |    |--Chiromyza vittata W09
    |    |--Boreoides subulatus CM91
    |    `--Inopus J81 [incl. Altermetoponia CM74]
    |         `--I. rubriceps (Macquart 1847) H82 [=Altermetoponia rubriceps CM70]
    |--Hermetiinae [Hermetiini] W09
    |    |--Chaetohermetia apicalis W09
    |    `--Hermetia W09
    |         |--H. albitarsis W09
    |         |--H. flavipes W09
    |         `--H. illucens J81
    |--Stratiomyinae J81
    |    |--Stratiomyini J81
    |    |--Oxycerini J81
    |    `--Prosopochrysini [Myxosargini] W09
    |         |--Nothomyia parvicornis J81
    |         `--Myxosargus J81
    |              |--M. knowltoni J81
    |              `--M. nigricornis J81
    |--Raphiocerinae W09
    |    |--Raphiocera armata W09
    |    |--Analcoceroides longicornis W09
    |    |--Brachythrix dileucostigma W09
    |    |--Anisoscapus chlorovittatus W09
    |    |--Neanalcocerus hortulanus W09
    |    |--Phanerozus pampinus W09
    |    |--Heptozus hansoni W09
    |    |--Dolichothrix melanothroax W09
    |    `--Histiodroma caloptera [=Raphiocera caloptera] W09
    |--Beridinae J81
    |    |--Allognosta J81
    |    |--Actina viridis J81
    |    |--Arcuavena W09
    |    |--Heteracanthia ruficornis W09
    |    |--Beridella W09
    |    |--Berismyia W09
    |    |--Paraberismyia W09
    |    |--Oplachantha W09
    |    `--Beris Latreille 1802 L02
    |         |--*B. sexdentata [=Stratiomys sexdentata] L02
    |         |--B. annulifera J81
    |         `--B. fuscipes K01
    |--Nemotelinae J81
    |    |--Akronia frontosa J81
    |    |--Brachycara W09
    |    |    |--B. maculata W09
    |    |    `--B. slossonae W09
    |    `--Nemotelus J81
    |         |--N. albirostris J81
    |         |--N. canadensis J81
    |         |--N. (Camptopelta) glaber W09
    |         |--N. kansensis J81
    |         |--N. signatus K01
    |         |--N. uliginosus L02
    |         |--N. varius K01
    |         `--N. zichyi Kertész 1901 K01
    |--Sarginae J81
    |    |--Chloromyia formosa J81
    |    |--Acrochaeta mexicana W09
    |    |--Himantigera W09
    |    |--Lobisquama barbata W09
    |    |--Microchrysa J81
    |    |    |--M. bicolor W09
    |    |    `--M. polita J81
    |    |--Cephalochrysa J81
    |    |    |--C. nigricornis J81
    |    |    `--C. texana W09
    |    |--Ptecticus J81
    |    |    |--P. testaceus W09
    |    |    `--P. trivittatus J81
    |    |--Merosargus J81
    |    |    |--M. cingulatus J81
    |    |    `--M. mirabilis W09
    |    `--Sargus [incl. Eumenogastrina] W09
    |         |  i. s.: S. flavilatus W09
    |         |         S. hypoleon [=Stratiomys hypoleon] L02
    |         |         S. linearis W09
    |         |         S. thoracicus W09
    |         |--S. (Sargus) cuprarius J81
    |         `--S. (Pedicellina) fasciatus J81 [incl. *Eumenogastrina angusta W09]
    |--Clitellariinae [Antissinae, Clitellariini] J81
    |    |--Antissa cuprea J81, ZS10
    |    |--Exodontha luteipes W09 [=Antissa luteipes J81]
    |    |--Dieuryneura stigma J81
    |    |--Grypomyia W09
    |    |--Acropeltates kerteszi W09
    |    |--Auloceromyia vespiformis W09
    |    |--Chordonota W09
    |    |--Labocerina atrata W09
    |    |--Leucoptilum W09
    |    |--Abavus W09
    |    |--Dicyphoma J81
    |    |    |--*D. schaefferi W09
    |    |    `--D. ryckmani W09
    |    |--Diaphorostylus W09
    |    |    |--D. flavipes W09
    |    |    `--D. interruptus W09
    |    |--Ditylometopa W09
    |    |    |--D. elegans W09
    |    |    `--D. rufifrons W09
    |    |--Quichuamyia W09
    |    |    |--Q. aplanatantennae W09
    |    |    `--Q. costaricensis W09
    |    |--Adoxomyia J81
    |    |    |--A. fenestrata W09
    |    |    |--A. rustica J81
    |    |    `--A. weyrauchi Lindner 1951 W09
    |    |--Euryneura J81
    |    |    |--E. elegans W09
    |    |    |--E. propinqua J81
    |    |    `--E. robusta W09
    |    `--Cyphomyia J81
    |         |--C. androgyna W09
    |         |--C. bicarinata J81
    |         |--C. cyanea W09
    |         |--C. erecta W09
    |         `--C. picta W09
    `--Pachygastrinae J81
         |--Artemita nana J81
         |--Berkshiria albistylum J81
         |--Neopachygaster maculicornis J81
         |--Blastocera speciosa W09
         |--Neochauna variabilis W09
         |--Panacris microdonta W09
         |--Panacridops varians W09
         |--Kerteszmyia ecuadora W09
         |--Pseudocyphomyia mimetica W09
         |--Acanthinomyia elongata W09
         |--Tegocera jamesi Lindner 1964 W09
         |--Ecchaetomyia nigrovittata W09
         |--Chalcidomorphina aurata W09
         |--Brachyodina W09
         |--Ligyromyia columbiana W09
         |--Lyprotemyia formicaeformis W09
         |--Vittiger schnusei W09
         |--Strobilaspis flavitarsis W09
         |--Hypselophrum W09
         |--Trigonocerina W09
         |--Cosmariomyia J81
         |    |--*C. argyrosticta W09
         |    `--C. pallidipennis J81
         |--Borboridea J81
         |    |--B. megaspis W09
         |    `--B. microcephalum W09
         |--Zabrachia J81
         |    |--Z. barbata W09
         |    `--Z. polita J81
         |--Caenacantha W09
         |    |--C. bipartita W09
         |    `--C. obesa W09
         |--Chorophthalmyia W09
         |    |--‘Cosmariomyia’ albarista W09
         |    `--C. brevicornis Lindner 1964 W09
         |--Popanomyia W09
         |    |--*P. femoralis W09
         |    `--P. kertesz W09
         |--Cynipimorpha W09
         |    |--C. bilimeki W09
         |    `--C. opuntiae [=Cactobia opuntiae] W09
         |--Eupachygaster W09
         |    |--E. alexanderi W09
         |    `--E. tarsalis W09
         |--Psephiocera W09
         |    |--P. cognata W09
         |    `--P. villosa [=Lyprotemyia villosa] W09
         |--Dactylodeictes W09
         |    |--D. brevifacies W09
         |    |--D. lopesi W09
         |    `--D. medius W09
         |--Manotes W09
         |    |--*M. plana W09
         |    |--M. crassimanus W09
         |    `--M. latimanus W09
         |--Eidalimus J81
         |    |--*E. annulatus W09
         |    |--E. fuscus W09
         |    |--E. henshawi W09
         |    `--E. lineatus W09
         |--Pachygaster J81
         |    |--*P. atra W09
         |    |--P. flavipennis Hull 1942 W09
         |    |--P. pulcher W09
         |    `--P. wirthi W09
         `--Gowdeyana J81
              |--G. argenteus W09
              |--G. mirabilis W09
              |--G. punctifera J81
              |--G. varipes W09
              `--G. vitrisetosus W09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[J81] James, M. T. 1981. Stratiomyidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 497–511. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[W09] Woodley, N. E. 2009. Stratiomyidae (soldier flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 521–549. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Therevidae

Phycus frommeri, copyright Spencer Entomological Collection.


Belongs within: Asiloidea.
Contains: Agapophytinae, Therevinae.

The Therevidae, stiletto flies, are a group of often fast-flying flies that are predatory as larvae but not as adults (Irwin & Lyneborg 1981).

Characters (from Irwin & Lyneborg 1981): Slender to moderately thick-bodied flies; length, excluding antennae, 2.5-15 mm. Background color light yellow to black. Head hemispherical, not depressed at vertex. Eyes dichoptic in female, holoptic in most males, usually without hairs in both sexes. Frons of female wide, reaching ocellar tubercle; frons of male usually small, acutely to broadly triangular, pruinose to bare. Three prominent ocelli set at vertex or slightly anterior to vertex. Antenna three-segmented; scape usually setose, especially ventrally; pedicel usually with ring or two of short setae; first flagellomere without setae, or with setae usually confined to basal third; stylus comprising one or two flagellomeres and a terminal or subterminal bristle, set apically or subapically on basal flagellomere. Face often pruinose; lateral area hairy or not; gena hairy or not; occiput finely pruinose; postocular setae usually present though often weak. Palpus one- or two-segmented, usually hairy and not prominent, set beside proboscis in subcranial cavity; proboscis slightly longer than palpus, usually carried within subcranial cavity. Thorax with scutum varying from nearly square to elongate rectangular when viewed from above. Scutellum prominent, often without hairs, but almost always pruinose and often tomentose. Pleuron variously pilose; upper portion usually densely pruinose. Chaetotaxy with one pair postalar setae; one to six pairs notopleural setae, or more; one or two pairs supra-alar setae; usually from zero to two pairs dorsocentral setae, but three or more in a few species; zero to three, rarely four, pairs scutellar setae. Legs usually fairly long and slender; hindleg longer than other two. Fore coxa with none to several setae on anterior surface; all femora bare to heavily setose especially postventrally, often with long scale-like pile along dorsal surface; tibiae and tarsi setulose in definite longitudinal rows; fore tibia lacking setae anteroventrally. Five tarsomeres present; first tarsomere longest; claw with two pulvilli and seta-like central empodium, or with empodium absent. Wing venation generally uniform; R1 setose or not; R4 elongate, often sinuate; cell d elongate, with M1, M2 and M3 arising from apex; CuA1 not meeting posterior margin of cell d; crossvein m-cu present; cell cup closed behind; cell m3 open or closed. Pterostigma usually well-developed. Calypter well-developed. Halter large and well-developed. Abdomen usually convex to flattened dorsally and tapering at apex, sometimes laterally compressed, always with eight well-developed pregenital segments. Fine silvery pollen often adorning abdomen. Tomentum and pile present or absent, usually longer and denser on male. Female terminalia with large conspicuous sternite 8; sternite 9, or genital fork, completely internal, with two lateral sclerites fused posteriorly to sclerotized bar containing membranous central sheath through which pass ducts of spermathecae and accessory glands; three usually unsclerotised spermathecae and two accessory glands present; tergite 8 generally unmodified; tergite 9 usually a single sclerite, generally with extended lateral margins fused to posterolateral margins of genital fork; tergite l0 always divided, often fused with tergite 9; digging-anchoring spines often present posterodorsally and anterolaterally; sternites l0 and ll (hypoproct, subanal plate) usually a single plate, usually heavily sclerotised; cerci disc-shaped. Male terminalia with sclerites forming sternite 8 and tergite 8 unmodified to narrowly constricted; tergite 9 (epandrium) acting as large covering for terminalia, often with surstyli or lateral surstylar-like lobes of various sizes and shapes; hypoproct and cerci borne apically; gonocoxites often extending as broad to narrow lobe well beyond insertion of gonostylus, usually with one or more other appendages; aedeagus consisting of a short to long variously twisted distiphallus, an elongate or vestigial dorsal aedeagal apodeme, a simple or forked ventral apodeme, and a variously shaped ejaculatory apodeme. Larva elongate, cylindrical, tapering anteriorly toward head and apex of abdomen; head small, with cranium well-sclerotised and divided into two portions; anterior portion exposed and strongly tapered anteriorly toward mouthparts; posterior portion a long apically spatulate metacephalic rod, flexibly articulated to posterior dorsal margin of anterior cranial portion and projecting into thorax; mouthparts comprising median slender tapered labrum flanked by curved pointed mandibles, and laciniae and palpi of maxillae, with elements of labium ventrally; labium consisting of large postmentum closing ventral part of cranial cavity, a fused pair of labial palpi usually bearing several pairs of setae, and prementum anteriorly; cranium exteriorly with several sensory cells both dorsally and ventrally, with antennae set in crescent-shaped cups on anterodorsal surface, with one pair of elongate dorsal setae and two pairs of elongate ventral setae, with heavily sclerotized postmentum ventrally, and dorsally with some weakly sclerotized portions called white areas; two pairs of heavy tentorial arms present internally. Thorax with pair of dorsolateral setae on each segment; anterior spiracle distinct, with two or three spiracular openings on specimens examined; abdominal segments l-8 secondarily constricted, giving appearance of two segments each, which with three thoracic segments appear as 19 segments in all; posterior spiracles on antipenultimate segment, apparently with eight spiracular openings; terminal segment ending in pair of retractable finger-like prolegs.

Therevidae
    |--+--+--Nanexila gracilis WY01
    |  |  `--+--Agapophytinae WY01
    |  |     `--Therevinae WY01
    |  `--+--Ectinorhynchus WY01
    |     `--Taenogerella WY01
    |          |--T. elizabethae WY01
    |          `--T. platina WY01
    `--Phycinae IL81
         |--Parapherocera wilcoxi IL81
         |--Schlingeria IL81
         |--Ataenogera brevicornis IL81, GW09
         |--Ruppellia vagabunda IL81
         |--Pherocera IL81
         |    |--P. albilateralis GW09
         |    `--P. flavipes IL81
         `--Phycus WY01
              |--P. frommeri GW09
              |--P. frontalis GW09
              |--P. kroberi WT11
              `--P. niger WY01

Therevidae incertae sedis:
  Rhagiophryne bianalis BLM02
  Taenogera luteola ZS10
  Neodialineura WY01
  Acrosathe IL81
    |--A. novella WT11
    `--A. pacifica IL81
  Megalinga GW09
    |--M. bolbocera GW09
    `--M. insignata IL81
  Nebritus pellucidus IL81
  Litolinga acuta IL81
  Pallicephala IL81
    |--P. pachyceras GW09
    `--P. willistoni IL81
  Rhagioforma GW09
    |--R. maculipennis IL81
    `--R. schmidti GW09
  Lyneborgia IL81
  Chromolepida IL81
  Eothereva simplex IL81
  Arenigena semitaria GW09
  Lysilinga IL81
    |--L. crassiseta GW09
    |--L. dolichophalla GW09
    `--L. pilifrons GW09
  Dialineura gorodkovi IL81
  Pandivirilia bussi IL81
  Ammonaios niveus IL81
  Tabuda IL81
  Tabudamima melanophleba IL81
  Spiriverpa candidata IL81
  Viriliricta IL81
  Dichoglena IL81
  Penniverpa GW09
    |--P. epidema GW09
    |--P. evani GW09
    |--P. festina IL81
    `--P. multisetosa GW09
  Xestomyzinae GW09
    |--Xestomyza IL81
    `--Henicomyia hubbardii GW09
  Microthereva GW09
  Peralia GW09
  Entesia GW09
  Melanothereva GW09
  Ptilotophallos GW09
  Apenniverpa GW09
  Pachyrrhiza GW09
  Distostylus GW09
  Spinalobus GW09
  Insulatitan GW09
  Incoxoverpa GW09
  Protothereva GW09
  Winthemmyia GW09
  Amplisegmentum GW09
  Notiothereva GW09
  Nigranitida GW09
  Elcaribe GW09
  Argolepida GW09
  Cliorismia GW09
  Lindneria dicosta GW09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GW09] Gaimari, S. D., & D. W. Webb. 2009. Therevidae (stiletto flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 633–647. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[IL81] Irwin, M. E., & L. Lyneborg. 1981. Therevidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 513–523. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[WY01] Winterton, S. L., L. Yang, B. M. Wiegmann & D. K. Yeates. 2001. Phylogenetic revision of Agapophytinae subf. n. (Diptera: Therevidae) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Systematic Entomology 26: 173–211.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Tabanidae

Splayed deer fly Chrysops caecutiens, copyright Hectonichus.


Belongs within: Tabanomorpha.
Contains: Diachlorini, Tabanini, Pangoniini, Scionini, Bouvieromyiini.

The Tabanidae, horse flies, are a group of medium-sized to large flies, females of which commonly feed on vertebrate blood.

Characters (from Pechuman & Teskey 1981): Moderate to large flies, 6-30 mm long, without bristles. Head large; eyes large, often brightly patterned, holoptic in male, separated by frons in female. Antenna porrect and composed of scape, pedicel, and flagellum; flagellum usually consisting of a larger basal portion and terminal annulations usually numbering four to eight but sometimes as few as two. Palpus composed of two segments; basal palpal segment usually rather small; other palpal segment usually rather long and curved downward in female, often inflated near base. Proboscis stout and rigid; mandible and maxilla of female often styliform and adapted for piercing, sometimes absent in species that are not bloodsuckers. Thorax large; notopleural lobe prominent; scutellum without spines or macrotrichia. Legs rather stout; apical spurs present on mid tibia, absent on fore tibia, present or absent on hind tibia; tarsi each with three pads formed by pulvilliform empodium located between two pulvilli. Wing venation with as many as 11 veins reaching margin (Sc, four branches of R, three branches of M, CuA1, CuA2, A1), C extending around wing, cells br, bm, and d conspicuous, and cell cup usually closed near wing margin; calypter large. Abdomen broad, with seven segments usually visible; terminalia of both sexes usually inconspicuous; male with gonocoxites fused with sternite 9, with gonostylus single or partially divided, aedeagus and associated pair of slender filamentous recurved aedeagal tines enclosed in a sheath apparently derived from parameres, tergite 9 entire or divided, tergite l0 absent, cercus flattened, round to oval or somewhat pointed; female usually with tergite l0 divided, with sternite 8 shield-shaped, and with cercus one-segmented. Larva fusiform or more or less expanded posteriorly or anteriorly, comprising 11 body segments and completely retractile head capsule; head capsule elongate, subcylindrical, tapering anteriorly, features including semitubular cranium, paired tentorial arms attached anteriorly to inner dorsal surfaces of cranium and appearing to be free posteriorly, three-segmented antennae, median down-curved labrum, mandibular-maxillary sclerites including maxillary palpi, and labium closing head capsule ventrally; mandibles each with central canal for excretion of paralytic enzyme, linked with subdorsal brushes of spines that are erected to anchor head within host when mandibles strike downward; body without projecting appendages on thoracic segments, with annular rings of small tubercles and crenulate frills or with prolegs on abdominal segments; respiratory system functionally metapneustic.

<==Tabanidae PT81
    |  i. s.: Japenoides BLM02
    |         Mesopangonius RL09
    |         Pangonia longirostris A71
    |--Scepsidinae [Scepsidini] M54
    |    |--Adersia oestroides M54
    |    |--Scepsis nivalis M54
    |    |--Braunsiomyia M54
    |    `--Lesneus M54
    |--Tabaninae PT81
    |    |--Diachlorini PT81
    |    |--Tabanini PT81
    |    `--Haematopotini PT81
    |         |--Heptatoma M54
    |         |--Hippocentrum M54
    |         `--Haematopota PT81
    |              |--H. americana PT81
    |              `--H. pluvialis WT11
    |--Pangoniinae PT81
    |    |  i. s.: Palaepangonius GE05
    |    |         Eopangonius GE05
    |    |         Scaptiella aperta M54
    |    |--Pangoniini PT81
    |    |--Scionini PT81
    |    `--Philolichini M54
    |         |--Philoliche M54
    |         |--Ommatiosteres M54
    |         |--Metaphara M54
    |         |--Nuceria M54
    |         |--Stenophara M54
    |         |--Dorcaloemus compactus M54
    |         |--Phara M54
    |         |--Subpangonia M54
    |         `--Buplex M54
    |              |--B. albifacies M54
    |              `--B. suavus M54
    `--Chrysopsinae PT81
         |--Bouvieromyiini PT81
         |--Rhinomyzini M54
         |    |--Tabanocella denticornis M54
         |    |--Orgizomyia M54
         |    |--Thriambeutes M54
         |    |--Sphecodemyia M54
         |    |--Gastroxides ater M54
         |    |--Rhinomyza M54
         |    |--Thaumastocera M54
         |    `--Guyona M54
         `--Chrysopsini PT81
              |--Nemorius M54
              |--Melissomorpha indiana M54
              |--Neochrysops globosus PT81
              |--Silvius PT81
              |    |  i. s.: S. vituli M54
              |    |--S. (Assipala) ceras PT81
              |    |--S. (Griseosilvius) B09
              |    |    |--S. (G.) atitlanensis B09
              |    |    `--S. (G.) quadrivittatus PT81
              |    `--S. (Zeuximyia) philipi PT81
              `--Chrysops PT81
                   |--C. caecutiens M54
                   |--C. cincticornis PT81
                   |--C. dimidiata A71
                   |--C. discalis A71
                   |--C. excitans PT81
                   |--C. furcatus PT81
                   |--C. (Liochrysops) hyalinus PT81
                   |--C. marmoratus K01
                   |--C. pikei PT81
                   |--C. scalaratus B09
                   `--C. silacea A71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B09] Burger, J. F. 2009. Tabanidae (horse flies, deer flies, tabanos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 495–507. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M54] Mackerras, I. M. 1954. The classification and distribution of Tabanidae (Diptera). I. General review. Australian Journal of Zoology 2 (3): 431–454.

[PT81] Pechuman, L. L., & H. J. Teskey. 1981. Tabanidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 463–478. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840–847.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Stratiomyini

Odontomyia sp., copyright Muhammad Mahdi Karim.


Belongs within: Stratiomyidae.

The Stratiomyini are a group of soldier flies with vein A1 in the wing straight.

Characters (from James 1981, as Stratiomyini + Odontomyiini): Antennal flagellum with five or six flagellomeres, not aristate. Scutellum with spines (sometimes minute). Wing with crossvein m-cu present; cell d present; A1 not at all sinuous. Abdomen at least three-quarters as wide as long, usually patterned.

<==Stratiomyini [Odontomyiini] J81
    |--Psellidotus johnsoni W09 [=Labostigmina johnsoni J81]
    |--Panamamyia silbergliedi W09
    |--Stratiomyella nana W09
    |--Chloromelas W09
    |--Zuerchermyia [=Zuercheria (preoc.)] W09
    |    `--Z. bequaerti W09
    |--Anoplodonta W09
    |    |--A. fratella W09
    |    `--A. nigrirostris J81
    |--Promeranisa W09
    |    |--P. nasuta W09
    |    `--P. varipes W09
    |--Hoplitimyia J81
    |    |--H. constans J81
    |    |--H. inbioensis W09
    |    `--H. subalba W09
    |--Hedriodiscus J81
    |    |--H. binotatus J81
    |    |--H. dorsalis W09
    |    |--H. trivittatus W09
    |    `--H. truquii W09
    |--Stratiomys M90
    |    |--S. badia M90
    |    |--S. barbata M90
    |    |--S. chamaeleon L02
    |    |--S. constricta W09
    |    |--S. convexa W09
    |    |--S. longicornis [=Hirtea longicornis] L02
    |    |--S. norma J81
    |    |--S. potamida I92
    |    `--S. strigata L02
    `--Odontomyia W09
         |--O. cincta J81
         |--O. discolorata W09
         |--O. hydroleon K01
         |--O. (Catatasina) interrupta J81
         |--O. limbata Macquart 1849 E12
         |--O. ornata K01
         |--O. pilimana J81
         |--O. scutellata CM91
         |--O. (Odontomyiina) virgo J81
         `--O. viridula K01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[J81] James, M. T. 1981. Stratiomyidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 497–511. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[W09] Woodley, N. E. 2009. Stratiomyidae (soldier flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 521–549. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.