Field of Science

Centaurea

Centaurea appendicigera, photographed by Degoeje.


Belongs within: Carduoideae.

Centaurea, cockspurs and knapweeds, is a genus of thistle-like plants that is most diverse in the Mediterranean region.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Involucre of numerous unequal bracts ending in a pungent spine or scarious fringed or jagged appendage; receptacle beset with dense soft hairy bristles; flowers all tubular, outer ones usually sterile and much exceeding incolucre, sometimes radiating but never ligulate; achene oblong, compressed, hilum at base of inner margin (sometimes basal); pappus of short free scales in several unequal rows or none.

Centaurea
    |--C. sect. Centaurea WED98
    |    |--C. iconiensis Hub.-Mor. 1981 WED98
    |    `--C. mykalea Hub.-Mor. 1979 WED98
    |--C. sect. Acrolophus WED98
    |    |--C. cariensiformis Hub.-Mor. 1982 WED98
    |    `--C. yozgatensis Wagenitz 1997 WED98
    `--C. sect. Psephelloideae WED98
         |--C. appendicigera WED98
         |--C. hadimensis Wagenitz, Ertugrul & Dural 1998 WED98
         |--C. holtzii WED98
         |--C. pyrrhoblephara WED98
         `--C. taochia WED98

Centaurea incertae sedis:
  C. calcitrapa BR65
  C. cyanus C55
  C. ebenoides Heldreich ex Moore 1878 PL04
  C. jacea BR65
  C. laureotica Heldreich ex Halácsy 1898 PL04
  C. maculosa CLB99
    |--C. m. ssp. maculosa CLB99
    `--C. m. ssp. rhenana CLB99
  C. melitensis BR65
  C. montana C55
  C. nigra BR65
  C. nigrescens BR65
  C. pinnatifida H09
  C. × pratensis [C. jacea × C. nigra] BR65
  C. raphanina Sibthorp & Smith 1813 PL04
    |--C. r. ssp. raphanina PL04
    `--C. r. ssp. mixta (de Candolle) Runemark 1867 PL04
  C. repens [incl. C. picris] BR65
  C. solstitialis BR65
  C. triumfetti [incl. C. variegata] H91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[CLB99] Callaway, R. M., T. H. DeLuca & W. M. Belliveau. 1999. Biological control herbivores may increase competitive ability of the noxious weed Centaurea maculosa. Ecology 80: 1196-1201.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515-527.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[WED98] Wagenitz, G., K. Ertugrul & H. Dural. 1998. A new species of Centaurea sect. Psephelloideae (Compositae) from SW Turkey. Willdenowia 28: 157-162.

Inuleae

Elecampane Inula helenium, photographed by Karelj.


Belongs within: Asteroideae.
Contains: Angianthus, Craspedia.

The Inuleae is a group of composite-flowered plants in which the flower-heads are usually discoid, with outer ray-florets mostly absent or narrow and filiform.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Flower-heads usually discoid, with all flowers tubular and bisexual (homogamous) or outer ones female and tubular or filiform, with small or irregular teeth or lobes or rarely with very short lobed ligules (heterogamous), or the heads rarely more or less dioecious, sometimes small and united in a compound globular, ovoid or oblong head or densely clustered and without a common involucre; involucral bracts often scarious, sometimes with petaloid radiating tips or quite inconspicuous; style-branches various; pappus usually of simple barbellate or plumose bristles, more rarely of scales with may be united in a small cup, or none; receptacle usually naked; leaves almost always alternate.

<==Inuleae
    |--Buphthalminae BR65
    |    |--Buphthalmum YY22
    |    `--Pallenis spinosa [=Asteriscus spinosus] BR65
    |--Athrixinae BR65
    |    |--Athrixia BR65
    |    |    |--A. athrixioides (Sonder & von Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |    |    |--A. a. var. athrixioides BR65
    |    |    |    `--A. a. var. horripes (Black) Robertson in Black & Robertson 1965 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    |    `--A. croniniana BR65
    |    `--Podolepis BR65
    |         |--P. arachnoidea (Hooker) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |         |--P. canescens BR65
    |         |--P. capillaris [=Siemssenia capillaris Steetz 1844-1845; incl. P. siemssenia von Mueller 1866] BR65
    |         |--P. gracilis OS04
    |         |--P. jaceoides (Sims) Druce 1917 BR65
    |         |--P. lessonii BR65
    |         |--P. microcephala KM08
    |         |--P. neglecta M65
    |         |--P. rugata BR65
    |         `--P. tepperi G04
    |--Inula TSR03 [Inulinae BR65]
    |    |--I. candida TSR03
    |    |    |--I. c. ssp. candida TSR03
    |    |    |--I. c. ssp. decalvans TSR03
    |    |    `--I. c. ssp. limonella TSR03
    |    |--I. conyza H91
    |    |--I. crithmoides M55
    |    |--I. graveolens BR65
    |    |--I. helenium BR65
    |    |--I. pulicaria C55
    |    |--I. thapsoides Sprengel 1810 (see below for synonymy) TSR03
    |    `--I. verbascifolia (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (see below for synonymy) TSR03
    |         |--I. v. ssp. verbascifolia TSR03
    |         |--I. v. ssp. aschersoniana TSR03
    |         |--I. v. ssp. heterolepis TSR03
    |         |--I. v. ssp. methanaea TSR03
    |         `--I. v. ssp. parnassica TSR03
    `--Angianthinae BR65
         |--Basedowia tenerrima [=Humea tenerrima von Mueller 1896; incl. B. helichrysoides Pritzel 1918] BR65
         |--Eriochlamys behrii BR65
         |--Gnaphalodes uliginosum BR65
         |--Cephalipterum drummondii BR65
         |--Angianthus BR65
         |--Craspedia BR65
         |--Chthonocephalus BR65
         |    |--C. pseudevax BR65
         |    `--C. tomentellus KM08
         |--Gnephosis BR65
         |    |--G. arachnoidea BR65
         |    |--G. eriocarpa BR65
         |    |--G. gnephosioides (von Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
         |    |--G. skirrophora [incl. G. codonopappa] BR65
         |    `--G. tenuissima KM08
         |--Myriocephalus BR65
         |    |--M. occidentalis GK00
         |    |--M. rhizocephalus [=Hyalolepis rhizocephala] BR65
         |    |    |--M. r. var. rhizocephala BR65
         |    |    `--M. r. var. pluriflorus BR65
         |    |--M. rudallii BR65
         |    `--M. stuartii [=Polycalymma stuartii] BR65
         `--Calocephalus BR65
              |--C. aervoides KM08
              |--C. brownii BR65
              |--C. citreus BR65
              |--C. dittrichii BR65
              |--C. drummondii BR65
              |--C. francisii KM08
              |--C. lacteus BR65
              |--C. multiflorus (see below for synonymy) BR65
              `--C. sonderi BR65

Inuleae incertae sedis:
  Anisopappus PF02
    |--A. pinnatifidus CV06
    `--A. pseudopinnatifidus CV06
  Haastia Hooker 1864 B93, A61
    |--H. montana Buchan. 1887 (n. d.) A61
    |--H. pulvinaris Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |--H. p. var. pulvinaris A61
    |    `--H. p. var. minor Laing 1912 A61
    |--H. recurva Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |--H. r. var. recurva A61
    |    `--H. r. var. wallii Cockayne 1918 A61
    `--H. sinclairii Hooker 1864 A61
         |--H. s. var. sinclairii A61
         `--H. s. var. fulvida Allan 1961 A61
  Pterygopappus lawrencei B93

Athrixia athrixioides (Sonder & von Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Panaetia athrixioides Sonder & von Mueller 1852; incl. A. tenella Bentham 1866] BR65

Athrixia athrixioides var. horripes (Black) Robertson in Black & Robertson 1965 [=A. tenella var. horripes Black 1929] BR65

Calocephalus multiflorus [=Pachysurus multiflorus Turczaninow 1851; incl. P. platycephalus von Mueller 1863, Calocephalus platycephalus (von Mueller) Bentham 1866] BR65

Gnephosis gnephosioides (von Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Cyathopappus gnephosioides; incl. G. cyathopappa, G. arachnoidea var. foliata] BR65

Inula thapsoides Sprengel 1810 [incl. I. t. var. poiretii de Candolle 1836, I. verbascifolia Poiret 1813 (nom. rej. prop.) non (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (nom. cons. prop.)] TSR03

Inula verbascifolia (Willdenow) Haussknecht 1895 (nom. cons. prop.) [=Conyza verbascifolia Willdenow 1803, I. bocconei Soldano 1986] TSR03

Podolepis arachnoidea (Hooker) Druce 1917 [=Rutidosis arachnoidea Hooker 1848; incl. P. rhytidochlamys von Mueller 1864] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B93] Breitwieser, I. 1993. Comparative leaf anatomy of New Zealand and Tasmanian Inuleae (Compositae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 111: 183-209.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Mauereidechsen der Liparischen Inseln, gesammelt von Dr. Antonino Trischitta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 25-40.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1-362.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909-922.

[TSR03] Tan, K., J. Suda & T. Raus. 2003. (1582) Proposal to conserve the name Inula verbascifolia (Willd.) Hausskn. against I. verbascifolia Poir. (Asteraceae) and with a conserved type. Taxon 52: 358-359.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Dipsacaceae

Common teasel Dipsacus silvestris, copyright Evelyn Simak.


Belongs within: Dipsacales.

The Dipsacaceae is a family of herbs and shrubs found in temperate regions of Eurasia and Africa. Members of this family have flowers borne together on a common receptacle, superficially similar to those of the composite-flowered plants in the Asteraceae.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs or undershrubs with opposite exstipulate leaves; flowers sessile in a head on a common receptacle or floral base, which is furnished with scales between flowers and surrounded by involucre of bracts, each flower also having a loose outer calyx (or involucel) enclosing the real calyx and ovary and probably formed of connate bracts. Flowers bisexual, slightly irregular; calyx small, continuous with the thin receptacle (hollow floral axis or receptacular tube) above which it is narrowed and then spread outward in teeth or awns; corolla funnel-shaped, with four or five lobes, of which the lowest is the largest; stamens never more than four, inserted in corolla-tube; ovary inferior, adnate to receptacle, one-celled, with one pendulous anatropous ovule; style filiform, stigma entire or notched; fruit small, dry, indehiscent, one-seeded, surmounted by persistent calyx and enveloped in outer calyx.

Dipsacaceae
    |--Succisa YY22
    |--Pterocephalus hookeri O88
    |--Knautia integrifolia (Linnaeus) Bertoloni 1835 PL04
    |--Lomelosia GR98
    |    |--L. brachiata [incl. Tremastelma palaestinum] GR98
    |    `--L. calocephala GR98
    |--Cephalaria H91
    |    |--C. alpina C55a
    |    `--C. transsylvanica H91
    |--Scabiosa K03
    |    |--S. atropurpurea BR65
    |    |--S. columbaria C55b
    |    |--S. mansenensis K03
    |    |--S. maritima BR65
    |    `--S. stellata PT01
    `--Dipsacus CD07
         |--D. ferox BR65
         |--D. fullonum BR65
         |--D. inermis O88
         |    |--D. i. var. inermis O88
         |    `--D. i. var. mitis O88
         |--D. laciniatus V09
         |--D. sativus (Linnaeus) Honck. 1782 CD07
         `--D. silvestris BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163-174.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1-24.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183-194.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Bupleurum

Thoroughwax Bupleurum rotundifolium, copyright Nancy J. Ondra.


Belongs within: Apiaceae.

Bupleurum is a genus of mostly perennial herbs found primarily in the northern temperate zone.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs perennial, rarely annual, glabrous. Rootstock usually short, woody. Stem alternate or dichotomously branched, green or glaucous, base with or without fibrous remnant sheaths. Leaves entire, petioles sheathing; blade membranous, herbaceous or coriaceous, usually with parallel venation, base usually tapering into petiole. Cauline leaves often sessile, clasping, auriculate or perfoliate. Inflorescence loose, umbels compound, terminal and lateral; bracts several, conspicuous, often similar to uppermost leaves; rays few to many; bracteoles several, conspicuous. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals yellow, greenish-yellow, tinged purple or purple, oblong to orbicular, apex narrowly inflexed. Stylopodium conic, low-conic or discoid; styles short, often reflexed. Fruit oblong to ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid, slightly laterally compressed, mericarps subpentagonal (rarely rounded) in cross section; ribs 5, filiform, prominent or obscure; vittae 1–3(–6) in each furrow, 2–6(–8) on commissure, sometimes obscure. Seed face plane. Carpophore 2-cleft to base.

<==Bupleurum
    |--B. candolii O88
    |--B. falcatum ssp. falcatum O88
    |    |--B. f. ssp. f. var. falcatum O88
    |    `--B. f. ssp. f. var. gracillimum O88
    |--B. gracile PT98
    |--B. graminifolium C55a
    |--B. longicaule O88
    |--B. praealtum H91
    |--B. rigidum R-RR-GM-S98
    |--B. rotundifolium C55b
    |--B. salicifolium P02
    `--B. trichopodum Boissier & Spruner 1884 PL04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[P02] Perry, R. N. 2002. Hatching. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 147-169. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[R-RR-GM-S98] Ramil-Rego, P., M. Rodríguez-Guitián & C. Muñoz-Sobrino. 1998. Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 335-351.

Xanthophyceae

Filaments and stalked cells of Tribonema minus, copyright D. J. Patterson & Craig Bailey.


Belongs within: Marista.

The Xanthophyceae, yellow-green algae, are a group of algae found primarily in fresh water with smaller numbers of species in soil or marine habitats. The group includes both unicellular and filamentous forms.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Predominately coccoid or filamentous, rarely amoeboid, ciliated or capsoid; swimming cells with two cilia, one anteriorly directed and bearing tripartite tubular hairs and one posteriorly directed and lacking tripartite hairs; four microtubular kinetosomal roots and one large striated kinetosomal root or rhizoplast; ciliary transitional helix with six apparently double gyres located above the major transitional plate; no paraciliary rod; cell walls typical, probably of cellulose and either entire or H-shaped bisectional walls; chloroplast with girdle lamella; outer chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum membrane with direct membrane connection to outer nuclear envelope membrane; plastid DNA with ring-type genophore; eyespots present or absent; plastid pigments include chlorophylls a and c1,2, violaxanthin, heteroxanthin, and vaucherioxanthin.

Xanthophyceae [Heterochlorida, Heterokontae, Heteromonadea, Xanthophyta]
    |  i. s.: Ostreobium [Phyllosiphonaceae] S57
    |           |--O. quekettii Bornet & Flahault 1889 S57
    |           `--O. reineckei Bornet 1896 L27
    |         Chlorobotrydaceae A90
    |           |--Chlorellidium A90
    |           |--Chlorobotrys A90
    |           `--Gloeobotrys A90
    |--Vaucheriaceae [Vaucheriales] C-SC06
    |    |--Dichotomosiphon tuberosus SG05
    |    `--Vaucheria C-SC06
    |         |--V. bursata C-SC06
    |         |--V. conroyi Habeeb 1984 C91
    |         |--V. litoria Bang & Agardh in Agardh 1821 S57
    |         `--V. sessilis SG05
    `--Tribonematales [Botrydiales, Heterotrichales, Mischococcales] A90
         |  i. s.: Characiopsis AS12
         |         Chloromeson AS12
         |         Ophiocytium capitatum AS12, M70
         |           |--O. c. var. capitatum M70
         |           `--O. c. var. longispinum M70
         |         Sphaerosorus AS12
         |--Heterococcus C-SC06 [Heterodendraceae A90]
         |    `--H. caespitosus C-SC06
         `--+--Mischococcus sphaerocephalus KI02, C-SC06
            `--+--Pseudopleurochloris antarctica KI02, C-SC06
               `--+--Pleurochloridaceae A90
                  |    |--Pleurochloris meiringensis C-SC06
                  |    |--Botrydiopsis intercedens A90, C-SC06
                  |    |--Chlorocloster A90
                  |    |--Ellipsoidion A90
                  |    `--Nephrodiella A90
                  `--+--Heterothrix debilis C-SC06
                     `--+--Botrydium [Botrydiaceae] C-SC06
                        |    `--B. stoloniferum C-SC06
                        `--+--Xanthonema debile KI02
                           `--+--Bumilleriopsis KI02 [Chlorotheciaceae A90]
                              |    `--B. filiformis KI02
                              `--Tribonemataceae [Tribonemaceae] A90
                                   |--Bumilleria A90
                                   |--Heterotrichella A90
                                   `--Tribonema C-SC06
                                        |--T. aequale KI02
                                        |--T. bombycinum SG05
                                        |--T. gayanum G00
                                        |--T. intermixtum C-SC06
                                        `--T. minus HM88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429-493.

[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69-96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C-SC06] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2006. Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). Journal of Molecular Evolution 62: 388-420.

[C91] Conroy, J. C. 1991. Acarology—a modern science. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 5-16. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G00] Gromov, B. V. 2000. Algal parasites of the genera Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, and Pseudaphelidium from Cienkovski’s “Monadinea” group as representatives of a new class. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 79 (5): 517-525 (transl. Entomological Review 80 (Suppl. 1): S26-S34).

[HM88] Hoshaw, R. W., & R. M. McCourt. 1988. The Zygnemataceae (Chlorophyta): A twenty-year update of research. Phycologia 27 (4): 511-548.

[KI02] Kawachi, M., I. Inouye, D. Honda, C. J. O’Kelly, J. C. Bailey, R. R. Bidigare & R. A. Andersen. 2002. The Pinguiophyceae classis nova, a new class of photosynthetic stramenopiles whose members produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Phycological Research 50: 31-47.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126-185.

[M70] Meel, L. van. 1970. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.–Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1-56.

[SG05] Sau, A. & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 63-86.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1-289.

Sporozoa

Illustration of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites emerging from oocysts, from here.


Belongs within: Alveolata.
Contains: Eugregarinorida, Eimeriorina, Aconoidasida.

The Sporozoa is a group of unicellular organisms parasitic on animals, characterised by the presence of an apical complex containing organelles (rhoptries and micronemes) that secrete enzymes used in piercing the membrane of host cells. This clade is also commonly referred to as the Apicomplexa, though Cavalier-Smith & Chao (2004) used the latter name to refer to a larger clade also including the related organisms Colpodella and Acrocoelus.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012, as Apicomplexa): At least one stage of the life cycle with flattened sub-pellicular vesicles and apical complex consisting of one or more polar rings, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid, and sub-pellicular microtubules; sexuality, where known, by syngamy followed by immediate meiosis to produce haploid progeny; asexual reproduction of haploid stages occurring by binary fission, endodyogeny, endopolyogeny, and/or schizogony; locomotion by gliding, body flexion, longitudinal ridges, and/or cilia; parasitic.

Sporozoa [Coccidea, Coccidiida, Coccidiomorpha, Coccidiomorphina, Conoidasida, Euspora, Polannulifera, Telosporidia]
    |--Gregarinasina [Gregarinae, Gregarinea, Gregarinia, Gregarinomorpha] AS12
    |    |  i. s.: Acuta AS12
    |    |         Cephalolobus AS12
    |    |         Levinea AS12
    |    |         Menospora AS12
    |    |         Nematocystis AS12
    |    |         Nematopsis AS12
    |    |         Steinina AS12
    |    |         Trichorhynchus AS12
    |    |         Zygocystis C79
    |    |--+--Agamococcidiorida AS12
    |    |  |    |--Rhytidocystis polygordiae SM10
    |    |  |    `--Gemmocystis AS12
    |    |  `--+--Monocystis agilis LCK03
    |    |     `--+--Neogregarinida AS12
    |    |        |    |--Ophriocystis eletroscirrha LCK03
    |    |        |    |--Mattesia geminata C-S04
    |    |        |    `--Schyzocystis AS12
    |    |        `--Eugregarinorida LCK03
    |    `--+--Archigregarinorida AS12
    |       |    |--Filipodium AS12
    |       |    |--Platyproteum AS12
    |       |    |--Selenidium SM10
    |       |    |    |--S. terebellae C-S04
    |       |    |    `--S. vivax C-S04
    |       |    `--Veloxidium AS12
    |       `--Cryptosporidium C-SC04
    |            |  i. s.: C. felis N00
    |            |         C. meleagridis MM03
    |            |--+--C. serpentis SM10
    |            |  `--C. muris SM10
    |            `--+--C. parvum SM10
    |               `--+--C. baileyi SM10
    |                  `--C. wrairi C-SC04
    `--+--Coccidia AS12
       |    |--Eimeriorina C-SC04
       |    `--Adeleorina [Adeliida] AS12
       |         |--Adelea AS12
       |         |--Adelina SM10
       |         |    |--A. bambarooniae SM10
       |         |    `--A. transita R00
       |         |--Hepatozoon C-SC04
       |         |    |--H. aegypti K92
       |         |    |--H. americanum C-SC04
       |         |    `--H. catesbianae C-SC04
       |         |--Dactylosoma AS12
       |         |--Haemolivia AS12
       |         |--Haemogregarina AS12
       |         |    |--H. aeglefini K-M02
       |         |    `--H. stepanovi K92
       |         |--Klossia AS12
       |         `--Klossiella AS12
       `--+--+--Cardiosporidium cionae SM10
          |  `--Nephromyces Giard 1888 [Nephromycida, Nephromycidae] SM10
          `--Aconoidasida C-SC04

Sporozoa incertae sedis:
  Aggregata eberthi K92
  Akiba cauleryi K92
  Babesiosoma stableri K92
  Protococcidiorida AS12
    |--Angeiocystis AS12
    |--Coelotropha AS12
    |--Grellia AS12
    |--Eleutheroschizon AS12
    |--Myriosporides AS12
    |--Myriospora AS12
    `--Sawayella AS12
  Trophosphaera planorbulinae LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429-493.

[C-SC04] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E. Chao. 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.) European Journal of Protistology 40: 185-212.

[C79] Curds, C. R. 1979. Group phenomena in the phylum Protozoa. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 29-37. Academic Press: London.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Cods. Family Gadidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 223-261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K92] Krylov, M. V. 1992. The origin of heteroxeny in Sporozoa. Parazitologiya 26 (5): 361-368.

[LCK03] Leander, B. S., R. E. Clopton & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Phylogeny of gregarines (Apicomplexa) as inferred from small-subunit rDNA and β-tubulin. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 345-354.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[MM03] Mallon, M., A. MacLeod, J. Wastling, H. Smith, B. Reilly & A. Tait. 2003. Population structures and the role of genetic exchange in the zoonotic parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 407-417.

[N00] Nichols, G. L. 2000. Food-borne protozoa. British Medical Bulletin 56 (1): 209-235.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1-53, 1-36.

[SM10] Saffo, M. B., A. M. McCoy, C. Rieken & C. H. Slamovits. 2010. Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16190-16195.

Nematoda

Euchromadora sp., from Nematoda do Brasil.


Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.
Contains: Dorylaimia, Enoplia, Desmoscolecida, Monhysterida, Chromadorida, Desmodorida, Araeolaimida, Plectida, Secernentea.

The Nematoda, roundworms, are a hyperdiverse group of mostly minute, vermiform animals (though some parasitic forms may reach large sizes). Free-living nematodes have a characteristically eel-like mode of swimming, as the body wall contains longitudinal muscles only and movement is by dorsoventral flexure of these muscles against the outer cuticle and internal hydrostatic pressure. The dorsoventral plane of flexure also means that most nematodes are unusual among animals in characteristically lying on one side during movement (Lorenzen 1986).

Characters (from Eder 1986): Body usually unpigmented, long and thin (about twenty times as long as wide). Body wall with longitudinal muscles only. Usually blind; orientation performed by means of amphids, cephalic setae and bristles. Gas exchange conducted through cuticle, specialised respiratory organs absent.

Nematoda [Adenophorea, Aphasmidia, Ascaridatina, Nemata, Nemates]
    |--Enoplea [Penetrantia] LB02
    |    |--Dorylaimia LB02
    |    `--Enoplia LB02
    `--Chromadorea [Chromadoria, Torquentia] LB02
         |  i. s.: Desmoscolecida LB02
         |--Monhysterida LB02
         `--+--Chromadorida LB02
            `--+--Desmodorida LB02
               `--+--Araeolaimida LB02
                  `--+--Plectida LB02
                     `--Secernentea LB02

Nematoda incertae sedis:
  Cephalobellus WPT01
  Peloderma G01
  Caballeronema pseudoargumentosus Mus02
  Truttaedacnitis sphaerocephala Mus02
  Thynnascaris N02
    |--T. aduncum [=Contracaecum aduncum] N02
    `--T. habena [=Contracaecum habena] C02a
  Hysterothylacium K-M02
    |--H. aduncum K-M02
    `--H. pelagicum C02b
  Contracaecum osculatum Mun02
  Spinitectus cristatus K-M02
  Benthimermithidae [Benthimermithida] LB02
  Rhaptothyreidae [Rhaptothyreida] LB02
  Mazamastrongylus odocoilei LB02
  Placentonema gigantissimum Gubanov 1951 L86
  Strongyluris Gi02
  Histiocephalus bucorvi Gi02
  Tanqua tiara Gi02
  Cylicodontostomum purvisi Gi02
  Agriostomum Gi02
  Allodapa suctoria Gi02
  Stegophorus Gi02
  Striatofilaria Gi02
  Setaria digitata B02
  Cyathospirura seurati Gi02
  Ternidens deminutus Gi02
  Streptopharagus pigmentatus Gi02
  Gyalocephalus capitatus Gi02
  Bunostomum Railliet 1902 C92
    `--B. trigonocephalum MM02
  Hexametra Gi02
  Hyostrongylus rubidus Gi02
  Parostertagia heterospiculum Gi02
  Ashworthius pattoni Gi02
  Hoplodontophorus flagellum Gi02
  Paracooperia Gi02
  Rhabditolaimus L02a
  Ollulanus tricuspis L02a
  Probstmayria vivipara MM02
  Mesodiplogaster L02a
    |--M. biformis Ge02
    `--M. lheritieri L02a
  Labronema vulvapapillatum L02a
  Cephalenchus emarginatus L02b
  Metadasynemoides cristatus L02b
  Leptonemella L02b
  Euchromadora MM02
    |--E. gaulica MM02
    |--E. robusta L02b
    `--E. vulgaris L02b
  Acanthonchus duplicatus L02b
  Eubostrichus topiarus L02b
  Catanema L02b
  Laxus oneistus L02b
  Prooncholaimus L02b
  Chromadorina L02c
    |--C. bioculata L02b
    `--C. viridis L02c
  Oswaldocruzia leidyi L02b
  Paracanthonchus caecus L02b, MV04
  Halichoanolaimus sonorus L02b
  Aporcellaimellus L02b
  Contortylenchus grandicolli L02b
  Tachygonetria MM02
    |--T. robusta MM02
    `--T. stylosa MM02
  Halenchus fucicola MM02
  Brumptaemilius MM02
  Oxyspirura mansoni MM02
  Muellerius capillaris MM02
  Discolaimus MM02
  Dolichodorus MM02
  Gracilacus MM02
  Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus MM02
  Hexatylus viviparus MM02
  Europlus TG02
  Folyella dolichoptera L02c
  Trichonema L02c
  Mansonella Ge02
    |--M. ozzardi A71
    `--M. perstans Ge02
  Pseudorhabdolaimus Soos 1937 E86
    `--P. limnophilus Soos 1937 E86
  Zeldia punctata GR98
  Aduncospiculum halicti GR98
  Austronema Cobb 1914 BR05
  Longistrongylus curvispiculum KC07
  Spiroptera brevisubulata P89
  Controtylenchus brevicomi A-B91
  Stomachus marinus R59
  Ackertia marmotae Webster 1967 MW69
  Acarincola hirsutus Warren 1941 S69

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B02] Behm, C. A. 2002. Metabolism. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 261-290. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[C02a] Collette, B. B. 2002a. Toadfishes. Order Batrachoididae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 261-264. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02b] Collette, B. B. 2002b. Dolphinfishes. Family Coryphaenidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 409-411. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1-60.

[E86] Eder, R. 1986. Nematoda from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 125-132. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[Ge02] Gems, D. 2002. Ageing. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 413-455. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Gi02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 31-59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[GR98] Giribet, G., & C. Ribera. 1998. The position of arthropods in the animal kingdom: A search for a reliable outgroup for internal arthropod phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 481-488.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Cods. Family Gadidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 223-261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KC07] Krausman, P. R., & A. L. Casey. 2007. Addax nasomaculatus. Mammalian Species 807: 1-4.

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Life cycles. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 61-72. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 171-209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02c] Lee, D. L. 2002c. Behaviour. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 369-387. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 1-30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L86] Lorenzen, S. 1986. Nematoda: Interstitial nematodes from marine brackish and hypersaline environments. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 133-142. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[MV04] Manylov, O. G., N. S. Vladychenskaya, I. A. Milyutina, O. S. Kedrova, N. P. Korokhov, G. A. Dvoryanchikov, V. V. Aleshin & N. B. Petrov. 2004. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences suggests significant molecular differences between Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 850-854.

[MW69] Moss, W. W. & W. A. Webster. 1969. A numerical taxonomic study of a group of selected strongylates (Nematoda). Systematic Zoology 18 (4): 423-443.

[MM02] Munn, E. A., & P. D. Munn. 2002. Feeding and digestion. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 211-232. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Mun02] Munroe, T. A. 2002. Herrings. Family Clupeidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 111-160. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[Mus02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 83-88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[N02] Nizinski, M. S. 2002. Sand lances. Family Ammodytidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 496-505. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[P89] Parona, C. 1889. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 765-780.

[R59] Robinson, E. S. 1959. Records of cestodes from marine fishes of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 143-153.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339-342.

[TG02] Thompson, D. P., & T. G. Geary. 2002. Excretion/secretion, ionic and osmotic regulation. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 291-320. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[WPT01] Wharton, D. A., R. Poulin & C. L. Tyrell. 2001. Parasites of anostostomatid insects. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 259-267. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).