Field of Science

Holonota

Tritonymph of Archegozetes longisetosus, from here.


Belongs within: Sarcoptiformes.
Contains: Epilohmanniidae, Euphthiracaroidea, Phthiracaridae, Crotonia, Hermanniidae, Astigmata, Malaconothrus, Trimalaconothrus, Perlohmannioidea, Nothrus, Nanhermanniidae, Camisia, Brachypylina, Allonothrus, Trhypochthonius, Heminothrus.

The Holonota are a major division of the oribatid mites in which the notogaster (dorsum of the hysterosoma) is fused into a single sclerite, without transverse scissures. They are diverse in form: examples include the Ptyctima (box mites), which are able to retract the legs back and close the prodorsum against the notogaster, and the Desmonomata, a group of more or less flattened, elongate oribatid mites. Most Desmonomata, including the families Malaconothridae, Camisiidae, Trhypochthoniidae and the genus Nothrus, are parthenogenetic, though the Crotoniidae and the other genera of Nothridae are sexual (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009).

See also: Mite-in-a-box.

<==Holonota [Mixonomata] MH04
    |--Eulohmannia Berlese 1910 S04 [incl. Arthronothrus Trägardh 1910 S04; Eulohmanniidae, Eulohmannioidea MH04]
    |    `--*E. ribagai (Berlese 1910) (see below for synonymy) S04
    `--+--Epilohmanniidae MH04
       `--+--Ptyctima [Euptyctima] DA07
          |    |--Euphthiracaroidea DW10
          |    `--Phthiracaridae DW10
          `--+--Nehypochthonius Norton & Metz 1980 DW10, S04 [Nehypochthoniidae, Nehypochthonoidea]
             |    |--*N. porosus Norton & Metz 1980 BB92
             |    `--N. yanoi Aoki 2002 S04
             `--Desmonomata [Comalida, Crotonioidea, Holosomata, Holosomatina, Nothrina] DW10
                  |  i. s.: Crotoniidae BB92
                  |           |--Crotonia S04
                  |           `--Holonothrus Wallwork 1963 BB92
                  |                |--*H. foliatus Wallwork 1963 BB92
                  |                |--H. artus Olszanowski 1999 S04
                  |                |--H. concavus Wallwork 1966 S04
                  |                |--H. gracilis Olszanowski 1997 S04
                  |                |--H. mitis Olszanowski 1991 S04
                  |                |--H. naskreckii Olszanowski 1997 S04
                  |                |--H. nortoni Olszanowski 1999 S04
                  |                |--H. novaecaledoniae Olszanowski 1997 S04
                  |                |--H. papua Balogh & Balogh 1986 S04
                  |                |--H. pulcher Hammer 1966 S04
                  |                |--H. robustus Olszanowski 1991 S04
                  |                |--H. venetiolanus Olszanowski 1999 S04
                  |                `--H. virungensis Norton & Olszanowski 1989 S04
                  |--+--Hermanniidae DW10
                  |  `--Astigmata DW10
                  `--+--Malaconothridae [Malaconothroidea] DW10
                     |    |--Malaconothrus BB92
                     |    `--Trimalaconothrus S04
                     `--+--+--Perlohmannioidea DW10
                        |  `--Nothridae [Nothroidea] S04
                        |       |--Nothrus DW10
                        |       |--Trichonothrus Mahunka 1986 BB92
                        |       |    `--*T. austroafricanus Mahunka 1986 BB92
                        |       `--Novonothrus Hammer 1966 BB92
                        |            |--*N. flagellatus Hammer 1966 BB92
                        |            |--N. covarrubiasi Casanueva & Norton 1997 S04
                        |            |--N. kethleyi Casanueva & Norton 1998 S04
                        |            |--N. papuensis Hammer 1966 S04
                        |            `--N. puyehue Casanueva & Norton 1997 S04
                        `--+--+--Nanhermanniidae DW10
                           |  `--Camisiidae DW10
                           |       |--Camisia S04
                           |       `--Austronothrus Hammer 1966 BB92
                           |            `--*A. curviseta Hammer 1966 BB92
                           `--+--Brachypylina DW10
                              `--Trhypochthoniidae DW10
                                   |  i. s.: Afronothrus Wallwork 1961 BB92
                                   |           |--*A. incisivus Wallwork 1961 (see below for synonymy) S04
                                   |           `--A. arboreus Ramani & Haq 1992 S04
                                   |         Mucronothrus Trägardh 1931 S04
                                   |           |--M. nasalis (Willmann 1929) (see below for synonymy) S04
                                   |           `--M. willmanni Norton, Behan-Pelletier & Wang 1996 S04
                                   |         Mainothrus Choi 1996 [incl. Altrhypochthonius Weigmann 1997] S04
                                   |           |--*M. aquaticus Choi 1996 S04
                                   |           |--M. badius (Berlese 1905) [=Trhypochthonius badius] S04
                                   |           `--M. breviclava (Hammer 1958) [=Trhypochthonius breviclava] S04
                                   |         Trhypochthoniellus Willmann 1928 [incl. Hydronothrus Aoki 1964] S04
                                   |           |--T. longisetus (Berlese 1904) [=Trhypochthonius longisetus] S04
                                   |           |    |--T. l. longisetus S04 (see below for synonymy)
                                   |           |    |--T. l. brasilensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1988 (see below for synonymy) S04
                                   |           |    `--T. l. canadensis Hammer 1952 [=T. setosus canadensis] S04
                                   |           |--T. ashoroensis Fujikawa 2000 S04
                                   |           |--T. porticus Fujikawa 2000 S04
                                   |           |--T. ramosus Hammer 1982 S04
                                   |           `--T. reticulatus Willmann 1931 S04
                                   |--Allonothrus DW10
                                   `--+--+--Trhypochthonius DW10
                                      |  `--Archegozetes Grandjean 1931 DW10, BB92
                                      |       |--*A. magnus (Sellnick 1925) [=Epilohmannia magna] BB92
                                      |       |    |--A. m. magnus (see below for synonymy) S04
                                      |       |    `--A. m. mediosetosus Mahunka 1978 S04
                                      |       `--A. longisetosus Aoki 1965 (see below for synonymy) S04
                                      `--Heminothrus DW10

*Afronothrus incisivus Wallwork 1961 [incl. A. incisivus maheensis Mahunka 1978, A. incisivus neotropicus Balogh & Mahunka 1974, A. incisivus paraguayensis Mahunka 1984, A. sulcatus Hammer 1972] S04

Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki 1965 [incl. A. chamelensis Palacios-Vargas & Iglesias 1997, A. magnus indicus Bhaduri & Raychaudhuri 1968] S04

*Archegozetes magnus magnus (Sellnick 1925) [incl. A. tuberculatus Sarkar 1985, A. vercruzensis Palacios-Vargas & Iglesias 1997] S04

*Eulohmannia ribagai (Berlese 1910) [=Lohmannia (*Eulohmannia) ribagai; incl. Arthronothrus biunguiculatus Trägardh 1910] S04

Mucronothrus nasalis (Willmann 1929) [=Malaconothrus nasalis; incl. *Mu. rostratus Trägardh 1931] S04

Trhypochthoniellus longisetus brasilensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1988 [=T. setosus brasilensis] S04

Trhypochthoniellus longisetus longisetus (Berlese 1904) S04 [incl. Hydronothrus aquariorum Fain & Lambrechts 1987 S04, Nothrus crassus Warburton & Pearce 1905 S04, *H. crispus Aoki 1964 BB92, S04, Camisia excavata Willmann 1919 S04, Hydronothrus puniceus Habeeb 1981 S04, Trhypochthonius (*Trhypochthoniellus) setosus Willmann 1928 S04, Trhypochthonius trichosus Schweizer 1922 S04]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB92] Balogh, J. & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159-171.

[MH04] Maraun, M., M. Heethoff, K. Schneider, S. Scheu, G. Weigmann, J. Cianciolo, R. H. Thomas & R. A. Norton. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari): evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages. Experimental and Applied Acarology 33 (3): 183-201.

Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 430-564. Texas Tech University Press.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758-2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3-305.

Acaridae

Mould mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, from the US Department of Agriculture.


Belongs within: Acaroidea.
Contains: Rhizoglyphinae.

The Acaridae are a diverse group of often generalised astigmatan mites. Many species are insect associates, with a phoretic hypopus stage in the life cycle (Philips 1990).

Characters (from Philips 1990): Chelicerae chelate-dentate. Idiosoma usually smooth, with simple setae; setae vi present; sejugal furrow present. Tarsi with pair of sclerotised condylophores supporting well-developed empodial claw in fleshy pretarsus; tibia I with two setae and one solenidion. Males usually with pair of anal suckers and pair of suckers on tarsus IV. Hypopus with scapular setae smooth; posteroventral sucker plate present.

<==Acaridae [Tyroglyphidae]
    |  i. s.: Mycetoglyphus O01
    |         Neoacotyledon O01
    |         Tyroborus lini (Oudemans 1924) DA07
    |         Fagacarus P90
    |         Konoglyphus P90
    |         Neotropacarus WP99
    |--Acarinae O01
    |    |--Psyllacarus O01
    |    `--+--Paraceroglyphus O01
    |       `--+--Trichopsylopus O01
    |          `--Acarus [Acaridini] O01
    |               |--A. crassipes Hermann 1804 [=Siro crassipes] G00
    |               |--A. farris (Oudemans 1905) W91
    |               |--A. gracilis (Hughes 1957) DA07
    |               |--A. immobilis Griffiths 1964 W91
    |               |--A. siro Linnaeus 1758 O01
    |               `--A. testudinarius Hermann 1804 [=Siro testudinarius] G00
    `--+--Horstiinae O01
       |    |--Neohorstia O01
       |    `--+--+--Megachilopus O01
       |       |  `--+--Cerophagopsis indicus O01
       |       |     `--Sennertionyx O01
       |       `--+--Diadasiopus O01
       |          `--+--Horstiella O01
       |             `--+--Horstia longa O01
       |                `--Medeus O01
       `--+--+--‘Acotyledon’ formosani O01
          |  `--Rhizoglyphinae O01
          `--Tyrophaginae O01
               |  i. s.: Schulzea O01
               |         Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau 1879) O01, DA07
               |--Lackerbaueria O01
               `--+--Kuzinia O01
                  `--+--Forcellinia O01
                     `--Tyrophagus [Tyrophagini] O01
                          |--T. casei C91
                          |--T. formicitorum O01
                          |--T. fungivorus SM91
                          |--T. longior EP91
                          |--T. neiswanderi Johnston & Bruce 1965 W91
                          |--T. palmarum Oudemans 1924 W91
                          |--T. perniciosus Zachvatkin 1941 W91
                          |--T. putrescentiae (Schrank 1781) DA07
                          `--T. similis K91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C91] Chmielewski, W. 1991. Stored products mites (Acaroidea) in Polish bee hives. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 615-619. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159-171.

[EP01] Emmanouel, N. G., & H. Panou. 1991. A study on mites associated with bark and twigs of various trees in Attica (Greece). In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 523-532. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G00] Giribet, G. 2000. Catalogue of the Cyphophthalmi of the world (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 2: 49-76.

[K91] Kuwahara, Y. 1991. Pheromone studies on astigmatid mites—alarm, aggregation and sex. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 43-52. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O01] OConnor, B. M. 2001. Historical ecology of the Acaridae (Acari): Phylogenetic evidence for host and habitat shifts. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 76-82. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[P90] Philips, J. R. 1990. Acarina: Astigmata (Acaridida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 757-778. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[SM91] Serralheiro, F., & M. Madeira. 1991. Acari colonization of Quercus suber and Eucalyptus globulus litter. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 353-358. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W91] Walzl, M. G. 1991. Comparison of the sclerotized structures of Acaridae and Glycyphagidae used for copulation. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 283-286. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Astigmata

Ventral view of mounted adult Hemisarcoptes, from Qing Hai Fan.


Belongs within: Holonota.
Contains: Saproglyphidae, Anoetidae, Acaroidea, Glycyphagidae, Psoroptidia.

The Astigmata are a group of soft-bodied mites lacking respiratory tracheae (Philips 1990). Many have rapid life cycles, and may be significant scavengers of decomposing matter.

See also: Life in the fast lane.

Characters (from Philips 1990): Weakly sclerotised, slow-moving, pale; respiratory stigmata and tracheae absent, respiration occuring through cuticle. Chelicerae mostly chelate-dentate. Palps two-segmented. Idiosoma usually divided into propodosoma and hysterosoma by sejugal furrow. Hysterosoma with laterodorsal hysterosomal gland openings normally visible. Primary genital opening of both sexes occuring ventrally between the legs, flanked by two pairs of genital papillae. Oviposition occuring through this opening (oviporus) in female, but sperm received through small circular opening (bursa copulatrix) at posterior end of body. Male aedeagus supported by struts; male anal opening often flanked by pair of copulatory suckers.

<==Astigmata [Acaridia, Acaridida]
    |--+--Anoetidae DW10
    |  `--Acaroidea DW10
    `--+--+--Glycyphagidae DW10
       |  `--+--Hemisarcoptoidea K91
       |     |    |--Carpoglyphus [Carpoglyphidae] DW10
       |     |    |    `--C. lactis (Linné 1758) DA07
       |     |    `--Hemisarcoptes [Hemisarcoptidae] C-R02
       |     |         |--H. cooremani WP99
       |     |         `--H. malus WP99
       |     `--Chortoglyphus [Chortoglyphidae] DW10
       |          `--C. arcuatus MR01
       `--+--Hypoderatidae [Hypoderatoidea] DW10
          |    |--Hypodectes propus WP99
          |    |--Neottialges evansi DW10
          |    `--Phalacrodectes gaudi DW10
          `--+--Heterocoptidae DW10
             `--Psoroptidia DW10

Astigmata incertae sedis:
  Algophagidae D01
    |--Algophagus pennsylvanicus WP99
    `--Hericia F01
         |--H. fermentionis F01
         |--H. georgei F01
         `--H. paradoxa Türk & Türk 1957 F91
  Lemanniella Mahunka 1977 [Lemanniellidae] W01
    |--*L. reducta Mahunka 1977 W01
    `--L. minotauri Wurst 2001 W01
  Myrmolichus greimae W01
  Naidacarus arboricolus A-B91
  Winterschmidtiidae A-B91
    |--Kennethiella trisetosa A-B91
    |--Czenspinskia transversostriata WP99
    `--Ensliniella A-B91
         |--E. kostylevi A-B91
         `--E. parasitica A-B91
  Aeroglyphidae DA07
    |--Austryglycyphagus geniculatus [=Glycycometus geniculatus] DA07
    `--Aeroglyphus P90
  Neoguanolichus [Guanolichidae] P90
  Rosensteiniidae P90
  Saproglyphidae P90
  Fusacarus [Fusacaridae] P90
  Myialges macdonaldi WP99
  Gastronyssidae WP99
    |--Gastronyssus bakeri WP99
    `--Opsonyssus WP99
  Knemidokoptidae WP99
  Laminisoptidae WP99
  Turbinoptidae WP99
  Cytoditidae WP99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[C-R02] Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 2002. Philippine acarine biological control agents: Status, bioecology and research prospects. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85 (2): 137-154.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[D01] Desch, C. E. 2001. Anatomy and ultrastructure of the female reproductive system of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 203-212. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159-171.

[F91] Fashing, N. J. 1991. Deutonymphal dimorphism in the genus Hericia (Astigmata: Algophagidae). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 287-291. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[F01] Fashing, N. J. 2001. Morphological adaptations associated with mate-guarding behaviour in the genus Hericia (Acari: Algophagidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 176-179. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K91] Kethley, J. 1991. Calyptostatic nymphs of Neonanorchestes (Nanorchestidae): a third example of alternating calyptostasy. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 279-282. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MR01] Morris, M. J. A., & J. Rimmer. 2001. Allergenicity of the predator dust mite Cheyletus tenuipilis (Acari: Cheyletidae): A preliminary study. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 558-564. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[P90] Philips, J. R. 1990. Acarina: Astigmata (Acaridida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 757-778. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W01] Wurst, E. 2001. The life cycle of Lemanniella minotauri n. sp. and the erection of the new family Lemanniellidae (Acari: Astigmata). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie A (Biologie) 621: 1-34.

Rhizoglyphinae

Female Sancassania berlesei, copyright Tom Cameron.


Belongs within: Acaridae.
Contains: Rhizoglyphini.

The Rhizoglyphinae are an ecologically diverse group of astigmatan mites, commonly associated with moist temporary habitats. With the exceptions of the basal genera Acotyledon and Viedebanttia, many rhizoglyphines exhibit male polymorphism with major males developing modifications for fighting (OConnor 2001).

Characters (from Baker & Wharton 1952): Inner propodosomal setae shorter than outer; legs stout, the setae in many cases being modified as stout spines; microsense and macrosense setae arising from same base.

<==Rhizoglyphinae [Caloglyphidae]
    |  i. s.: Ewingiidae O01
    |           |--Ewingia O01
    |           |--Askinasia O01
    |           |--Hoogstraalacarus O01
    |           `--Kanekobia O01
    |--Acotyledon [Acotyledonini] O01
    |    `--A. paradoxa O01
    |--Viedebanttia O01
    |    `--V. schmitzi O01
    `--+--Cosmoglyphus O01
       `--+--Rhizoglyphini O01
          `--+--Ctenocolletacarus O01
             `--Sancassania [incl. Caloglyphus; Caloglyphini] O01
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ anomalus D01
                  |--S. berlesei [=Caloglyphus berlesei] F01
                  |--S. boharti O01
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ michaeli MH04
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ moniezi K91
                  |--S. mycophaga ED01 [=Caloglyphus mycophagus DAA91]
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ oudemansi SH01
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ polyphyllae K91
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ rhizoglyphoides C91
                  |--‘Caloglyphus’ rodionovi WP99
                  `--‘Caloglyphus’ rodriguezi K91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Baker, E. W., & G. W. Wharton. 1952. An Introduction to Acarology. The MacMillan Company: New York.

[C91] Chmielewski, W. 1991. Stored products mites (Acaroidea) in Polish bee hives. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 615-619. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[D01] Desch, C. E. 2001. Anatomy and ultrastructure of the female reproductive system of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 203-212. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[DAA91] Desch, C. E., J. R. H. Andrews & L. G. Arlian. 1991. The digestive system of Sarcoptes scabiei (L.): light and electron microscope study. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 271-279. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ED01] Ehrnsberger, R., & J. Dabert. 2001. Population dynamics of acarid mites in two different types of poultry raising systems in Germany. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 576-582. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[F01] Fashing, N. J. 2001. Morphological adaptations associated with mate-guarding behaviour in the genus Hericia (Acari: Algophagidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 176-179. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K91] Kuwahara, Y. 1991. Pheromone studies on astigmatid mites—alarm, aggregation and sex. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 43-52. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MH04] Maraun, M., M. Heethoff, K. Schneider, S. Scheu, G. Weigmann, J. Cianciolo, R. H. Thomas & R. A. Norton. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari): evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages. Experimental and Applied Acarology 33 (3): 183-201.

[O01] OConnor, B. M. 2001. Historical ecology of the Acaridae (Acari): Phylogenetic evidence for host and habitat shifts. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 76-82. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SH01] Sumangala, K., & M. A. Haq. 2001. Survey of the mite fauna associated with Apis spp. in Kerala, southern India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 565-568. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Corixidae

Hesperocorixa distanti, from here.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Corixidae, water boatmen, are a group of aquatic bugs characterised by short forelegs with scoop-shaped tarsi. These are used to glean algae for food, though they also feed on small, soft-bodied animals (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Corixidae
    |--Haenbea badamgaravae GE05, S02
    |--Yanliaocorixa S02
    |--Gazimuria GE05
    |--Karataviella GE05
    |--Diapherinus GE05
    |--Cristocorixa GE05
    |--Bumbacorixa GE05
    |--Corixonecta GE05
    |--Jiangxicorixa S02
    |--Linicorixa S02
    |--Ratiticorixa S02
    |--Vulcanicorixa S02
    |--Shelopuga sinitsae S02
    |--Siculocorixa estria S02
    |--Lufengnacta GE05
    |--Liassocorixa GE05
    |--Bakharia GE05
    |--Archaeocorixa GE05
    |--Baissocorixa GE05
    |--Mesosigara kryshtofovichi GE05, S02
    |--Corixalia GE05
    |--Rhomboidella GE05
    |--Shurabella [Shurabellidae] GE05
    |--Velocorixa [Velocorixinae] S02
    |    `--V. ponomarenkoi S02
    |--Corixia S02
    |    |--C. punctata Im92
    |    `--C. vanduzeei S02
    |--Diacorixa S02
    |    |--D. germanica S02
    |    `--D. miocenica S02
    |--Agraptocorixa ZS10
    |    |--A. eurynome TDC06
    |    `--A. parvipunctata TDC06
    |--Cenocorixa WP99
    |    |--C. bifida WP99
    |    `--C. expleta WP99
    |--Sigara W01
    |    |--S. arguta PC66
    |    |--S. falleni W01
    |    `--S. striata D91
    `--Hesperocorixa TW05
         |--H. distanti (Kirkaldy 1899) Iw92
         |--H. kolthoffi (Lundblad 1933) Iw92
         `--H. mandshurica (Jaczewski 1924) Iw92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D91] Davids, C. 1991. Water mites: the impact of larvae and adults on their host and prey populations. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 497-501. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175-183.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: Features facilitating coexistence. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 121-135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Phoridae

Phalacrotophora epeirae, copyright John R. Maxwell.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Contains: Melaloncha.

The Phoridae, scuttle flies, are a group of small hump-backed flies of diverse habits. Winged species are readily distinguished by the characteristic venation of their wings, with four veins running obliquely across the main body of the wing.

Characters (from McAlpine 1990): Small humpbacked flies, 1-4 mm long. Ptilinal fissure and lunule absent. Wing rounded at apex, with radiating venation: branches of R strongly thickened and crowded into anterior base, four other weak and peculiarly aligned veins in remainder of wing blade; C ending near middle of anterior margin.

<==Phoridae [Phoroidea]
    |--Prioriphora GE05 [Prioriphorinae BLM02]
    |    `--P. casei GE05
    `--Metopininae B04
         |--Rhynchophoromyia B04
         |--Physoptera B04
         |--Metopina GE05
         |    |--M. goeleti GE05
         |    `--M. pachycondylae A71
         |--+--Melittophora salti B04
         |  `--Melaloncha B04
         `--Phalacrotophora B04
              |--P. berolinensis B04
              |--P. beuki B04
              |--P. epeirae B04
              |--P. fasciata B04
              |--P. halictorum B04
              |--P. quadripunctata B04
              `--P. rufiventris B04

Phoridae incertae sedis:
  Megaselia B04
    |--M. abdita WT11
    |--M. alternata A-B91
    |--M. elongata [incl. M. cuspidata] A71
    |--M. fasciata A71
    |--M. halterata CT01
    |--M. (Aphiochaeta) impariseta M83
    `--M. scalaris GE05
  Aneurina Z02
  Spiniphora Z02
  Apocephalus B04
  Aphiura treviceps M83
  Borophaga incrassata [=Hypocera incrassata] A71
  Pseudacteon formicarum A71
  Aenigmatias [incl. Platyphora] A71
  Phora Latreille 1796 BR05
    `--P. occidentata M90
  Thaumatoxena GE05
  Euliphora grimaldii GE05
  Acontistoptera GE05
  Puliciphora GE05
  Lecanocerus compressiceps M90
  Dohrniphora T90
  Cryptopteromyia jeanssoni S94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[B04] Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus Udamochiras of Melaloncha bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 1-42.

[CT01] Clift, A., & M. A. Terras. 2001. A quantitative study of phoresy in Microdispus lambi (Acari: Microdispidae) in eastern Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 394-398. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1-155.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253-1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Micrococcineae

Kocuria rhizophila, from the Biological Resource Centre, NITE.


Belongs within: Actinomycetales.
Contains: Dermabacteraceae, Microbacteriaceae, Cellulomonas, Arthrobacter.

The Micrococcineae are a group of Gram-positive bacteria identified by molecular analysis. Members of the group are phenotypically diverse, including both coccoid and rod-shaped representatives.

Micrococcineae [Dermatophilaceae] GH01a
    |--Microbacteriaceae PHK96
    `--+--Dermatophilus congolensis PHK96, MPV91
       |--+--+--+--Bogoriella [Bogoriellaceae] AK02
       |  |  |  |    `--B. caseilytica AK02
       |  |  |  `--Georgenia Altenburger, Kämpfer et al. 2002 AK02
       |  |  |       `--*G. muralis Alteburger, Kämpfer et al. 2002 AK02
       |  |  `--+--Rarobacter GH01a [Rarobacteraceae RS03]
       |  |     |    `--R. faecitabidus RS03
       |  |     `--Cellulomonadaceae GH01a
       |  |          |--Cellulomonas RS03
       |  |          `--Oerskovia GH01a
       |  `--Promicromonosporaceae RS03
       |       |--Beutenbergia [Beutenbergiaceae] AK02
       |       |    `--B. cavernae AK02
       |       |--+--Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (Metcalf & Brown 1957) Schumann et al. 2001 RS03, JC08 (see below for synonymy)
       |       |  `--Sanguibacter keddieii AK02
       |       `--+--Xylanimonas Rivas, Sánchez et al. 2003 RS03
       |          |    `--*X. cellulosilytica Rivas, Sánchez et al. 2003 RS03
       |          `--Promicromonospora RS03
       |               |--P. citrea RS03
       |               |--P. pachnodae Cazemier, Verdoes et al. 2004VP IJSEM04
       |               `--P. sukumoe RS03
       `--Micrococcaceae GH01a
            |  i. s.: Demetria terrigena GH01a, AK02
            |--Stomatococcus PHK96
            `--+--Arthrobacter PHK96
               `--+--Renibacterium salmoninarum RP03
                  `--+--+--Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis RP03
                     |  `--Rothia mucilaginosa RP03
                     `--+--Nesterenkonia halobia RP03
                        `--+--Micrococcus RP03
                           |    |  i. s.: M. cryophilus PHK96
                           |    |         M. lysodeikticus P91
                           |    |         M. roseus PHK96
                           |    |--M. lylae RP03
                           |    `--+--M. antarcticus RP03
                           |       `--M. luteus RP03
                           `--+--Kytococcus sedentarius RP03
                              `--Kocuria RP03
                                   |--K. kristinae RP03
                                   `--+--+--K. rhizophila RP03
                                      |  `--K. varians RP03
                                      `--+--K. palustris RP03
                                         `--+--K. polaris Reddy, Prakash et al. 2003 RP03
                                            `--K. rosea RP03 [incl. Deinococcus erythromyxa GH01b, K. erythromyxa RP03]

Micrococcineae incertae sedis:
  Intrasporangiaceae GH01a
    |--Intrasporangium calvum LK03, CM03
    |--Terrabacter tumescens LK03
    |--Terracoccus luteus LK03, BP03
    |--Ornithinicoccus GH01a
    `--Janibacter LK03
         |--*J. limosus LK03
         `--J. terrae Yoon, Lee et al. 2000 [incl. J. brevis Imamura, Ikeda et al. 2000] LK03
  Dermabacteraceae GH01a
  Jonesia [Jonesiaceae] GH01a

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (Metcalf & Brown 1957) Schumann et al. 2001 RS03, JC08 [=Cellulomonas cellulans RS03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AK02] Altenburger, P., P. Kämpfer, P. Schumann, D. Vybiral, W. Lubitz & H.-J. Busse. 2002. Georgenia muralis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a medieval wall painting. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 875-881.

[BP03] Bruns, A., H. Philipp, H. Cypionka & T. Brinkhoff. 2003. Aeromicrobium marinum sp. nov., an abundant pelagic bacterium isolated from the German Wadden Sea. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1917-1923.

[CM03] Cook, A. E., & P. R. Meyers. 2003. Rapid identification of filamentous actinomycetes to the genus level using genus-specific 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment patterns. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1907-1915.

[GH01a] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001a. The road map to the Manual. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria (Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity, eds) pp. 119-166. Springer.

[GH01b] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001b. Class I. Deinococci class. nov. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria (Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity, eds) pp. 395-420. Springer.

[IJSEM04] IJSEM. 2004. Validation list no. 95: Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54: 1-2.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755-1763.

[LK03] Lang, E., R. M. Kroppenstedt, J. Swiderski, P. Schumann, W. Ludwig, A. Schmid & N. Weiss. 2003. Emended description of Janibacter terrae, including ten dibenzofuran-degrading strains and Janibacter brevis as its later heterotypic synonym. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1999-2005.

[MPV91] Mwase, E. T., R. G. Pegram & M. G. R. Varma. 1991. The development and survival of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (Acari: Ixodidae) under quasi-natural conditions in Zimbabwe. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 239-244. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[P91] Podboronov, V. M. 1991. Antibacterial protective mechanisms of ixodoid ticks. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 375-380. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RP03] Reddy, G. S. N., J. S. S. Prakash, V. Prabahar, G. I. Matsumoto, E. Stackebrandt & S. Shivaji. 2003. Kocuria polaris sp. nov., an orange-pigmented psychrophilic bacterium isolated from an Antarctic cyanobacterial mat sample. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 183-187.

[RS03] Rivas, R., M. Sánchez, M. E. Trujillo, J. L. Zurdo-Piñeiro, P. F. Mateos, E. Martínez-Molina & E. Velázquez. 2003. Xylanimonas cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from a decayed tree (Ulmus nigra). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 99-103.