Field of Science

Agropyrum

Thickspike wheatgrass Agropyrum dasystachyum, copyright Matt Lavin.


Belongs within: Poaceae.

Agropyron, the crested wheat-grasses, is a genus of perennial grasses native to Eurasia, though widely introduced elsewhere for pasture. Examples include couch grass A. repens which spreads by creeping rhizomes that propagate readily, leading to it becoming regarded as an invasive weed in many regions.

Characters (from Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2007): Plants perennial; densely to loosely caespitose, sometimes rhizomatous. Culms 25-110 cm, geniculate or erect. Sheaths open; auricles usually present; ligules membranous, often erose. Inflorescences spikes, usually pectinate; middle internodes 0.2-3(5.5) mm, basal internodes often somewhat longer. Spikelets solitary, usually more than three times as long as the internodes, usually divergent or spreading from the rachis, with 3-16 florets; disarticulation above the glumes and below the florets. Glumes shorter than the adjacent lemmas, lance-ovate to lanceolate, 1-5-veined, asymmetrically keeled, secondary keel sometimes present on wider side, keels glabrous or with hairs, hairs not tufted, apices acute and entire, sometimes awned, awns to 6 mm; lemmas 5-7-veined, asymmetrically keeled, acute to awned, awns to 4.5 mm; paleas from slightly shorter than to exceeding the lemmas, bifid; anthers 3, 3-5 mm, yellow. Caryopses usually falling with lemmas and paleas attached. x = 7. Haplome P.

Agropyrum
    |--A. dasystachyum CL86
    |--A. enysii W27
    |--A. glaucum D37
    |--A. intermedium H91
    |--A. junceum C74
    |    |--A. j. ssp. junceum C74
    |    `--A. j. ssp. littoreum C74
    |--A. multiflorum A27
    |--A. repens TG88
    |--A. scabrum W27 [incl. A. squarrosum A27]
    |--A. smithii CL86
    |--A. spicatum CL86
    |--A. trachycaulum CL86
    `--A. youngii A27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CL86] Collins, E. I., & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford University Press.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

[W27] Wall, A. 1927. Some problems of distribution of indigenuous plants in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 94–105.

Medicago

Bur medick Medicago minima, from here.


Belongs within: Fabeae.

Medicago, medicks, is a genus of mostly herbaceous legumes native to Eurasia and Africa.

Characters (from Flora of China): Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules adnate to petiole at base; leaflets denticulate, lat­eral veins running out into teeth. Racemes axillary, flowers crowded into heads; bracts small and caducous. Calyx 5-toothed, sub­equal. Petals free from staminal tube; standard oblong to obovate, usually reflexed; wings and keel with hooked appendages involved in explosive tripping mechanism for pollination. Stamens diadelphous; filaments not dilated, apical portion of staminal column arched; anthers uniform. Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate; ovules numerous; style subulate; stigma subcapitate, oblique. Legume compressed, coiled, curved, or straight, surface reticulate, sometimes armed with spines. Seed small, reniform, smooth or rough.

Medicago
    |--M. aculeata TG88
    |--M. arabica TG88
    |--M. coronata PT98
    |--M. disciformis PT98
    |--M. falcata O88
    |--M. hispida AGF98
    |--M. intertexta C55
    |--M. laciniata TG88
    |--M. littoralis TG88
    |--M. lupulina O88
    |--M. maculata C55
    |--M. marina C74
    |--M. minima PT98
    |--M. monspeliaca PT98
    |--M. nigra C55
    |--M. orbicularis PT98
    |--M. polymorpha PT98
    |--M. rugosa PT98
    |--M. sativa RM03
    |--M. scutellata TG88
    |--M. sylvestris C55
    |--M. tornata TG88
    |--M. truncatula RM03
    `--M. tuberculata PT98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[RM03] Radutoiu, S., L. H. Madsen, E. B. Madsen, H. H. Felle, Y. Umehara, M. Grønlund, S. Sato, Y. Nakamura, S. Tabata, N. Sandal & J. Stougaard. 2003. Plant recognition of symbiotic bacteria requires two LysM receptor-like kinases. Nature 425: 585–592.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

Genistinae

Cytisus oromediterraneus, copyright Ghislain118.


Belongs within: Genisteae.

The Genistinae is a group of mostly yellow-flowered leguminous shrubs with a Mediterranean-centred distribution, though a number of species (particularly gorse Ulex europaeus and broom Cytisus scoparius) have become naturalised in other parts of the world.

Genistinae
    |  i. s.: Chorothamnus procumbens (Waldstein & Kitaibel) Presl 1844 (see below for synonymy) P07
    |--Chamaespartium sagittale AB03
    |--+--Echinospartum boissieri AB03
    |  `--+--Pterospartum tridentatum [=Chamespartium tridentatum] AB03
    |     `--Stauracanthus [Ulicinae] AB03
    |          |--S. genistoides AB03
    |          `--+--S. boivinii AB03
    |             `--Ulex [incl. U. sect. Sampaioa] AB03
    |                  |  i. s.: U. nanus TG88
    |                  |--U. micranthus AB03
    |                  `--+--U. argenteus AB03
    |                     |    |--U. a. ssp. argenteus AB03
    |                     |    |--U. a. ssp. erinaceus AB03
    |                     |    `--U. a. ssp. subsericeus AB03
    |                     |--U. densus AB03
    |                     |--U. parviflorus AB03
    |                     |    |--U. p. ssp. parviflorus AB03
    |                     |    `--U. p. ssp. funkii AB03
    |                     `--U. sect. Neowilkommia AB03
    |                          |--U. europaeus AB03
    |                          |    |--U. e. ssp. europaeus AB03
    |                          |    `--U. e. ssp. lactebracteatus AB03
    |                          |--U. gallii AB03
    |                          `--U. minor AB03
    `--+--Spartium junceum AB03
       `--+--Genista AB03
          |    |--G. acanthoclada PT98
          |    |--G. aetnensis H97
          |    |--G. elata Mönch 1794 P07
          |    |    |--G. e. f. elata P07
          |    |    `--G. e. f. pubescens Láng 1824 P07
          |    |--G. falcata R-RR-GM-S98
          |    |--G. florida R-RR-GM-S98
          |    |--G. germanica Linnaeus 1753 [incl. G. heteroacantha Schlosser & Vukotinović 1857] P07
          |    |--G. januensis Viviani 1802 (see below for synonymy) P07
          |    |--G. monspessulana [=Cytisus monspessulanus] H06
          |    |--G. obtusiramea R-RR-GM-S98
          |    |--G. ovata Waldstein & Kitaibel 1801 P07
          |    |    |--G. o. ssp. ovata P07
          |    |    `--G. o. ssp. nervata (Kitaibel) Soó 1971 (see below for synonymy) P07
          |    |--G. pilosa Linnaeus 1753 [incl. G. pilosa var. umbrosa Heuffel 1858] P07
          |    |    |--G. p. f. pilosa P07
          |    |    `--G. p. f. densiflora Soó & Horánszky 1966 [incl. G. pilosa var. dolomitica Pifkó 2007 (n. n.)] P07
          |    |--G. scorpius L98
          |    `--G. tinctoria P07
          |         |--G. t. ssp. tinctoria P07
          |         `--G. t. ssp. elatior (Koch) Nyman 1977 [incl. G. coriacea Kitaibel in Kanitz 1863] P07
          |              |--G. t. ssp. e. var. elatior P07
          |              `--G. t. ssp. e. var. hungarica (Kerner) Nyman 1977 (see below for synonymy) P07
          `--+--Chamaecytisus mollis AB03
             |--Argyrocytisus AB03
             |--Calicotome villosa (Poiret) Link 1808 AB03, PL04
             |--Cytisophyllum AB03
             |--Spartocytisus AB03
             |    |--S. foliosus ES06
             |    `--S. supranubius ES06
             `--Cytisus AB03
                  |  i. s.: C. alpinus C55
                  |         C. ingramii R-RR-GM-S98
                  |         C. laburnum RS99
                  |         C. purgans C74
                  |         C. supinus Linnaeus 1753 P07
                  |         C. villosus R-CT01
                  |--C. sect. Alburnoides CTP01
                  |    |--C. multiflorus CTP01
                  |    |--C. oromediterraneus CTP01
                  |    `--C. valdesii CTP01
                  `--C. sect. Spartopsis CTP01
                       |--C. arboreus CTP01
                       |    |--C. a. ssp. arboreus CTP01
                       |    |--C. a. ssp. baeticus CTP01
                       |    `--C. a. ssp. catalaunicus CTP01
                       |--C. grandiflorus CTP01
                       |    |--C. g. ssp. grandiflorus CTP01
                       |    |--C. g. ssp. barbarus CTP01
                       |    |--C. g. ssp. cabezudoi CTP01
                       |    `--C. g. ssp. haplophyllus CTP01
                       |--C. maurus CTP01
                       |--C. megalanthus CTP01
                       |--C. scoparius CTP01
                       |    |--C. s. ssp. scoparius CTP01
                       |    `--C. s. ssp. reverchonii CTP01
                       `--C. striatus CTP01
                            |--C. s. ssp. striatus CTP01
                            `--C. s. ssp. eriocarpus [=Sarothamnus eriocarpus] CTP01

Chorothamnus procumbens (Waldstein & Kitaibel) Presl 1844 [=Cytisus procumbens; incl. Genista elliptica Kitaibel in Kanitz 1863] P07

Genista januensis Viviani 1802 [incl. G. bihariensis Kerner 1868, G. triangularis Willdenow 1802, G. triquetra Waldstein & Kitaibel 1803] P07

Genista ovata ssp. nervata (Kitaibel) Soó 1971 [=G. nervata Kitaibel ex de Candolle 1825; incl. G. hirsuta Kitaibel in Neilreich 1866] P07

Genista tinctoria ssp. elatior var. hungarica (Kerner) Nyman 1977 [=G. hungarica Kerner 1863; incl. G. tinctoria var. subpubescens Kitaibel in Kanitz 1863] P07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AB03] Ainouche, A., R. J. Bayer, P. Cubas & M.-T. Misset. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships within tribe Genisteae (Papilionoideae) with special reference to genus Ulex. In: (B. B. Bruneau, K. A. (ed.) Advances in Legume Systematics vol. 10. Higher Level Systematics pp. 239–252. Royal Botanic Gardens: Kew.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[CTP01] Cubas, P., H. Tahiri & C. Pardo. 2001. Karyological and taxonomic notes on Cytisus Desf. sect. Spartopsis Dumort. and sect. Alburnoides DC. (Genisteae, Leguminosae) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 43–50.

[ES06] Erber, D., & M. Schöller. 2006. Revision of the Cryptocephalus-species of the Canary Islands and Madeira (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 85–107.

[H97] Heenan, P. B. 1997. Wood anatomy of the Carmichaelia (Fabaceae) complex in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 395–415.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Pscoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P07] Pifkó, D. 2007. Taxonomic revision and typification of Genista (Leguminosae) in the Herbarium Carpato-Pannonicum in Budapest. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 23–38.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R-RR-GM-S98] Ramil-Rego, P., M. Rodríguez-Guitián & C. Muñoz-Sobrino. 1998. Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 335–351.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1–248.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

Plumbaginaceae

Thrift Armeria alpina, copyright Meneerke bloem.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.

The Plumbaginaceae are a cosmopolitan group of mostly herbaceous plants that are most diverse in maritime areas.

Characters (from N. R. Morin): Herbs or shrubs (rarely lianas), perennial or, rarely, annual; taprooted or rhizomatous. Stems woody stocks, acaulescent, or erect to prostrate, nodes swollen; indument of simple hairs, capitate glands that may secrete water or calcium salts, or multicelled glandlike structures. Leaves often basal, alternate, spiralled; stipules absent; petiole present or absent; blade linear to broadly obovate, ovate, or round, margins entire or lobed. Inflorescences terminal or axillary cymes, panicles, racemes, or corymbs, or solitary heads; bracts herbaceous, scarious, sometimes absent; involucral bracteoles (epicalyces) immediately subtending calyces usually present. Pedicels absent or present (short). Flowers bisexual, radially symmetric; perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals persistent in mature fruits, 5, connate into 5- or 10-ribbed tube, mostly dry and membranous, sometimes petaloid, toothed or with distinct simple or lobed limbs; petals 5, nearly distinct, connate at bases or for most of their length (corolla salverform); blade clawed or claw absent, margins entire; corona absent; stamens 5; filaments adnate to bases of petals or free; ovary superior, 1-locular, placentation basal; ovules 1 per ovary, anatropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate; styles 1 with apically lobed stigma, or 5, each with linear stigma. Fruits utricles, achenes, or capsules. Seeds 1, embryo straight, endosperm present or absent.

<==Plumbaginaceae [Plumbaginales]
    |--Ceratostigma ulicinum O88
    |--Acantholimon ulicinum SL06
    |--Muellerolimon salicorniaceum KM08
    |--Aegialitis [Aegialitidoideae] T00
    |    `--A. annulata H09
    |--Statice M55 [Staticoideae T00]
    |    |--S. minutiflora M55
    |    |--S. plantaginea C55
    |    `--C. virgata C74
    |--Plumbago [Plumbaginoideae] K02
    |    |--P. auriculata K02
    |    |--P. pearsonii CV06
    |    |--P. wissii CV06
    |    `--P. zeylanica BB07
    |--Limonium CV06
    |    |--L. dyeri CV06
    |    |--L. graecum PT98
    |    |--L. narbonense PT98
    |    |--L. sinuatum PT01
    |    `--L. virgatum PT98
    `--Armeria NFFAR01
         |--A. alpina [=A. maritima ssp. alpina] NFFAR01
         |--A. bigerrensis NFFAR01
         |--A. bourgaei NFFAR01
         |--A. cantabrica NFFAR01
         |--A. chilensis D03
         |    |--A. c. var. chilensis D03
         |    `--A. c. var. magellanica D03
         |--A. colorata NFFAR01
         |--A. filicaulis NFFAR01
         |    |--A. f. ssp. filicaulis NFFAR01
         |    |    |--A. f. ssp. f. var. filicaulis NFFAR01
         |    |    `--A. f. ssp. f. var. minor NFFAR01
         |    `--A. f. ssp. nevadensis NFFAR01
         |--A. maritima G60
         |--A. pubinervis NFFAR01
         |--A. rothmaleri NFFAR01
         |--A. ruscinonensis C74
         |--A. splendens NFFAR01
         |--A. transmontana NFFAR01
         |--A. trianoi Nieto Feliner in Nieto Feliner, Fuertes Aguilar & Rosselló 2001 NFFAR01
         `--A. villosa NFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. villosa NFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. bernisii NFFAR01
              |--A. v. ssp. carratracensis NFFAR01
              `--A. v. ssp. longiaristata NFFAR01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 121–154.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405–424.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[K02] Krüger, M. 2002. Revision of the Afrotropical Ennominae of the Drepanogynis group IV: the genus Drepanogynis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Transvaal Museum Monograph 13: 1–220.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Mauereidechsen der Liparischen Inseln, gesammelt von Dr. Antonino Trischitta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 25–40.

[NFFAR01] Nieto Feliner, G., J. Fuertes Aguilar & J. A. Rosselló. 2001. A new species of Armeria (Plumbaginaceae) from southern Spain with molecular and morphometric evidence on its origin. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 71–84.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

Chenopodiaceae

Russian thistle Salsola kali, from here.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Suaeda, Halosarcia, Chenopodium, Atriplex, Maireana.

The Chenopodiaceae are a cosmopolitan family of herbs and shrubs with small, greenish flowers (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Annual to perennial herbs or shrubs with mostly alternate, simple, exstipulate leaves. Flowers very small, often bracted, greenish, perfect or unisexual, regular or nearly so. Perianth 3–5-lobed or absent; often accrescent in female; stamens usually 3–5, free, anthers 2-celled. Ovary 1-celled, indehiscent; embryo annular.

<==Chenopodiaceae
    |--Salicornia Linnaeus 1753 A61 [Salicornioideae T00]
    |    |--S. australis Sol. ex Benth. 1870 A61
    |    |--S. bigelovii M83
    |    |--S. europaea CS77
    |    `--S. fruticosa P05
    |--Polycnemoideae T00
    |    |--Nitrophila T00
    |    |--Polycnemum T00
    |    `--Hemichroa pentandra T00, LK14
    |--Chenopodioideae T00
    |    |  i. s.: Chenopodium BB01
    |    |         Dysphania T00
    |    |           |--D. glomulifera GK00
    |    |           |--D. plantaginella KM08
    |    |           `--D. sphaerosperma KM08
    |    |--Beta [Beteae] M99
    |    |    |--B. procumbens A02
    |    |    `--B. vulgaris MH02
    |    |--Atripliceae M99
    |    |    |--Atriplex FO03
    |    |    |--Endolepis FO03
    |    |    |--Proatriplex FO03
    |    |    `--Theleophyton Moq. 1849 FO03, A61
    |    |         `--T. billardierei Moq. in DC. 1849 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--Sclerolaeneae M99
    |         |--Maireana M99
    |         `--Sclerolaena KM08
    |              |--S. cornishiana EF04
    |              |--S. densiflora G04
    |              |--S. diacantha G04
    |              |--S. fusiformis G04
    |              `--S. uniflora KM08
    `--Salsola GR98 [Salsoloideae T00]
         |--S. albisepala CV06
         |--S. arborea CV06
         |--S. aroabica CV06
         |--S. australis A27
         |--S. campyloptera CV06
         |--S. cauliflora CV06
         |--S. columnaris CV06
         |--S. cryptoptera CV06
         |--S. denudata CV06
         |--S. dinteri CV06
         |--S. dolichostigma CV06
         |--S. etoshensis CV06
         |--S. garubica CV06
         |--S. gemmata CV06
         |--S. giessii CV06
         |--S. hoanibica CV06
         |--S. hottentottica CV06
         |--S. huabica CV06
         |--S. inermis GR98
         |--S. kali PT98
         |--S. kleinfonteini CV06
         |--S. koichabica CV06
         |--S. longifolia GR98
         |--S. marginata CV06
         |--S. mirabilis CV06
         |--S. namibica CV06
         |--S. nepalensis O88
         |--S. okaukuejensis CV06
         |--S. omaruruensis CV06
         |--S. parviflora CV06
         |--S. procera CV06
         |--S. ptiloptera CV06
         |--S. robinsonii CV06
         |--S. schreiberae CV06
         |--S. scopiformis CV06
         |--S. seminuda CV06
         |--S. seydelii CV06
         |--S. soda R-CT01
         |--S. spenceri CV06
         |--S. swakopmundi CV06
         |--S. tragus KM08
         |    |--S. t. ssp. tragus LK14
         |    `--S. t. ssp. grandiflora LK14
         |--S. ugabica CV06
         |--S. unjabica CV06
         `--S. volkensii DH98

Chenopodiaceae incertae sedis:
  Axyris O88
    |--A. amaranthoides V09
    `--A. prostrata O88
  Borsczowia YY22
  Ceratocarpus YY22
  Cypselocarpus YY22
  Microgynoecium tibeticum O88
  Suckleya YY22
  Pachycornia YY22
  Arthrocnemum PT98
    |--A. fruticosum C55
    `--A. macrostachyum PT98
  Didymanthus roei KM08
  Halocnemum YY22
  Halopeplis YY22
  Heterostachys YY22
  Kalidium YY22
  Microcnemum YY22
  Monolepis YY22
  Osteocarpum YY22
  Suaeda MM09
  Threlkeldia diffusa KM08
  Agathophora YY22
  Alexandra YY22
  Bassia Y98
    |--B. muricata AGF98
    |--B. paradoxa BR65
    `--B. scoparia Y98
  Bienertia YY22
  Camphorosma monspeliaca YY22, C74
  Chenolea YY22
  Enchylaena tomentosa GR98
  Exomis YY22
  Halogeton YY22
  Hypocylix YY22
  Kirilowia YY22
  Kochia YY22
    |--K. astrotricha BR65
    |--K. pubescens C55
    `--K. scoparia WM14
  Eurotia lanata YY22, CL86
  Cycloloma YY22
  Roubieva multifida [=Chenopodium multifidum] C55
  Krascheninnikova ceratoides O88
  Einadia GR98
    |--E. nutans GR98
    |    |--E. n. ssp. nutans LK14
    |    `--E. n. ssp. eremaea LK14
    `--E. trigonos LM98
  Halosarcia KM08
  Rhagodia Br. 1810 A61
    |--R. baccata SM06
    |--R. drummondii G04
    |--R. eremaea KM08
    |--R. latifolia KM08
    |--R. parabolica MM09
    |--R. preissii KM08
    |    |--R. p. ssp. preissii KM08
    |    `--R. p. ssp. obovata KM08
    `--R. triandra (Forst. f.) Aellen 1939 (see below for synonymy) A61
  Sarcocornia quinqueflora KM08
  Neobassia astrocarpa KM08
  Sclerostegia disarticulata KM08
  Tecticornia LK14
    |--T. halocnemoides LK14
    |    |--T. h. ssp. halocnemoides LK14
    |    `--T. h. ssp. tenuis LK14
    |--T. indica LK14
    |    |--T. i. ssp. indica LK14
    |    |--T. i. ssp. julacea LK14
    |    `--T. i. ssp. leiostachya LK14
    `--T. pergranulata LK14

Rhagodia triandra (Forst. f.) Aellen 1939 [=Chenopodium triandrum Forst. f. 1786; incl. R. nutans Cheesem. 1884 non Br. 1810] A61

Theleophyton billardierei Moq. in DC. 1849 A61 [=Obione billardieri Moq. 1840 A61, Atriplex billardierei LMC97; incl. A. (Theleophyton) chrystallina Hook. f. 1847 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[A02] Atkinson, H. J. 2002. Molecular approaches to novel crop resistance against nematodes. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 569–598. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[BB01] Bedrossian, A. G., P. S. Beauchamp, B. Bernichi, V. Dev, K. Z. Kitaw & H. Rechtshaffen. 2001. Analysis of North American Chenopodium botrys essential oil isolation and structure of two new sesquiterpene alcohols. Journal of Essential Oil Research 13: 393–400.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[CL86] Collins, E. I., & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135–142.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[FO03] Flores Olvera, H. 2003. Classification of North American species of Atriplex section Obione (Chenopodiaceae) based on numerical taxonomic analysis. Taxon 52: 247–260.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LM98] Lange, P. J. de, & B. G. Murray. 1998. Senecio repangae (Asteraceae): a new endemic species from the north-eastern North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 36: 509–519.

[LMC97] Lange, P. J. de, B. G. Murray & G. M. Crowcroft. 1997. Chromosome number of New Zealand specimens of Atriplex billardierei, Chenopodiaceae. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35: 129–131.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[MH02] Murphy, A. S., K. R. Hoogner, W. A. Peer & L. Taiz. 2002. Identification, purification, and molecular cloning of N-1-naphthylphthalmic acid-binding plasma membrane associated aminopeptidases from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 128: 935–950.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–658.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds)The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese ("southern Sporadhes) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27–43.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Dianthus

Carnation Dianthus caryophyllus, copyright Roula30.


Belongs within: Caryophyllaceae.

Dianthus, pinks and carnations, are a group of herbaceous plants native to Eurasia, Africa and North America that bear often pink flowers with divided edges to the petals.

Characters (from R. K. Rabeler & R. L. Hartman): Herbs, usually perennial (rarely annual or biennial), sometimes mat-forming. Taproots stout, rhizomes (when present) slender or stout. Stems erect or ascending, simple or branched, terete or angled. Leaves connate proximally into sheath, petiolate (basal leaves) or sessile; blade 1-veined, linear or oblong to ovate, apex acute. Inflorescences terminal, open cymes, dense bracteate clusters or heads, or flowers solitary; bracts paired, herbaceous to scarious, or absent; involucel bracteoles 1-3 pairs, herbaceous or scarious. Pedicels erect in fruit. Flowers: sepals connate proximally into tube, 10-22 mm, tube green or reddish, 20-60-veined, ± cylindric, terete, commissures between sepals absent, lobes green or reddish, 3-8-veined, triangular to lanceolate, shorter than tube, margins white or reddish, mostly scarious, apex acute or obtuse; petals often pink or red, sometimes white or purple, sometimes spotted or with darker center, clawed, auricles absent, coronal appendages absent, blade apex dentate or fimbriate to 1/2 of length; nectaries at filament bases; stamens 10, adnate with petals to carpophore; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; ovary 1-locular; styles 2, filiform, 0.7-6 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2, linear along adaxial surface of styles, papillate (30×). Capsules ovoid to cylindric, opening by 4 teeth; carpophore present. Seeds 40-100+, blackish brown, shield-shaped, dorsiventrally compressed, papillose-striate to papillate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo central, straight. x = 15.

<==Dianthus
    |--D. allwoodii WFA00
    |--D. alpinus WFA00
    |--D. armeria D37
    |--D. bisignoni M55
    |--D. callizonus H09
    |--D. carthusianorum [incl. D. atrorubens] C55a
    |--D. caryophyllus Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    |--D. catalaunicus C74
    |--D. deltoides D37
    |--D. fruticosus S98
    |    |--D. f. ssp. fruticosus S98
    |    |--D. f. ssp. amorginus S98
    |    `--D. f. ssp. occidentalis Y98
    |--D. glacialis H09
    |    |--D. g. ssp. glacialis H09
    |    `--D. g. ssp. gelidus H09
    |--D. henteri H09
    |--D. pinifolius KB96
    |    |--D. p. ssp. pinifolius KB96
    |    `--D. p. ssp. lilacinus KB96
    |--D. plumarius C55b
    `--D. tenuifolius H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[KB96] Konstantinou, M., & D. Babalonas. 1996. Metal uptake by Caryophyllaceae species from metalliferous soils in northern Greece. Plant Systematics and Evolution 203: 1–10.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Mauereidechsen der Liparischen Inseln, gesammelt von Dr. Antonino Trischitta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 25–40.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[WFA00] Wurr, D. C. E., J. R. Fellows & L. Andrews. 2000. The effects of temperature and daylength on flower initiation and development in Dianthus allwoodii and Dianthus alpinus. Scientia Horticulturae 86: 57–70.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Ipomoea

Morning glory Ipomoea violacea, from here.


Belongs within: Convolvuloideae.

Ipomoea is a cosmopolitan genus of twining herbs, including such species as the kumara or sweet potato I. batatas.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Twining prostrate or scrambling herbs, often lianoid, with alternate, variously cut leaves. Flowers pentamerous, large, ebracteate, axillary, solitary or in cymes. Outer calyx-lobes or sepals usually larger than inner, erect. Corolla usually broad-funnelform, limb sometimes angled or lobed. Staminal filaments filiform, stigma capitate or with two globose lobes. Capsule usually subglobose, four-valved. Seeds glabrous or pubescent.

Ipomoea Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |--I. sect. Batatas ST98
    |    |--‘Batatas’ acetosaefolia C55a
    |    |--I. batatas ST98
    |    |--‘Batatas’ edulis [incl. Convolvulus batatas] C55b
    |    |--‘Batatas’ littoralis [=Convolvulus littoralis] C55b
    |    |--‘Batatas’ paniculata [=Convolvulus paniculatus; incl. Ipomoea insignis] C55b
    |    `--‘Batatas’ pentaphylla [=Ipomoea pentaphylla] C55b
    |--I. sect. Calonyction ST98
    |    |--I. alba ST98
    |    |--‘Calonyction’ speciosum [incl. Ipomoea bona-nox] C55b
    |    `--I. turbinata ST98
    |--I. sect. Eriospermum ST98
    |    |--I. anisomeres ST98
    |    |--I. batatoides ST98
    |    |--I. eremnobrocha ST98
    |    |--I. habeliana ST98
    |    |--I. horsfalliae ST98
    |    |--I. reticulata ST98
    |    `--I. umbraticola ST98
    |--I. sect. Erpipomoea ST98
    |    |--I. aquatica ST98
    |    `--I. violacea ST98
    |--I. sect. Mina ST98
    |    |--I. hederifolia ST98
    |    `--I. neei ST98
    |--I. (sect. Orthipomoea) cairica ST98
    |    |--I. c. ssp. cairica ST98
    |    `--I. c. ssp. brasiliensis ST98
    `--I. sect. Pharbitis ST98
         |--‘Pharbitis’ acuminata C55a
         |--I. eriocarpa ST98
         |--I. nil P88 [=Convolvulus nil C55b, Pharbitis nil C55b]
         `--I. setifera ST98

Ipomoea incertae sedis:
  *I. pes-tigridis SAO03
  I. abrupta VT13
  I. biloba YZ02
  I. calobra ST98
  I. carnea H06
    |--I. c. ssp. carnea H06
    `--I. c. ssp. fistulosa H06
  I. coptica C55a
  I. costata VT13
  I. diamantinensis Black ex Eardley 1965 E65
  I. diversifolia LK14
  I. fastigiata [=Convolvulus fastigiatus] C55b
  I. filicaulis C55b
  I. gracilis E65
  I. graminea VT13
  I. hastata BR65
  I. hederacea GR98 [=Pharbitis hederacea C55b]
  I. heterophylla BR65
  I. indica H06
  I. involucrata C55a
  I. lonchophylla BR65
  I. macrantha VT13
  I. mammosa [=Batata mammosa, Convolvulus mammosus] C55b
  I. mauritiana LC02
  I. muelleri BR65
  I. muricata C55a
  I. oligantha C55a
  I. palmata Forsk. 1775 A61 (see below for synonymy)
  I. pes-caprae (Linnaeus) Roth 1821 [=Convolvulus pes-caprae Linnaeus 1753] A61
    |--I. p. ssp. pes-caprae P88
    `--I. p. ssp. brasiliensis P88
  I. plebeja E65
  I. polpha ST98
  I. polymorpha M99
  I. purpurea H06
  I. quamoclit LK14
  I. racemigera BR65
  I. sagittata C55b
  I. sessiliflora C55b
  I. sidaefolia C55b
  I. sindica PP07
  I. sinuata C55b
  I. staphylina RS02
  I. stolonifera C74
  I. tamnifolia C55a
  I. trichosperma LK14
  I. tricolor TG88
  I. triloba LK14
  I. tuberosa C55b
  I. umbellata C55b
  I. vagans GC05
  I. verticillata PP07

Ipomoea palmata Forsk. 1775 A61 [incl. I. pendula Br. 1810 A61, I. pulchella ME70, I. tuberculata Roem. & Schult. 1819 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

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