Field of Science

Plectana

Plectana arcuata, copyright Arthur Anker.


Belongs within: Entelegynae.

Plectana was established by Walckenaer as a genus of orb-weaving spiders with spinose abdomens; it is no longer recognised as valid, with most species distributed between various genera of the Gasteracanthinae.

Plectana Walckenaer 1841 K92
    |--P. acuminata D59
    |--P. arcuata D59
    |--P. argoides Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--P. bleekeri Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--P. centrum Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--P. clavatrix Walckenaer 1841 [=Gasteracantha clavatrix; incl. G. (Tatacantha) remifera Butl. 1873] K92
    |--P. flavida Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--P. mediofusca Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--P. praetextata D59
    |--P. roseolimbata Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--P. sturii Doleschall 1857 D57
    `--P. tricolor Doleschall 1859 D59

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

Gasteracantha

Female Westring's spiny spider Gasteracantha westringii, copyright Jon Clarke.


Belongs within: Araneidae.

Gasteracantha, the spiny orb-web spiders, is a pantropical genus of medium-sized spiders with broad, often strikingly patterned, abdomens bearing distinct spikes.

Gasteracantha Sund. 1833 T94
    |--G. (Gasteracantha) KK84
    |    |--G. (G.) albiventer KK84
    |    |--G. (G.) fragispina Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |    |--G. (G.) hebridisia KK84
    |    |--G. (G.) metallica Poc. 1898 R13
    |    |--G. (G.) mollusca KK84
    |    |--G. (G.) scintillans Butl. 1873 [incl. G. scintillans var. concolor Rainbow 1913] R13
    |    |--G. (G.) signifer Poc. 1898 R13
    |    |--G. (G.) simoni Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |    |--G. (G.) taeniata KK84
    |    |--G. (G.) violenta KK84
    |    `--G. (G.) westringii KK84
    |--G. (Actinacantha) KK84
    |    |--G. (A.) hepatica KK84
    |    `--G. (A.) regalis KK84
    |--G. (Callocantha) geminata (F. 1798) [=Aranea geminata; incl. G. rimata Cambr. 1879] K92
    |--G. (Isacantha) KK84
    |    |--G. (I.) canningensis Stoliczka 1869 [=Gastracantha (I.) canningensis] S69
    |    |--G. (I.) flavomaculata KK84
    |    |--G. (I.) lugubris KK84
    |    |--G. (I.) minax KK84
    |    |--G. (I.) praetextata KK84
    |    `--G. (I.) sacerdotalis KK84
    `--G. (Stanneoclavis) KK84
         |--G. (S.) pentagona KK84
         |--G. (S.) suminata KK84
         `--G. (S.) variegata KK84

Gasteracantha incertae sedis:
  G. acrosomoides H04
  G. arcuata H04
  G. brevispina (Doleschall 1857) [=Plectana brevispina] K92
  G. cancriformis (Linnaeus 1758) WA02
  G. cuspidata Koch 1837 [=Plectana cuspidata] T94
  G. dalyi (Pocock 1900) HU08
  G. doriae Simon 1877 [incl. G. kulczynskii Strand 1906] J98
  G. fornicata (Fabr. 1781) [=Aranea fornicata] T94
  G. hasselti Koch 1837 AM11
  G. helva S69
  G. kuhli Koch 1837 AM11
  G. leucomelaena (Doleschall 1859) [=Plectana leucomelas; incl. G. annamita Sim. 1886] T94
  G. marsdeni J98
    |--G. m. marsdeni J98
    `--G. m. punctisternis Strand 1906 J98
  G. milvoides JD-S07
  G. vittata Thorell 1860 T94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, plates 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

[WA02] Whitehouse, M., I. Agnarsson, T. Miyashita, D. Smith, K. Cangialosi, T. Matsumoto, D. Li & Y. Henaut. 2002. Argyrodes: phylogeny, sociality and interspecific interactions—a report on the Argyrodes symposium, Badplaas 2001. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 238–245.

Nephilidae

Female golden orb-web spider Nephila clavipes, with much smaller male in top left. Copyright Victor Patel.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.

The Nephilidae are a pantropical family of sometimes very large orb-weaving spiders. They construct orb webs with a sticky spiral, or modification thereof, that retain a non-sticky spiral in the finished web (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Medium to very large; eight eyes present in two rows, lateral eyes widely separated from median eyes in Nephila, less so in other genera; chelicerae with striated boss and denticulate furrow; labium rebordered; legs with three tarsal claws, usually with numerous spines and sustentaculum on tarsus IV; abdomen may be somewhat elongate; ecribellate; male palp with mesal cymbium, with complex long embolic division in which function conductor envelops embolus, without median apophysis and radix; entelegyne.

Nephilidae [Nephileae, Nephilinae]
    |  i. s.: Deliochus Simon 1894 K02
    |--Clitaetra Simon 1889 [Clitaetrinae] JD-S07
    |    `--C. episinoides JD-S07
    `--Nephilinae JD-S07
         |--+--Herennia Thorell 1877 HAA07, JD-S07
         |  |    |--H. etruscilla Kuntner 2005 GA11
         |  |    |--H. multipuncta (Doleschall 1859) GA11 [=Epeira multipuncta K92]
         |  |    `--H. ornatissima (Doleschall 1859) K92, D59 [=Epeira ornatissima K92]
         |  `--Nephilengys Koch 1872 HAA07, JD-S07
         |       |--N. borbonica (Vinson 1863) GA11
         |       |--N. cruentata JD-S07
         |       |--N. dodo Kuntner & Agnarsson 2011 GA11
         |       |--N. livida (Vinson 1863) GA11
         |       `--N. malabarensis (Walckenaer 1841) [=Epeira malabarensis] T94
         `--Nephila Leach 1815 (see below for synonymy) HAA07
              |--N. pilipes (Fabricius 1793) HAA07 (see below for synonymy)
              |--N. angustata Stoliczka 1869 S69
              |--N. annulata Thorell 1859 [=N. (Lionephila) senegalensis annulata] HAA07
              |--N. antipodiana (Walckenaer 1842) (see below for synonymy) HAA07
              |--N. ardentipes Butler 1876 GA11
              |--N. bragantina Brito Capello 1867 [=N. (Lionephila) senegalensis bragantina] HAA07
              |--N. cicatrosa (Stoliczka 1869) [=Epeira (Nephila) cicatrosa] S69
              |--N. clavata Koch 1878 [=N. (Trichonephila) clavata] HAA07
              |--N. clavatoides HAA07
              |--N. clavipes (Linnaeus 1767) (see below for synonymy) HAA07
              |--N. comorana HAA07
              |--N. constricta Karsch 1879 [=N. (*Poecilonephila) constricta] HAA07
              |--N. edulis (Labillardière 1799) (see below for synonymy) HAA07
              |--N. fasciata (Fabr. 1793) [=Aranea fasciata] T94
              |--N. fenestrata Thorell 1859 [=N. (Chondronephila) fenestrata, N. (*Dasynephila) fenestrata] HAA07
              |--N. inaurata (Walckenaer 1842) [=Epeira inaurata, N. (Zeugonephila) inaurata] HAA07
              |    |--N. i. inaurata HAA07
              |    `--N. i. madagascariensis (Vinson 1863) (see below for synonymy) HAA07
              |--N. keyserlingii Blackwall 1865 [=N. (Lionephila) senegalensis keyserlingii] HAA07
              |--N. lucasi Sim. 1887 K92
              |--N. plumipes (Latreille 1804) (see below for synonymy) HAA07
              |--N. relicina Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
              |--N. robusta HAA07
              |--N. senegalensis (Walckenaer 1842) [=Epeira senegalensis, N. (Lionephila) senegalensis] HAA07
              |--N. sexpunctata HAA07
              |--N. submaculata Strand 1906 J98
              |--N. sumptuosa Gerstäcker 1873 [=N. (Lionephila) sumptuosa] HAA07
              |--N. tetragnathoides (Walckenaer 1842) (see below for synonymy) HAA07
              |--N. turneri Blackwall 1833 [=N. (Chondronephila) turneri] HAA07
              `--N. vitiana (Walckenaer 1847) (see below for synonymy) HAA07

Nephila Leach 1815 [incl. Chondronephila Dahl 1911, Cyphonephila Dahl 1911, Dasynephila Dahl 1912, Lionephila Dahl 1911, Nothonephila Archer 1958, Poecilonephila Dahl 1911, Trichonephila Dahl 1911, Zeugonephila Dahl 1911] HAA07

Nephila antipodiana (Walckenaer 1842) [=Epeira antipodiana, N. (Cyphonephila) antipodiana; incl. N. ambigua Kulczyński 1911, N. baeri Simon 1877, N. celebesiana Strand 1915, N. holmerae Thorell 1881, Epeira (Nephila) imperialis Doleschall 1857 non E. imperialis Walckenaer 1805, N. (Cyphonephila) imperialis, N. nigritarsis insulicola Pocock 1900, N. laurinae Thorell 1881, N. imperalis var. novaemecklenburgiae Strand 1911, N. ornata Blackwall 1864 non Adams 1847, N. sarasinorum Merian 1911] HAA07

Nephila clavipes (Linnaeus 1767) [=Aranea clavipes, N. (Trichonephila) clavipes; incl. Aranea cornuta Pallas 1772 non Araneus cornutus Clerck 1757, N. (*Nothonephila) cornuta, N. thomensis] HAA07

Nephila edulis (Labillardière 1799) [=Aranea edulis, N. (Lionephila) edulis; incl. N. adelaidensis Hogg 1910, Meta aerea Hogg 1896, N. eremiana Hogg 1896, N. meridionalis hermitis Hogg 1914, N. imperatrix Koch 1872, N. meridionalis Hogg 1910, N. picta Rainbow 1896] HAA07

Nephila inaurata madagascariensis (Vinson 1863) [=Epeira madagascariensis, N. (Zeugonephila) madagascariensis] HAA07

Nephila pilipes (Fabricius 1793) HAA07 [=Aranea pilipes HAA07, N. pictipes (l. c.) HAA07; incl. N. maculata var. annulipes Thorell 1881 HAA07, N. aurosa Koch 1872 HAA07, Epeira caliginosa Walckenaer 1842 HAA07, E. chrysogaster Walckenaer 1805 HAA07, E. doreyana Walckenaer 1842 HAA07, Nephila maculata var. flavornata Merian 1911 HAA07, N. fuscipes Koch 1839 HAA07, E. (Nephila) harpyia Doleschall 1859 HAA07, E. (N.) hasseltii Doleschall 1859 HAA07, Nephila maculata jalorensis Simon 1901 HAA07, N. kuhlii HAA07, N. maculata var. lauterbachi Dahl 1912 HAA07, Aranea longipes Fabricius 1781 non Fuesslin 1775 HAA07, A. maculata Fabricius 1793 non Olivier 1789 HAA07, Epeira maculata R13, *Nephila maculata HAA07, N. maculata var. novaeguineae Strand 1906 J98, N. ornata Adams 1847 HAA07, Meta ornata Koch 1872 HAA07, N. pecuniosa Koch 1872 HAA07, Epeira (Nephila) penicillum Docleschall 1857 HAA07, N. pictithorax Kulczyński 1911 HAA07, N. maculata piscatorum de Vis 1911 HAA07, N. procera Koch 1872 HAA07, Epeira sebae Walckenaer 1805 HAA07, N. sulphurosa Koch 1872 HAA07, N. tenuipes Koch 1872 HAA07, Epeira (Nephila) walckenaeri Doleschall 1857 HAA07]

Nephila plumipes (Latreille 1804) [=Aranea plumipes, N. (Cyphonephila) plumipes; incl. N. cunninghamii MacLeay 1827, N. edwardsii Rainbow 1895, N. flagellans Koch 1872, N. fletcheri Rainbow 1895, N. insularis Keyserling 1887, N. labillardierii Thorell 1875, N. nigritarsis Koch 1872, N. ornata Rainbow 1896 nec Adams 1847 nec Blackwall 1864, N. venosa Koch 1867, N. ventricosa Rainbow 1895, N. victorialis Koch 1872] HAA07

Nephila tetragnathoides (Walckenaer 1842) [=Epeira tetragnatoides, N. (Cyphonephila) tetragnathoides; incl. E. durvilla Walckenaer 1842, N. prolixa Koch 1872] HAA07

Nephila vitiana (Walckenaer 1847) [=Epeira vitiana; incl. N. piepersii Thorell 1877, N. wallacei Thorell 1877, N. (Cyphonephila) wallacei] HAA07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, plates 1–18.

[GA11] Gregorič, M., I. Agnarsson, T. A. Blackledge & M. Kuntner. 2011. Darwin's bark spider: giant prey in giant orb webs (Caerostris darwini, Araneae: Araneidae)? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 287–295.

[HAA07] Harvey, M. S., A. D. Austin & M. Adams. 2007. The systematics and biology of the spider genus Nephila (Araneae: Nephilidae) in the Australasian region. Invertebrate Systematics 21: 407–451.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K02] Kuntner, M. 2002. The placement of Perilla (Araneae, Araneidae) with comments on araneid phylogeny. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 281–287.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, plates 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

Steatoda

Steatoda bipunctata, copyright Roger Harris.


Belongs within: Theridiidae.

Steatoda, false widow spiders, are a cosmopolitan genus of dark-coloured cobweb spiders. A number of species in this genus are found in association with humans.

Characters (from Levi 1962): Medium-sized to large, usually dark in coloration. Colulus very large. Chelicerae armed with a tooth or several teeth on anterior margin; posterior margin of female chelicerae without teeth. Abdomen subspherical. Males often with enlarged chelicerae and a sclerotized ring around pedicel on anterior end of abdomen. Abdomen of most species with white line around anterior of dorsum, in addition to other lines or spots.

<==Steatoda
    |--S. albomaculata (De Geer 1778) PO08
    |--S. ancorata (Holmberg 1876) FM11
    |--S. bipunctata CM07
    |--S. capensis FF99
    |--S. caricis Fickert 1876 (n. d.) [=Enoplognatha caricis] W76
    |--S. castanea CM07
    |--S. diamantina Levi 1962 FM11
    |--S. erigoniformis (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    |--S. femorale E07
    |--S. fulva (Keyserling 1884) GLV14
    |--S. grossa (Koch 1838) [incl. Theridium sericum Urquhart 1886] NS00
    |--S. latifasciata (Simon 1873) PO08
    |--S. lepida FF99
    |--S. livens B96
    |--S. maura (Simon 1909) PO08
    |--S. nubilosa Urquhart 1893 (n. d.) NS00
    |--S. paykulliana (Walckenaer 1805) PO08
    |--S. triangulosa (Walckenaer 1802) PO08
    `--S. truncata (Urquhart 1888) [=Theridium truncatum] NS00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E07] Elliott, M. G. 2007. Annotated catalogue of the Pompilidae (Hymenoptera) of Australia. Zootaxa 1428: 1–83.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[GLV14] García, L. F., M. Lacava & C. Viera. 2014. Diet composition and prey selectivity by the spider Oecobius concinnus (Araneae: Oecobiidae) from Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 199–201.

Levi, H. W. 1962. The spider genera Steatoda and Enoplognatha in America (Araneae, Theridiidae). Psyche 69: 11–36.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[W76] Wunderlich, J. 1976. Zur Spinnenfauna Deutschlands, XVI. Zur Kenntnis der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattungen Enoplognatha Pavesi und Robertus O. Pick.-Cambridge (Araneida: Theridiidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 97–112.

Theridiidae

Female Achaearanea lunata, copyright R. Altenkamp.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.
Contains: Steatoda, Latrodectus, Enoplognatha, Phycosoma, Robertus, Argyrodes, Theridion.

The Theridiidae, the cobweb spiders, are a cosmopolitan family of spiders that construct irregular webs with radiating threads. This family includes a number of species that live in association with humans.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to medium-sized; eight eyes present; labium not rebordered; legs with three tarsal claws, with no or few spines; tarsi IV with a row of lightly curved, serrated bristles; ecribellate; modified, aggregate silk glands present, sticky silk used to wrap prey; male palpal tibia distally widened, no paracymbium; entelegyne.

Theridiidae [Theridioidae]
    |--Dipoena Thorell 1869 A02
    |    |--D. aculeata (Hickman 1951) [=Trigonobothrys aculeatus] FS04
    |    |--D. blattea (Urquhart 1885) [incl. Theridium albogullatum Uruhart 1887, T. tuberculum Urquhart 1887] NS00
    |    |--D. crassiventris B06
    |    |--D. melanogaster SS02
    |    |--D. prona (Menge 1868) K02
    |    `--D. setosa (Hickman 1951) [=Trigonobothrys setosus] FS04
    `--+--Robertus A02
       `--+--Argyrodes A02
          `--+--Anelosimus A02
             |    |--A. eximius (Keyserling 1884) A02
             |    `--A. vittatus [=Theridion vittatum] V09
             `--+--Theridion A02
                `--Achaearanea Strand 1929 A02
                     |--A. ampliata [=Theridion ampliatum] FF99
                     |--A. cinnabarina Levi 1963 P-GGJ08
                     |--A. digitus Buckup & Marques 2006 P-GGJ08
                     |--A. disparata JD-S07
                     |--A. globispira JD-S07
                     |--A. lunata (Clerck 1757) Z02
                     |--A. tepidariorum (Koch 1841) WA02 [=Theridion tepidariorum FF99]
                     |--A. tuberculata (Kroneberg 1875) [=Theridion tuberculatum] W77
                     |--A. veruculatum (Urquhart 1886) [incl. Theridium nigrofolium Urquhart 1888] NS00
                     `--A. wau JD-S07

Theridiidae incertae sedis:
  Steatoda PO08
  0--Latrodectus BS09
  `--+--Spintharus [Spintharinae] BS09
     |    `--S. flavidus BS09
     `--Phoroncidia [Phoroncidiinae] BS09
          |--P. americana BS09
          |--P. lygeana JD-S07
          |--P. puketoru FF99
          `--P. quadrata FF99
  Theonoe minutissima (Cambridge 1879) K02
  Neottiura Menge 1868 S03
    |--N. bimaculata S03
    `--N. suaveolens (Simon 1879) [incl. Dipoena regia Drenski 1929] W77
  Episinus Latrl. 1809 FF99, KK84
    |--E. algiricus Lucas 1846 E12
    |--E. angulatus (Blackwall 1836) BBM02
    |--E. australis Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK84
    |--E. conifer (Urquhart 1887) [=Ariamnes conifera] NS00
    |--E. similitudus Urquhart 1893 NS00
    `--E. truncatus SS02
  Enoplognatha W76
  Pholcomma Thorell 1869 MG03 [Pholcommatinae]
    |--P. antipodiana (Forster 1955) [=Erigone antipodiana] F64
    |--P. gibbum (Westring 1851) MG03
    `--P. hickmani Forster 1964 F64
  Euryopis PO08
    |--E. argentea JVHN90
    |--E. elegans Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK84
    |--E. episinoides (Walckenaer 1847) PO08
    |--E. flavomaculata (Koch 1836) BBM02
    `--E. nana (Cambridge 1879) [incl. Theridium pusillulum Urquhart 1890] NS00
  Lithyphantes S95
    |--L. corollatus S95
    `--L. lepidus M83
  Moneta FF99
  Teutana grossa M83
  Phycosoma FS04
  Nesticodes rufipes (Lucas 1846) FF99, E12 [=Theridion rufipes FF99]
  Lasaeola Simon 1881 MG03
    |--L. lindholmi Strand 1910 [=Dipoena lindholmi] J98
    `--L. tristis (Hahn 1833) MG03
  Paidiscura Archer 1950 MG03
    `--P. dromedaria (Simon 1880) MG03
  Chrosiothes E90
  Icona Forster 1955 F64
    |--*I. alba Forster 1955 F64
    `--I. drama Forster 1964 F64
  Paraebius Thorell 1894 T94
    `--*P. mandibularis Thorell 1894 T94
  Landana petitii T94
  Chrysso picturata Simon 1895 HU08
  Thwaitesia L-M-HM11
  Parasteatoda lunata (Clerck 1757) MF11
  Crustulina guttata D90, RKD02
  Cephela longiseta V09
  Coleosoma floridanum V09
  Coscinida JD-S07
  Hadrotarsinae [Hadrotarsidae] JD-S07
  Proboscidula JD-S07
  Emertonella MC13
  Yagunimena MC13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E90] Eberhard, W. G. 1990. Early stages of orb construction by Philoponella vicinia, Leucauge mariana, and Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Uloboridae and Tetragnathidae), and their phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 18: 205–234.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FS04] Fitzgerald, B. M., & P. J. Sirvid. 2004. Notes on the genus Phycosoma Cambridge, 1879, senior synonym of Trigonobothrys Simon, 1889 (Theridiidae: Araneae). Tuhinga 15: 7–12.

[F64] Forster, R. R. 1964. The Araneae and Opiliones of the subantarctic islands of New Zealand. Pacific Insects Monograph 7: 58–115.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884-1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[L-M-HM11] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., R. Marichal, D. F. Candiani, L. S. Carvalho, R. P. Indicatti, A. B. Bonaldo, D. H. R. Cobo, A. Feijoo M., S. Tselouiko, C. Praxedes, G. Brown, E. Velasquez, T. Decaëns, J. Oszwald, M. Martins & P. Lavelle. 2011. Impact of different land management on soil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in two Amazonian areas of Brazil and Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 296–302.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MF11] Mąkol, J., & M. Felska. 2011. New records of spiders (Araneae) as hosts of terrestrial Parasitengona mites (Acari: Actinotrichida: Prostigmata). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 352–354.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[P-GGJ08] Penna-Gonçalves, V., C. R. M. Garcia & H. F. Japyassú. 2008. Homology in a context dependent predatory behavior in spiders (Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 352–359.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[SS02] Samu, F., & C. Szinetár. 2002. On the nature of agrobiont spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 389–402.

[S03] Schütt, K. 2003. Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae s.l. (Araneae, Araneoidea). Zoologica Scripta 32 (2): 129–151.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” [Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg], Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WA02] Whitehouse, M., I. Agnarsson, T. Miyashita, D. Smith, K. Cangialosi, T. Matsumoto, D. Li & Y. Henaut. 2002. Argyrodes: Phylogeny, sociality and interspecific interactions—a report on the Argyrodes symposium, Badplaas 2001. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 238–245.

[W76] Wunderlich, J. 1976. Zur Spinnenfauna Deutschlands, XVI. Zur Kenntnis der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattungen Enoplognatha Pavesi und Robertus O. Pick.-Cambridge (Araneida: Theridiidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 97–112.

[W77] Wunderlich, J. 1977. Zur Synonymie südeuropäischer Spinnen (Arachnida: Araneida: Theridiidae, Linyphiidae, Gnaphosidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (4–6): 289–293.

[Z02] Zschokke, S. 2002. Ultraviolet reflectance of spiders and their webs. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 246–254.

Symphytognathidae

Female Patu digua, copyright Facundo M. Labarque.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.

The Symphytognathidae are minute spiders that construct orb webs in the leaf litter of forests (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Very small, <2 mm; clypeus and cephalic region high, fovea absent; four or six eyes present, anterior median eyes absent, arranged in two diads if four eyes, in three diads if six eyes; chelicerae fused over most of length or only near base, promargin with raised and toothed mound, fangs short; female palp reduced to an unsegmented lobe or absent; sternum broadly truncated posteriorly; legs with three tarsal claws; lungless; ecribellate; entelegyne.

Symphytognathidae [Symphytognathinae]
    |--Anapogonia Simon 1905 JD-S07
    |--Globignatha Balogh & Loksa 1968 JD-S07
    |--Curimagua Forster & Platnick 1977 JD-S07
    |    `--C. bayano Forster & Platnick 1977 A02
    |--Anapistula Gertsch 1941 S03
    |    |--A. caecula Baert & Jocqué 1993 S03
    |    `--A. secreta Gertsch 1941 S03
    |--Symphytognatha Hickman 1931 S03
    |    |--S. globosa Hickman 1931 W76
    |    `--S. picta Harvey 1992 S03
    `--Patu Marples 1951 S03
         |--P. digua Forster & Platnick 1977 S03
         |--P. marplesi FF99
         `--P. samoensis Marples 1951 S03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[S03] Schütt, K. 2003. Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae s.l. (Araneae, Araneoidea). Zoologica Scripta 32 (2): 129–151.

[W76] Wunderlich, J. 1976. Spinnen aus Australien. 1. Uloboridae, Theridiosomatidae und Symphytognathidae (Arachnida: Araneida). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 113–124.

Phycosoma

Female Phycosoma martinae, copyright Akio Tanikawa.


Belongs within: Theridiidae.

Phycosoma is a cosmopolitan genus of cobweb spiders with a high, almost cylindrical carapace in the males.

Characters (from Fitzgerald & Sirvid 2004): Male carapace often very high, near cylindrical when viewed from above, marked with dorsal grooves and depressions; female carapace, if high, is only so anteriorly. Eye region often projecting beyond clypeus; clypeus often slightly concave. Chelicerae very small, without teeth; fangs long and flat. Legs 4 1 2 3, with leg 4 slightly the longest. Female palpal claw simple. Abdomen often partially covered by dorsal scutum; colulus absent. Male palp lacking a median apophysis; conductor and embolus small. Female with two pairs of seminal receptacles; epigynal opening leading to pair of ducts connecting to posterior receptacles, with second pair of ducts connecting posterior to anterior receptacles. Epigynum with small scape.

<==Phycosoma Cambridge 1879 [incl. Trigonobothrys Simon 1889] FS04
    |--*P. oecobioides Cambridge 1879 FS04
    |--P. alta (Keyserling 1886) [=Dipoena alta] FS04
    |--P. amamiensis (Yoshida 1985) FS04
    |--P. excisum (Simon 1889) [=*Trigonobothrys excisus] FS04
    |--P. flavomarginatum (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) FS04
    |--P. inornata (Cambridge 1861) [=Theridion inornatum, Dipoena inornata] FS04
    |--P. jamesi (Roberts 1979) [=Dipoena jamesi] FS04
    |--P. japonicum (Yoshida 1985) FS04
    |--P. lineatipes (Bryant 1933) [=Dipoena lineatipes] FS04
    |--P. martinae (Roberts 1983) FS04
    |--P. menustya (Roberts 1979) [=Dipoena menustya] FS04
    |--P. mustelinum (Simon 1889) FS04
    `--P. nigromaculatum (Yoshida 1987) FS04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FS04] Fitzgerald, B. M., & P. J. Sirvid. 2004. Notes on the genus Phycosoma Cambridge, 1879, senior synonym of Trigonobothrys Simon, 1889 (Theridiidae: Araneae). Tuhinga 15: 7–12.