Field of Science

Polyplacophora

Reconstruction of Gotlandochiton interplicatus, from Smith (1960).


Belongs within: Mollusca.
Contains: Neoloricata.

The Polyplacophora includes the chitons, molluscs in which the test is comprised of a series of separate overlapping valves surrounded by a spicular girdle. Living chitons had eight valves, but varying numbers are found in stem-group chitons.

Characters (from Vendrasco et al. 2004): Skeleton with an iterated sequence of overlapping, calcareous, marginally accreted valves, surrounded by an armoured girdle. Anterior and posterior valves differentiated from intervening valves; valve surfaces porous; inner shell layer (articulamentum) projecting from growing margins of valves. Tubular canal systems (in living taxa, housing tissue connecting sensory aesthetes on valve surface to body below) present with valves at interface of two shell layers, with numerous, equally spaced canals branching off obliquely towards surface; vertical canals passing through all shell layers in certain areas.

<==Polyplacophora (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Arctoplax SB01
    |         Cobcrephora Bischoff 1981 SHC01
    |         Acanthopleurus echinatus (Barne 1842) Y08
    |         Ocruranus EL11
    |         Eohalobia EL11
    |         Lopochites EL11
    |         Duslia Jahn 1893 S60
    |           `--*D. insignis Jahn 1893 S60
    |--+--Neoloricata VWR04
    |  `--+--Echinochiton dufoei VWR04
    |     `--+--Rhombichiton DeKoninck 1883 SB12, S60 [=Rhombochiton (l. c.) non Berry 1919 S60]
    |        `--Multiplacophora [Hercolepadida] VWR04
    |             |--Diadeloplax paragrapsima VWR04
    |             |--Protobalanus hamiltonensis VWR04
    |             |--Hercolepas signata VWR04
    |             |--Aenigmatectus VWR04
    |             |--Deltaplax Puchalski et al. 2009 SB12
    |             |--Polysacos Vendrasco, Wood & Runnegar 2004 VWR04
    |             |    `--*P. vickersianum Vendrasco, Wood & Runnegar 2004 VWR04
    |             `--Strobilepis Clarke 1888 VWR04
    |                  `--S. spinigera Clarke 1888 VWR04
    `--Chelodina S60
         |--Chelodes Davidson & King 1874 VWR04, S60 [incl. Sagmaplaxus Oehlert 1881 S60; Chelodidae]
         |    |--*C. bergmani Davidson & King 1874 S60
         |    `--C. calceoloides Etheridge 1897 F71
         |--Gotlandochiton Bergenhayn 1955 [Gotlandochitonidae] S60
         |    |--*G. interplicatus Bergenhayn 1955 S60
         |    |--G. laterodepressus S60
         |    `--G. troedssoni S60
         `--Scanochitonidae S60
              |--Scanochiton Bergenhayn 1943 S60
              |    `--*S. jugatus Bergenhayn 1943 S60
              |--Olingechiton Bergenhayn 1943 S60
              |    `--*O. triangulatus Bergenhayn 1943 S60
              |--Haeggochiton Bergenhayn 1955 S60
              |    `--*H. haeggi Bergenhayn 1955 S60
              `--Ivoechiton Bergenhayn 1955 S60
                   `--*I. levis Bergenhayn 1955 S60

Polyplacophora [Crepipoda, Lamellata, Lepidoglossa, Loricata, Placophora, Polybranchiata, Polyplaciphora, Polyplakiphora, Polyplaxiphora, Polyplaxiphorae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091-1097.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[S60] Smith, A. G. 1960. Amphineura. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia, pp. I41-I76. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[SB01] Sutton, M. D., D. E. G. Briggs, D. J. Siveter & D. J. Siveter. 2001. An exceptionally preserved vermiform mollusc from the Silurian of England. Nature 410: 461-463.

[SB12] Sutton, M. D., D. E. G. Briggs, D. J. Siveter, D. J. Siveter & J. D. Sigwart. 2012. A Silurian armoured aplacophoran and implications for molluscan phylogeny. Nature 490: 94-97.

[SHC01] Sutton, M. D., L E. Holmer & L Cherns. 2001. Small problematic phosphatic sclerites from the Ordovician of Iapetus. Journal of Paleontology 75 (1): 1-8.

[VWR04] Vendrasco, M. J., T. E. Wood & B. N. Runnegar. 2004. Articulated Palaeozoic fossil with 17 plates greatly expands disparity of early chitons. Nature 429: 288-291.

[Y08] Yu W. 2008. On the genus Yangtzemerisma and related genera (Mollusca: Merismoconchia). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 181-194.

Aviculopecten

Aviculopecten sp., copyright Michael P. Klimetz.


Belongs within: Pectinoidea.

Aviculopecten is a genus of scallops known from the Carboniferous and Permian (Cox et al. 1969).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Ornamentation radial, increasing on body of shell by intercalation in left valve, by bifurcation in right valve; right valve commonly smaller than left.

<==Aviculopecten McCoy 1852 W77
    |--A. coreyanus White 1874 W77
    |--A. dissimilis Fleming 1828 [incl. Pecten undulatus McCoy 1844 nec Nilsson 1827 nec Sowerby 1842] F27
    |--A. extensus Fletcher 1929 F71
    |--A. gracilis Fletcher 1929 F71
    |--A. interlineatus Meek & Worthen 1860 W77
    |--A. knockonniensis F71
    |--A. leggei Mitchell 1924 F71
    |--A. mccoyi Meek & Hayden 1864 W77
    |--A. occidentalis (Shumard 1855) [=Pecten occidentalis; incl. P. cleavelandicus Swallow 1858] W77
    |--A. plicatilis Mitchell 1924 F71
    |--A. ponderosus Etheridge & Dun 1906 F71
    |--A. profundus F71
    |--A. subquinquelineatus (M’Coy 1847) (see below for synonymy) F71
    `--A. tenuicollis (Dana 1849) [=Pecten tenuicollis; incl. A. sprenti] F71

Aviculopecten subquinquelineatus (M’Coy 1847) [=Pecten subquinquelineatus, Deltopecten subquinquelineatus; incl. D. subquinquelineatus var. delicatula Fletcher 1929] F71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488-533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1-219, pls 211-221.

Pterioidea

Penguin-wing oyster Pteria penguin, from here.


Belongs within: Pterioida.

The Pterioidea are a group of byssally-attached bivalves with unequal valves, the left valve generally being distinctly more inflated than the right (Cox et al. 1969).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Inequivalve, inequilateral, right valve generally less convex than left valve, markedly prosocline at least in juveniles with beaks situated well forward; ligament external, opisthodetic, variable otherwise; prismatonacreous or crossed lamellar, endostracum aragonitic, pallial line anteriorly discontinuous; characteristically byssate throughout life with byssal notch in right valve at least in juvenile stages.

<==Pterioidea [Pteriacea]
    |--Isognomon Solander in Lightfoot 1786 [Isognomonidae] S98
    |    |--*I. isognomum (Linnaeus 1758) S98, BW09 [=Ostrea isognomum S98, BW09, Perna isognomum H09]
    |    |--I. legumen (Gmelin 1791) BW09
    |    |--I. perna (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
    |    `--I. rekohuensis Crampton 1988 S98
    |--Bakevelliidae C04
    |    |--Panis S98
    |    |--Bakevellia King 1848 W77
    |    |    |--B. (Bakevelloides) costata (Schlotheim 1820) KL04
    |    |    `--B. parva Meek & Hayden 1858 W77
    |    `--Gervillia Defrance 1820 C04
    |         |--G. joleaudi Schmidt 1935 C04
    |         |--G. praecursor K79
    |         `--G. (Hoernesia) socialis M79
    `--Pteriidae BW09
         |--Electroma BW09
         |    |--E. alacorvi (Dillwyn 1817) BW09
         |    `--E. ovata (Quoy & Gaimard 1834) BW09
         |--Monopteria Meek & Worthen 1866 W77
         |    |--M. longispina [=Gervillia longispina] W77
         |    `--M. marian White 1874 W77
         |--Pinctada GW02
         |    |--P. albina (Lamarck 1819) BW09
         |    |--P. maculata (Gould 1850) BW09
         |    |--P. margaritifera (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
         |    |--P. martensi SW11
         |    `--P. radiata (Leach 1814) BD86
         `--Pteria Scopoli 1777 W60
              |--*P. hirundo [=Mytilus hirundo] W60
              |--P. alacorvi H09
              |--P. angusta Saurin 1941 W60
              |--P. aquatilis (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula aquatilis] H09
              |--P. cassiana Bittner 1895 W60
              |--P. caudata Stoppani 1858 W60
              |--P. chinensis (Leach 1814) BW09
              |--P. crocea H09
              |--P. falcata (Lamarck 1819) MG-H11
              |--P. kitakamiensis Hayami 1958 W60
              |--P. lata (Gray 1845) [=Avicula lata] H09
              |--P. loveni GO06
              |--P. macroptera (Lamarck 1819) [=Avicula macroptera] H09
              |--P. malleoides (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula malleoides] H09
              |--P. muricata (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula muricata] H09
              |--P. occa P71
              |--P. penguin (Röding 1798) BW09
              |--P. producta (Reeve 1857) BW09
              |--P. rufa (Dunker 1848) [=Avicula rufa] H09
              |--P. smaragdina (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula smaragdina] H09
              |--P. spedeni Waterhouse 1960 W60
              |--P. tofanae Bittner 1895 W60
              |--P. torelli Böhm 1903 W60
              `--P. zebra (Reeve 1857) [=Avicula zebra] H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117-141.

[BW09] Bryce, C. & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177-208.

[C04] Carter, J. G. 2004. Evolutionary implications of a duplivincular liament in the Carboniferous pinnid Pteronites (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pteriomorphia). Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 235-240.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 1. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: Monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723-7728.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KL04] Klug, C. & A. Lehmkuhl. 2004. Soft-tissue attachment structures and taphonomy of the Middle Triassic nautiloid Germanonautilus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 243-258.

[K79] Kummel, B. 1979. Triassic. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A351-A389. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1-191.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2-A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P71] Por, F. D. 1971. One hundred years of Suez Canal—a century of Lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 138-159.

[SW11] Smith, S. A., N. G. Wilson, F. E. Goetz, C. Feehery, S. C. S. Andrade, G. W. Rouse, G. Giribet & C. W. Dunn. 2011. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools. Nature 480: 364-367.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29-85.

[W60] Waterhouse, J. B. 1960. Some Carnian pelecypods from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 425-442.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1-219, pls 211-221.

Rostroconchia

Conocardium sp., from here.


Belongs within: Mollusca.
Contains: Scaphopoda.

The Rostroconchia are a group of molluscs known from the Cambrian to Late Permian. They possess a pseudobivalved shell, with the valves joined by an anterior partition called the pegma that in life also provided the attachment site for the pedal retractor muscles; a posterior pegma may also be present (Prothero 1998). Some authors regard the rostroconchs as ancestral to the modern Scaphopoda; others place them closer to the bivalves (suggestions that they may be ancestral to both are inconsistent with the tendency for most recent phylogenetic studies to not place the two lineages as closely related).

<==Rostroconchia
    |  i. s.: Heraultipegma P98
    |--Ribeirioida P04
    |    |--Ribeiria [Ribeiridae] P04
    |    |    |--R. apusoides Schubert & Waagen 1903 HMY02
    |    |    `--R. junior Runnegar 1996 P04
    |    `--Pinnocaris Etheridge 1878 P04
    |         |--P. lapworthi Etheridge 1878 P04
    |         `--P. wellsi PR79
    `--+--+--Scaphopoda P04
       |  `--+--Jinonicella Pokorny 1978 [Jinonicellidae] PR79
       |     `--Janospira Fortey & Whittaker 1976 PR79
       |          `--J. nodus Fortey & Whittaker 1976 PR79
       `--Conocardioida [Conocardioidea] HP03
            |  i. s.: Hippocardia Brown 1843 P04, HMY02
            |           |--H. alborza HMY02
            |           |--H. bohemica (Barrande 1881) HMY02
            |           |--H. cunea (Conrad 1840) HMY02
            |           `--H. kermani Hoare & Aghababalu 2001 HMY02
            |--Pseudobigaleaidae HP03
            |    |--Pseudobigalea Hoare et al. 1982 HMY02
            |    |    `--*P. crista Hoare, Mapes & Brown 1982 (see below for synonymy) HMY02
            |    |--Exalloschema Hoare, Mapes & Yancey 2002 HMY02
            |    |    `--*E. batilia (Hoare, Mapes & Brown 1982) [=Hippocardia batilia] HMY02
            |    |--Minycardita Hoare & Plas 2003 HP03
            |    |    `--*M. sectilis Hoare & Plas 2003 HP03
            |    |--Baiosoma Hoare, Mapes & Yancey 2002 HP03
            |    |    |--*B. pala (Hoare, Steinker & Mapes 1988) [=Hippocardia pala] HMY02
            |    |    `--B. cucullata (Hoare et al. 1988) [=Hippocardia cucullata] HMY02
            |    `--Hadropipetta Hoare, Mapes & Yancey 2002 HP03
            |         |--*H. ancora (Hoare, Steinker & Mapes 1988) [=Hippocardia ancora] HMY02
            |         `--H. nevadaensis Hoare & Plas 2003 HP03
            |--Bransoniidae HMY02
            |    |--Pseudoconocardium Zavodowsky 1960 HMY02
            |    |    `--*P. licharewi HMY02
            |    |--Bransonia Pojeta & Runnegar 1976 HMY02
            |    |    |--*B. wilsoni Pojeta & Runnegar 1976 HP03
            |    |    `--B. robustum (Fletcher 1943) [=Conocardium robustum] HMY02
            |    `--Apotocardium Hoare, Mapes & Yancey 2002 HMY02
            |         |--*A. lanterna (Branson 1965) [=Conocardium lanterna, Pseudoconocardium lanterna] HMY02
            |         |--A. cordatum (Hoare et al. 1982) [=Pseudoconocardium cordatum] HMY02
            |         |--A. obliquum (Meek & Worthen 1875) [=Conocardium obliquum] HMY02
            |         |--A. plautum Hoare, Mapes & Yancey 2002 HMY02
            |         |--A. polymitarium (Hoare et al. 1982) [=Pseudoconocardium polymitarium] HMY02
            |         `--A. snideri (Morgan 1924) [=Conocardium snideri, Pseudoconocardium snideri] HMY02
            `--Conocardiidae HMY02
                 |--Oxyprora Hoare, Mapes & Yancey 2002 HMY02
                 |    |--*O. parrishi (Worthen 1890) [=Conocardium parrishi] HMY02
                 |    |--O. missouriensis (Girty 1915) (see below for synonymy) HMY02
                 |    `--O. oklahomaense (Beede 1902) [=Conocardium oklahomaense] HP03
                 |--Arceodomus Pojeta & Runnegar 1976 P04
                 |    |--*A. glabrata (Easton 1962) [=Conocardium glabratum] HMY02
                 |    |--A. angusta Hoare, Mapes & Yancey 2002 HMY02
                 |    |--A. langenheimi (Wilson 1970) HMY02
                 |    |--A. prolata Hoare & Mapes 1990 HMY02
                 |    `--A. sphairikos Hanger et al. 2002 HMY02
                 `--Conocardium Bronn 1835 P04
                      |--C. abscissum Fletcher 1943 F71
                      |--C. acadianum Dawson 1891 HMY02
                      |--C. australe (M’Coy 1847) [=Pleurorhynchus australis] F71
                      |--C. davidis Dun 1907 F71
                      |--C. laseroni Fletcher 1943 F71
                      |--C. mundulum Fletcher 1943 F71
                      |--C. nicholasensis Price 1921 (n. d.) HMY02
                      |--C. semiplenum White 1877 W77
                      |--C. sowerbyi F71
                      |--C. trigonale W77
                      `--C. truncatum Fletcher 1943 F71

Oxyprora missouriensis (Girty 1915) [=Conocardium missouriensis, Pseudoconocardium missouriensis] HMY02

Pseudobigalea crista Hoare, Mapes & Brown 1982 [=Pseudoconocardium parrishi (Worthen) in Hoare, Sturgeon & Kindt 1978 non Conocardium parrishi Worthen 1890] HMY02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[HMY02] Hoare, R. D., R. H. Mapes & T. E. Yancey. 2002. Structure, taxonomy, and epifauna of Pennsylvanian rostroconchs (Mollusca). Journal of Paleontology 76 (Suppl.): 1-30.

[HP03] Hoare, R. D., & L. P. Plas Jr. 2003. Permian rostroconchs (Mollusca) from Nevada. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 873-875.

[P04] Peel, J. S. 2004. Pinnocaris and the origin of scaphopods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (4): 543-550.

[PR79] Pojeta, J., Jr., & B. Runnegar. 1979. Rhytiodentalium kentuckyensis, a new genus and new species of Ordovician scaphopod, and the early history of scaphopod mollusks. Journal of Paleontology 53 (3): 530-541.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1-219, pls 211-221.

Scaphitoidea

Scaphites sp., copyright DanielCD.


Belongs within: Leptoceras.

The Scaphitaceae are a group of heteromorphic ammonites known from the Cretaceous, characterised by a lengthening of the saddle between lobes L and U in the sutures. Members of this group have an open-coiled shell, or an involute phragmocone with an uncoiled hook-shaped living chamber (Wiedmann 1969).

Scaphitoidea [Scaphitaceae]
    |--Hamites [Hamitidae] W69
    |    `--H. tenuis W69
    `--Scaphitidae EK02
         |  i. s.: Clioscaphites K79
         |           |--C. choteauensis K79
         |           |--C. montanaensis K79
         |           |--C. novimexicanus K79
         |           |--C. saxitonianus K79
         |           `--C. vermiformis TLY03
         |         Desmoscaphites K79
         |         Jeletzkytes Riccardi 1983 EK02
         |         Holcoscaphites Nowak 1911 EK02
         |         Yezoites Yabe 1910 EK02
         |           `--Y. puerculus TLY03
         |         Worthoceras Adkins 1928 EK02
         |           |--W. gibbosum K79
         |           `--W. vermiculum K79
         |         Discoscaphites Meek 1870 EK02
         |           |--D. abyssinus K79
         |           |--D. cheyennensis K79
         |           |--D. conradi K79
         |           |--D. erucoideus K79
         |           |--D. mandensis K79
         |           |--D. nebrascensis K79
         |           `--D. roanensis K79
         |--Eoscaphites W69
         |    |--E. circularis W69
         |    `--E. subcircularis W69
         `--+--Rhaeboceras W69
            |--Haresiceras W69
            |    |--H. mancosense K79
            |    |--H. montanaense K79
            |    |--H. natronense K79
            |    `--H. placentiforme K79
            `--Scaphites Parkinson 1811 W69, EK02
                 |--S. arcadiensis K79
                 |--S. binneyi K79
                 |--S. carlilensis K79
                 |--S. constrictus [=Hoploscaphites constrictus] CP02
                 |--S. corvensis K79
                 |--S. depressus K79
                 |--S. equalis W69
                 |--S. eruciformis Etheridge 1902 F71
                 |--S. ferronensis K79
                 |--S. frontierensis K79
                 |--S. geinitzi K79
                 |--S. (Scaphites) hippocrepis W69
                 |--S. leei K79
                 |--S. mariasensis K79
                 |--S. multicostatum K79
                 |--S. nicolleti (Morton 1842) [=Hoploscaphites nicolleti] CF06
                 |--S. nigricollensis W69
                 |--S. obliquus W69
                 |--S. (Indoscaphites) pavana W69
                 |--S. planus K79
                 |--S. preventricosus TLY03
                 |--S. reesidei K79
                 |--S. simplex W69
                 |--S. ventricosus K79
                 |--S. warreni Meek & Hayden 1860 W77
                 `--S. whitfieldi TLY03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CP02] Christopher, R. A., & D. C. Prowell. 2002. A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA. Cretaceous Research 23: 639-669.

[CF06] Crawford, R. S., R. F. Feldmann, D. A. Waugh, B. M. Kelley & J. G. Allen. 2006. Decapod crustaceans from the Maastrichtian Fox Hills formation. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 47 (1-2): 3-28.

[EK02] Enseger, T., & H. Keupp. 2002. Phylogeny of the aptychi-possessing Neoammonoidea (Aptychophora nov., Cephalopoda). Lethaia 34: 79-96.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418-A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[TLY03] Tanabe, K., N. H. Landman & Y. Yoshioka. 2003. Intra- and interspecific variation in the early internal shell features of some Cretaceous ammonoids. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 876-887.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1-219, pls 211-221.

[W69] Wiedmann, J. 1969. The heteromorphs and ammonoid extinction. Biological Reviews 44: 563-602.

Stephanocerataceae

Iniskinites magniformis, from here.


Belongs within: Aptychophora.
Contains: Arctocephalitinae, Cadoceratinae.

The Stephanocerataceae are a Jurassic group of ammonites, the shells of which commonly show sharp ribbing.

Characters (from Engeser & Keupp 2002): Sphaerocone, cadicone or oxycone conchs, generally with sharp ribbing. Suture line complex with well-developed lateral and umbilical lobe.

<==Stephanocerataceae
    |  i. s.: Praestriaptychus EK02
    |--Normannites Munier-Chalmas 1892 [Otoitidae] EK02
    |--Cardioceratidae P87
    |    |  i. s.: Boreiocephalites P87
    |    |         Umaltites Sei & Kalacheva 1979 P87
    |    |         Cardioceras CDH04
    |    |           |--C. cordatum [=Ammonites cordatus] H04
    |    |           `--C. ovale (Quenstedt 1845) [=Ammonites alternans ovalis] CDH04
    |    |         Quenstedtoceras H79
    |    |--Arctocephalitinae P87
    |    `--Cadoceratinae P87
    |--+--Parkinsoniidae EK02
    |  |    |--Parkinsonia Bayle 1878 EK02
    |  |    |    `--‘Ammonites’ wuerttembergicus Oppel 1857 (see below for synonymy) CDH04
    |  |    `--Parastrenoceras W69
    |  |         `--‘Strenoceras’ lutetius W69
    |  `--+--Apsorroceras W69
    |     `--+--Spiroceras [Spiroceratidae] W69
    |        `--+--Parapatoceras W69
    |           |--Metapatoceras W69
    |           `--+--Infrapatoceras W69
    |              `--Acuariceratidae W69
    |                   |--Paracuariceras W69
    |                   `--Acuariceras W69
    |--Stephanoceratidae EK02
    |    |  i. s.: Stephanoceras Waagen 1869 EK02
    |    |           |--S. blagdeni F71
    |    |           |--S. calloviensis F71
    |    |           `--S. lamellosus F71
    |    |         Arkelloceras tozeri Frebold 1951 H79, P87
    |    |         Sohlites H79
    |    `--Cadomitinae P87
    |         |--Cadomites Munier-Chalmas 1892 P87
    |         |    |--C. crassispinosus Kopik 1974 P87
    |         |    `--C. rectelobatus P87
    |         `--Parareineckeia Imlay 1962 P87
    |              |--P. hickersonensis P87
    |              |--P. nelchinensis P87
    |              `--P. shelikofana P87
    `--Sphaeroceratidae EK02
         |--Sphaeroceras Bayle 1878 [Sphaeroceratinae] EK02
         |--Macrocephalitinae [Macrocephalitidae] P87
         |    |--Imlayoceras Frebold 1963 H79, P87
         |    `--Macrocephalites P87
         |         |--‘Ammonites’ jacquoti Douvillé 1878 (see below for synonymy) CDH04
         |         `--M. macrocephalus P87
         `--Eurycephalitinae P87
              |--Morrisiceras P87
              |--Megasphaeroceras P87
              |--Paracephalites Buckman 1929 [incl. Metacephalites Buckman 1929, Miccocephalites Buckman 1929] P87
              |--Loucheuxia Poulton 1987 P87
              |    `--*L. bartletti Poulton 1987 P87
              |--Eurycephalites Spath 1928 [incl. Buckmaniceras, Lilloettia, Warrenoceras Frebold 1963] P87
              |    |--E. codyense [=Arcticoceras codyense] P87
              |    |--‘Arcticoceras’ henryi P87
              |    `--‘Arcticoceras’ rierdonense P87
              `--Iniskinites Imlay 1975 P87
                   |--I. acuticostatus Imlay 1981 P87
                   |--I. magniformis P87
                   |--I. martini P87
                   |--I. robustus Frebold 1978 P87
                   |--I. tenasensis Frebold 1981 P87
                   |--I. varicostatus P87
                   `--I. yukonensis Frebold 1978 P87

‘Ammonites’ jacquoti Douvillé 1878 [=A. macrocephalus compressus Quenstedt 1847 nec A. compressus de Blainville 1840 nec A. radians compressus Quenstedt 1845 nec A. valdani compressus Quenstedt 1845 nec A. ornatus compressus Quenstedt 1846 nec A. parkinsoni compressus Quenstedt 1846, Macrocephalites compressus] CDH04

‘Ammonites’ wuerttembergicus Oppel 1857 [incl. Ammonites parkinsoni compressus Quenstedt 1846 nec A. compressus de Blainville 1840 nec A. radians compressus Quenstedt 1845 nec A. valdani compressus Quenstedt 1845 nec A. ornatus compressus Quenstedt 1846, Parkinsonia compresa] CDH04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CDH04] Callomon, J. H., D. T. Donovan & M. K. Howarth. 2004. F. A. Quenstedt’s trinomial nomenclature of Jurassic ammonites. Palaeontology 47 (4): 1063-1073.

[EK02] Engeser, T., & H. Keupp. 2002. Phylogeny of the aptychi-possessing Neoammonoidea (Aptychophora nov., Cephalopoda). Lethaia 35: 79-96.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H79] Hölder, H. 1979. Jurassic. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A390-A417. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P87] Poulton, T. P. 1987. Zonation and correlation of Middle Boreal Bathonian to Lower Callovian (Jurassic) ammonites, Salmon Cache Canyon, Porcupine River, northern Yukon. Geological Survey of Canada—Bulletin 358: 1-155.

[W69] Wiedmann, J. 1969. The heteromorphs and ammonoid extinction. Biological Reviews 44: 563-602.

Aptychophora

Simbirskites sp., copyright J.-W. Janzen.


Belongs within: Ammonitida.
Contains: Baculitidae, Hildocerataceae, Haplocerataceae, Stephanocerataceae, Perisphinctaceae, Leptoceras, Ancyloceratidae, Brancoceratoidea.

The Aptychophora are a clade within the ammonites characterised by the development of aptychi, calcified lower jaws that probably functioned as opercula to close the entrance of the shell (Engeser & Keupp 2002).

Characters (from Engeser & Keupp 2002): Presence of a calciŽfied lower jaw, both halves attached to each other with a weakly calciŽfied or organic fold. Outer surface with growth lines only. Structure simple in primitive forms, more complex in subordinated groups.

<==Aptychophora
    |  i. s.: Strigogranulaptychus Schweigert 2000 EK02
    |           `--*S. planulati (Quenstedt 1852) [=Granulaptychus planulati] EK02
    |         Baculitidae EK02
    |--Hildocerataceae EK02
    |--Haplocerataceae EK02
    `--+--Stephanocerataceae EK02
       `--+--Perisphinctaceae EK02
          `--+--Douveilliceratidae [Douvilleicerataceae] EK02
             |    |--Leptoceras
             |    `--Hypacanthoplites K79
             |--Olcostephanidae EK02
             |    |--Olcostephanus Neumayr 1875 EK02
             |    |    `--O. inverselobatus EK02
             |    `--Simbirskites Pavlov 1892 EK02
             |         |  i. s.: S. broodi K79
             |         |         S. decheni K79
             |         |         S. inversum K79
             |         |         S. kleini K79
             |         |         S. morvenae [incl. Perisphinctes kayseri Etheridge 1909 (preoc.)] F71
             |         |         S. progredicus K79
             |         |         S. speetonensis K79
             |         |--S. (Craspedodiscus) K79
             |         |    |--S. (C.) discofalcatus K79
             |         |    `--S. (C.) gottschei K79
             |         `--S. (Milanowskia) K79
             |              |--S. (M.) ihmensis K79
             |              `--S. (M.) staffi Wedekind 1915 K79, EK02
             `--+--Ancyloceratidae EK02
                `--+--Brancoceratoidea EK02
                   |--Hoplitaceae [Hoplitoidea] EK02
                   |    |  i. s.: Metaplacenticeras TLY03
                   |    |           |--M. pacificum K79
                   |    |           `--M. subtilistriatum TLY03
                   |    |--Schloenbachia Neumayr 1875 [Schloenbachiidae] EK02
                   |    |    |--S. coupei [=Ammonites coupei] H04
                   |    |    `--S. varians K79
                   |    |--Placenticeras K79 [Placenticeratidae EK02]
                   |    |    |--P. bidorsatum K79
                   |    |    `--P. syrtale K79
                   |    `--Hoplitidae EK02
                   |         |--Chimbuites K79
                   |         `--‘Hoplites’ Neumayr 1875 nec Hübner 1816 nec Koch 1869 EK02
                   |              |  i. s.: H. lautus K79
                   |              |         H. loricatus K79
                   |              |         H. nitidus K79
                   |              |         H. steinmanni KK08
                   |              |         H. teschensis K79
                   |              `--H. (Hoplites) K79
                   |                   |--H. (H.) dentatus (Sowerby 1821) K79, KK08
                   |                   `--H. (H.) spathi K79
                   `--Pachydiscidae EK02
                        |  i. s.: Lewesiceras Spath 1939 EK02
                        |           |--L. jimboi K79
                        |           `--L. masiaposense K79
                        |         Pachydiscus Zittel 1884 EK02
                        |           |--P. colligatus K79
                        |           |--P. epiplectus CP02
                        |           |--P. gollevillensis KM08
                        |           |--P. grossouvrei K79
                        |           |--P. japonicus K79
                        |           |--P. (Pachydiscus) llarenai W69
                        |           |--P. neubergicus KM08
                        |           |--P. oldhami K79
                        |           |--P. subcompressus K79
                        |           `--P. ultimus OZ89
                        `--Puzosiinae EK02
                             |--Puzosia KK08
                             |    |--P. matheroni K79
                             |    `--P. saintoursi Collignon 1963 KK08
                             `--Parapuzosia Nowak 1913 EK02
                                  |--P. seppenradensis W69
                                  `--P. terryi K79

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CP02] Christopher, R. A., & D. C. Prowell. 2002. A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA. Cretaceous Research 23: 639-669.

[EK02] Engeser, T., & H. Keupp. 2002. Phylogeny of the aptychi-possessing Neoammonoidea (Aptychophora nov., Cephalopoda). Lethaia 35: 79-96.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418-A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[KK08] Kennedy, W. J. & H. C. Klinger. 2008. Cretaceous faunas from Zululand and Natal, South Africa. The ammonite subfamily Lyelliceratinae Spath, 1921. African Natural History 4: 57-111.

[KM08] Klinger, H. C. & N. Malchus. 2008. The first record of Agerostrea ungulata (von Schlotheim, 1813) (Bivalvia: Ostreoidea) from the Upper Maastrichtian of KwaZulu, South Africa, with a discussion of its distribution in southeast Africa and Madagascar. African Natural History 4: 11-16.

[OZ89] Olivero, E. B., & W. J. Zinsmeister. 1989. Large heteromorph ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of Seymour Island, Antarctica. Journal of Paleontology 63 (5): 626-636.

[TLY03] Tanabe, K., N. H. Landman & Y. Yoshioka. 2003. Intra- and interspecific variation in the early internal shell features of some Cretaceous ammonoids. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 876-887.

[W69] Wiedmann, J. 1969. The heteromorphs and ammonoid extinction. Biological Reviews 44: 563-602.