Field of Science

Swertia

Many-stem swertia Swertia multicaulis, copyright Pema G. Bhutia.


Belongs within: Gentianoideae.

Swertia, the felworts, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs, most diverse in Asia and Africa.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs annual or perennial. Roots fibrous or woody; primary roots with few secondary rootlets or rhizomes short and with few fleshy adventitious rootlets. Stems absent, scapiform, or well developed, ascending or erect, terete, striate or angled, simple or branched. Leaves opposite, rarely alternate or whorled, margin entire. Inflorescences cymose, usually grouped into simple or paniculate thyrses, rarely strictly dichotomous, sometimes reduced to single flowers and inflorescences racemelike or flowers solitary and terminal. Flowers 4- or 5-merous. Calyx and corolla rotate, lobed to base, tubes less than 3 mm. Nectaries 1 or 2 per corolla lobe, with fimbriate margin or represented by naked spotlike gland patches. Stamens inserted at base of corolla tube. Ovary 1-celled. Style short to elongate. Capsules 2-valved, few to many seeded. Seeds small.

Swertia
    |--S. acaulis O88
    |--S. alternifolia O88
    |--S. candelabrum O88
    |--S. ciliata O88
    |--S. cuneata O88
    |--S. dilatata O88
    |--S. hispidicalyx O88
    |--S. hookeri O88
    |--S. kingii O88
    |--S. multicaulis O88
    |--S. petiolata O88
    |--S. racemosa O88
    |--S. radiata RS99
    |--S. ramosa O88
    |--S. speciosa O88
    `--S. staintonii O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In: Ohba, H. & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1–248.

Anapidae

Comaroma simoni, copyright Pierre Oger.


Belongs within: Araneoidea.

The Anapidae are a group of minute spiders found in litter and moss, usually in moist forests. Many species construct small horizontal orb webs (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Body size <2 mm. Carapace with ocular region elevated; pedicel arising from circular rimmed cavity on posterior declivity; glandular openings often present, situated in hollow pits on edge of carapace at anterolateral corners. Six or eight eyes present; anterior median eyes often reduced or absent; other eyes arranged in three pairs. Chelicerae with teeth on both margins. Labrum bearing anterior spur projecting forward between chelicerae, sometimes reduced to a small crest. Female palp reduced in size or absent, without claw. Sternum as broad as long, broadly fused to carapace. Relative leg lengths (longest to shortest) 4123 or 1423; legs short, without spines; metatarsi shorter than tarsi; tarsi with three claws; tarsal organ capsulate and domed; femora I of male with short spine ventrally. Abdomen of male with large dorsal scutum, or two or three scuta, or dorsal region with scattered small sclerotised areas; ventral scutum surrounding pedicel. Abdomen of female soft or with small, brown sclerotised ring. Two booklungs present or anterior tracheae opening through spiracles on either side of genital opening. Anterior spinnerets small, close together; spinnerets together with colulus surrounded by a sclerotised ring; posterior lateral spinnerets with triplet of one flagelliform and two aggregate gland spigots in both sexes, aggregate gland spigot larger than accompanying flagelliform spigot; piriform gland spigots with reduced base. Genitalia haplogyne; spermathecae well separated; male palp variable, femur and patella sometimes with bristles or apophyses, embolus varying from spiniform to short and wide.

Anapidae [Anapeae, Anapinae]
    |  i. s.: Sofanapis antillanca Platnick & Forster 1989 A02
    |         Crassanapis S03
    |         Pseudanapis Simon 1905 S03
    |           `--P. burra Forster 1959 W76
    |         Chasmocephalon O.P.-Cambridge 1889 S03
    |           `--C. crassifemoralis Wunderlich 1976 W76
    |         Anapisona S03
    |         Novanapis spinipes FF99
    |         Gertschanapis shantzi BS09
    |--Comaroma Bertkau 1889 S03
    |    `--C. simoni Bertkau 1889 S03
    `--+--Anapis Simon 1895 S03
       |    `--A. amazonas Platnick & Shadab 1978 S03
       `--Crozetulus Hickman 1939 S03
            |--*C. minutus Hickman 1939 H39
            `--C. rhodesiensis Brignoli 1981 S03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[H39] Hickman, V. V. 1939. Opiliones and Araneae. British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition Reports Series B 4: 157–188.

Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[S03] Schütt, K. 2003. Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae s.l. (Araneae, Araneoidea). Zoologica Scripta 32 (2): 129–151.

[W76] Wunderlich, J. 1976. Spinnen aus Australien. 1. Uloboridae, Theridiosomatidae und Symphytognathidae (Arachnida: Araneida). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 113–124.

Araneus

European garden spider Araneus diadematus, copyright Böhringer Friedrich.


Belongs within: Araneini.

Araneus is a genus of orb-weaving spiders including the European garden spider Araneus diadematus and related species. The name has been used in a much broader sense in the past (at its broadest, as a generic name for all spiders); many of the species listed below would now be placed in segregate genera.

Araneus Clerck 1758 F11 [incl. Aranea Linnaeus 1758 G76, Epeira Latreille 1810 G76]
    |--*A. angulatus Clerck 1757 G76
    |--A. acuminatus (K. 1871) [=Epeira acuminata] R13
    |--‘Epeira’ albomaculata Lucas 1846 E12
    |--‘Epeira’ albotriangula Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ alpica K01
    |--A. alsine Walckenaer 1802 G76 [=Epeira alsine K01]
    |--‘Epeira’ anatipes Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ angulata K01
    |--‘Epeira’ annulata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ anseripes Walckenaer 1841 [incl. Cyclosa melanura Simon 1877] KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ apoclisa S69
    |--‘Epeira’ arenacea Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ armida K01
    |--‘Aranea’ atrox L02
    |--‘Epeira’ balanus Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ bertkani Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK84
    |--A. biapicatifer Strand 1907 [=Aranea biapicatifera] J98
    |--A. bicentenarius DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ bifida Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--A. bilunifer (Pocock 1900) HU08
    |--‘Epeira’ bogoriensis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ bradleyi Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ braminica Stoliczka 1869 S69
    |--‘Epeira’ brisbanae Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Aranea’ brouni M54
    |--‘Aranea’ caementaria L02
    |--‘Aranea’ calophylla Walckenaer 1802 G76
    |--‘Epeira’ caputlupi Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ carbonaria K01
    |--A. cavaticus (Keyserling 1881) B11
    |--‘Epeira’ chrysogaster D59
    |--A. cingulatus DC01
    |--A. circe Savigny & Audouin 1825 G76 [=Epeira circe K01]
    |--‘Epeira’ circulissparsa Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Aranea’ citrea L02
    |--‘Aranea’ clavipes L02
    |--‘Epeira’ collina Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ cornuta K01 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Epeira’ cossoni Sim. 1885 K01
    |--‘Epeira’ cyrtarachnoides Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ dehaanii Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--A. diadematus Clerck 1757 G76 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Aranea’ domestica L02
    |--‘Aranea’ dorsalis L02
    |--A. eburnus (Keyserling 1886) F11 [=Epeira eburna KK84]
    |--A. ejusmodi Bösenberg & Strand 1906 AM11
    |--‘Epeira’ enucleata Karsch 1879 K92
    |--‘Epeira’ ephippiata K92
    |--‘Epeira’ exanthematica Doleschall 1859 KK84
    |--‘Aranea’ extensa L02
    |--‘Epeira’ fastidiosa Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Aranea’ florentina L02
    |--‘Aranea’ formicaria L02
    |--‘Epeira’ furcifera Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ geniculata D57
    |--A. grossus Koch 1845 G76 [=Epeira grossa K01]
    |--‘Epeira’ harpyia Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ hasseltii Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ heroine Koch 1871 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ himalayana Sim. 1889 K01
    |--‘Epeira’ hirsutula Stoliczka 1869 S69
    |--‘Epeira’ hispida Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Aranea’ holosericea L02
    |--‘Aranea’ hombergii L02
    |--‘Epeira’ idonea Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ inconspicua K01
    |--‘Epeira’ indistincta Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ inquieta Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--A. iviei DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ junghuhnii Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ kuhlii Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ labyrinthea B06
    |--‘Aranea’ labyrinthica L02
    |--‘Aranea’ laevipes L02
    |--‘Epeira’ laglaizei [incl. E. thomisoides Doleschall 1857 non Duf. 1855] K92
    |--‘Epeira’ lancearia Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--A. lathyrinus (Holmberg 1875) AM11
    |--‘Epeira’ lineata Lucas 1846 E12
    |--‘Epeira’ lodicula Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--A. lugubris (Walck. 1837) [=Epeira lugubris; incl. E. indagatrix K. 1871] R13
    |--‘Epeira’ lutulenta Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ malabarica D57
    |--‘Epeira’ mamillana Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ manipa Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--‘Epeira’ margaritacea Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Aranea’ marginata L02
    |--A. marmoreus Clerck 1757 G76 [=Epeira marmorea K01]
    |--‘Epeira’ mediocris Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |--A. miniatus DC01
    |--‘Aranea’ mirabilis L02
    |--A. mitificus (Simon 1886) AM11
    |--‘Epeira’ moluccensis Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--A. mongolicus Simon 1895 [=Araneus (Epeira) mongolicus] S95
    |--‘Epeira’ mulieraria Koch & Keyseling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ necopina Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ nigropunctata KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ nigrotarsalis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--A. nordmanni Thorell 1856 G76
    |--‘Epeira’ obtusata Karsch 1892 K92
    |--‘Epeira’ orichalcea Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--‘Epeira’ packardii Thorell 1875 K01
    |--‘Epeira’ paradoxa Lucas 1846 E12
    |--A. pegnia DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ phthisica KK84
    |--‘Aranea’ pluchii L02
    |--A. potanini Simon 1895 [=Araneus (Epeira) potanini] S95
    |--A. pratensis DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ proxima K01
    |--‘Epeira’ psittacina Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ pullata K92
    |--‘Epeira’ punctigera Doleschall 1857 K92
    |--‘Epeira’ pyramidata K92
    |--A. quadratus Clerck 1757 G76 [=Epeira quadrata K01]
    |--‘Aranea’ quattuorguttata [incl. A. cinnaberina] L02
    |--‘Epeira’ quaesita Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ queribunda Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ quieta Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ rabiosula Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ radja Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--‘Epeira’ ramulosa Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ rara Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Aranea’ raui Strand 1907 J98
    |--‘Aranea’ recherchensis Main 1954 M54
    |--‘Aranea’ redimita L02
    |--‘Aranea’ relucens L02
    |--‘Epeira’ rhodosternon Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Epeira’ rotundula Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ rubicundula Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Aranea’ rufipes L02
    |--A. saevus Koch 1872 G76 [=Epeira saeva K01]
    |--‘Aranea’ sauvagesii L02
    |--‘Aranea’ scenica L02
    |--‘Epeira’ scutifera Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--‘Aranea’ senoculata L02
    |--‘Epeira’ sericea S69
    |--‘Epeira’ solitaria K01
    |--‘Epeira’ spectabilis Doleschall 1859 D59
    |--‘Aranea’ spinosa L02
    |--‘Epeira’ squamifera Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ stigmatisata Karsch 1878 K92
    |--‘Epeira’ stolida Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--A. sturmi V09
    |--A. sublutia (Urquhart 1892) [=Epeira sublutia] NS00
    |--‘Epeira’ suspicax Cambridge 1876 K01
    |--‘Epeira’ sydneyica Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ tabida KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ talipedata Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--A. tartaricus [=A. (Epeira) tartaricus] S95
    |--A. theis (Walck. 1837) [=Epeira theis; incl. E. mangareva Walck. 1847] R13
    |--‘Epeira’ theodori Thorell 1894 [=E. (Singa) theodori] T94
    |--‘Epeira’ thomisoides Duf. 1855 K92
    |--A. transmarinus (Keyserling 1865) G84, KK84 [=Epeira transmarina KK84; incl. E. producta Koch 1867 KK84]
    |--A. trifolium DC01
    |--‘Epeira’ trituberculata Lucas 1846 E12
    |--A. undatus V09
    |--‘Epeira’ unicolor Doleschall 1857 D57
    |--‘Epeira’ urbana Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ usualis Koch & Keyserling 1887 KK84
    |--‘Epeira’ vallata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--A. ventricosus (Koch 1878) AM11 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. verrucosus H09 [=Epeira verrucosa W49]
    |--‘Epeira’ victoria K01
    |--‘Epeira’ viriditus M54
    |--‘Epeira’ westringii K01
    `--‘Epeira’ wittfeldae B06

Araneus diadematus Clerck 1757 G76 [=Araneus (Epeira) diadematus S95, Epeira diademata P89; incl. *Aranea diadema Linnaeus 1758 G76, *Epeira diadema G76]

Araneus ventricosus (Koch 1878) AM11 [=Epeira ventricosa K01; incl. E. senta Karsch 1879 K01, Araneus (Epeira) sentus S95]

‘Epeira’ cornuta K01 [=Lacinioides cornutus V09; incl. Aranea leuwenhoeki Scopoli 1763 K01, Aranea umbratica Olivier non Araneus umbraticus Clerck 1757 K01, Epeira vicaria Kulczyński 1885 K01, Araneus (Epeira) vicarius S95]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[DC01] Davis, M. J., & F. A. Coyle. 2001. Habitat distribution and life history of Araneus spider species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12 (2): 49–57.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, plates 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, plates 1–18.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F11] Framenau, V. W. 2011. Lariniophora, a new monotypic orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Araneinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (2): 191–201.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G76] Grasshoff, M. 1976. Zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur mitteleuropäischer Radnetzspinnen der Familie Araneidae (Arachnida: Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 143–154.

[H09] Hogg, H. R. 1909. Some New Zealand and Tasmanian Arachnidae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 42: 273–283.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[P89] Parona, C. 1889. Particolarità nei costumi della Meta merianae, Scop. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 250–255.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” (Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg), Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, plates 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[W49] White, A. 1849. Descriptions of apparently new species of Aptera from New Zealand. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 17: 3–6 (reprinted 1850. Annals & Magazine of Natural History series 2, 5: 50–53).

Araneinae

Alpaida veniliae, copyright Julián Tocce.


Belongs within: Araneidae.
Contains: Araneini.

The Araneinae includes the 'typical' orb-weaving spiders, generally constructing a conventional orb-web at night and resting in a camouflaged retreat away from the web during the day (Framenau 2011).

Araneinae
    |--+--Perilla Thorell 1895 K02
    |  |    `--*P. teres Thorell 1895 [incl. P. cylindrogaster Simon 1909] K02
    |  `--Chorizopes O.P.-Cambridge 1870 [Chorizopinae] K02
    |       `--*C. frontalis K02
    `--+--Singafrotypa Benoit 1962 K02
       |    |--S. acanthopus (Simon 1907) K02
       |    `--S. okavango K02
       `--+--Araneini K02
          `--+--+--Enacrosoma Mello-Leitão 1932 K02, AM11
             |  `--Bertrana Keyserling 1884 K02, AM11
             `--Alpaida Pickard-Cambridge 1889 K02, AM11
                  |--A. grayi [=Aranea grayi] F09
                  |--A. leucogramma (White 1841) AM11
                  |--A. truncata (Keyserling 1865) AM11
                  `--A. veniliae (Keyserling 1865) P-GGJ08

Araneinae incertae sedis:
  Cyclosa Menge 1866 K02 [Cyclosini G76]
    |--*C. conica (Pallas 1772) [=Aranea conica] G76
    |--C. argenteoalba Bösenberg & Strand 1906 B11
    |--C. atrata Bösenberg & Strand 1906 AM11
    |--C. bifida (Doleschall 1859) AM11
    |--C. caroli E90
    |--C. confraga (Thorell 1892) AM11
    |--C. insulana (Costa 1834) Z02
    |--C. octotuberculata Karsch 1879 B11
    |--C. oculata (Walckenaer 1802) G76
    |--C. sedeculata Karsch 1879 B11
    |--C. spirifera Simon 1889 AM11
    |--C. trilobata (Urquhart 1885) [=Arachnura trilobata] NS00
    |--C. turbinata (Walckenaer 1842) Z02
    `--C. walckenaeri (Pickard-Cambridge 1889) Z02
  Mangora P.-Cambridge 1889 [Mangorini] G76
    |--*M. picta P.-Cambridge 1889 G76
    |--M. acalypha (Walckenaer 1802) G76
    `--M. placida JVHN90
  0--Lariniophora Framenau 2011 F11
  |    `--*L. ragnhildae (Strand 1917) (see below for synonymy) F11
  `--Eriophora Simon 1864 F11
       |--*E. ravilla (Koch 1844) F11
       |--E. biapicata (Koch 1871) F11
       |--E. decorosa (Urquhart 1894) [=Epeira decorosa] NS00
       |--E. fuliginea (Koch 1838) B11
       |--E. herione [incl. Epeira brounii Urquhart 1884] FF99
       |--E. pustulosa (Walckenaer 1842) F11 (see below for synonymy)
       `--E. transmarina (Keyserling 1865) B96 [=Aranea transmarina FF99]
  Larinia Simon 1874 F11
    |--L. acuticauda Simon 1906 (see below for synonymy) J98
    |--L. directa (Hentz 1847) AM11
    `--L. phthisica (Koch 1871) F11
  Verrucosa McCook 1888 F11
    `--V. arenata (Walckenaer 1842) WA02
  Backobourkia Framenau, Dupérré et al. 2010 F11
  Anepsion Strand 1929 F11
  Novakiella Court & Forster 1993 F11
  Scoloderus F11
  Acanthepeira Marx 1883 F11, AM11
    `--A. stellata BS09
  Dolophones maximus F11, B96
  Metazygia F11
    |--M. gregalis (Pickard-Cambridge 1889) P-GGJ08
    `--M. rogenhoferi (Keyserling 1878) P-GGJ08
  Colphepeira F11
  Phonognatha Simon 1894 BS09, K02
    |--P. graeffei (Rainbow 1896) B96
    |--P. melania B96
    `--P. sylvicola B96
  0--Zygiella Pickard-Cambridge 1902 F11, MG03 [=Zygia Koch 1834 non Fabricius 1775 G76; Zygiellinae]
  |    |--*Z. atrica (Koch 1845) (see below for synonymy) G76
  |    |--Z. kochi (Thorell 1870) [=Zilla kochi] G76
  |    |--Z. montana (Koch 1839) [=Zilla montana] G76
  |    |--Z. thorelli (Ausserer 1871) [=Zilla thorelli] G76
  |    `--Z. x-notata (Clerck 1757) MG03 [=Zilla x-notata] G76
  `--+--Kaira F11
     `--Metepeira F.O.P.-Cambridge 1903 F11, A02
          |--M. incrassata Pickard-Cambridge 1903 B11
          |--M. labyrinthea (Hentz 1847) B11
          `--M. spinipes Pickard-Cambridge 1903 B11
  0--Eustala Simon 1895 F11, AM11
  |    `--E. sagana (Keyserling 1893) AM11
  `--+--Wixia Pickard-Cambridge 1882 F11, AM11
     `--Acacesia Simon 1895 F11, AM11
          `--A. hamata E90

Eriophora pustulosa (Walckenaer 1842) F11 [=Araneus pustulosus FF99, Aranea pustulosa M54; incl. Epeira blattea Urquhart 1893 NS00, Ep. helveoguttata Urquhart 1888 NS00, Ep. ostribrunnea Urquhart 1890 NS00]

Larinia acuticauda Simon 1906 [=Drexelia acuticauda; incl. D. camerunica Strand 1908, Larinia camerunica] J98

*Lariniophora ragnhildae (Strand 1917) [=Araneus ragnhildae; incl. Epeira gracilis Hogg 1896 nec Walckenaer 1805 nec Keyserling 1865 nec Menge 1879, A. gracilis] F11

*Zygiella atrica (Koch 1845) [=Eucharia atrica, Zilla atrica, Zygia calophylla non Aranea calophylla Walckenaer 1802] G76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[E90] Eberhard, W. G. 1990. Early stages of orb construction by Philoponella vicinia, Leucauge mariana, and Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Uloboridae and Tetragnathidae), and their phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 18: 205–234.

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1, pp. 585–632. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[F11] Framenau, V. W. 2011. Lariniophora, a new monotypic orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Araneinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (2): 191–201.

[G76] Grasshoff, M. 1976. Zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur mitteleuropäischer Radnetzspinnen der Familie Araneidae (Arachnida: Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 143–154.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[K02] Kuntner, M. 2002. The placement of Perilla (Araneae, Araneidae) with comments on araneid phylogeny. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 281–287.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[P-GGJ08] Penna-Gonçalves, V., C. R. M. Garcia & H. F. Japyassú. 2008. Homology in a context dependent predatory behavior in spiders (Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 352–359.

[WA02] Whitehouse, M., I. Agnarsson, T. Miyashita, D. Smith, K. Cangialosi, T. Matsumoto, D. Li & Y. Henaut. 2002. Argyrodes: Phylogeny, sociality and interspecific interactions—a report on the Argyrodes symposium, Badplaas 2001. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 238–245.

[Z02] Zschokke, S. 2002. Ultraviolet reflectance of spiders and their webs. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 246–254.

Cyrtophora

Tent-web spider Cyrtophora citricola, copyright Ed Nieuwenhuys.


Belongs within: Araneidae.

Cyrtophora is a mostly Indo-Australian genus of spiders (with some species in Africa and the New World) whose members construct a horizontal orbweb with a tightly woven mesh and an extremely tight, permanent non-sticky spiral (Framenau & Scharff 2009).

Characters (from Framenau & Scharff 2009): Lateral eyes slightly separated; posterior eye row recurved or straight; legs relatively heavy; fourth leg with combined patella and tibia slightly shorter than femur, and shorter than combined metatarsus and tarsus; male pedipalp with embolus placed near median apophysis, supported by a conductor, basal cymbium concavity absent; female epigyne lacking a scape.

Cyrtophora Simon 1864 [incl. Euetria Thorell 1890, Suzumia Nakatsudi 1943] FS09
    |--*C. citricola (Forsskål 1775) [=Aranea citricola; incl. C. sculptilis Koch 1872] FS09
    |--C. beccarii (Thorell 1878) FS09
    |--C. cicatrosa (Stoliczka 1869) FS09
    |--C. cordiformis (Koch 1871) FS09
    |--C. crassipes (Rainbow 1897) [=Epeira crassipes, Aranea crassipes, Araneus crassipes] FS09
    |--C. cylindroides (Walckenaer 1842) FS09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. exanthematica (Doleschall 1859) FS09
    |--C. feai (Thorell 1887) AM11
    |--C. gazellae (Karsch 1878) [=Epeira gazellae, Aranea gazellae, Araneus gazellae] FS09
    |--C. hirta Koch 1872 FS09
    |--C. moluccensis (Doleschall 1857) FS09
    |--C. monulfi Chrysanthus 1960 FS09
    |--C. parnasia Koch 1872 FS09
    |--C. rainbowi (Roewer 1955) [=Cyclosa rainbowi, Epeira pallida Rainbow 1897 non Walckenaer 1805, Cyc. pallida] FS09
    |--C. trigona (Koch 1871) [=Epeira trigona, Aranea trigona, Araneus trigonus] FS09
    `--C. unicolor (Doleschall 1857) FS09

Cyrtophora cylindroides (Walckenaer 1842) FS09 [=Epeira cylindroides R13; incl. E. nephilina Koch 1871 FS09, E. viridipes Doleschall 1859 FS09]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[FS09] Framenau, V. W. & N. Scharff. 2009. Cyrtobill darwini, a new species in a new orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Cyrtophorinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 315–328.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

Argiope

Wasp spider Argiope bruennichi, copyright Cinnamologus.


Belongs within: Araneidae.

Argiope, St Andrew's cross spiders, is a genus of often large and colourfully striped orbweb spiders that derive their vernacular name from their habit of sitting in the web with the front and rear pairs of legs each closely held, radiating to form an overall X arrangement.

Characters (from Doleschall 1859, as section Argyopes of genus Epeira): Usually furry, ornately coloured. Cephalothorax very flat, anteriorly narrow. Anterior median eyes nearer to each other than are the posterior median eyes. Abdomen ovoid, flat-topped, angular. Legs moderately prolonged, radially extended at rest.

Argiope Audouin 1826 [Argiopinae] FS09
    |--*A. lobata (Pallas 1772) [=Aranea lobata] G76
    |--A. aemula K92
    |--A. aetherea (Walck. 1837) [=Epeira aetherea] R13
    |--A. amoena Koch 1878 B11
    |--A. anasuja Thor. 1887 K92
    |--A. argentata (Fabricius 1775) Z02
    |--A. aurantia Lucas 1833 B11
    |--A. australis JD-S07
    |--A. bruennichi (Scopoli 1772) G76
    |--A. catenulata (Doleschall 1859) K92, D59 [=Epeira catenulata K92]
    |--A. crenulata (Doleschall 1857) [=Epeira (Argyopes) crenulata] D57
    |--A. curvipes Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--A. fasciata (Hentz 1847) [=Epeira fasciata; incl. A. plana Koch 1867, A. transversa Emerton 1884] KK84
    |--A. katherina Levi 1983 GA11
    |--A. keyserlingi (Karsch 1878) B96
    |--A. leopardina Pocock 1898 R13
    |--A. luzona (Walckenaer 1841) AM11
    |--A. mammillaris (Stoliczka 1869) [=Epeira (Argyopes) mammillaris] S69
    |--A. minuta Karsch 1879 AM11
    |--A. ornata Simon 1884 K92
    |--A. pelewensis Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK84
    |--A. picta (K. 1871) [incl. A. principalis K. 1871] R13
    |--A. plagiata Karsch 1892 K92
    |--A. protensa FF99
    |--A. pulchella (Thorell 1881) HU08
    |--A. radon Levi 1983 GA11
    |--A. reinwardtii (Doleschall 1859) [=Epeira reinwardtii; incl. A. doleschallii Thorell 1873] T94
    |--A. savignyi Levi 1968 B11
    |--A. stellata (Stoliczka 1869) [=Epeira (Argyopes) stellata] S69
    |--A. striata Doleschall 1857) [=Epeira (Argyopes) striata] D57
    |--A. taprobanica Thor. 1887 K92
    |--A. trifasciata (Doleschall 1857) [=Epeira (Argyopes) trifasciata] D57
    |--A. trivittata Karsch 1892 K92
    `--A. versicolor (Doleschall 1859) [=Epeira versicolor] K92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, plates 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, plates 1–18.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[FS09] Framenau, V. W. & N. Scharff. 2009. Cyrtobill darwini, a new species in a new orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Cyrtophorinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 315–328.

[G76] Grasshoff, M. 1976. Zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur mitteleuropäischer Radnetzspinnen der Familie Araneidae (Arachnida: Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 143–154.

[GA11] Gregorič, M., I. Agnarsson, T. A. Blackledge & M. Kuntner. 2011. Darwin's bark spider: giant prey in giant orb webs (Caerostris darwini, Araneae: Araneidae)? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 287–295.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R. & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, plates 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

[Z02] Zschokke, S. 2002. Ultraviolet reflectance of spiders and their webs. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 246–254.

Uropygi

Hypoctonus sp., copyright Bernard Dupont.


Belongs within: Arachnida.
Contains: Thelyphoninae.

The Uropygi, whip-scorpions, are a group of tropical arachnids with raptorial pedipalps and an elongate filamentous post-pygidium (Harvey 2002). An alternative vernacular name, 'vinegaroon', comes from their possession of anal glands from which they spray unpleasant-smelling chemicals at threats.

<==Uropygi [Holopeltidia, Oxopoei, Thelyphonida]
    |  i. s.: Etiennus africanus (Hentschel 1984) H02
    |         Proschizomus Dunlop & Horrocks 1996 H02
    |         Mesoproctus Dunlop 1998 H02
    |--Hypoctonidae [Hypoctoninae, Hypoctonini] RC73
    |    |--Thelyphonellus Pocock 1894 RC73
    |    |    `--*T. amazonicus (Butler 1872) RC73
    |    |--Labochirus Pocock 1894 RC73
    |    |    |--*L. proboscideus (Butler 1872) RC73
    |    |    |--L. cervinus Pocock 1900 RC73
    |    |    `--L. tauricornis Pocock 1900 RC73
    |    `--Hypoctonus Thorell 1889 RC73
    |         |--*H. formosus (Butler 1872) RC73 [=Thelyphonus formosus T89; incl. T. angustus Stoliczka 1873 T89]
    |         |--H. africanus Hentschel 1899 RC73
    |         |--H. andersoni (Oates 1890) RC73
    |         |--H. binghami (Oates 1890) RC73
    |         |--H. birmanicus Hirst 1911 RC73
    |         |--H. browni Gravely 1912 RC73
    |         |--H. carmichaeli Gravely 1916 RC73
    |         |--H. clarki Cooke & Shadab 1973 RC73
    |         |--H. dawnae Gravely 1912 RC73
    |         |--H. ellisii Gravely 1912 RC73
    |         |--H. gastrostictus Kraepelin 1897 RC73
    |         |--H. granosus Pocock 1900 RC73
    |         |--H. kraepelini Simon 1901 RC73
    |         |--H. oatesi Pocock 1900 RC73
    |         |--H. proboscideus (Butler 1872) [=Thelyphonus proboscideus; incl. T. parvimanus Butler 1873] K92
    |         |--H. rangunensis (Oates 1890) RC73
    |         |--H. saxatilis (Oates 1890) RC73
    |         |--H. silvaticus (Oates 1890) RC73
    |         |--H. stoliczkae Gravely 1912 RC73
    |         `--H. woodmasoni (Oates 1890) RC73
    `--Thelyphonidae [Telyphonidae, Thelyphonoidae] H04b
         |  i. s.: Prothelyphonus Fritsch 1904 F04
         |           |--P. bohemicus (Kušta 1884) [=Thelyphonus bohemicus, Geralinura bohemica] F04
         |           `--P. cordai Fritsch 1904 F04
         |         Geralinura Scudder 1884 F04, H02
         |           |--G. crassa Kušta 1888 F04
         |           |--G. noctua Kušta 1888 F04
         |           `--G. scudderi Kušta 1888 F04
         |--Thelyphoninae RC73
         |--Typopeltis Pocock 1894 [incl. Gipopeltis Speijer 1934; Typopeltinae] RC73
         |    |--*T. crucifer Pocock 1900 RC73
         |    |--T. amurensis (Tarnani 1889) RC73
         |    |--T. cantonensis Speijer 1936 [incl. Mastigoproctus transoceanicus Lazell 2000] H04b
         |    |--T. dalyi Pocock 1900 RC73
         |    |--T. harmandi Kraepelin 1901 [=*Gipopeltis harmandi] RC73
         |    |--T. kamahouii Tarnani 1900 RC73
         |    |--T. kasnakowi Tarnani 1900 H04a
         |    |--T. magnificus Haupt 2004 H04a
         |    |--T. niger (Tarnani 1894) H04b
         |    |--T. sinensis Butler 1872 H04b
         |    |--T. stimpsoni (Wood 1862) RC73
         |    `--T. tarnanii Pocock 1902 RC73
         `--Mastigoproctinae [Mastigoproctidae, Uroproctinae] RC73
              |--Teltus Speijer 1936 RC73
              |    `--*T. vanoorti Speijer 1936 RC73
              |--Uroproctus Pocock 1894 RC73
              |    `--*U. assamensis (Stoliczka 1869) RC73
              |--Amauromastigon Mello-Leitão 1931 RC73
              |    `--*A. annectens (Werner 1916) RC73 [=Mastigoproctus annectens J98]
              |--Mimoscorpius Pocock 1894 RC73
              |    `--*M. pugnator (Butler 1872) RC73
              `--Mastigoproctus Pocock 1894 RC73
                   |--*M. giganteus (Lucas 1835) RC73
                   |--M. baracoensis Franganillo 1931 RC73
                   |--M. brasilianus (Koch 1843) H04b
                   |--M. butleri Pocock 1894 RC73
                   |--M. colombianus Mello-Leitao 1940 RC73
                   |--M. formidabilis Hirst 1912 RC73
                   |--M. liochirus Pocock 1902 RC73
                   |--M. maximus (Tarnani 1889) RC73
                   |--M. minensis Mello-Leitao 1931 RC73
                   |--M. perditus Mello-Leitao 1931 RC73
                   |--M. proscorpio (Latreille 1806) RC73
                   `--M. tantalus Roewer 1954 R54 RC73

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[H02] Harvey, M. S. 2002. The neglected cousins: what do we know about the smaller arachnid orders? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 357–372.

[H04a] Haupt, J. 2004a. A new species of whipscorpion from Laos (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 151–155.

[H04b] Haupt, J. 2004b. Mastigoproctus transoceanicus a synonym of Typopeltis cantonensis (Arachnida, Uropygi, Thelyphonidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 157–162.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[RC73] Rowland, J. M., & J. A. L. Cooke. 1973. Systematics of the arachnid order Uropygida (=Thelyphonida). Journal of Arachnology 1: 55–71.

[T89] Thorell, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XXI.—Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885–1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 521–729.