Locustellidae

Savi's warbler Locustella luscinioides, copyright Ron Knight.


Belongs within: Sylviida.

The Locustellidae, grass warblers and grassbirds, are a group of slender, brownish birds with usually long tails found around the Old World. They are supported as a clade by molecular analyses (Jetz et al. 2012). Locustellids are secretive birds, often living concealed among tall grasses (hence the vernacular name). Members include the bush warblers of the genus Bradypterus, smaller species found in warm regions of Africa and Asia.

Locustellidae [Megaluridae, Megalurinae]
    |--Robsonius OF19
    |    |--R. rabori OF19
    |    `--R. sorsogonensis JT12
    `--+--Locustella Kaup 1829 OF19, B94 [Locustellinae]
       |    |--+--+--L. amnicola BKB15
       |    |  |  `--L. fasciolata JT12
       |    |  `--+--L. pryeri (Seebohm 1884) JT12, I92 [=Megalurus pryeri BKB15]
       |    |     `--+--L. certhiola BKB15
       |    |        |    |--L. c. certhiola VP89
       |    |        |    `--L. c. rubescens VP89
       |    |        `--+--L. ochotensis JT12
       |    |           `--L. pleskei Taczanowski 1889 JT12, I92 [=L. ochotensis pleskei I92]
       |    `--+--‘Megalurus’ gramineus (Gould 1845) BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy) WS48
       |       |    |--M. g. gramineus M03
       |       |    `--M. g. goulburni M03
       |       `--+--+--L. lanceolata BKB15
       |          |  `--+--L. fluviatilis BKB15
       |          |     `--L. luscinioides JF06
       |          `--+--+--‘Bradypterus’ luteoventris BKB15
       |             |  `--+--‘Bradypterus’ tacsanowskius BKB15
       |             |     `--+--‘Bradypterus’ major BKB15
       |             |        `--L. naevia BKB15
       |             `--+--+--‘Bradypterus’ castaneus BKB15
       |                |  `--‘Bradypterus’ caudatus JT12
       |                `--+--+--‘Bradypterus’ alishanensis BKB15
       |                   |  `--+--‘Bradypterus’ mandelli BKB15
       |                   |     `--‘Bradypterus’ montis BKB15
       |                   `--+--‘Bradypterus’ davidi BKB15
       |                      `--+--‘Bradypterus’ kashmirensisi BKB15
       |                         `--‘Bradypterus’ thoracicus BKB15
       `--+--+--+--Cincloramphus Gould 1838 BKB15, B94 [incl. Ptenoedus Cabanis 1851 B94; Ptenoedinae]
          |  |  |    `--C. cruralis (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) WS48 (see below for synonymy)
          |  |  `--‘Megalurus’ timoriensis Wallace 1863 BKB15, WS48
          |  |       |--M. t. timoriensis WS48
          |  |       `--M. t. alisteri Mathews 1912 WS48
          |  `--+--Eremiornis carteri Noreth 1900 BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
          |     `--Bowdleria Rothschild 1896 [Bowdleriinae] CC10
          |          |--*B. punctata (Quoy & Gaimard in Dumont d’Urville 1830) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |          |    |--B. p. punctata [incl. Sphenoeacus fulvus Gray 1862, B. fulva, Megalurus fulvus] CC10
          |          |    |--B. p. caudata (Buller 1894) [=Sphenoeacus caudatus] CC10
          |          |    |--B. p. stewartiana Oliver 1930 (see below for synonymy) CC10
          |          |    |--B. p. vealeae Kemp 1912 CC10
          |          |    `--B. p. wilsoni Stead 1936 CC10
          |          `--B. rufescens (Buller 1869) (see below for synonymy) CC10
          `--+--+--‘Cincloramphus’ mathewsi Ireland 1911 BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
             |  `--Megalurus Horsfield 1821 OF19, B94
             |       |--M. albolimbatus JT12
             |       `--M. palustris BKB15
             |            |--M. p. palustris GC09
             |            `--M. p. toklao GC09
             `--+--Schoenicola BKB15
                |    |--S. brevirostris JT12
                |    `--S. platyurus JT12
                `--Bradypterus Swainson 1837 BKB15, B94 [Bradypterinae]
                     |  i. s.: B. accentor JT12
                     |         B. alfredi JT12
                     |         B. grandis JT12
                     |         B. palliseri JT12
                     |         B. seebohmi JT12
                     |         B. timorensis JT12
                     |--+--B. bangwaensis BKB15
                     |  `--+--B. cinnamomeus BKB15
                     |     `--+--B. lopezi BKB15
                     |        `--B. mariae BKB15
                     `--+--+--Dromaeocercus brunneus BKB15
                        |  `--B. sylvaticus BKB15
                        `--+--+--B. tongensis BKB15 [=B. baboecala tongensis AE06]
                           |  `--B. transvaalensis BKB15 [=B. baboecala transvaalensis AE06]
                           `--+--B. carpalis BKB15
                              |--B. graueri BKB15
                              `--+--B. baboecala BKB15
                                 `--B. barratti BKB15

*Bowdleria punctata (Quoy & Gaimard in Dumont d’Urville 1830) CC10 [=Synallaxis punctata CC10, Megalurus punctatus BKB15, Sphenoeacus punctatus CC10]

Bowdleria punctata stewartiana Oliver 1930 [=B. punctata stewartiae; incl. B. punctata insularis Stead 1936] CC10

Bowdleria rufescens (Buller 1869) [=Sphenoeacus rufescens, B. punctata rufescens, Megalurus rufescens] CC10

Cincloramphus cruralis (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) WS48 [=Megalurus cruralis WS48; incl. C. cantillans R87, C. cruralis clelandi Mathews 1912 WS48, C. cruralis rogersi Mathews 1912 WS48]

Cincloramphus’ mathewsi Ireland 1911 BKB15, WS48 [=C. rufescens mathewsi WS48; incl. C. mathewsi alisteri Mathews 1912 WS48, Anthus rufescens Vigors & Horsfield 1827 (preoc.) WS48, Ptenoedus rufescens R66, C. mathewsi subalisteri Mathews 1912 WS48]

Eremiornis carteri Noreth 1900 BKB15, WS48 [incl. E. c. assimilis Montague 1913 WS48, E. c. rogersi Mathews 1913 WS48]

Megalurus gramineus (Gould 1845) BKB15, WS48 [=Sphenoeacus gramineus WS48; incl. M. striatus Milligan 1903 WS48, M. gramineus thomasi Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AE06] Alström, P., P. G. P. Ericson, U. Olsson & P. Sundberg. 2006. Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38: 381–397.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[GC09] Gelang, M., A. Cibois, E. Pasquet, U. Olsson, P. Alström & P. G. P. Ericson. 2009. Phylogeny of babblers (Aves, Passeriformes): major lineages, family limits and classification. Zoologica Scripta 38: 225–236.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[OF19] Oliveros, C. H., D. J. Field, D. T. Ksepka, F. K. Barker, A. Aleixo, M. J. Andersen, P. Alström, B. W. Benz, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, G. A. Bravo, R. T. Brumfield, R. T. Chesser, S. Claramunt, J. Cracraft, A. M. Cuervo, E. P. Derryberry, T. C. Glenn, M. G. Harvey, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, R. T. Kimball, A. L. Mack, C. M. Miskelly, A. T. Peterson, M. B. Robbins, F. H. Sheldon, L. F. Silveira, B. T. Smith, N. D. White, R. G. Moyle & B. C. Faircloth. 2019. Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (16): 7916–7925.

[R66] Ramsay, E. P. 1866. Remarks upon the new species of Atrichia and on A. clamosa of the west coast. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 439–440.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Saxicola

European stonechat Saxicola rubicola, copyright Alun Williams.


Belongs within: Muscicapidae.

Saxicola, the stonechats, is a genus of small birds found in Eurasia and Africa with a straight bill longer than the middle toe, long tarsi, long compressed claws, and white or rufous coloration at the base of the tail.

<==Saxicola Bechstein 1803 M02 [incl. Pratincola Koch 1816 B94; Pratincolinae]
    |  i. s.: ‘Pratincola’ atrata B66
    |         S. axillaris JF06
    |         S. borbonica Sch66
    |         S. hemprichii Sch66
    |         ‘Pratincola’ indica Sch66
    |         S. macrorhynchus JT12
    |         S. pastor Sch66
    |         S. picata Blyth 1847 CC10
    |         ‘Motacilla’ sybilla Sch66 [=Pratincola sibylla Scl66]
    |--+--S. gutturalis JT12
    |  `--+--S. ferreus BKB15
    |     `--S. jerdoni JT12
    `--+--S. rubetra BKB15
       `--+--+--S. caprata BKB15 [=Pratincola caprata S89]
          |  `--S. insignis JT12
          `--+--S. torquata (Linnaeus 1766) BKB15, S05 [=Muscicapa torquata M02, S. torquatus S05]
             |    |--S. t. torquata S05
             |    |--S. t. albofasciatus Rüppell 1840 [=S. albofasciata] S05
             |    `--S. t. stejnegeri VP89
             `--+--S. leucurus BKB15
                `--+--S. tectes BKB15
                   `--+--S. maura (Pall. 1776) BKB15, M01 [=Motacilla maura M01, Pratincola maura M01]
                      `--+--S. dacotiae BKB15
                         `--S. rubicola BKB15 [=Motacilla rubicola Sch66]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568–571.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21–23.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Passerida

Asian fairy bluebird Irena puella, copyright Jason Thompson.


Belongs within: Passerides.
Contains: Nectariniidae, Dicaeidae, Chloropsis, Ploceidae, Viduidae, Estrildidae, Prunella, Passeridae, Motacillidae, Fringillidae, Emberizoidea.

The Passerida (used here in the restricted sense of Oliveros et al., 2019, equivalent to the Passeroidea of other authors) is a clade of passerine birds recognised by molecular analyses. The core of the Passeroidea is the nine-primaried oscines, a group of passerines characterised by the possession of nine rather than ten primary wing feathers. The nine-primaried oscines also include a large proportion of the granivorous passerines. Also included in the Passerida are basal families such as the Irenidae, Nectariniidae and Promeropidae. The Promeropidae are a small African family including the long-tailed, nectarivorous sugarbirds of the genus Promerops.

Passerida [Passeroidea, Tanagridae] OF19
    |--Promeropidae BKB15
    |    |--Promerops Brisson 1760 JT12, B94 [incl. Ptiloturus Swainson 1836 B94; Promeropinae, Ptiloturidae]
    |    |    |--*P. cafer B94
    |    |    `--P. gurneyi JT12
    |    `--+--+--Arcanator orostruthus JF06
    |       |  `--Kakamega poliothorax BKB15
    |       `--Modulatrix JT12
    |            |--M. orostruthus JT12
    |            `--M. stictigula JT12
    `--+--+--Nectariniidae JT12
       |  `--Dicaeidae BKB15
       `--+--+--Chloropsis OF19
          |  `--Irena Horsfield 1821 JT12, B94 [Irenidae]
          |       |--I. cyanogaster L03
          |       |    |--I. c. cyanogaster L03
          |       |    `--I. c. ellae Steere 1890 L03
          |       `--I. puella JT12
          `--+--Peucedramus Henshaw 1875 BKB15, B94 [Peucedramidae, Peucedraminae]
             |    `--P. taeniatus KJL00
             `--+--Urocynchramus Przewalski 1876 B94 [Urocynchramidae OF19, Urocynchraminae]
                |    `--U. pylzowi JT12
                `--+--+--Ploceidae OF19
                   |  `--+--Viduidae BKB15
                   |     `--Estrildidae JT12
                   `--+--Prunella OF19
                      `--+--Passeridae OF19
                         `--+--Motacillidae OF19
                            `--+--Fringillidae OF19
                               `--Emberizoidea OF19

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[KJL00] Klicka, J., K. P. Johnson & S. M. Lanyon. 2000. New World nine-primaried oscine relationships: constructing a mitochondrial DNA framework. Auk 117: 321–336.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[OF19] Oliveros, C. H., D. J. Field, D. T. Ksepka, F. K. Barker, A. Aleixo, M. J. Andersen, P. Alström, B. W. Benz, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, G. A. Bravo, R. T. Brumfield, R. T. Chesser, S. Claramunt, J. Cracraft, A. M. Cuervo, E. P. Derryberry, T. C. Glenn, M. G. Harvey, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, R. T. Kimball, A. L. Mack, C. M. Miskelly, A. T. Peterson, M. B. Robbins, F. H. Sheldon, L. F. Silveira, B. T. Smith, N. D. White, R. G. Moyle & B. C. Faircloth. 2019. Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (16): 7916–7925.

Anthus

American pipit Anthus rubescens, copyright Jonathan Hornung.


Belongs within: Motacillidae.

Anthus, the pipits, is a cosmopolitan genus of streaked and mottled brown, slender birds with thin bills, medium to long tails, and relatively long legs with elongated hind claws.

<==Anthus Bechstein 1805 CC10
    |--+--+--A. furcatus JF06
    |  |  `--+--A. lutescens BKB15
    |  |     |    |--A. l. lutescens L03
    |  |     |    `--A. l. parvus Lawrence 1865 [=A. (Notiocorys) parvus] L03
    |  |     `--A. spragueii BKB15
    |  `--+--+--A. antarcticus JF06
    |     |  `--A. correndera JT12
    |     `--+--A. bogotensis JF06
    |        |    |--A. b. bogotensis L03
    |        |    `--A. b. meridae Zimmer 1953 L03
    |        `--A. hellmayri Hartert in Hartert & Venturi 1909 BKB15, L03
    `--+--A. gustavi JT12
       `--+--+--A. hodgsoni JT12
          |  `--A. trivialis (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03 (see below for synonymy)
          `--+--A. cervinus (Pallas 1811) JT12, L03 [=Motacilla cervina M02; incl. A. anadyrensis Allen 1905 L03]
             `--+--A. roseatus JF06
                `--+--A. rubescens JT12
                   `--+--*A. pratensis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, L03 (see below for synonymy)
                      `--+--A. petrosus (Montagu 1798) JT12, L03 [incl. A. spinoletta kleinschmidti Hartert 1905 L03]
                         `--A. spinoletta (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03
                              |--A. s. spinoletta [incl. A. hiemalis Brehm 1831, A. aquaticus major Brehm 1856] L03
                              |--A. s. coutelli Audouin in Savigny 1828 [incl. A. orientalis Brehm 1855] L03
                              `--A. s. japonicus SA82 [=A. rubescens japonicus VP89]

Anthus incertae sedis:
  A. australis Vieillot 1818 CC10 [=A. novaeseelandiae australis WS48]
    |--A. a. australis (see below for synonymy) L03
    |--A. a. bilbali Mathews 1912 L03
    |--A. a. bistriatus (Swainson 1837) [incl. Australanthus australis flindersi Mathews 1923] L03
    `--A. a. rogersi Mathews 1913 L03
  A. bosniaskii Pycraft 1909 M02
  A. chacoensis Zimmer 1952 [=A. chii chacoensis] L03
  A. chloris Lichtenstein 1842 [incl. A. angolensis Bocage 1870] L03
  A. gutturalis JT12
  A. hoeschi JT12
  A. littoralis Brehm 1823 L03
  A. maculatus Hodgs. 1844 M01
  A. malayensis W66
  A. nattereri JT12
  A. nilghiriensis JT12
  A. pallidiventris JT12
  0--A. sylvanus JF06
  `--+--A. hoesci JF06
     `--+--A. crenatus JF06
        `--A. lineiventris JF06

Anthus australis australis Vieillot 1818 [incl. A. australis adelaidensis Mathews 1912, A. australis hartogi Mathews in Carter & Mathews 1917, A. australis montebelli Montague 1913, A. australis queenslandica Mathews 1912, A. australis subaustralis Mathews 1912, A. novaeseelandiae subaustralis, A. australis subrufus Mathews 1912, A. australis tribulationis Mathews 1912] L03

*Anthus pratensis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, JT12, L03 [=Alauda pratensis CC10; incl. An. alaudarius Brehm 1841 L03, An. lichtensteinii Brehm 1824 L03, An. limicola Brehm 1841 L03, An. pratensis minor Brehm 1856 L03, An. montanellus Brehm 1824 L03, An. musicus Brehm 1831 L03]

Anthus similis hararensis Neumann 1906 [=A. nicholsoni hararensis; incl. A. nicholsoni longirostris Neumann 1905 non A. obscurus longirostris Brehm 1856, A. similis neumannianus Collin & Hartert 1927] L03

Anthus trivialis (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, L03 [=Alauda trivialis M01; incl. A. herbarum Brehm 1831 L03, A. arboreus luteigularis Brehm 1856 L03, A. arboreus saxorum Brehm 1856 L03]

Anthus vaalensis neumanni Meinertzhagen 1920 [=A. leucophrys neumanni, A. leucophrys angolensis Neumann 1906 non A. angolensis Bocage 1870] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SA82] Sibley, C. G., & J. E. Ahlquist. 1982. The relationships of the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepaninini) as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Auk 99: 130–140.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Carduelis

European goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, copyright Francis C. Franklin.


Belongs within: Carduelinae.

Carduelis is a western Palaearctic genus of finches including the goldfinch C. carduelis and related species. Other species previously assigned to this genus should be placed elsewhere due to the polyphyly of Carduelis as previously recognised.

<==Carduelis Brisson 1760 CC10
    |--*C. carduelis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Fringilla carduelis] CC10
    |    |--C. c. carduelis CC10
    |    |--C. c. britannica (Hartert 1903) [=Acanthis carduelis britannica] CC10
    |    `--C. c. parva L81
    |--C. atriceps JT12
    |--C. citrinella JT12
    |--C. corsicana JT12
    |--C. dominicensis JT12
    |--C. elegans Stephens 1826 CC10
    |--C. johannis JT12
    |--C. monguilloti JT12
    `--C. yemenensis JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

Pyrrhula

Male bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula, copyright NTNU, Faculty of Natural Sciences.


Belongs within: Carduelinae.

Pyrrhula, the bullfinches, is an Eurasian genus of finches with a relatively short, swollen bill, black wings and tail, and an orange or red breast in the male.

<==Pyrrhula Brisson 1760 [Pyrrhulinae] M02
    |--+--P. leucogenis BKB15
    |  `--P. nipalensis JT12
    `--+--+--P. aurantiaca BKB15
       |  `--+--P. erythaca JT12
       |     `--P. erythrocephala JT12
       `--+--P. murina BKB15 [=P. pyrrhula murina USDI77]
          `--P. pyrrhula (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
               |--P. p. pyrrhula CC10
               |--P. p. cassinii WBSJ82
               |--P. p. pileata MacGillivray 1837 CC10
               `--P. p. rosacea WBSJ82

Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 [=Loxia pyrrhula CC10; incl. P. europoea Vieillot 1816 CC10, P. rubicilla Pallas 1811 CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

Cardinalidae

Male painted bunting Passerina ciris ciris, copyright Don Faulkner.


Belongs within: Emberizoidea.
Contains: Habia, Piranga, Cardinalis, Cyanocompsa.

The Cardinalidae are a group of finch-like birds with more or less heavy, conical bills found in North and South America, the males of which are often brightly coloured (Orenstein & Brewer 2011).

Cardinalidae [Cardinalinae, Cardinalini, Richmondeninae]
    |  i. s.: Pitylus Cuvier 1829 [Pitylinae] B94
    |--+--Granatellus BKB15
    |  |    |--G. pelzelni JT12
    |  |    `--+--G. sallaei JT12
    |  |       `--G. venustus JT12
    |  `--Pheucticus Reichenbach 1850 BKB15, B94 [Pheucticinae]
    |       |  i. s.: P. chrysogaster (Lesson 1832) [=Pitylus chrysogaster] OB11
    |       |           |--P. c. chrysogaster OB11
    |       |           `--P. c. laubmanni Hellmayr & Seilern 1915 OB11
    |       |         P. chrysopeplus (Vigors 1832) [=Coccothraustes chrysopeplus] OB11
    |       |           |--P. c. chrysopeplus [incl. P. chrysopeplus rarissimus] OB11
    |       |           |--P. c. aurantiacus Salvin & Godman 1891 OB11
    |       |           `--P. c. dilutus van Rossem 1934 OB11
    |       |         P. tibialis Lawrence 1867 OB11
    |       |--P. ludovicianus (Linnaeus 1766) BKB15, H11 [=Loxia ludoviciana OB11, Hedymeles ludovicianus OB11]
    |       `--+--P. aureoventris (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye 1837) BKB15, OB11 [=Pitylus aureoventris OB11]
    |          |    |--P. a. aureoventris OB11
    |          |    |--P. a. crissalis Sclater & Salvin 1877 OB11
    |          |    |--P. a. meridensis Riley 1905 OB11
    |          |    |--P. a. terminalis Chapman 1919 OB11
    |          |    `--P. a. uropygialis Sclater & Salvin 1871 OB11
    |          `--P. melanocephalus (Swainson 1827) BKB15, OB11 (see below for synonymy)
    |               |--P. m. melanocephalus [incl. P. melanocephalus rostratus] OB11
    |               `--P. m. maculatus (Audubon 1837) OB11
    `--+--+--Habia BKB15
       |  `--+--Piranga JT12
       |     `--+--Cardinalis BKB15
       |        `--+--+--Rhodothraupis Ridgway 1898 JT12, OB11
       |           |  |    `--R. celaeno (Deppe 1830) [=Tanagra celaeno] OB11
       |           |  `--Periporphyrus Reichenbach 1850 JT12, OB11
       |           |       `--P. erythromelas (Gmelin 1789) [=Loxia erythromelas] OB11
       |           `--Caryothraustes Reichenbach 1850 JT12, OB11
       |                |--C. canadensis (Linnaeus 1766) [=Loxia canadensis] OB11
       |                |    |--C. c. canadensis OB11
       |                |    |--C. c. brasiliensis Cabanis 1851 H11
       |                |    |--C. c. frontalis (Hellmayr 1905) OB11
       |                |    `--C. c. simulans Nelson 1912 [=C. poliogaster simulans] OB111
       |                `--C. poliogaster (du Bus de Gisignies 1847) [=Pitylus poliogaster] OB11
       |                     |--C. p. poliogaster OB11
       |                     `--C. p. scapularis (Ridgway 1888) OB11
       `--+--Spiza Bonaparte 1824 BKB15, B94 [Spizinae]
          |    `--S. americana (Gmelin 1789) [=Emberiza americana; incl. E. townsendi] OB11
          `--+--Cyanocompsa JT12
             `--Passerina Vieillot 1816 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                  |  i. s.: ‘Guiraca’ cyanoides SS66
                  |--P. cyanea (Linnaeus 1766) JT12, OB11 [=Tanagra cyanea OB11]
                  `--+--+--P. amoena (Say 1822) JT12, OB11 [=Emberiza amoena OB11]
                     |  `--P. caerulea (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, OB11 [=Loxia caerulea OB11, Guiraca caerulea JF06]
                     |       |--P. c. caerulea [incl. P. caerulea mesophila] OB11
                     |       |--P. c. chiapensis (Nelson 1898) OB11
                     |       |--P. c. deltarhyncha (van Rossem 1938) OB11
                     |       |--P. c. eurhyncha (Coues 1874) OB11
                     |       |--P. c. interfusa (Dwight & Griscom 1927) OB11
                     |       |--P. c. lazula (Lesson 1842) OB11 [=Guiraca caerulea lazula FS55]
                     |       `--P. s. salicaria (Grinnell 1911) OB11
                     `--+--P. rositae (Lawrence 1874) JT12, OB11 [=Cyanospiza rositae OB11]
                        `--+--P. leclancherii Lafresnaye 1840 JT12, OB11
                           |    |--P. l. leclancherii OB11
                           |    `--P. l. grandior Griscom 1934 OB11
                           `--+--P. ciris (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, OB11 [=Emberiza ciris OB11]
                              |    |--P. c. ciris OB11
                              |    `--P. c. pallidior Mearns 1911 OB11
                              `--P. versicolor (Bonaparte 1838) JT12, OB11 [=Spiza versicolor OB11
                                   |--P. v. versicolor OB11
                                   |--P. v. dickeyae van Rossem 1934 OB11
                                   |--P. v. pulchra Ridgway 1887 OB11
                                   `--P. v. purpurascens Griscom 1930 OB11

Passerina Vieillot 1816 JT12, B94 [incl. Coccoborus Swainson 1837 B94, Cyanospiza Baird 1858 B94, Guiraca Swainson 1827 B94; Coccoborinae, Cyanospizinae, Guiracinae]

Pheucticus melanocephalus (Swainson 1827) BKB15, OB11 [=Guiraca melanocephalus OB11, Hedymeles melanocephalus RS72]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[H11] Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (tanagers). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 46–329. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[RS72] Rising, J. D., & F. W. Schueler. 1972. How stable is binomial nomenclature? Systematic Zoology 21 (4): 438–439.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. On some additions to the catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Ucayali. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 566–567.