Sphagnum subgenus Cymbifolia

Prairie sphagnum Sphagnum palustre, copyright Bernd Haynold.


Belongs within: Sphagnales.

Sphagnum subgenus Cymbifolium is a group of robust sphagnum mosses with unbordered stem leaves and rough branch leaves (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Plants robust. Cuticular cells of stem and branches fibrose and porose. Stem leaves not bordered. Branch leaves broadly cymbiform, concave, cucullate and scabrous at back of apex. Dioicous.

Sphagnum subg. Cymbifolia D24
    |--S. austini D24
    |    |--S. a. var. austini D24
    |    `--S. a. var. imbricatum D24
    |--S. centrale Jensen 1896 D24, SK02
    |    |--S. c. var. centrale SK02
    |    `--S. c. var. flavoglaucescens SK02
    |--S. degenerans D24
    |--S. magellanicum Brid. 1798 [incl. S. medium] SK02
    |    |--S. m. var. magellanicum D03
    |    |--S. ‘medium’ var. fusco-rubellum D03
    |    |    |--S. m. var. f. f. fusco-rubellum D03
    |    |    `--S. m. var. f. f. brachydasyclada D03
    |    `--S. ‘medium’ var. pallido-carneum D03
    |         |--S. m. var. p. f. pallido-carneum D03
    |         `--S. m. var. p. f. brachyorthoclada D03
    |--S. palustre Linnaeus 1753 [incl. S. cymbifolium, S. latifolium (nom. illeg.)] SK02
    |    |--S. p. var. palustre D24
    |    |--S. ‘cymbifolium’ var. condensatum D03
    |    |--S. ‘cymbifolium’ var. congestum D24
    |    `--S. ‘cymbifolium’ var. squarrosulum D24
    |--S. papillosum [=S. cymbifolium var. papillosum] D24
    |    |--S. p. var. papillosum D24
    |    |--S. p. var. laeve D24
    |    |--S. p. var. stenophyllum D24
    |    `--S. p. var. sublaeve D24
    `--S. turfaceum D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Tetraphidales

Buxbaumia aphylla, copyright Bernd Haynold.


Belongs within: Bryophyta.

The Tetraphidales are a group of mosses with leaves in which the costa is narrow or absent, and capsules with a nematodontous peristome (that is, the teeth are, at least in part, composed of entire cells).

Tetraphidales SK02
    |--Tetraphis [Tetraphidaceae, Tetraphididae] FHH01
    |    |--T. browniana [=Bryum brownianum, Georgia brownii, Tetrodontium brownianum] D24
    |    |--T. geniculata D24
    |    |--T. pellucida FHH01 [=Mnium pellucidum D24, Georgia pellucida D24]
    |    `--T. repanda D24
    `--Buxbaumia Hedw. 1801 [Buxbaumiaceae] SK02
         |--B. aphylla Hedw. 1801 SK02
         |--B. colyerae Burges 1932 SK02
         |--B. indusiata D24
         |--B. piperi FHH01
         |--B. tasmanica Mitt. 1859 SK02
         `--B. thorsborneae Stone 1983 SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Fontinalaceae

Greater water-moss Fontinalis antipyretica, copyright Tab Tannery.


Belongs within: Bryidae.

The Fontinalaceae are a group of aquatic, floating mosses that are adhered to the substrate only at their base (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Leaves in several rows or tristichous, nerveless or single-nerved, cells rhomboid—hexagonal, or linear and subvermincular, long, smooth. Capsule immersed or shortly exserted; annulus absent. Calyptra cucullate or mitriform, glabrous. Peristome of 16 outer teeth, transversely articulate and trabeculate on inner face, and an inner peristome of 16 cilia more or less completely united with one another by transverse partitions at regular intervals.

<==Fontinalaceae D24
    |--Dichelyma capillaceum D24
    `--Fontinalis D24
         |--F. antipyretica D24
         |    |--F. a. var. antipyretica D24
         |    |--F. a. var. cymbifolia Nicholson 1901 D24
         |    |--F. a. var. gigantea D24
         |    |--F. a. var. gracilis D24
         |    `--F. a. var. laxa D24
         |--F. arvernica D24
         |--F. dalecarlica D24
         |--F. dixoni Cardot in Dixon 1924 D24
         |--F. dolosa Cardot in Dixon 1924 D24
         |--F. hypnoides D24
         |--F. kindbergii D24
         |--F. seriata D24
         `--F. squamosa D24
              |--F. s. var. squamosa D24
              `--F. s. var. curnowii D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

Hypnum exannulatum

Hypnum exannulatum, from here.


Belongs within: Hypnum.

Hypnum exannulatum is a relatively rigid, often purplish moss.

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Plants usually relatively compact and rigid, pinnately branched, mostly of a deep, often purplish colour, typically but less commonly green or yellowish; leaves close, strongly falcate, twisted when dry, not rigidly circinate, glossy at back, frequently striate, especially when dry, strongly hooked at tips of stem and branches, mostly longly and finely acuminate from a wide base; nerve often strong, usually purplish brown, mostly reaching nearly or quite to apex. Margin almost always denticulate, especially near base. Cells frequently short and wide, but not constantly so, the auricular usually abruptly dilated and very distinct, large, rectangular, hyaline, inflated, mostly thin-walled, forming rather large, widened, inflated conspicuous auricles, often reaching to nerve. Dioicous, rarely autoicous.

<==Hypnum exannulatum [=Amblystegium exannulatum] D24
    |--H. e. var. exannulatum [incl. H. fluitans var. pinnatum] D24
    |    |--H. e. var. e. f. exannulatum D24
    |    `--H. e. var. e. f. stenophylloides D24
    |--H. e. var. brachydictyon [=H. fluitans var. brachydictyon] D24
    |    |--H. e. var. b. f. brachydictyon D24
    |    `--H. e. var. b. f. orthophylla D24
    |--H. e. var. falcifolium (see below for synonymy) D24
    |    |--H. e. var. f. f. falcifolium D24
    |    `--H. e. var. f. f. viridis D24
    `--H. e. var. purpurascens D24

Hypnum exannulatum var. falcifolium [=H. fluitans var. falcifolium; incl. H. exannulatum var. rotae, H. exannulatum var. stenophyllum] D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

Amblystegium

Creeping feathermoss Amblystegium serpens, copyright Malcolm Storey.


Belongs within: Amblystegiaceae.

Amblystegium is a genus of mosses found in damp habitats with short cells in the leaves and without a beak on the capsule lid (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Plants of differing habit and branching, rarely pinnate. Leaves usually small, mostly more or less ovate-acuminate, usually imbricated all round stems, not complanate nor strongly falcate, frequently moderately falcato-secund; nerve single or rarely absent. Cells more or less parenchymatous, short, often less than five times as long as wide, rhomboid-hexagonal. Seta smooth; capsule narrow, more or less cylindrical, usually curved; lid conical, obtuse or apiculate, rarely more longly acuminate.

<==Amblystegium Schimp. 1853 SK02
    |--*A. serpens (Hedw.) Schimp. 1853 VH02, SK02 [=Hypnum serpens D24]
    |    |--A. s. var. serpens D24
    |    |--A. s. var. angustifolium D24
    |    `--A. s. var. salinum Carr. 1863 [incl. A. serpens var. depauperatum, A. perminimum] D24
    `--+--A. varium (Hedw.) Lindb. 1879 VH02, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--A. fluviatile VH02 [=Hypnum fluviatile D24]
          |--A. humile VH02
          `--A. tenax VH02

Amblystegium incertae sedis:
  A. compactum [=Hypnum serpens var. compactum] D24
  A. confervoides [=Hypnum confervoides] D24
  A. curvicaule [=Hypnum curvicaule] D24
    |--A. c. var. curvicaule D24
    `--A. c. var. strictum D24
  A. hygrophilum [incl. Hypnum radicale, A. radicale] D24
  A. irriguum [=Hypnum irriguum] D24
    |--A. i. var. irriguum D24
    `--A. i. var. spinifolium D24
  A. juratzkanum D24 [=A. juratzkae D24, A. serpens var. juratzkanum M08]
  A. kochii [=A. trichopodium var. kochii] D24
  A. sprucei [=Leskea sprucei] D24
  A. subtile D24

Nomina nuda: Amblystegium austropalustre Broth. ex Watts 1899 SK02
             Amblystegium megachaete Dusén 1903 D03
             Amblystegium perhumile Müll.Hal. ex Paris 1900 SK02

Amblystegium varium (Hedw.) Lindb. 1879 VH02, SK02 [=Leskea varia D24, Orthotheciella varia (Hedw.) Ochyra 1998 SK02; incl. Amblystegium austrohygrophilum Broth. 1916 SK02, A. austroserpens Broth. 1915 (preoc.) SK02, A. dicranadelphus (n. n.) SK02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1–21.

Anomodontaceae

Anomodon attenuatus, photographed by Hermann Schachner.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Anomodontaceae are a group of mat-forming mosses with an erect, exserted capsule.

Characters (from I. Granzow-de la Cerda): Plants small to large, in dense or loose mats, glaucous, green, brown, or yellowish brown, dull. Stems creeping, sparsely to profusely branched, irregularly pinnate; paraphyllia absent. Stem and branch leaves differentiated. Stem leaves scalelike, minute; apex acute-acuminate to rounded; costa single, long, ending below apex, thick, usually pellucid, or double and short; laminal cells short. Branch leaves with costa single, ending sharply at or near apex, pellucid. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta dark to light reddish or brown, flexuose. Capsule erect, exserted; operculum conic to obliquely short-rostrate; exostome whitish yellow to pale brown, often striolate at base and papillose.

<==Anomodontaceae SK02
    |--Haplohymenium Dozy & Molk. 1846 SK02
    |--Herpetineuron (Müll.Hal.) Cardot 1905 SK02
    |    `--H. toccoae (Sull. & Lesq.) Cardot 1905 SK02
    `--Anomodon Hooker & Taylor 1818 SK02
         |--A. attenuatus VH02 [=Hypnum attenuatum D24]
         |--A. longifolius [=Pterigynandrum longifolium] D24
         |--A. pseudotristis (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--A. rostratus J87
         |--A. rugelli N02
         |--A. thraustus N02
         `--A. viticulosus [=Hypnum viticulosum] D24

Nomen invalidum: Anomodon brevissimus Broth. ex Bailey 1890 SK02

Anomodon pseudotristis (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 [=Haplohymenium pseudotriste (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1907; incl. A. brevinervis, H. brevinerve] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1–21.

Orthotrichum subgenus Tenella

Orthotrichum pulchellum, from here.


Belongs within: Orthotrichaceae.

The section Tenella of the genus Orthotrichum includes mosses with recurved margins on the relatively obtuse leaves (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Leaves with recurved margins, not hair-pointed. Peristome teeth reflexed or revolute when dry. Stomata immersed.

<==Orthotrichum subg. Tenella D24
    |--O. pallens D24
    |--O. pulchellum D24
    |    |--O. p. var. pulchellum D24
    |    `--O. p. var. winteri D24
    |--O. rivulare D24
    |--O. schimperi [incl. O. fallax] D24
    |--O. sprucei D24
    |--O. stramineum [incl. O. praenubilum] D24
    |    |--O. s. var. stramineum D24
    |    `--O. s. var. patens D24
    `--O. tenellum [incl. O. prasinellum] D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.