Field of Science

Pantcholmanvissiida

Fossil specimen of Tettoedischia elongata, from Novokshonov & Aristov (2002).


Belongs within: Orthoptera.
Contains: Titanopterida.

The Pantcholmanvissiida is a fossil clade of orthopterans known from the Permian and Triassic. Members of the clade are characterised by having the first posterior branch of vein CuPaα in the forewing occuring basal to the connection of CuPaα with CuA (Béthoux 2007).

<==Pantcholmanvissiida
    |--Tettoedischia Sharov 1968 B07 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--T. elongata (Sharov 1968) B07 [=Macroedischia elongata NA02]
    |    `--T. minuta Sharov 1968 B07
    `--Tcholmanvissiidae [Tcholmanvissiinae, Tcholmanvissioidea] B07
         |  i. s.: Pinegia BN02
         |           |--P. longipes Martynov 1928 BN02
         |           `--P. martynovi Gorokhov 1987 BN02
         |--Tcholmanvissia Zalessky 1929 B97
         |    |--T. longipes Martynov 1940 B07
         |    `--T. noinskii Zalessky 1929 B07
         `--Tcholmantitanopterida B07
              |--Jubilaeus Sharov 1968 [Jubilaeinae] B07
              |    `--J. beybienkoi Sharov 1968 B07
              `--+--Titanopterida B07
                 `--Tcholmanvissiella Gorochov 1987 [Tcholmanvissiellini] B07
                      `--T. gigantea Gorochov 1987 B07

Tettoedischia Sharov 1968 B07 [incl. Macroedischia Sharov 1968 NA02; Tettoedischiidae, Tettoedischiinae, Tettoedischioidea]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B07] Béthoux, O. 2007. Cladotypic taxonomy applied: titanopterans are orthopterans. Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 65 (2): 135-156.

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[NA02] Novokshonov, V. G., & D. S. Aristov. 2002. New and little-known Permian insects (Insecta: Grylloblattida; Orthoptera) from the Chekarda Locality, central Ural Mountains. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (6): 73-77 (transl. Paleontological Journal 36 (6): 644-649).

Liliaceae

Madonna lily Lilium candidum, copyright Zachi Evenor.


Belongs within: Liliales.
Contains: Disporum.

The Liliaceae is a family of bulbous or rhizomatous monocotyledons that are most diverse in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The family has been used in a much broader sense in the past than currently; at its broadest, it included a large proportion of the taxa now classed elsewhere in the Liliales and Asparagales.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Flavonols present, chelidonic acid absent; raphides absent; bracteole lateral; tepals often spotted; anthers often centrifixed; stigma dry (rarely wet); ovules 2-many/carpel, more or less pendulous, nucellar cap (0-)1-3 cells across; antipodal cells not multinucleate; testal cells all more or less thickened, some with brown contents; cotyledon more or less photosynthetic, bifacial, hypocotyl absent; x = 8.

<==Liliaceae
    |--Oceanoros YY22
    |--Schoenocaulon YY22
    |--Stenanthium YY22
    |--Zygadenus YY22
    |--Calibanus YY22
    |--Heterosmilax YY22
    |--Ruscus aculeatus H91, G98
    |--Trillidium govanianum O88
    |--Tricyrtis esquirolii (Léveillé) Hara 1988 (see below for synonymy) H88
    |--Disporum H88
    |--Ipheion uniflorum (Lindley) Rafinesque-Schmaltz 1837 HE80
    |--Bulbinopsis semibarbata HE80
    |--Rohdea japonica MH98
    |--Aspidistra elatior MH98
    |--Herpolirion Hook. f. 1853 ME70
    |    `--H. novae-zelandiae Hook. f. 1853 ME70
    |--Iphigenia Kunth 1843 ME70
    |    |--I. novae-zelandiae (Hooker) Baker 1879 [=Anguillaria novae-zelandiae Hooker in Kirk 1878] ME70
    |    `--I. stellata YG03
    |--Smilacina purpurea O88
    |--Notholirion O88
    |    |--N. bulbuliferum O88
    |    `--N. macrophyllum O88
    |--Ypsilandra yunnanensis O88
    |    |--Y. y. var. yunnanensis O88
    |    `--Y. y. var. himalaica O88
    |--Tulbaghia HE80
    |    |--T. calcarea CV06
    |    `--T. violacea HE80
    |--Cardiocrinum HE80
    |    |--C. cordatum T03
    |    `--C. giganteum HE80
    |--Fritillaria FF01
    |    |--F. cirrhosa O88
    |    |--F. lanceolata RS98
    |    `--F. meleagris C55
    |--Streptopus H98
    |    |--S. amplexicaule H98
    |    |--S. parasimplex O88
    |    `--S. simplex O88
    |--Chlorophytum SR07
    |    |--C. arundinaceum SR07
    |    |--C. elatum MH98
    |    `--C. nimmonii SR07
    |--Nolina V01
    |    |--N. microcarpa V01
    |    |--N. parryi C90
    |    `--N. texana SZ03
    |--Clintonia DS04
    |    |--C. borealis DS04
    |    `--C. udensis O88
    |         |--C. u. var. udensis O88
    |         `--C. u. var. alpina O88
    |--Tulipa Y98
    |    |--T. gesneriana TG88
    |    |--T. goulimyi Y98
    |    |--T. oculus-solis C55
    |    `--T. sylvestris C55
    |--Gagea Y98
    |    |--G. arvensis H91
    |    |--G. bracteolaris [incl. Ornithogalum glaucum Dethard. ex Schult.f. 1702] MGF04
    |    |--G. elegans O88
    |    |--G. fibrosa Y98
    |    `--G. graeca PT98
    |--Lloydia O88
    |    |--L. flavonutans O88
    |    |--L. longiscapa O88
    |    `--L. serotina O88
    |         |--L. s. var. serotina O88
    |         `--L. s. var. parva O88
    `--Lilium CD07
         |--L. candidum Y98
         |--L. formosanum Wallace 1891 HE80
         |--L. hansonii D37
         |--L. lancifolium Thunberg 1794 HE80
         |--L. × maculatum HE80
         |--L. martagon D37
         |--L. nanum O88
         |    |--L. n. f. nanum O88
         |    `--L. n. f. flavidum O88
         |--L. oxypetalum O88
         |--L. pyrenaicum C55
         |--L. regale Wilson 1913 CD07
         |--L. superbum Linnaeus 1762 CD07
         |--L. tigrinum Ker-Gawler 1809 HE80
         `--L. tyrinum GM96

Tricyrtis esquirolii (Léveillé) Hara 1988 [=Disporum esquirolii Léveillé 1907; incl. T. bakeri Koidzumi 1924, T. puberula Nakai & Kitagawa 1934] H88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[FF01] Friedman, W. E., & S. K. Floyd. 2001. Perspective: The origin of flowering plants and their reproductive biology—a tale of two phylogenies. Evolution 55 (2): 217-231.

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (6th ed.) W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[G98] Gruber, J. 1998. Beiträge zur Systematik der Gattung Dicranolasma (Arachnida: Opiliones, Dicranolasmatidae). I. Dicranolasma thracium Staręga und verwandte Formen aus Südosteuropa und Südwestasien. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien. Serie B. Botanik und Zoologie 100: 489-537.

[H88] Hara, H. 1988. A revision of the Asiatic species of the genus Disporum (Liliaceae). In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 163-209.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MGF04] Manning, J. C., P. Goldblatt & M. F. Fay. 2004. A revised generic synopsis of Hyacinthaceae in sub-Saharan Africa, based on molecular evidence, including new combinations and the new tribe Pseudoprospereae. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60 (3): 533-568.

[ME70] Moore, L. B. & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[RS98] Ramsey, J., & D. W. Schemske. 1998. Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 467-501.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SZ03] Sobek, E. A., & J. C. Zak. 2003. The Soil FungiLog procedure: Method and analytical approaches toward understanding fungal functional diversity. Mycologia 95 (4): 590-602.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

[T03] Tsurusaki, N. 2003. Phenology and biology of harvestmen in and near Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, with some taxonomical notes on Nelima suzukii n. sp. and allies (Arachnida: Opiliones). Acta Arachnologica 52: 5-24.

[V01] Vánky, K. 2001. The emended Ustilaginaceae of the modern classificatory system for smut fungi. Fungal Diversity 6: 131-147.

[YG03] Yadav, S. R. & S. P. Gaikwad. 2003. A revision of the Indian Aponogetonaceae. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 39-76.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

Agropyron

Couch grass Agropyron repens, copyright Matt Lavin.


Belongs within: Poaceae.

Agropyron, the crested wheat-grasses, is a genus of perennial grasses native to Eurasia, though widely introduced elsewhere for pasture.

Characters (from Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2007): Plants perennial; densely to loosely caespitose, sometimes rhizomatous. Culms 25-110 cm, geniculate or erect. Sheaths open; auricles usually present; ligules membranous, often erose. Inflorescences spikes, usually pectinate; middle internodes 0.2-3(5.5) mm, basal internodes often somewhat longer. Spikelets solitary, usually more than three times as long as the internodes, usually divergent or spreading from the rachis, with 3-16 florets; disarticulation above the glumes and below the florets. Glumes shorter than the adjacent lemmas, lance-ovate to lanceolate, 1-5-veined, asymmetrically keeled, secondary keel sometimes present on wider side, keels glabrous or with hairs, hairs not tufted, apices acute and entire, sometimes awned, awns to 6 mm; lemmas 5-7-veined, asymmetrically keeled, acute to awned, awns to 4.5 mm; paleas from slightly shorter than to exceeding the lemmas, bifid; anthers 3, 3-5 mm, yellow. Caryopses usually falling with lemmas and paleas attached. x = 7. Haplome P.

<==Agropyron
    |--A. dasystachyum CL86
    |--A. enysii W27
    |--A. glaucum D37
    |--A. intermedium H91
    |--A. junceum C74
    |    |--A. j. ssp. junceum C74
    |    `--A. j. ssp. littoreum C74
    |--A. multiflorum A27
    |--A. repens TG88
    |--A. scabrum W27 [incl. A. squarrosum A27]
    |--A. smithii CL86
    |--A. spicatum CL86
    |--A. trachycaulum CL86
    `--A. youngii A27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1-299, 224 pls.

[CL86] Collins, E. I. & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85-93.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007. Flora of North America North of Mexico vol. 24. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford University Press.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

[W27] Wall, A. 1927. Some problems of distribution of indigenuous plants in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 94-105.

Ophrys

Bee orchid Ophrys apifera, copyright Hans Hillewaert.


Belongs within: Orchidaceae.

Ophrys, the bee orchids, is a group of orchids in which the flower's labellum is modified to resemble a particular species of pollinating insect, thus attracting males of that species to act as pollinators when they attempt to copulate with the 'female'.

<==Ophrys
    |--O. apifera PT98
    |--O. aranifera H91
    |--O. ferrum-equinum PT98
    |--O. holoserica PT98
    |    |--O. h. ssp. holoserica PT98
    |    `--O. h. ssp. heterochila PT98
    |--O. insectifera BM76
    |--O. lutea PT98
    |    |--O. l. ssp. lutea PT98
    |    |--O. l. ssp. galilaea PT98
    |    `--O. l. ssp. minor PT98
    |--O. regis-ferdinandii PT98
    |--O. sphegodes PT98
    `--O. umbilicata PT98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

Orchidaceae

Slipper orchid Cryptostylis ovata, from here.


Belongs within: Liliidae.
Contains: Ophrys, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, Epidendroideae.

The Orchidaceae, orchids, are a diverse and distinctive group of plants in which the flowers commonly have the lower petal differentiated into a distinctive lip. Pollination often involves complex specialisations, attracting pollinators using visual and/or odour cues rather than by offering a nectar reward.

Characters (from Moore & Edgar 1970): Perennial, terrestrial, epiphytic or saprophytic herbs with rhizomes, tubers or thickened rootstocks. Aerial stem often swollen at base into pseudobulb, and often with adventitious or aerial roots. Leaves usually entire, often distichous, sheathing at base, sometimes reduced to scales. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, in spikes, racemes or panicles, or solitary. Perianth mostly petaloid, of six segments in two whorls, free or variously connate, occasionally joined to form a tube; the middle segment in each whorl usually different from the two lateral ones, the middle petal or labellum often differing greatly in size, shape or outgrowths (calli) from the others and usually directed downwards; nectary sometimes contained within a spur or sac from one or more of the perianth segments. Anthers and stigmas borne on a more or less erect, usually fleshy structure, the column. Anthers 1 or 2, bilocular, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits; pollen grains rarely free, usually aggregated in tetrads or larger groups (pollinia) that are mealy, waxy or quite hard and sometimes terminate in a sterile caudicle. Ovary inferior, unilocular with three parietal placentae (rarely trilocular); stigma borne on part of column facing labellum, of three or two lobes, the medium lobe sometimes represented by a small process, the rostellum, between the stigma and the anther; viscid areas (viscidia) sometimes associated with rostellum and to these pollinia become attached either directly or by a connecting strip of non-viscid rostellar or columnar tissue known as the stipe. Fruit usually a capsule dehiscing by three or six longitudinal slites. Seeds very numerous, minute, often elongated, without endosperm or differentiated embryo.

<==Orchidaceae [Diandrae, Orchidineae]
    |--Apostasioideae FR99
    |    |--Apostasia FR99
    |    `--Neuwiedia [Neuwiedioideae] FR99
    |         `--N. veratrifolia DS04
    `--+--Cypripedioideae FR99
       `--Monandrae [Neottieae] FR99
            |--+--Orchidoideae FR99
            |  `--+--Epidendroideae FR99
            |     `--Cryptostylis FR99
            |          |--C. leptochila G84
            |          |--C. ovata GK00
            |          `--C. subulata HE80
            `--Vanilloideae RG07
                 |  i. s.: Isotria verticillata DS04
                 |--+--Pogoniinae FR99
                 |  `--Cleistes RG07
                 `--Vanilleae FR99
                      |--Vanilla FR99
                      `--+--Epistephium FR99
                         `--Lecanorchis FR99

Orchidaceae incertae sedis:
  Cycnoches YY22
  Oecoclades maculata [=Angraecum maculatum; incl. A. monophyllum] C55
  Grammatophyllum speciosum Par03
  Spathoglottis Par03
    |--S. ixioides O88
    `--S. plicata Par03
  Arundina graminifolia Par03
  Phaius tankervilleae Par03
  Galeola Par03
    |--G. kuhlii Par03
    `--G. nudifolia Par03
  Pholidota Par03
    |--P. articulata Par03
    `--P. imbricata Par03
  Thrixspermum merguense Par03
  Acanthephippium parviflorum Par03
  Geodorum Par03
    |--G. citrinum P88
    `--G. densiflorum Par03
  Macodes petola Par03
  Oberonia Par03
    |--O. helferi Hooker 1888 BP03
    `--O. monstruosa Par03
  Peristylus Par03
    |--P. goodyeroides Par03
    |--P. gracilis Par03
    `--P. grandis Par03
  Taeniophyllum obtusum Par03, P88
  Trichotosia annulata Par03
  Vrydagzynea albida Par03
  Corymbis veratrifolia Par03
  Tainia P88
  Diphylax urceolata O88
  Galearis O88
    |--G. spathulata O88
    `--G. stracheyi O88
  Herminium O88
    |--H. duthiei O88
    |--H. josephii O88
    |--‘Ophrys’ lancea [=Spiranthes lancea] ME70
    |--H. macrophyllum O88
    |--H. monorchis O88
    `--H. pugioniforme O88
  Neottianthe calcicola O88
  Ponerorchis chusua O88
  Dactylorchis maculata HE80
  Ophrys PT98
  Anacamptis pyramidalis PT98
  Serapias vomeracea PT98
    |--S. v. ssp. vomeracea PT98
    `--S. v. ssp. laxiflora PT98
  Isabelia Barbosa-Rodrigues 1877 FT93
  Oligochaetochilus OS04
    |--O. muticus G04b
    |--O. pictus G04a
    |--O. sanguineus OS04
    |--O. sargentii G04b
    `--O. vittatus OS04
  Cyanicula OS04
    |--C. amplexans G04b
    |--C. deformis OS04
    `--C. sericea OS04
  Elythranthera OS04
    |--E. brunonis OS04
    `--E. emarginata GK00
  Leporella fimbriata OS04
  Cyrtostylis GK00
    |--C. huegelii GK00
    `--C. robusta GK00
  Gastrochilus flabelliformis [=Saccolabium flabelliformis Blatt. & McCann 1932] SBY02
  Pachystoma senile (Lindley) Reichenbach 1958 [=Apathuria senilis Lindley 1831] SBY02
  Leptoceras menziesii GK00
  Pyrorchis nigricans GK00
  Drakaea GK00
    |--D. glyptodon GK00
    `--D. livida GK00
  Paracaleana nigrita GK00
  Doritis FR99
  Pteroceras FR99
  Rimacola Rupp 1942 H49
    `--*R. ellipticus [=Lyperanthus ellipticus Brown 1810] H49
  Rhynchostylis retusa BB07
  Cleisostoma SR07
    |--C. duplicilobium (Smith) Garay 1972 (see below for synonymy) PO06
    `--C. tenuifolium SR07
  Cheirostylis chinensis BP05
    |--C. c. var. chinensis BP05
    `--C. c. var. glabra Bhaumik & Pathak 2005 BP05
  Limodorum abortivum H91
  Himantoglossum hircinum H91
  Luisia teratifolia Pau03
  Micropera Lindley 1832 [incl. Camarotis Lindley 1833] P06
    |--*M. pallida (Roxburgh) Lindley 1832 (see below for synonymy) P06
    |--M. mannii (Hooker) Tang & Wang 1951 (see below for synonymy) P06
    |--M. obtusa (Lindley) Tang & Wang 1951 (see below for synonymy) P06
    `--M. rostratum (Roxb.) Balakr. 1970 (see below for synonymy) P06
  Smithsonia P06
    |--*S. straminea P06
    `--‘Micropera’ maculata P06
  Odontoglossum H04
    |--O. naevium H04
    |--O. ramosissimum H04
    |--O. schroederianum H04
    `--O. wattianum H04
  Paphinia rugosa H04

Nomen nudum: Cyanicula gemmata Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00

Cleisostoma duplicilobium (Smith) Garay 1972 [=Sarcanthus duplicilobium Smith 1907; incl. S. carinatus Rolfe ex Downnie 1925, Cleisostoma carinatum (Rolfe) Garay 1972] PO06

Micropera mannii (Hooker) Tang & Wang 1951 [=Sarochilus mannii Hooker 1890, Camarotis mannii (Hooker) King & Pantling 1898] P06

Micropera obtusa (Lindley) Tang & Wang 1951 [=Camarotis obtusa Lindley 1844, Sarcochilus obtusus (Lindley) Benth. ex Hooker 1890] P06

*Micropera pallida (Roxburgh) Lindley 1832 [=Aerides pallida Roxburgh 1814 (n. n.); incl. Camarotis apiculata Rchb.f. 1857, Micropera apiculata (Rchb.f.) Garay 1972, Sarcanthus apiculatus (Rchb.f.) Smith 1905, C. cochinchinensis Rchb.f. 1876, Micropera cochinchinensis (Rchb.f.) Tang & Wang 1951, Sarcochilus cochinchinensis (Rchb.f.) Nicols 1886, Saccolabium flaveolens Ridl. 1896, Sarcanthus roxburghii Hooker 1890, Saccolabium saxicolum Ridl. 1893] P06

Micropera rostratum (Roxb.) Balakr. 1970 [=Aerides rostratum Roxb. 1814 (n. n.), Camarotis rostratum (Roxb.) Rchb.f. 1864; incl. C. pallida (Lindl.) Lindl. 1859, C. purpurea Lindl. 1833, Micropera purpurea (Lindl.) Pradhan 1979, Sarcochilus purpureus (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hooker 1890] P06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BP03] Bhaumik, M. & M. K. Pathak. 2003. Oberonia helferi Hook. f. (Orchidaceae)—a new record for India from Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 217-220.

[BP05] Bhaumik, M. & M. K. Pathak. 2005. A new variety of Cheirostylis chinensis Rolfe var. glabra (Orchidaceae) from Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 183-184.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[FR99] Freudenstein, J. V., & F. N. Rasmussen. 1999. What does morphology tell us about orchid relationships? – a cladistic analysis. American Journal of Botany 86: 225-248.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H49] Hatch, E. D. 1949. Lyperanthus antarcticus Hook. f. and the New Zealand forms of Gastrodia R. Br. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 230-233.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ME70] Moore, L. B. & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[Par03] Partomihardjo, T. 2003. Colonisation of orchids on the Krakatau Islands. Telopea 10 (1): 299-310.

[Pau03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P06] Phukan, S. 2006. The genus Micropera Lindl. (Orchidaceae) in India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 165-174.

[PO06] Phukan, S. & N. Odyuo. 2006. Addition to Indian orchid flora—Cleistostoma duplicilobum (J. J. Sm.) Garay from Nagaland. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 219-222.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042-1045.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SBY02] Sardesai, M. M., M. P. Bachulkar & S. R. Yadav. 2002. Additions to the orchid flora of Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 564-566.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Allium

Rhodian serpentinite garlic Allium rhodiacum, copyright Volker Kummer.


Belongs within: Liliidae.

Allium is a genus of odoriferous bulbous herbs found mainly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere (though a number of species have become widespread as invasive weeds). Several species, such as the onion Allium cepa and garlic Allium sativum, are cultivated for food.

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Green or glaucous scapose perennials with onion- or garlic-like odour. Bulb tunicate, solitary, or often with stipitate offset bulbs. Leaves 1-many, all basal, sheathing scapes to varying levels, usually linear, solid or hollow. Flowers white, yellow or pink, campanulate, in few- to many-flowered terminal involucrate umbels, spathe-valves 2, more or less united; bulbils often present between flowers, occasionally replacing them; perianth-segments free or more or less connate at base. Staminal-filaments simple, divided, or with lateral appendages. Capsule ovoid to globose, three-lobed, loculicidal. Seeds black, more or less angular or flat, usually 6.

<==Allium [Allieae]
    |--A. (sect. Codonoprasum) brulloi Salmeri 1998 S98
    `--A. sect. Scorodon S98
         |--A. chalkii S98
         `--A. rhodiacum S98

Allium incertae sedis:
  A. ambiguum C55b
  A. ammophilum D37
  A. ampeloprasum HE80
  A. carolinianum O88
  A. cepa RG04
    |--A. c. var. cepa RG04
    `--A. c. var. ascalonicum RG04
  A. commutatum PT98
  A. cupani Rafinesque 1810 PL04
    |--A. c. ssp. cupani PT98
    `--A. c. ssp. hirtovaginatum PT98
  A. fallax C55a
  A. fasciculatum O88
  A. fistulosum RG04
  A. flavum PT98
    |--A. f. ssp. flavum PT98
    `--A. f. ssp. tauricum PT98
  A. hypsistum O88
  A. neapolitanum Cyrillo 1788 HE80
  A. pallens PT98
  A. paniculatum H91
  A. platakisii S98
  A. porrum RG04
  A. prattii O88
  A. przewalskianum O88
  A. roseum Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |--A. r. ssp. roseum HE80
    `--A. r. ssp. bulbiferum (de Candolle) Warburg in Clapham, Tutin & Warburg 1952 HE80
  A. sativum RG04
  A. schoenoprasum RG04
    |--A. s. var. schoenoprasum RG04
    `--A. s. var. foliosum RG04
  A. scorodoprasum [incl. A. ophioscordon] C55b
  A. sikkimense O88
  A. sipyleum [incl. A. exile] S98
  A. sphaerocephalon Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |--A. s. ssp. sphaerocephalon PL04
    `--A. s. ssp. trachypus (Boissier & Spruner) Stearn 1978 PL04
  A. subhirsutum PT98
  A. tardans S98
  A. triquetrum Linnaeus 1753 HE80
  A. tuberosum RG04
  A. victorialis C55a
  A. vineale Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |--A. v. var. vineale HE80
    `--A. v. var. compactum HE80
  A. wallichii O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[RG04] Roumagnac, P., L. Gagnevin, L. Gardan, L. Sutra, C. Manceau, E. R. Dickstein, J. B. Jones, P. Rott & O. Pruvost. 2004. Polyphasic characterization of xanthomonads isolated from onion, garlic and Welsh onion (Allium spp.) and their relatedness to different Xanthomonas species. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54: 15-24.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69-76.

Orchidinae

Three-toothed orchid Orchis tridentata, copyright Marco Klüber.


Belongs within: Orchidoideae.

The Orchidinae are a group of terrestrial orchids found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly around the Mediterranean and eastern Asia.

Characters (from Dressler 1993): Terrestrial, rarely saprophytic, generally with root-stem tuberoids, roots without velamen; stem slender. Leaves spiral, scattered or basal and clustered, convolute, soft herbaceous, nonarticulate. Inflorescence terminal, simple, of few to many spiral flowers. Flowers small to medium-large, resupinate; lip usually with a basal spur; column short or moderately long; anther erect, basally firmly united with column; two or four pollinia, sectile, with two basal, interlocular caudicles attached to two or one basal viscidia; exine of pollen grains variable; stigma entire, concave.

Orchidinae [Orchideae]
    |--Gymnadenia DO05
    |    |--G. conopsea DO05
    |    `--G. orchidis O88
    |--Platanthera RG07
    |    |--P. clavigera O88
    |    |--P. exelliana O88
    |    |--P. latilabris O88
    |    |--P. leptocaulon O88
    |    `--P. replicata RG07
    |--Dactylorhiza DO05
    |    |--D. aristata DO05
    |    |--D. incarnata DO05
    |    |--D. praetermissa DO05
    |    `--+--+--D. foliosa DO05
    |       |  `--D. maculata DO05
    |       `--+--D. fuchsii DO05
    |          `--D. saccifera DO05
    `--Orchis PT98
         |--O. anatolica PT98
         |--O. globosa C55
         |--O. militaris C55
         |--O. morio PT98
         |    |--O. m. ssp. morio PT98
         |    `--O. m. ssp. picta PT98
         |--O. sancta PT98
         `--O. tridentata H91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DO05] Devos, N., S.-H. Oh, O. Raspé, A.-L. Jacquemart & P. S. Manos. 2005. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence variation and evolution of spotted marsh-orchids (Dactylorhiza maculata group). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 568-580.

Dressler, R. L. 1993. Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family. Cambridge University Press.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042-1045.