Collocalia

Glossy swiftlet Collocalia esculenta, copyright Lip Kee.


Belongs within: Apodinae.

Collocalia, the swiftlets, is a genus of small, mostly plain-coloured swifts found in southeast Asia and islands of the Pacific.

<==Collocalia Gray 1840 CC10 [incl. Salangana Streubel 1848 B94; Collocaliini, Salanganini]
    |--+--C. troglodytes JT12
    |  `--+--*C. esculenta (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, L58 [=Hirundo esculenta CC10]
    |     |    |--C. e. esculenta M03
    |     |    `--C. e. natalis M03
    |     `--+--C. dodgei BKB15
    |        `--C. linchi JT12
    `--+--C. papuensis JT12
       `--+--C. vulcanorum JT12
          `--+--+--C. brevirostris JT12
             |  `--C. maxima JT12
             `--+--+--C. terraereginae JT12
                |  `--C. whiteheadi JT12
                `--+--C. spodiopygia JT12
                   `--+--+--+--C. elaphra JT12
                      |  |  `--C. francica JT12
                      |  `--+--C. fuciphaga JT12
                      |     `--C. salangana JT12
                      `--+--C. mearnsi JT12
                         `--+--C. vanikorensis JT12
                            `--+--C. bartschi JT12 [=C. inexpectata bartshi L81]
                               `--C. sawtelli JT12

Collocalia incertae sedis:
  C. agnota S13
  C. amelis JT12
  C. buday Boles 2001 M09
  C. cinerea S13
  C. germani JT12
  C. hirundinacea JT12
  C. inexpectata L81
  C. infuscata JT12
  C. inquieta JT12
  C. leucophaea JT12
  C. leucopygia S13
  C. nuditarsus JT12
  C. ocista JT12
  C. orientalis JT12
  C. palawanensis JT12
  C. pelewensis JT12
  C. rogersi JT12
  C. unicolor JT12
  C. uropygialis S13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

Gruiformes

Grey-winged trumpeters Psophia crepitans, copyright A. Vinot.


Belongs within: Neognathae.
Contains: Rallidae, Sarothrura, Eogruidae, Gruidae.

The Gruiformes, cranes, rails and their relatives, are a group of generally large-footed birds commonly associated with damp habitats. A number of families previously associated with this group, such as the Otididae (bustards), Cariamidae (cariamas), and Eurypygiformes (sunbittern and kagu), are now recognised as independent lineages within the birds. The living Gruiformes are divisible into two main groups: the Ralloidea includes the rails (Rallidae) and finfoots (Heliornithidae) whereas the Gruoidea include the cranes (Gruidae), limpkins (Aramus) and trumpeters (Psophia).

Synapomorphies (from Livezey 1998, as Grues): Body of 'os' entoglossum unossified; facies ventralis of extremitas omalis coracoidei with foramen pneumaticum present.

Gruiformes
    |  i. s.: Aptornis Mantell 1848 [=Apterornis Owen 1848; Aptornithidae] CC10
    |          |--*A. otidiformis (Owen 1844) [=Dinornis otidiformis] CC10
    |          `--A. defossor Owen 1871 CC10 [=A. otidiformis defossor GM91; incl. A. bulleri Owen in Buller 1888 CC10]
    |         Walbeckornis Mayr 2007 M09, M07
    |           `--*W. creber Mayr 2007 M07
    |         Wanshuina lii Hou 1994 M09
    |--+--Messelornithidae M05b
    |  |    |--Itardiornis Mourer-Chauviré 1995 M02
    |  |    |    `--*I. hessae Mourer-Chauviré 1995 M02
    |  |    `--Messelornis Hesse 1988 M02
    |  |         |--*M. cristata Hesse 1988 M02
    |  |         |--M. nearctica Hesse 1992 M02
    |  |         `--M. russelli Mourer-Chauviré 1995 M02
    |  `--Ralloidea L98
    |       |  i. s.: Megagallinula harundinea Kurochkin 1968 M09
    |       |         Songzia [Songziidae] M09
    |       |           `--S. heidangkouensis Hou 1990 M09
    |       |--Rallidae L98
    |       `--+--Heliornithidae [Heliornithes, Podoanidae] L98
    |          |    |--Heliopais Sharpe 1893 L98
    |          |    |    `--H. personata (Gray 1849) L98
    |          |    `--+--Podica Lesson 1831 [Podicidae] L98
    |          |       |    `--P. senegalensis (Vieillot 1817) L98
    |          |       `--Heliornis Bonnaterre 1791 L98 [incl. Podoa Illiger 1811 B94]
    |          |            `--H. fulica (Boddaert 1783) L98
    |          `--+--Sarothrura G-RGT14
    |             `--+--Canirallus Bonaparte 1856 G-RGT14, L98 [incl. Mentocrex L98]
    |                |    |--C. beankaensis G-RGT14
    |                |    |--C. kioloides (Pucheran 1845) [=Mentocrex kioloides] L98
    |                |    `--C. oculeus (Hartlaub 1855) L98
    |                `--Nesotrochis Wetmore 1918 L98
    |                     |--N. debooyi Wetmore 1918 L98
    |                     |--N. picapicensis (Fischer & Stephan 1971) L98
    |                     `--N. steganinos Olson 1974 L98
    `--Gruoidea L98
         |  i. s.: Geranoididae M09
         |           |--Geranoides jepseni Wetmore 1933 M09
         |           |--Eogeranoides campivagus Cracraft 1969 M09
         |           |--Geranodornis aenigma Cracraft 1969 M09
         |           |--Palaeophasianus Shufeldt 1913 M07
         |           |    |--P. incompletus Cracraft 1969 M09
         |           |    `--P. meleagroides Shufeldt 1913 M09
         |           `--Paragrus M09
         |                |--P. prentici (Loomis 1906) M09
         |                `--P. shufeldti Cracraft 1969 M09
         |         Gypsornis Milne-Edwards 1869 M09, M02 [incl. Percolinus Harrison & Walker 1977 M02]
         |           |--*G. cuvieri Milne-Edwards 1869 M02
         |           `--G. venablesi (Harrison & Walker 1977) [=*Percolinus venablesi] M02
         |--Parvigruidae M09
         |    |--Parvigrus Mayr 2005 M05a
         |    |    `--*P. pohli Mayr 2005 M05a
         |    `--Rupelrallus Fischer 1997 M09, M05b
         |           `--R. saxoniensis Fischer 1997 M09
         `--+--+--Eogruidae M09
            |  `--Grues M09
            |       |--Gruidae M05a
            |       `--Aramidae M09
            |            |--Loncornis erectus Ameghino 1899 M09
            |            |--Aramus Vieillot 1816 L98
            |            |    |--A. guaranus (Linnaeus 1766) L98
            |            |    `--A. scolpaceau ZJM03
            |            `--Badistornis aramus Wetmore 1940 U93
            `--Psophiidae [Psophioidea] L98
                 |--Anisolornis excavatus Ameghino 1891 U93
                 `--Psophia Linnaeus 1758 L98
                      |  i. s.: P. ochroptera [=P. crepitans ochroptera, P. leucoptera ochroptera] C88
                      |         P. undulata G97
                      |--*P. crepitans Linnaeus 1758 L58, L98
                      |    |--P. c. crepitans C88
                      |    `--P. c. napensis C88
                      `--+--P. leucoptera Spix 1825 L98
                         `--P. viridis Spix 1825 L98
                              |--P. v. viridis C88
                              |--P. v. dextralis C88
                              |--P. v. interjecta C88
                              `--P. v. obscura C88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[C88] Cracraft, J. 1988. Deep-history biogeography: retrieving the historical pattern of evolving continental biotas. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 221–236.

[G-RGT14] Garcia-R, J. C., G. C. Gibb & S. A. Trewick. 2014. Deep global evolutionary radiation in birds: diversification and trait evolution in the cosmopolitan bird family Rallidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 81: 96–108.

[G97] Geoffroy, É. L. 1797. Note sur les genres Psophia et Palamedea de Linné. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (7): 50–51.

[GM91] Gill, B., & P. Martinson. 1991. New Zealand’s Extinct Birds. Random Century: Auckland (New Zealand).

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L98] Livezey, B. C. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 353: 2077–2151.

[M05a] Mayr, G. 2005a. A chicken-sized crane precursor from the early Oligocene of France. Naturwissenschaften 92: 389–393.

[M05b] Mayr, G. 2005b. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M07] Mayr, G. 2007. The birds from the Paleocene fissure filling of Walbeck (Germany). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (2): 394–408.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461–484.

Cuculus

Common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, copyright Ron Knight.


Belongs within: Cuculinae.

Cuculus is a genus of Old World cuckoos with dark grey or black heads and upperparts and usually a barred breast.

<==Cuculus Linnaeus 1758 CC10
    |--+--C. fugax JT12
    |  |    |--C. f. fugax VP89
    |  |    `--C. f. nisicolor VP89
    |  `--+--C. sparverioides JT12
    |     `--C. varius JT12
    `--+--C. clamosus JT12
       `--+--C. solitarius JT12
          `--+--+--C. crassirostris JT12
             |  `--C. poliocephalus JT12
             `--+--C. micropterus JT12
                `--+--+--C. gularis JT12 [=C. canorus gularis RN72b]
                   |  `--C. rochii JT12 [=C. poliocephalus rochii RN72a]
                   `--+--*C. canorus Linnaeus 1758 CC10, JT12, ME04
                      |    |--C. c. canorus VP89
                      |    |--C. c. bakeri RN72b
                      |    |--C. c. bangsi RN72b
                      |    |--C. c. fallax VP89
                      |    |--C. c. johanseni RN72b
                      |    |--C. c. kleinschmidti RN72b
                      |    |--C. c. subtelephonus RN72b
                      |    `--C. c. telephonus RN72b
                      `--+--C. saturatus Hodgson 1843 JT12, CC10
                         `--C. vagans JT12 [=Hierococcyx vagans BKB15]

Cuculus incertae sedis:
  C. americanus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. auratus Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. cineraceus R66
  C. csarnotanus Jánossy 1979 M02
  C. glandarius Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. inornatus R87
  C. lepidus JT12
  C. niger Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. optatus Gould 1845 (see below for synonymy) CC10
  C. persa Linnaeus 1758 L58
  C. vetula Linnaeus 1758 L58

Cuculus optatus Gould 1845 [=C. saturatus optatus; incl. C. horsfieldi Moore 1858, C. saturatus horsfieldi] CC10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[ME04] Mayr, G., & P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Evidence for a sister group relationship between the Madagascan mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the cuckoos (Cuculidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 84 (1–2): 1–17.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R66] Ramsay, E. P. 1866. Notes on the most frequent fosterparents of the cuckoos of Australia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 571–577.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

[RN72a] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972a. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[RN72b] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972b. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Fulica

Australian coot Fulica atra australis with chick, copyright Bernard Spragg.


Belongs within: Gallinula.

Fulica, the coots, are a cosmopolitan genus of strongly swimming rails with a well-developed frontal shield and broad lateral lobes on the toes.

<==Fulica Linnaeus 1758 CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: F. chathamensis Forbes 1892 [=*Nesophalaris chathamensis] CC10
    |         F. newtoni Milne-Edwards 1867 L98 [=*Palaeolimnas newtoni CC10]
    |         F. prisca Hamilton 1893 CC10 [=F. chathamensis prisca GM91, Nesophalaris prisca CC10]
    |         F. spinosa Linnaeus 1758 L58
    |--F. rufifrons Philippi & Landbeck 1861 L98
    `--+--F. cornuta Bonaparte 1853 JT12, L98 [=*Lycornis cornuta L98]
       `--+--+--F. armillata Vieillot 1817 JT12, L98
          |  `--F. gigantea Eydoux & Souleyet 1841 JT12, L98 [=*Phalaria gigantea L98]
          `--+--*F. atra Linnaeus 1758 G-RGT14
             |    |--F. a. atra CC10
             |    `--F. a. australis Gould 1845 (see below for synonymy) CC10
             `--+--F. cristata Gmelin 1789 G-RGT14
                `--+--+--F. ardesiaca Tschudi 1843 G-RGT14 [incl. F. atrura L98]
                   |  `--F. leucoptera Vieillot 1817 G-RGT14
                   `--+--F. alai Peale 1848 G-RGT14 [=F. americana alai USDI77]
                      `--+--F. americana Gmelin 1789 JT12, L98 [incl. F. columbiana L98]
                         `--F. caribaea Ridgway 1884 L98

Fulica Linnaeus 1758 CC10 [incl. Lycornis Bonaparte 1856 L98, Nesophalaris Brodkorb & Dawson 1962 CC10, Palaeolimnas Forbes 1893 CC10, Phalaria Reichenbach 1853 L98]

Fulica atra australis Gould 1845 [incl. F. atra ingrami Mathews 1912, F. tasmanica Grant 1846, F. atra tasmanica] CC10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[G-RGT14] Garcia-R, J. C., G. C. Gibb & S. A. Trewick. 2014. Deep global evolutionary radiation in birds: diversification and trait evolution in the cosmopolitan bird family Rallidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 81: 96–108.

[GM91] Gill, B., & P. Martinson. 1991. New Zealand’s Extinct Birds. Random Century: Auckland (New Zealand).

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L98] Livezey, B. C. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 353: 2077–2151.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

Vanellus

Masked lapwings Vanellus miles novaehollandiae, copyright Arthur Chapman.


Belongs within: Charadriidae.

Vanellus, the lapwings, is a cosmopolitan genus of relatively large plovers found in inland habitats, many of which possess colourful wattles on the face and/or sharp-pointed bony spurs on the bend of the wing.

<==Vanellus Brisson 1760 CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |--V. spinosus BKB15 [=Hoplopterus spinosus RN72b]
    `--+--V. indicus BKB15 [=Lobivanellus indicus RN72a; incl. Parra goensis CC10, *L. goensis CC10]
       |    |--V. i. indicus SU93
       |    `--V. i. atronuchalis SU93
       `--+--V. chilensis BKB15
          `--+--V. resplendens BKB15
             `--+--*V. vanellus (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                `--V. miles (Boddaert 1783) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                     |--V. m. miles CC10
                     `--V. m. novaehollandiae Stephens in Shaw 1819 (see below for synonymy) CC10

Vanellus Brisson 1760 CC10 [incl. Hoplopterus Bonaparte 1831 B94, Hoploxypterus Bonaparte 1856 B94, Lobibyx Heine 1890 CC10, Lobivanellus Gray 1841 CC10, Sarciophorus Gray 1841 B94; Hoploxypterinae, Lobibyxinae, Lobivanellinae, Sarciophorinae]

Vanellus miles (Boddaert 1783) JT12, CC10 [=Tringa miles CC10, Lobibyx miles WS48, Lobivanellus miles R87; incl. Lobiv. personatus R87]

Vanellus miles novaehollandiae Stephens in Shaw 1819 [=Lobibyx novaehollandiae; incl. Tringa lobata Latham 1802 non Linnaeus 1758, *Lobibyx lobata, Lobivanellus lobatus] CC10

*Vanellus vanellus (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, BKB15, CC10 [=Tringa vanellus CC10; incl. V. cristatus Wolf & Meyer 1805 CC10, Vanallus (l. c.) cristatus, Vanellus aristatus (l. c.) CC10]

Vanellus incertae sedis:
  V. albiceps JT12
  V. armatus JT12 [=Hoplopterus armatus A61]
  V. cayanus JT12 [=Hoplopterus cayanus SS66]
  V. coronatus JT12
  V. crassirostris JT12
  V. duvaucelii JT12
  V. gregarius JT12
  V. leucurus JT12
  V. lugubris JT12
  V. macropterus SU93
  V. malarbaricus JT12
  V. melanocephalus (Rüppell 1845) JT12, S05 [=Lobivanellus melanocephalus S05, Tylibyx melanocephalus S05]
  V. melanopterus (Cretzschmar 1829) JT12, S05 [=Charadrius melanopterus S05, Stephanibyx melanopterus S05]
  ‘Sarciophorus’ pectoralis N87
  V. senegallus JT12
  V. superciliosus JT12
  V. tectus JT12 [=Sarciophorus tectus RN72a]
  V. tricolor JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[N87] North, A. J. 1887. List of references to authentic descriptions of Australian birds' eggs. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1163–1174.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

[RN72a] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972a. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[RN72b] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972b. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Haematopus

Eurasian oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus, copyright Bjørn Christian Tørrissen.


Belongs within: Charadriiformes.

Haematopus, the oystercatchers, are a cosmopolitan genus of primarily coastal birds that feed in loose flocks. Oystercatchers have black and white or all black plumage, a very long, straight reddish bill, a squat body and pinkish-red legs. The Eurasian oystercatcher H. ostralegus of Eurasia and northern Africa has a black head and neck, black upperparts and predominantly white underparts.

<==Haematopus Linnaeus 1758 [=Ostralega Brisson 1760; Haematopodidae, Haematopodinae, Ostralegidae] CC10
    |  i. s.: H. fuliginosus Gould 1845 [incl. H. unicolor bernieri Mathews 1912] WS48
    |           |--H. f. fuliginosus M03
    |           `--H. f. ophthalmicus M03
    |         H. longirostris (Vieillot 1817) CC10 [=H. ostralegus longirostris WS48; incl. H. picatus King 1826 CC10]
    |         H. meadewaldoi [=H. ostralegus meadewaldoi] CG99
    |         H. moquini JT12
    |         H. niger Pallas 1811 CC10
    |         H. sulcatus (Brodkorb 1955) U93
    |--+--*H. ostralegus Linnaeus 1758 CC10, JT12, CC10 [=*Ostralega ostralega CC10]
    |  `--+--H. chathamensis Hartert 1927 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |     `--+--H. finschi Martens 1897 JT12, CC10 [=H. ostralegus finschi CC10]
    |        `--H. unicolor Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--H. leucopodus JT12
       `--+--H. ater Vieillot & Oudart 1825 JT12, ME04
          `--+--H. bachmani JT12
             `--H. palliatus JT12

Haematopus chathamensis Hartert 1927 JT12, CC10 [=H. ostralegus chathamensis CC10, H. longirostris chathamensis CC10, H. unicolor chathamensis CC10]

Haematopus unicolor Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 JT12, CC10 [=H. niger unicolor CC10, H. ostralegus unicolor CC10; incl. H. niger Ellman 1861 non Pallas 1811 CC10, H. oceanicus Bonaparte 1856 CC10, H. reischeki Rothschild 1899 CC10, H. unicolor reischeki CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[ME04] Mayr, G., & P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Evidence for a sister group relationship between the Madagascan mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the cuckoos (Cuculidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 84 (1–2): 1–17.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Sterna

Common tern Sterna hirundo, copyright Tony Hisgett.


Belongs within: Laridae.

Sterna is a cosmopolitan genus of terns here restricted to species closely related to the common tern S. hirundo, though it has historically been used to cover the majority of tern species. Members of this genus in the restricted sense are mostly pale grey above with reddish bill and legs, and often have a black cap.

<==Sterna Linnaeus 1758 CC10
    |--+--S. forsteri JT12
    |  `--S. trudeaui JT12
    `--+--*S. hirundo Linnaeus 1758 CC10, BKB15, CC10
       |    |--S. h. hirundo CC10
       |    |--S. h. longipennis Nordmann 1835 CC10
       |    |--S. h. minussensis HR96
       |    `--S. h. tibetana Saunders 1876 CC10
       `--+--+--S. paradisaea Pontoppidan 1763 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |  `--+--S. hirundinacea Lesson 1831 JT12, P04
          |     `--S. vittata Gmelin 1789 JT12, CC10
          |          |--S. v. vittata CC10
          |          `--S. v. bethunei Travers 1896 (see below for synonymy) CC10
          `--+--S. sumatrana Raffles 1822 BKB15, CC10
             `--+--S. dougallii Montagu 1813 JT12, WS48
                |    |--S. d. dougallii WS48
                |    |--S. d. bangsi Mathews 1912 I92
                |    `--S. d. gracilis Gould 1845 WS48
                `--S. striata Gmelin 1789 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)

Sterna incertae sedis:
  S. acuticauda JT12
  S. anglica R87
  S. aurantia JT12
  S. balaenarum JT12
  S. bernsteini JT12 [=Thalasseus bernsteini SU93]
  S. douglasii S66
  S. fluviatilis Naum. 1819 M01
  S. fuliginosa Gmelin 1789 CC10
  S. galericulata S66
  S. grisea Horsfield 1821 [=Hydrochelidon leucoptera grisea] CC10
  S. lorata JT12
  S. melanauchen [=Onychoprion melanauchen] W66
  S. melanogaster [=S. melanogastra] S89
  S. panayensis S66
  S. parva Ellman 1861 (n. d.) CC10
  S. repressa JT12
  S. saundersi JT12
  S. seena S89
  S. virgata JT12
  S. vulgaris Ellman 1861 (n. d.) CC10

Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan 1763 JT12, CC10 [=S. paradisea (l. c.) CC10; incl. S. macrura Naumann 1819 CC10]

Sterna striata Gmelin 1789 JT12, CC10 [incl. S. albifrons Peale 1848 non Pallas in Vroeg 1764 CC10, S. atripes Ellman 1861 CC10, S. striata aucklandorna Mathews 1929 CC10, S. bethunei Buller 1896 non Travers 1896 CC10, S. striata bethunei CC10, S. striata christopheri Mathews 1912 CC10, S. frontalis Gray 1845 CC10, S. striata incerta Mathews 1912 CC10, S. melanorhyncha Gould 1848 non Sternula melanorhyncha Lesson 1847 CC10, S. striata melanorhyncha CC10, S. velox Gould 1843 non Cretzschmar 1827 CC10, S. striata yorki Mathews 1914 CC10]

Sterna vittata bethunei Travers 1896 [incl. S. vittata bollonsi Mathews & Iredale 1913, S. vittata macquariensis Falla 1937] CC10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P04] Palma, R. L. 2004. Designation of a lectotype for Docophorus atlanticus Kellogg, 1914 (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae). Tuhinga 15: 13–16.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.