Butorides

Green heron Butorides virescens, copyright Basar.


Belongs within: Ardeidae.

Butorides is a cosmopolitan genus of small herons with a dark bill, black cap, blackish back and wings, and yellow legs.

<==Butorides
    |--B. flavicollis N87
    |--B. scapularis SS66
    |--B. stagnatilis S13 [=B. striatus stagnatilis M03]
    |--B. striatus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Ardea striata] CS77
    |    |--B. s. striatus CS77
    |    |--B. s. amurensis (Schrenck 1860) CS77
    |    |--B. s. atricapillus (Afzelius 1805) CS77
    |    |--B. s. brevipes (Ehrenberg 1833) CS77
    |    |--B. s. cinereus Mayr 1943 WS48
    |    |--B. s. macrorhynchus M03
    |    |--B. s. patens E52
    |    |--B. s. rogersi Mathews 1911 WS48
    |    `--B. s. sundevalli HSS13
    `--B. virescens (Linnaeus 1758) CS77
         |--B. v. virescens S18
         |--B. v. hypernotius S18
         `--B. v. maculatus E52

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[E52] Eisenmann, E. 1952. Annotated list of birds of Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (5): 1–62.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[N87] North, A. J. 1887. List of references to authentic descriptions of Australian birds' eggs. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1163–1174.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pl. 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Metrosideros

Pohutukawa Metrosideros excelsa, photographed by Ed323.


Belongs within: Myrtaceae.

Metrosideros is a genus of trees, shrubs and lianes found between Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand and islands of the Pacific.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Aromatic shrubs, trees or woody lianes with simple, opposite, gland-dotted, exstipulate leaves. Flowers in usually terminal cymes or racemes; receptacle adnate to ovary; sepals 5, imbricate; petals 5; stamens numerous, many more than petals; filaments filiform, anthers versatile. Ovary three-celled, style filiform, ovules numerous. Capsules coriaceous, loculicidally three-valved, or dehiscence irregular; seeds linear.

<==Metrosideros Banks ex Gaertn. 1788 A61
    |--M. albiflora Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788 [incl. M. diffusa Cunn. 1839 non Melaleuca diffusa Forst. f. 1786] A61
    |--M. carminea Oliver 1928 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--M. colensoi Hook. f. 1852 A61
    |    |--M. c. var. colensoi A61
    |    `--M. c. var. pendens (Col.) Kirk 1899 [=M. pendens Col. 1880] A61
    |--M. collina ST99
    |    |--M. c. ssp. collina ST99
    |    `--M. c. ssp. polymorpha ST99
    |--M. diffusa (Forst. f.) Smith 1797 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--M. excelsa Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788 [incl. M. tomentosa Rich. 1832] A61
    |--M. fulgens Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. kermadecensis Oliver 1928 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--M. macropus WO05
    |--M. parkinsonii Buchan. 1883 A61
    |--M. perforata (Forster & Forster) Rich. 1832 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--M. robusta Cunn. 1839 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--M. × sub-tomentosa Carse 1927 [M. excelsa × M. robusta] A61
    |--M. umbellata Cav. 1795 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--M. villosa Smith 1797 C06

Metrosideros carminea Oliver 1928 [incl. M. diffusa Hook. f. 1852 nec Melaleuca diffusa Forst. f. 1786 nec Met. diffusa Cunn. 1839] A61

Metrosideros diffusa (Forst. f.) Smith 1797 [=Melaleuca diffusa Forst. f. 1786; incl. Met. hypericifolia Cunn. 1839 non Salisb. 1796, Met. subsimilis Colenso 1880] A61

Metrosideros fulgens Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788 A61 [incl. Met. aurata Colenso 1891 A61, Met. florida var. aurata A27, Melaleuca florida Forst. f. 1786 A61, Leptospermum scandens Forster & Forster 1776 A61, Metrosideros scandens (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 A61, Met. speciosa Col. 1890 A61]

Metrosideros kermadecensis Oliver 1928 [incl. M. polymorpha Hook. f. 1864 non Gaud. 1826, M. villosa Kirk 1899 non Smith 1797] A61

Metrosideros perforata (Forster & Forster) Rich. 1832 [=Leptospermum perforatum Forster & Forster 1776, Melaleuca perforata Forst. f. 1786; incl. Metrosideros buxifolia Cunningham 1839, Mel. scandens Sol. ex Gaertn. 1788, Met. tenuifolium Colenso 1892, Met. vesiculata Colenso 1884] A61

Metrosideros robusta Cunn. 1839 [incl. M. florida Hook. f. 1849 non Melaleuca florida Forst. f. 1786, M. robusta var. intermedia Kirk 1899, M. robusta var. retusa Kirk 1899] A61

Metrosideros umbellata Cav. 1795 A61 [=Agalmanthus umbellatus C06; incl. Melaleuca lucida Forst. f. 1786 non Linn. f. 1781 A61, Met. lucida (Forster) Rich. 1832 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Part 2. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[ST99] Saenz, G. S., & J. W. Taylor. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Meliola and Meliolina inferred from nuclear small subunit rRNA sequences. Mycological Research 103 (8): 1049–1056.

[WO05] Wilson, P. G., M. M. O'Brien, M. M. Heslewood & C. J. Quinn. 2005. Relationships within Myrtaceae sensu lato based on a matK phylogeny. Plant Systematics and Evolution 251: 3–19.

Verticordia

Plumed featherflower Verticordia plumosa, photographed by Cygnis insignis.


Belongs within: Chamelaucieae.

Verticordia, featherflowers, is an Australian genus of shrubs and small trees bearing flowers with feather-like hairs on the calyx lobes.

<==Verticordia
    |--V. chrysantha G04b
    |--V. cunninghamii LK14
    |--V. densiflora OS04
    |    |--V. d. ssp. densiflora GK00
    |    `--V. d. ssp. caespitosa GK00
    |--V. forrestii S86
    |--V. grandiflora OS04
    |--V. habrantha GK00
    |--V. helmsii G04a
    |--V. huegelii OS04
    |    |--V. h. var. huegelii OS04
    |    `--V. h. var. stylosa OS04
    |--V. insignis OS04
    |    |--V. i. ssp. insignis OS04
    |    `--V. i. ssp. compta OS04
    |--V. lindleyi H18
    |--V. nitens R35
    |--V. pennigera WO05
    |--V. picta S95
    |--V. plumosa GK00
    `--V. verticillata LK14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H18] Houston, T. 2018. A Guide to Native Bees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[S95] Smith, G. T. 1995. Species richness, habitat and conservation of scorpions in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 55–66.

[S86] Snelling, R. R. 1986. The taxonomy and nomenclature of some Australian paragiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Masaridae). Contributions in Science 378: 1–19.

[WO05] Wilson, P. G., M. M. O'Brien, M. M. Heslewood & C. J. Quinn. 2005. Relationships within Myrtaceae sensu lato based on a matK phylogeny. Plant Systematics and Evolution 251: 3–19.

Octopus

Common octopus Octopus vulgaris, copyright Kevin Bryant.


Belongs within: Octopodidae.

Octopus is a diverse genus of benthic octopuses with biserial suckers and a large crop. The genus may be divided between a number of morphologically distinct groups but its taxonomy remains uncertain owing to the unclear identity of the type species (O'Shea 1999).

<==Octopus Lamarck 1798 O99 [incl. Paroctopus Naef 1923 P61]
    |--*O. vulgaris Lamarck 1798 O99, L98
    |--O. africanus (Robson 1929) [=O. fontanianus var. africanus] O99
    |--O. alpheus Norman 1992 O99
    |--O. americanus G79
    |--O. apollyon S72
    |--O. aspilosomatis Norman 1992 O99
    |--O. australis Hoyle 1885 O99
    |--O. berrima Stranks & Norman 1992 O99
    |--O. bimaculatus SRT18
    |--O. bimaculoides C-S18
    |--O. bunorong O99
    |--O. campbelli (Smith 1902) [=Polypus campbelli, Joubinia campbelli, Robsonella campbelli] O99
    |--O. cirrhosus Lamarck 1798 L98
    |--O. cyaneas Gray 1929 BW09
    |--O. dierythraeus Norman 1992 O99
    |--O. fontanianus d’Orbigny 1835 O99
    |--O. gibbsi O’Shea 1999 O99
    |--O. granulatus Lamarck 1798 L98
    |--O. graptus Norman 1992 O99
    |--O. hummelincki O99
    |--O. huttoni (Benham 1943) (see below for synonymy) O99
    |--O. joubini Robson 1929 M88
    |--O. kaharoa O’Shea 1999 O99
    |--O. kaurna O99
    |--O. macropus O99
    |--O. mernoo O’Shea 1999 O99
    |--O. moschatus Lamarck 1798 L98
    |--O. oliveri (Berry 1914) [=Polypus oliveri] O99
    |--O. ornatus O99
    |--O. oshimae Sasaki 1929 O99
    |--O. pallidus O99
    |--O. punctatus Gabb 1862 C64
    |--O. rapanui Voss 1979 O99
    |--O. rubescens AFL84
    |--O. rugosus (Bosc 1792) O99
    |--O. variabilis PP64
    `--O. zealandicus (Benham 1944) P61

Octopus huttoni (Benham 1943) [=Robsonella huttoni; incl. O. adamsi Benham 1944, O. otagoensis Benham 1943, O. warringa Stranks 1989] O99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AFL84] Antonelis, G. A., Jr., C. H. Fiscus & R. L. de Long. 1984. Spring and summer prey of California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, at San Miguel Island, California, 1978-79. Fishery Bulletin 82 (1): 67–76.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C-S18] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2018. Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences. Protoplasma 255: 297–357.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[L98] Lamarck, C. 1798. Extrait d'un mémoire sur le genre de la sèche, du calmar et du poulpe, vulgairement nommés, polypes de mer. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (17): 129–131.

[M88] McKinstry, D. M. 1988. Bite by Octopus joubini: a case report. Nautilus 102 (3): 127–128.

[O99] O’Shea, S. 1999. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Octopoda (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 112: 1–280.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SRT18] Schiffer, P. H., H. E. Robertson & M. J. Telford. 2018. Orthonectids are highly degenerate annelid worms. Current Biology 28: 1970–1974.

[S72] Stunkard, H. W. 1972. Clarification of taxonomy in the Mesozoa. Systematic Zoology 21 (2): 210–214.

Sepiida

Common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, copyright Diego Delso.


Belongs within: Neocoleoidea.

The Sepiida, cuttlefishes, are a group of broad-bodied, often benthic cephalopods with the tentacles retractile into large pockets on the head.

Sepiida MG-H11
    |  i. s.: Ceratisepia YVD98
    |--Belosepia [Belosaepiidae] YVD98
    |--Sepiadariidae MG-H11
    |    |--Sepiadarium gracilis Voss 1962 V62
    |    `--Sepioloidea d’Orbigny 1839 P61
    |         |--*S. lineolata (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) P61, MG-H11 [=Sepiola lineolata P61]
    |         `--S. pacifica (Kirk 1882) P61
    `--Sepiidae MG-H11
         |--Archaeosepia naefi Szörenyi 1933 D93
         `--Sepia Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |  i. s.: S. chirotrema Berry 1918 MG-H11
              |         S. cottoni Adam 1979 MG-H11
              |         S. cultrata Hoyle 1885 MG-H11
              |         S. elegans GW02
              |         S. esculenta Hoyle 1886 H09
              |         S. latimanus Quoy & Gaimard 1832 BW09
              |         S. media Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |         S. octopodia Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |         S. opipara (Iredale 1926) MG-H11
              |         S. pfefferi Hoyle 1885 H09
              |         S. pharaonis Ehrenberg 1831 BW09
              |         S. prionota Voss 1962 V62
              |         S. rhoda (Iredale 1954) MG-H11
              |         S. tuberculata Lamarck 1798 L98
              |--S. (Sepia) officinalis Linnaeus 1758 G20, L58
              |--S. (Amplisepia Iredale 1926) P61
              |    `--S. (*A.) apama Gray 1849 P61
              `--S. (Solitosepia Iredale 1926) P61
                   |--S. (*S.) liliana P61
                   `--S. (S.) plangon Gray 1849 P61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Bryce, C. & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[D93] Doyle, P. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Coleoidea). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 229–236. Chapman & Hall: London.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[L98] Lamarck, C. 1798. Extrait d'un mémoire sur le genre de la sèche, du calmar et du poulpe, vulgairement nommés, polypes de mer. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (17): 129–131.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[V62] Voss, G. L. 1962. Six new species and two new subspecies of cephalopods from the Philippine Islands. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 169–176.

[YVD98] Young, R. E., M. Vecchione & D. T. Donovan. 1998. The evolution of coleoid cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology. South African Journal of Marine Science 20: 393–420.

Ungulinidae

Diplodonta globus, copyright Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.


Belongs within: Neoheterodontei.

The Ungulinidae are a group of infaunal bivalves commonly found in muddy sand or gravel. Members have rounded shells with a low beak, the external sculpture being smooth, punctate or concentrically ribbed.

Ungulinidae [Diplodontidae, Ungulinoidea]
    |  i. s.: Phlyctiderma (Phlyctiderma) discrepans (Carpenter 1857) PP78
    |         Felaniella MG-H11
    |           |--F. usta L10
    |           `--F. zelandica HS01
    |         Joannisiella F27a
    |           |--J. moretonensis (Deshayes 1855) [=Cyrenella moretonensis] H09
    |           |--J. novozelandica [=Lucina novozelandica, L. novaezelandiae (l. c.), Diplodonta striata] F27a
    |           `--J. sphaericula (Deshayes 1855) [=Cyrenella sphaericula] H09
    |         Brachymeris alta Conrad 1875 SB93
    |--Cycladicama cumingi (Hanley 1844) TW07
    `--+--Ungulina cuneata (Spengler 1798) TW07
       `--Diplodonta Brown 1831 TW07, G79
            |  i. s.: D. adamsi (Angas 1867) [=Mysia adamsi] H09
            |         D. ampla (Hutton 1885) F27a
            |         D. balcombensis Pritchard 1906 [=D. subquadrata Tate 1887 nec Carpenter 1855 nec Gabb 1873] F27b
            |         D. brasiliensis G79
            |         D. calculus C64
            |         D. candeana G79
            |         D. conspicua Smith 1885 H09
            |         D. corpulenta Smith 1885 H09
            |         D. ethima Melvill & Standen 1899 H09
            |         D. gabbi [=D. subquadrata Gabb 1873 non Carpenter 1855] F27b
            |         D. globosa Adams 1856 H09
            |         D. scalpta Smith 1885 H09
            |         D. semiaspera C64
            |         D. semiasperoides L10
            |         D. subcrassa Smith 1884 H09
            |         D. subglobosa Smith 1885 H09 [=Felania subglobosa C64]
            |         D. sublateralis Smith 1885 H09
            |         D. subquadrata Carpenter 1855 F27b
            |         D. suborbicularis (Tate 1887) [=Sacchia suborbicularis] F27b
            |         D. suprema Olsson 1961 PP78
            |         D. tasmanica F27a
            |--D. (Felania) TW07
            |    |--D. (F.) circularis Dunker 1846 TW07
            |    |--‘Felania’ tellinoides C64
            |    `--‘Mysia’ (F.) usta Gould 1861 C64
            |--D. (Sphaerella) orbella [=Lucina orbella; incl. Mysia tumida, Sphaerella tumida] C64
            |--D. (Zemysia Finlay 1927) P61
            |    |--D. (*Z.) zelandica (Gray 1835) [=Lucina zelandica] P61
            |    |--D. (Z.) infrequens Marwick 1926 F27a
            |    `--D. (Z.) rakiura (Powell 1939) P61
            `--D. (Zemysina Finlay 1927) P61
                 |--D. (*Z.) globus Finlay 1927 P61 [=Zemysia (*Z.) globus F27a]
                 |--D. (Z.) globularis Lamarck 1818 [=Zemysia (Z.) globularis] F27a
                 |--D. (Z.) globulosa [=Zemysia (Z.) globulosa] F27a
                 `--D. (Z.) striatula (Finlay 1927) P61 [=Zemysia (Z.) striatula F27a]

Nomen nudum: Diplodonta newtoni Cossmann 1907 F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[L10] Lebedev, E. B. 2010. Diversity of soft-bottom mollusks in the Far Eastern Marine Reserve (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 169–173. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

Gaimardiidae

Kidderia aupouria, copyright Te Papa Tongarewa.


Belongs within: Neoheterodontei.

The Gaimardiidae are a group of small, thin-shelled bivalves that commonly live attached to floating seaweed.

Gaimardiidae [Gaimardioidea]
    |--Costokidderia Finlay 1927 P61
    |    |--*C. costata (Odhner 1924) [=Kidderia costata] P61
    |    |--C. lyallensis Finlay 1927 P61
    |    `--C. pedica Finlay 1927 P61
    |--Neogaimardia Odhner 1924 P61
    |    |--*N. rostellata [=Kellia rostellata] P61
    |    |--N. finlayi Powell 1933 P61
    |    |--N. minutissima (Iredale 1908) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--N. tasmanica Beddome 1881 [=Modiolarca tasmanica] F27
    |--Gaimardia Gould 1852 P61
    |    |--*G. trapezina (Lamarck 1818) P61, TW07 [=Modiolarca trapesina P61]
    |    |    |--G. t. trapezina P61
    |    |    `--G. t. coccinea Hedley 1916 P61
    |    |--G. aucklandica Finlay 1927 P61
    |    |--G. finlayi HS01
    |    `--G. forsteriana Finlay 1927 P61
    `--Kidderia Dall 1876 P61
         |--*K. minuta P61
         |--K. acrobeles (Suter 1913) P61 [=Gaimardia acrobeles F27, Modiolarca acrobeles F27]
         |--K. aupouria Powell 1933 P61
         |    |--K. a. aupouria P61
         |    `--K. a. fiordlandica Fleming 1948 P61
         |--K. campbellica Odhner 1924 P61
         |--K. hamiltoni Finlay 1927 P61 [=Mytilus pusillus Gould 1916 non Macgillivray 1843 F27, Modiolarca pusilla F27]
         |--K. macquariensis Hedley 1916 P61
         |--K. marshalli Fleming 1948 P61
         |--K. rakiura Powell 1939 P61
         `--K. smithi Suter 1913 P61 [=Modiolarca smithi F27]

Neogaimardia minutissima (Iredale 1908) P61 [=Modiolarca minutissima F27, Gaimardia minutissima F27, Lasaea minutissima F27]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.