Field of Science

Rhaphidophoridae

Ceuthophilus conicaudus, copyright James C. Cokendolpher.


Belongs within: Ensifera.

The Rhaphidophoridae, including the camel crickets and cave weta, are a group of wingless orthopterans, often with markedly long legs and antennae.

Characters (from Gorochov 2001): Wings always absent. Tarsi usually with four segments, very rarely with three, with non-widened pulvilli, first segment with only one pulvillus unless two proximal segments fused. Femoro-abdominal stridulatory apparatus absent. Ovipositor always developed, with lower part of upper valvae partly (sometimes almost completely) covering lower valvae on outside.

Rhaphidophoridae
    |--Macropathinae G01
    |    |--Heteromallus G01
    |    |--Macropathus [Macropathini] G01
    |    |    `--M. filifer G01
    |    `--Talitopsis [Talitropsini] G01
    |         `--T. crassicruris G01
    `--+--+--Protroglophilinae G01
       |  |    |--Protroglophilus G01
       |  |    `--Prorhaphidophora G01
       |  |--+--Troglophilus [Troglophilinae] G01
       |  |  `--Dolichopoda [Dolichopodinae] G01
       |  |       `--D. araneiformis (Burmeister 1838) UO05
       |  `--+--Aemodogryllinae G01
       |     |    |  i. s.: Diestrammena G01
       |     |    |--Aemodogryllini G01
       |     |    `--Diestramima [Diestramimini] G01
       |     `--Rhaphidophorinae G01
       |          |--Stonychophora G01
       |          |--Eurhaphidophora G01
       |          |--Pararhaphidophora G01
       |          `--Neorhaphidophora G01
       `--+--Gammarotettix [Gammarotettiginae] G01
          |    `--G. bovis G01
          `--Ceuthophilinae G01
               |  i. s.: Macrobaenetes velgum G01, C90
               |         Geotettix G01
               |--Pristoceutophilini G01
               |--Argyrtes [Argyrtini] G01
               |--Daihinia [Daihiniini] G01
               |    `--D. brevipes G01
               |--Hadenoecus [Hadenoecini] G01
               |    `--H. subterraneus HR01
               `--Ceuthophilus [Ceuthophilini] G01
                    |--C. carlsbadensis Z94
                    |--C. conicaudus Z94
                    |--C. fusiformis BM76
                    |--C. guttulosus E70
                    |    |--C. g. guttulosus E70
                    |    |--C. g. angulosus E70
                    |    `--C. g. thomasi E70
                    |--C. longipes Z94
                    |--C. paucispinosus Z94
                    |--C. pima Z94
                    |--C. utahensis TW05
                    `--C. variegatus C90

Rhaphidophoridae incertae sedis:
  Anoplophilinae G01
    |--Anoplophilus G01
    `--Alpinanoplophilus G01
  Gymnoplectron G01
    |--G. edwardsi M01
    |--G. giganteum S01
    `--G. longipes S01
  Gigantettix G01
  Tropidischia [Tropidischiinae] G01
  Daihinibaenetes arizonensis W01
  Pallidotettix nullarborensis R96
  Cavernotettix wyanbenensis R96
  Australotettix R96
  Pallidoplectron turneri R60
  Daihinoides larvale C90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E70] Eades, D. C. 1970. Theoretical and procedural aspects of numerical phyletics. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 142-171.

[G01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[HR01] Hale, R. J., & D. C. F. Rentz. 2001. The Gryllacrididae: An overview of the world fauna with emphasis on Australian examples. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 95-110. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[M01] McIntyre, M. 2001. The ecology of some large weta species in New Zealand. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 225-242. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R60] Richards, A. M. 1960. Observations on the New Zealand glow-worm Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse) 1890. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 559-574.

[S01] Sherley, G. 2001. Conservation of threatened species of weta (Orthoptera: Anastostomatidae) in New Zealand. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 521-527. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161-174.

[W01] Weissman, D. B. 2001. Communication and reproductive behaviour in Noth American Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatus) (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 351-375. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205-237.

Deinacridinae

Cook Strait giant weta Deinacrida rugosa, copyright Peter Reese.


Belongs within: Anostostomatidae.

The Deinacridinae is a group of orthopterans endemic to New Zealand, including the tree wetas (Hemideina) and giant wetas (Deinacrida).

Characters (from Gorochov 2001): Mandibles of male with sexual specialisation (increased length) or without it as well as those of female. Wings absent. Upper side of hind tibiae with large subapical spines; fore and mid tibiae without subapical spines. Tympana and femoro-abdominal stridulatory apparatus developed; abdominal stridulatory areas with ridges. Male genital plate with styles, paraprocts with specialised processes. Ovipositor developed.

<==Deinacridinae
    |--Hemideina Go01
    |    |--H. broughi Gi01
    |    |--H. crassidens (Blanchard 1851) H04
    |    |    |--H. c. crassidens M-RKT01
    |    |    `--H. c. crassicruris M-RKT01
    |    |--H. femorata Hutton 1897 H82
    |    |--H. maori H04
    |    |--H. ricta Gi01
    |    |--H. thoracica (White 1845) H04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--H. trewicki Morgan-Richards 1995 H04
    `--Deinacrida Gi01
         |--D. carinata Gi01
         |--D. connectens (Ander 1939) [=D. connectans (l. c.); incl. D. sonitospina (Salmon 1950)] Gi01
         |--D. elegans Gi01
         |--D. fallai Gi01
         |--D. heteracantha Gi01
         |--D. mahoenui Gi01
         |--D. parva (Buller 1895) Gi01
         |--D. pluvialis Gi01
         |--D. rugosa Buller 1871 H82
         |--D. talpa Gi01
         `--D. tibiospina Gi01

Hemideina thoracica (White 1845) H04 [=Deinacrida thoracica M27; incl. D. ligata Brunner 1888 M27, D. megacephala Buller 1867 M27, Hemideina megacephala M27]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[Gi01] Gibbs, G. W. 2001. Habitats and biogeography of New Zealand’s deinacridine and tusked weta species. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 35-55. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Go01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[H04] Harris, A. C. 2004. Hemideina crassidens (Blanchard) and not Hemideina maori (Pictet & Saussure) (Anostostomatidae: Deinacridinae) established at Anderson’s Bay, Dunedin. Weta 27: 41-42.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1-52.

[M27] Maskell, F. G. 1927. The anatomy of Hemideina thoracica. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 637-670.

[M-RKT01] Morgan-Richards, M., T. King & S. Trewick. 2001. The evolutionary history of tree weta: A genetic approach. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 111-124. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Grylloidea

European mole cricket Gryllotalpa vulgaris, from here.


Belongs within: Apohaglida.
Contains: Gryllinae, Nemobiinae, Eneopterinae, Oecanthinae, Anaxipha, Trigonidium, Laupala.

The Grylloidea include the crickets, a mostly dorsoventrally flattened, terrestrial group of orthopterans that are usually omnivorous.

Characters (from Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002): Fore wing with fan-like pleating intercalary triangle; RA, RS and 1MA1 fused completely or at least in part.

Grylloidea
    |--Baissogryllus [Baissogryllidae] GR02
    |    `--B. sibiricus GR02
    |--Angarogryllus [Protogryllidae] GR02
    |    `--A. angaricus GR02
    |--Myrmecophilidae [Myrmecophilinae] R96
    |    |--Myrmecophilellus R96
    |    |--Myrmecophila O94
    |    |    |--M. americana Saussure 1877 O94
    |    |    |--M. manni C90
    |    |    `--M. quadrispina Perkins 1899 O94
    |    `--Myrmecophilus R96
    |         |--M. acervorum K09
    |         |--M. keyi [incl. M. tindalei] R96
    |         |--M. manni TW05
    |         `--M. testaceus R96
    |--Gryllotalpidae [Gryllotalpinae] GR02
    |    |--Scapteriscus O94
    |    |    |--S. abbreviatus O94
    |    |    |--S. acletus N83
    |    |    |--S. camerani R18
    |    |    `--S. didactylus (Latreille 1804) [=Gryllotalpa didactyla] R18
    |    `--Gryllotalpa SS96
    |         |--G. africana Palisot de Beauvois 1805 O94
    |         |--G. coarctata R96
    |         |--G. howensis R96
    |         |--G. major SS96
    |         |--G. monanka R96
    |         |--G. nitidula R96
    |         `--G. vulgaris Z94
    |--Mogoplistidae [Mogoplistinae] O08
    |    |--Musgravia Otte 1994 [=Lara Otte & Alexander 1983 non LeConte 1852] O08
    |    |--Pongah R96
    |    |--Kiah R96
    |    |--Biama iloura R96
    |    |--Kalyra R96
    |    |--Talia pitonga R96
    |    |--Collendina R96
    |    |--Yarabina R96
    |    |--Cycloptilum bimaculatum (Shiraki 1930) [=Liphoplus bimaculatum] O94
    |    |--Oligocanthropus prograptus O94
    |    |--Cycloptiloides [incl. Glaphyropus Rehn & Hebard 1912] O94
    |    |    `--C. americanus (Saussure 1874) [=Cycloptilum americanus] O94
    |    |--Ornebius R96
    |    |    |--O. coomialla R96
    |    |    `--O. howensis R96
    |    `--Marinna R96
    |         |--M. arapala R96
    |         `--M. mira R96
    `--Gryllidae GR02
         |  i. s.: Scobia FD01
         |         Coiblemmus FD01
         |         Conoblemmus FD01
         |         Homaloblemmus FD01
         |         Scapsipedus saussurei FD01
         |         Velarifictorus FD01
         |           |--V. aspersus FD01
         |           |--V. horridus FD01
         |           `--V. sulcifrons FD01
         |         Petaloptila Pantel 1890 B04
         |           |  i. s.: P. andreini B04
         |           `--P. (Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente 2001) B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) baenai Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) bolivari (Cazurro 1888) B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) carabajali Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) llorenteae Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) mogon Barranco 2004 B04
         |                `--P. (Z.) venosa Gorochov & Llorente 2001 B04
         |         Liogryllus campestris B01
         |--Gryllinae R96
         |--Nemobiinae R96
         |--Eneopterinae R96
         |--Oecanthinae R96
         |--Pentacentrus [Pentacentrinae] R96
         |    `--P. velutinus R96
         |--Pteroplistinae O94
         |    |--Landrevini O94
         |    `--Pteroplistini O94
         |--Phalangopsinae [Phalangopsidae] R96
         |    |--Strinatia brevipenis M02
         |    |--Tathra R96
         |    |--Nesitathra philipensis R96
         |    |--Endotaria R96
         |    `--Endacusta R96
         |         |--E. major R96
         |         `--E. pindana R96
         `--Trigonidiinae R96
              |--Anaxipha R96
              |--Amusurgus mubboonis R96
              |--Trigonidium R96
              |--Balamara gidya R96
              |--Parametioche R96
              |--Homeoxipha lycoides R96
              |--Trigonidomorpha sjostedti Chopard 1925 O94
              |--Laupala O94
              |--*Paratrigonidium nitidum O94
              |--Falcicula hebardi O94
              |--Metiochodes O94
              |--Cyrtoxiphoides O94
              |--Nudilla Gorochov 1988 (n. d.) O94
              |    `--*N. pacifica (n. d.) [=Paratrigonidium pacificum] O94
              |--Metioche R96
              |    |--M. maoricum M83
              |    `--M. vittaticollis R96
              |--Cyrtoxipha O94
              |    |--C. columbiana O94
              |    `--C. gundlachi O94
              `--Prolaupala Otte 1994 O94
                   |--*P. kaalensis Otte 1994 O94
                   |--P. kukui Otte 1994 O94
                   `--P. perkinsi Otte 1994 O94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B04] Barranco, P. 2004. Estudio del subgénero Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente, 2001 y descripción de cuatro nuevas especies (Petaloptila Pantel, 1890, Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 81-93.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 223-243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[FD01] Field, L. H., & N. A. Deans. 2001. Sexual selection and secondary sexual characters of wetas and king crickets. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 179-204. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 293-303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[M02] Machado, G. 2002. Maternal care, defensive behavior, and sociality in Neotropical Goniosoma harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Insectes Sociaux 49: 388-393.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[N83] Nation, J. L. 1983. A new method using hexamethyldisilazane for preparation of soft insect tissues for scanning electron microscopy. Stain Technology 58 (6): 347-351.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[O08] Özdikmen, H. 2008. Nomenclatural changes for some preoccupied harvestman genus group names (Arachnida: Opiliones). Turkish Journal of Arachnology 1 (1): 37-43.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965-1974.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

Gryllacridinae

Female Chauliogryllacris, copyright David Rentz.


Belongs within: Stenopelmatidae.

The Gryllacridinae, raspy crickets, are a group of mostly robust but relatively soft-bodied nocturnal orthopterans that stridulate by rubbing a rasp of pegs on the hind femur against hairs or tubercles on the side of the abdomen.

Characters (from Gorochov 2001; Hale & Rentz 2001): Generally robust, 1 to 15 cm in length; usually winged (occasionally brachypterous or apterous). Antennae filamentous, generally as long as or longer than body. Rostrum of head between antennae usually rather wide, not tubercle-like. Fore thoracic stigmata with distinct rudiment of third lobule and rather large hind projection. Tarsi depressed, soft, with three pairs of prominent lateral lobes of more or less widened pulvilli; fore coxae with spine; fore tibiae lacking spines or auditory organs; hind femur with pegs on inner surface, rubbing against tubercles or hairs on opposing sides of abdominal tergites. Male abdominal apex with enlarged ninth tergite. Ovipositor usually well developed.

<==Gryllacridinae [Gryllacrididae, Gryllacrinae]
    |--Gryllacris G01
    |    |--G. cruenta Brunner 1888 R18
    |    |--G. harpistylata Rehn 1918 R18
    |    `--G. laevigata R18
    |--Hadrogryllacris HR01
    |--Ametrus tibialis HR01
    |--Paragryllacris combusta HR01
    |--Craspedogryllacris atrofrons R96
    |--Cooraboorama canberrae HR01
    |--Pararemus callabonnensis [=Eonius callabonnensis] HR01
    |--Australogryllacris HR01
    |--Xanthogryllacris punctipennis HR01
    |--Hyalogryllacris HR01
    |--Mooracra canobolas HR01
    |--Pteropotrechus HR01
    |--Wirritina brevipes HR01
    |--Nullanullia maitlia HR01
    |--Camptonotus carolinensis TW05
    |--Kinemania ambulans R96
    |--Nunkeria HR01
    |    |--N. brochis HR01
    |    `--N. feehami R96
    |--Apotrechus HR01
    |    |--A. illawarra R96
    |    `--A. unicolor HR01
    |--Chauliogryllacris HR01
    |    |--C. grahami HR01
    |    `--C. lobata R96
    |--Bothriogryllacris HR01
    |    |--B. brevicauda HR01
    |    |--B. pinguipes HR01
    |    `--B. turris HR01
    `--Arrolla HR01
         |--A. lewisi HR01
         |--A. longicauda HR01
         |--A. platystyla HR01
         |--A. rotamah HR01
         |--A. tibialis HR01
         |--A. turramurrae HR01
         `--A. weiri HR01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[HR01] Hale, R. J., & D. C. F. Rentz. 2001. The Gryllacrididae: An overview of the world fauna with emphasis on Australian examples. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 95-110. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

Caelifera

Hooded pygmy grasshopper Paratettix cucullatus, copyright Stephen Cresswell.


Belongs within: Panelcanida.
Contains: Eumastacoidea, Pyrgomorphidae, Acridoidea, Tridactyloidea.

The Caelifera, including the short-horned grasshoppers, are a clade of orthopterans characterised by the reduction of the antennae.

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Antennae rather robust, thread-like, rarely with more than 30 segments, usually shorter than body length. Mandibles chewing-type, usually symmetrical, with greatly enlarged, heavy molar teeth. Thoracic segments generally not concealed by pronotum. Tarsi typically with three or fewer segments; fore tibiae lacking auditory receptors. Fan of hind wing confined to anal lobe. Base of abdomen with lateral auditory tympana. Ovipositor short, usually stout, composed of four main independent valves. Male subgenital plate formed from ninth sternum, lacking styles; phallic structures including aedeagus. Three pairs of gastric caeca present at junction of fore- and mid-gut.

<==Caelifera [Acridina]
    |  i. s.: Eolocustopsis Riek 1976 BN02
    |         Gomphocerippus rufus K09
    |--+--Acridomorpha E00
    |  |    |  i. s.: Omalotettix E00
    |  |    |--Eumastacoidea E00
    |  |    `--+--Tanaoceridae [Tanaoceroidea] E00
    |  |       |--Trigonopterygoidea E00
    |  |       |    |--Trigonopterygidae GE05
    |  |       |    `--Xyronotidae GE05
    |  |       |         |--Xyronotus aztecus E00
    |  |       |         `--Azyronotus cantralli E00
    |  |       `--+--Pneumoridae [Pneumoroidea] E00
    |  |          `--+--Pyrgomorphidae E00
    |  |             `--Acridoidea GR02
    |  |--Locustopsoidea GR02
    |  |    |--Locustavidae GR02
    |  |    |    |--Mesacridites Riek 1954 BR05
    |  |    |    |    `--*M. elongata Riek 1954 BR05
    |  |    |    |--Locustavus Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    |    `--Ferganopsis Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    |         `--F. lanceolatus Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    `--Locustopsidae GR02
    |  |         |  i. s.: Araripelocustinae GR02
    |  |         |--Praelocustopsis mirabilis Sharov 1968 BN02
    |  |         `--+--Plesioschwinzia thalassophila Zessin 1988 BN02
    |  |            `--Locustopsis [Locustopsinae] BN02
    |  |                 `--L. karatavica Sharov 1968 BN02
    |  `--Tetrigidae [Tetrigoidea] GR02
    |       |  i. s.: Prototetrix reducta GR02
    |       |--Cladonotinae R96
    |       |--Scelimeninae R96
    |       |--Metrodorinae R96
    |       |--Batrachideinae P03
    |       |    |--Tettigidea P03
    |       |    |    |--T. hancocki Bruner 1910 R18
    |       |    |    `--T. lateralis P03
    |       |    `--Saussurella Bolivar 1887 [incl. Cassitettix Yin 1984, Cassitettinae, Cassitettini] P03
    |       |         |--S. cucullifera P03
    |       |         |--S. inelevata P03
    |       |         `--*Cassitettix’ longiptera Yin 1984 P03
    |       `--Tetriginae P03
    |            |--Mishtshenkotetrix transsylvanica P03
    |            |--Coptotettix gibbus R96
    |            |--Tetrix P03
    |            |    |--T. ornata P03
    |            |    |--T. subulata [incl. Acrydium granulatum] P03
    |            |    |--T. tenuicornis K09
    |            |    `--T. undulata K08
    |            `--Paratettix P03
    |                 |--P. albolimbatus R96
    |                 |--P. cucullatus P03
    |                 |--P. femoralis Z94
    |                 |--P. nigrescens K90
    |                 `--P. texanus D51
    `--+--Dzhajloutshellidae GR02
       `--Tridactyloidea GR02

*Psednura pedestris (Erichson 1842) [=Mesops pedestris, *Betisca pedestris, M. pedestis (l. c.); incl. Psednura collina Rehn 1953, P. lanceolata Rehn 1953] K72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[BR05] Béthoux, O. & A. J. Ross. 2005. Mesacridites Riek, 1954 (Middle Triassic; Australia) transferred from Protorthoptera to Orthoptera: Locustavidae. Journal of Paleontology 79 (3): 607-610.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181-210.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 293-303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K90] Key, K. H. L. 1990. Host relations and distribution of species of Caeculisoma (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitising grasshoppers in Australia, with supplementary information for the genus Trombella (Trombellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38: 11-18.

[K08] Köhler, G. 2008. Populationsstudien aus Gemeinen Grashüpfer, Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt), entlang eines Höhengradienten im Mittleren Erzgebirge. Mauritiana 20 (2): 349-370.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[P03] Podgornaya, L. I. 2003. Morphology of the male genitalia in tetrigids (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) and change of rank of the subfamily Cassitettinae Yin, 1984. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 82 (1): 86-89 (transl. Entomological Review 83 (1): 1-3).

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205-237.

Panelcanida

Holotype of Permoraphidia magnifica, from Béthoux & Nel (2002).


Belongs within: Orthoptera.
Contains: Caelifera.

The Panelcanida is a clade uniting the short-horned grasshoppers with the extinct 'elcanoids'.

Synapomorphies (from Béthoux & Nel 2002): Forewing vein RP fusing with MA rather than with MA1, basal free part of RP short before fusion; RP posteriorly ramified, with branches simple or weakly ramified; three or less branches of CuA + CuPaα.

<==Panelcanida
    |--Meselcana [Meselcaninae] BN02
    |    |--M. madygenica Sharov 1968 BN02
    |    `--M. permelcanoides Gorokhov 1989 BN02
    `--Neomeselcanida [Elcanidea, Elcanoidea, Permelcanidae] BN02
         |--Permelcana sojanensis Sharov 1962 BN02
         `--Proelcanida BN02
              |--Proelcana kukalovae (Sharov 1968) [=Permelcana kukalovae] BN02
              |--Promartynovia venicosta Tillyard 1937 BN02
              |--Permoraphidioidea GR02
              |    |--Pseudelcanidae GR02
              |    `--Permoraphidia Tillyard 1932 [Permoraphidiidae] BN02
              |         |--P. americana Tillyard 1932 BN02
              |         |--P. grandis Carpenter 1943 BN02
              |         `--P. magnifica Béthoux & Nel 2002 BN02
              `--Apoelcanida BN02
                   |--+--Caelifera BN02
                   |  `--Xenopteroidea GR02
                   |       |--Adumbratomorphidae GR02
                   |       `--Xenopteridae GR02
                   `--Elcanidae BN02
                        |--Archelcana britannica BN02
                        `--+--Baisselcana sibirica Sharov 1968 BN02
                           |--Panorpidium BN02
                           |    |--P. karatavica (Sharov 1968) BN02
                           |    `--P. sibiricum GR02
                           `--Elcana BN02
                                |--E. media Handlirsch 1906 BN02
                                `--E. minuta Sharov 1968 BN02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 293-303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Acridoidea

Moroccan locust Dociostaurus maroccanus, copyright Quartl.


Belongs within: Caelifera.
Contains: Ommexechidae, Romaleidae, Pamphagidae, Stenobothrus, Oedipodinae, Ommatolampinae, Catantopinae, Oxyinae, Cyrtacanthacridinae, Melanoplus, Acridinae, Chorthippus.

The Acridoidea includes the typical grasshoppers and locusts. The latter are those species whose life cycle may include a gregarious phase in which they form dense migratory swarms, potentially causing significant damage to vegetation, including crops, where they occur (Rentz 1996).

Characters (from Eades 2000; Rentz 1996 [as Acrididae]): Fastigium of vertex without medio-longitudinal sulcus. Tarsi of all legs three-segmented; hind tibia with all four apical spurs well developed. Endophallic apodemes turned laterally; gonopore developed as constriction separating ejaculatory sac from spermatophore sac.

<==Acridoidea
    |  i. s.: Pamphagodidae GE05
    |--Pyrgacris Descamps 1968 [Pyrgacrididae, Pyrgacridinae] E00
    |--Batrachidacris [Lathiceridae] E00
    |--Lentulidae E00
    |    |--Shelforditinae E00
    |    `--Lentulinae E00
    |         |--Betiscoides meridionalis E00
    |         |--Mecostibus nyassae E00
    |         `--Lentula obtusifrons E00
    |--+--Ommexechidae E00
    |  `--Tristiridae E00
    |       |--Atacamacris [Atacamacridinae] E00
    |       `--Tristirinae [Chilacridinae, Chilacrinae, Tristirae, Tristiri] E00
    |            |--Tristira E00
    |            |--Elasmoderus [incl. Chilacris] E00
    |            |--Moluchacris cinarescens E00
    |            |--Elysiacris angusticollis E00
    |            |--Tropodostethus bicarinatus E00
    |            `--Punacris peruviacris E00
    `--+--Lithidiidae [Lithidiinae] E00
       |    |--Lithidium pusillum E00
       |    `--Eneremius E00
       |--+--Romaleidae E00
       |  `--Dericorythidae E00
       |       |--Plotnikovia [Conophyminae, Conophymini] E00
       |       |    `--P. lanigera E00
       |       |--Iranella [Iranellinae, Iranellini] E00
       |       |    `--I. turcmena E00
       |       `--Dericorythinae [Anemesacrinae, Dericorythini] E00
       |            |--Dericorys albidula E00
       |            `--Anemesacris E00
       `--+--+--Pamphagidae E00
          |  `--Charilaus [Charilaidae] E00
          |       `--C. carinatus E00
          `--Acrididae [Catantopidae, Hemiacrididae, Locustidae] E00
               |  i. s.: Mioedipoda Z02
               |         Proschistocerca oligocaenica Z02
               |         Speleiacris tabulae L31
               |         Chondracris rosea MHG04
               |         Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum E70
               |         Cordillacris E70
               |           |--C. crenulata E70
               |           `--C. occipitalis E70
               |         Sisantum notochloris E70
               |         Orphula pagana E70
               |         Clinocephalus elegans E70
               |         Dichromorpha E70
               |           |--D. robusta E70
               |           `--D. viridis E70
               |         Thisoicetrus annulosus (Walker 1870) D95
               |         Pezotettix giournai (Rossi 1794) D95
               |         Acanthacris ruficornis (Seville 1838) D95
               |         Thalpomena algeriana (Lucas 1849) D95
               |           |--T. a. algeriana D95
               |           `--T. a. coerulipennis Finot 1895 D95
               |         Ochrilidia filicornis Krauss 1902 D95
               |         Eunapiodes granosus D95
               |         Euryparyphes D95
               |           |--E. quadridentatus D95
               |           `--E. sitifiensis D95
               |         Ramburiella hispanica D95
               |         Tmethis pulchripennis D95
               |         Stenobothrus S66
               |         Habrocneminae E00
               |         Caryandinae E00
               |         Acrydiinae R18
               |           |--Eomorphopus granulatus Hancock 1906 R18
               |           |--Allotettix peruvianus (Bolivar 1887) [=Paratettix peruvianus] R18
               |           |--Micronotus caudatus (Saussure 1861) [=Tettix caudata; incl. T. gracilis Bruner 1906] R18
               |           |--Apotettix bruneri Hancock in Bruner 1906 R18
               |           `--Acridium roseum B01
               |         Brachystola magna Z94
               |         Platylactista aztecus Z94
               |         Rehnita capito Z94
               |         Xabthippus corallipes Z94
               |           |--X. c. corallipes Z94
               |           `--X. c. pantherinus Z94
               |         Psophus stridulus B01
               |         Pachytylus B01
               |           |--P. danicus [incl. P. cinerascens] B01
               |           `--P. migratorius B01
               |         Bryodema B01
               |           |--B. baicalensis B01
               |           |--B. barabensis B01
               |           |--B. brunneriana B01
               |           |--B. mongolica Bolivar 1901 B01
               |           |--B. rhodopa B01
               |           `--B. tuberculata B01
               |         Callirhipis davidiana B01
               |         Nocarodes serricollis B01
               |         Tettix B01
               |           |--T. bipunctatus B01
               |           |--T. depressus B01
               |           `--T. subulatus B01
               |         Zichyinae B01
               |           |--Bradyporus onos B01
               |           |--Zichya Bolivar 1901 B01
               |           |    `--*Z. vacca (Fischer de Waldheim 1846) [=Ephippiger vacca] B01
               |           `--Deracanthella Bolivar 1901 [=Deracantha Fischer de Waldheim 1883 (preoc.)] B01
               |                `--*D. aranea (Fischer de Waldheim 1883) (see below for synonymy) B01
               |--Oedipodinae E00
               |--Paulinia [Pauliniidae, Pauliniinae] E00
               |    `--P. acuminata E00
               |--+--Leptysminae E00
               |  |--Ommatolampinae E00
               |  |--Marellia [Marelliinae] E00
               |  |    `--M. remipes E00
               |  |--Copiocera [Copiocerinae] E00
               |  |    `--C. specularis E00
               |  |--Proctolabus [Proctolabinae] E00
               |  |    `--P. brachypterus E00
               |  |--Diexis [Diexinae] E00
               |  |    `--D. varentzovi E00
               |  |--Trichopaon [Rhytidochrotinae] E00
               |  |    `--T. tatei E00
               |  `--Teratodinae E00
               |       |--Teratodes brachypterus E00
               |       `--Lyrotyloides viridis E00
               `--+--Catantopinae E00
                  |--Oxyinae E00
                  |--Egnatiinae E00
                  |--Aneuryphymus [Euryphyminae] E00
                  |    `--A. montanus E00
                  |--Eyprepocnemis TS04 [Eyprepocnemidinae E00]
                  |    `--E. plorans TS04
                  |--Podisma K81 [Podisminae E00]
                  |    `--P. pedestris K81
                  |--+--Cyrtacanthacridinae E00
                  |  `--Melanoplus E00
                  |--Calliptamus P05 [Calliptaminae E00]
                  |    |--C. barbarus (Costa 1836) D95
                  |    |--C. italicus (Linnaeus 1758) P05
                  |    `--C. wattenwyllianus (Pantel 1896) D95
                  `--+--Truxalinae E00
                     |--Acridinae E00
                     |--Eremogryllinae E00
                     |--Epistaurus [Coptacridinae] E00
                     |    `--E. succineus E00
                     |--Hemiacridinae E00
                     |    |--Hieroglyphus banian E00
                     |    `--Euthymia fasciata E00
                     |--Spathosterninae [Spathosternini] E00
                     |    |--Laxabilla Re96
                     |    `--Spathosternum pygmaeum E00
                     |--Tropidopola [Tropidopolinae] E00
                     |    `--T. cylindrica E00
                     |         |--T. c. cylindrica E00
                     |         `--T. c. acuticeps E00
                     `--Gomphocerinae E00
                          |--Mermiria bivittata [incl. M. maculipennis] E00
                          |--Gomphocerus rufus E00
                          |--Chorthippus BM76
                          |--Dasyhippus BM76
                          |--Euchorthippus BM76
                          |--Omocestus BM76
                          |    |--O. raymondi Harz 1970 D95
                          |    `--O. viridulus F01
                          `--Dociostaurus Y70
                               |--D. genei Y70
                               |--D. jagoi Soltani 1978 D95
                               `--D. maroccanus (Thunberg 1815) P05

*Deracanthella aranea (Fischer de Waldheim 1883) [=Ephippiger aranea, Deracantha aranea; incl. E. antilope, E. verrucosus Fischer de Waldheim 1846] B01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 223-243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D95] Damerdji, A. 1995. Bio-écologie du peuplement des orthoptères de la région de Ghazaouet (Tlemcen, Algérie). Mésogée 54: 73-80.

[E70] Eades, D. C. 1970. Theoretical and procedural aspects of numerical phyletics. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 142-171.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181-210.

[F01] Field, L. H. 2001. Stridulatory mechanisms and associated behaviour in New Zealand wetas. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 271-295. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K81] Key, K. H. L. 1981. Species, parapatry, and the morabine grasshoppers. Systematic Zoology 30 (4): 425-458.

[L31] Lawrence, R. F. 1931. The harvest-spiders (Opiliones) of South Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 29 (2): 341-508.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese ("southern Sporadhes) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3-11.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[S66] Southcott, R. V. 1966. Revision of the genus Charletonia Oudemans (Acarina: Erythraeidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 14: 687-819.

[TS04] Tsurusaki, N., & T. Shimada. 2004. Geographic and seasonal variations of the number of B chromosomes and external morphology in Psathyropus tenuipes (Arachnida: Opiliones). Cytogenetic and Genome Research 106: 365-375.

[Y70] Yinon, U. 1970. Electrophysiological evidence of relationships in acridid insects. Systematic Zoology 19 (4): 397-398.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.