Asteiidae

Asteia beata, copyright John Rosenfeld.


Belongs within: Schizophora.

The Asteiidae are a cosmopolitan but little-studied group of small, generally soft-bodied flies.

See also: The asteiids: overlooked flies.

Characters (from Freidberg 2010): Small (body length 1–5 mm), winged, generally weakly sclerotised flies. Coloration varying from predominantly yellow to predominantly black, but more or less elaborate and contrasting pattern usually present on some or all major body parts. Head rectangular to oval in lateral view, with zero to two short to long fronto-orbital seta. Antenna short, with first flagellomere usually rounded. Arista usually well developed, with short to long alternating rays (microtrichia), occasionally reduced or absent. Proboscis short, with fleshy labella. Males with interfrontal stripes. Thorax with one to four dorsocentral setae; when four then anterior dorsocentral seta presutural. Scutellum short, convex, usually with two pairs of setae, basal seta much shorter than apical seta or absent. Acrostichal setulae zero to two rows, without setae. Pleura without setae; anepisternum sometimes with setulae. Legs without overt features. Wing usually elongate, covering abdomen and extending beyond it when at rest. Vein R2+3 short, ending at tip of vein R1 or slightly more distally except in Leiomyza, in which it reaches distal 0.75 of wing. Vein M1 concave anteriorly, distally convergent with vein R4+5. Crossvein dm-cu present or absent. Alula bare or with marginal cilia. Abdomen with weakly sclerotised tergites except in Leiomyza. Spiracles two to six situated in tergites; spiracle seven absent. Male terminalia symmetric in Leiomyza, asymmetric in most other taxa. Surstylus fused with epandrium. Phallus usually large and heavily sclerotised. Female terminalia simple, segment 7 sometimes developed as an incomplete oviscape. Two sclerotised spermathecae present.

<==Asteiidae F10
    |  i. s.: Astiosoma flaveolum S87
    |         Succinasteia carpenteri S87
    |         Bahamia longiceps S87
    |--Leiomyza Macquart 1835 C-T92 [Leiomyzinae F10]
    |    |--L. dudai Sabrosky 1956 C-T92
    |    |--L. laevigata (Meigen 1830) C-T92
    |    `--L. nitidula CM91
    `--Asteiinae [Asteinae] F10
         |--Asteiini F10
         |    |--Loewimyia bifurcata F10
         |    `--Asteia [incl. Asteimyia] F10
         |         |--A. (Asteia) amoena Meigen 1830 C-T92
         |         |--A. antennata [=Asteimyia antennata] F10
         |         |--A. beata F10
         |         |--A. palikuensis O98
         |         `--A. spinosa [=Asteimyia spinosa] F10
         `--Sigaloessini F10
              |--Anarista F10
              |--Tucumyia liniaris F10
              |--Sigaloessa [incl. Crepidohamma] CM70
              |    `--S. bicolor F10
              `--Phlebosotera F10
                   |--P. setipalpis F10
                   `--P. shewelli S87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C-T92] Carles-Tolrá, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F10] Freidberg, A. 2010. Asteiidae (asteiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1093–1096. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[S87] Sabrosky, C. W. 1987. Asteiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 899–902. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Clusiidae

Sobarocephala flaviseta, copyright Katja Schulz.


Belongs within: Schizophora.

The Clusiidae are a group of relatively slender flies that are commonly associated with humid habitats.

Characters (from Lonsdale & Marshall 2010): Relatively elongate flies. Colour various but usually all or partly yellow with wing frequently infuscated. Arista pubescent to densely plumose; vibrissa well developed; face usually soft, receding. Outer and sometimes inner distal margins of pedicel with triangular extensions, outer extension distinct and acute in Clusiinae and Sobarocephalinae, blunt and obtuse in Clusiodinae. Ocellar and/or postocellar bristles usually small to absent, divergent when present. Subcosta complete and subcostal break present (sometimes indistinct in Clusiodinae).

<==Clusiidae [Clusiodidae, Heteroneuridae]
    |  i. s.: Electroclusiodes LM10
    |           |--E. meunieri S87
    |           `--E. radiospinosa S87
    |         Trichoclusia M87
    |         Chaetoclusiella M87
    |--Clusiinae LM10
    |    |--Clusia lateralis LM10, WT11
    |    |--Phylloclusia LM10
    |    |--Tetrameringia ustulata LM10, O98
    |    |--Melanoclusia LM10
    |    `--Apiochaeta LM10
    |         |--A. bicolor LM10
    |         `--A. connexa LM10
    |--Sobarocephalinae LM10
    |    |--Chaetoclusia bakeri LM10
    |    |--Procerosoma alini LM10
    |    `--Sobarocephala LM10
    |         |--S. flava LM10
    |         |--S. flaviseta LM10
    |         |--S. lanei LM10
    |         |--S. latifrons LM10
    |         |--S. picta LM10
    |         `--S. testacea [incl. Chaetoclusia affinis] S87
    `--Clusiodinae LM10
         |--Craspedochaeta concinna LM10
         |--Clusiodes LM10
         |    |--C. albimanus LM10
         |    `--C. johnsoni LM10
         |--Hendelia LM10
         |    |--*H. beckeri LM10
         |    |--H. kinetrolicros LM10
         |    `--H. mirabilis [=Clusiodes mirabilis] LM10
         |--Heteromeringia [incl. Tranomeringia] LM10
         |    |--H. czernyi LM10
         |    |--H. fumipennis LM10
         |    |--H. nitida LM10
         |    `--H. norrisi CM91
         `--Allometopon LM10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LM10] Lonsdale, O., & S. A. Marshall. 2010. Clusiidae (clusiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1041–1048. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M87] McAlpine, J. F. 1987. Acartophthalmidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 859–861. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[S87] Soós, Á. 1987. Clusiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 853–857. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Lymnaeinae

Pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, copyright Epitree.


Belongs within: Hygrophila.

The Lymnaeinae are a cosmopolitan group of dextral freshwater snails of varying size and shape.

Lymnaeinae BR05
    |--Limnophysa Fitzinger 1833 [Limnophysidae] BR05
    |    `--*L. palustris (Müller 1774) [=Buccinum palustre] BR17
    |--Acella Haldeman 1841 [Acellinae] BR05
    |    `--*A. gracilis (Jay 1839) [=Lymnaea gracilis] BR17
    |--Fossaria Westerlund 1885 [Fossarianinae, Fossariinae] BR05
    |    |--*F. truncatula (Müller 1774) BR17 [=Buccinum truncatulum BR17, Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula PB27]
    |    |--F. decampi (Streng 1896) P88
    |    |--F. exigua (Lea 1821) P88
    |    |--F. galbana (Say 1825) B97
    |    |--F. modicella (Say 1825) P88
    |    `--F. parva (Lea 1841) P88
    |--Galba Schrank 1803 PB27
    |    |--*G. pusilla Schrank 1803 [=Lymnaea (*Galba) pusilla] PB27
    |    |--G. accelerata (White 1886) TTE93
    |    |--G. ativuncula (White 1886) TTE93
    |    |--G. consortis (White 1886) TTE93
    |    |--G. meikiensis Yu 1980 ZZ88
    |    |--G. subtruncatula (Boettger 1910) [=Limnaea subtruncatula, Lymnaea (Galba) subtruncatula] PB27
    |    `--G. umlaasiana (Küster 1862) [=Limnaeus umlaasianus, Lymnaea (Galba) umlaasiana] PB27
    `--Lymnaea Lamarck 1799 RGG06 (see below for synonymy)
         |  i. s.: L. alfredi Suter 1890 P61
         |           |--L. a. alfredi P61
         |           `--L. a. hamiltoni Dell 1956 P61
         |         L. ampla Mighels 1843 [=Limnea (l. c.) ampla] J49
         |         L. bulimoides PF15
         |           |--L. b. bulimoides PF15
         |           `--L. b. cockerelli PF15
         |         L. columella Say 1817 [=Pseudosuccinea columella] RGG06
         |         L. corvus (Gmelin 1791) L06
         |         L. dalli PF15
         |         L. elodes CA84
         |         L. decollata Mighels & Adams 1842 J49
         |         L. diaphana King 1830 RGG06
         |         L. emarginata Say 1821 B97
         |         L. fragilis (Linnaeus 1758) PB27, L58 [=Helix fragilis PB27, Bulimus fragilis PB27]
         |         L. hopii (Robinson 1915) TTE93
         |         L. luteola CCG01
         |         L. mauritiana RW84
         |         L. minuta CS77
         |         L. oahuensis PB27
         |         L. obrussa PF15
         |         L. ollula MK10
         |         L. ovata D56
         |         L. palustris (Müller 1774) L06 [incl. L. palustris var. turricula S01]
         |         L. parva PF15
         |         L. peregra (Müller 1774) L06 [incl. L. peregra var. geisericola PB27, L. peregra var. thermalis PB27]
         |         L. pictonica Rochebrune & Mabille 1885 RGG06
         |         L. plicata Hylton Scott 1953 RGG06
         |         L. rufescens (see below for synonymy) TC89
         |         L. swinhoei Adams 1866 A66
         |         L. viatrix (d’Orbigny 1835) RGG06
         |--*L. (Lymnaea) stagnalis (Linnaeus 1758) P61, L06 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--L. s. stagnalis T59
         |    `--L. s. appressa T59
         `--L. (Cerasina) PB27
              |--L. (C.) bulla PB27
              `--L. (C.) acuminata PB27

Nomina nuda: Limnaea aegyptiaca Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea amygdalina Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea astilba Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea astilba Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea cleopatrae Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea expansilabris Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea forskali Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea lessepsiana Bourguignat 1899 PB27
             Limnaea letourneuxi Bourguignat 1899 PB27

Lymnaea Lamarck 1799 RGG06 [=Eulimneus Sandberger 1875 PB27, Limnaea de Blainville 1825 PB27, Limnea Fleming 1828 PB27, Limneus Draparnaud 1805 PB27, Lymnaeus Cuvier 1817 PB27, Lymneus Brard 1815 PB27, Lymnula Rafinesque 1819 PB27, Lymnus Denys de Montfort 1810 PB27; incl. Leachia Risso 1826 PB27, BR05; Leachiae]

Lymnaea rufescens [incl. L. acuminata, L. rufescens var. attenuata, L. chlamys Benson 1836, L. rufescens var. patula, L. pectinoides] TC89

*Lymnaea (Lymnaea) stagnalis (Linnaeus 1758) P61, L06 [=Helix stagnalis BR17, Bulimus stagnalis PB27, Limneus (*Eulimneus) stagnalis PB27, *Lymnula stagnalis PB27, *Lymnus stagnalis PB27; incl. Limneus major PB27, *Leachia major PB27, Lymnaea tenella P61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A66] Adams, H. 1866. Descriptions of fifteen new species of land and freshwater shells from Formosa, collected by Robert Swinhoe, Esq., consul at Taiwan in that island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 316–319.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27–33.

[CCG01] Canivet, V., P. Chambon & J. Gibert. 2001. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of arsenic and chromium in epigean and hypogean freshwater macroinvertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40: 345–354.

[CA84] Carter, M. A., & M. Ashdown. 1984. Experimental studies on the effects of density, size, and shell colour and banding phenotypes on the fecundity of Cepaea nemoralis. Malacologia 25 (2): 291–302.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[L06] Lewin, I. 2006. The gastropod communities in the lowland rivers of agricultural areas—their biodiversity and bioindicative value in the Ciechanowska Upland, central Poland. Malacologia 49 (1): 7–23.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MK10] Marinoni, L., & L. Knutson. 2010. Sciomyzidae (snail-killing flies, marsh flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1017–1024. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[PF15] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. H. Ferriss. 1915. Mollusca of the southwestern states, VII: the Dragoon, Mule, Santa Rita, Baboquivari, and Tucson Ranges, Arizona. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 363–418, pls 8–15.

[P88] Pip, E. 1988. Niche congruency of freshwater gastropods in central North America with respect to six water chemistry parameters. Nautilus 102 (2): 65–72.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RW84] Rollinson, D., & C. A. Wright. 1984. Population studies on Bulinus cernicus from Mauritius. Malacologia 25 (2): 447–463.

[RGG06] Rumi, A., D. E. Gutiérrez Gregoric, V. Núñez, I. I. César, M. A. Roche, M. P. Tassara, S. M. Martín & M. F. López Armengol. 2006. Freshwater Gastropoda from Argentina: species richness, distribution patterns, and an evaluation of endangered species. Malacologia 49 (1): 189–208.

[S01] Sturany, R. 1901. Csigák és kagylók [Mollusken]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 69–74. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 295–359.

[T59] Thomas, G. J. 1959. Self-fertilization and production of young in a sphaeriid clam. Nautilus 72 (4): 131–140.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[ZZ88] Zhu G.-X. & Zhou Y.-Z. 1988. Fresh-water molluscan fauna across Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary in southeast Jilin. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 27 (6): 713–721.

Gentianella

Stiff gentian Gentianella quinquefolia, copyright Peter Gorman.


Belongs within: Gentianeae.

Gentianella is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs bearing nectariferous flowers. Circumscription of the genus has been contentious; Australasian species were placed by Adams (1995) in a proposed segregate genus Chionogentias but this genus has not been recognsed by some other authors.

Characters (from Struwe et al. 2009): Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs; decumbent or erect. Stems usually sparsely branched above, rarely many stems from base. Stems terete or quadrangular. Flowers 4- or 5-merous, forming terminal or axillary umbelliform cymes, or borne singly. Calyx with a very short to well-developed tube, sometimes split to base on one side. Intracalycine membrane absent. Corolla infundibuliform, cylindrical, hypocrateriform, rotate, or campanulate. Aestivation convolute. Corolla shallowly divided or divided almost to base. Corolla tube may have vascularized fimbriae, non-vascularized fimbriae, or none at all. Fimbriae, when present, scattered, united in a ring, or arranged in a row at base of each corolla lobe. Plicae absent. Stamens inserted at or below middle of corolla tube. Filaments filiform and occasionally barbate below. One or two naked nectaries per corolla lobe present at base of corolla tube. Ovary sessile or with short gynophore. Style indistinct or absent. Seeds usually unwinged or rarely winged.

Gentianella Moench 1794 A95 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--G. amarella SK02
    |  |    |--G. a. var. amarella H93
    |  |    `--G. a. var. acuta [=Gentiana amarella var. acuta] H93
    |  `--G. wislizenii SK02
    `--+--G. aurea [=Aloitis aurea] SK02
       |--G. cosmantha SK02
       |--G. saxosa (Forster) Holub 1968 SK02, A95 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--G. quinquefolia SK02
          `--G. turkestanorum SK02

Gentianella incertae sedis:
  G. campestris [=Gentiana campestris, *Gentianella tetrandra Moench 1794 (nom. illeg.)] A95
  G. anglica SK02
  G. angustiflora O88
  G. anisodonta SK02
  G. antarctica (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 (see below for synonymy)
  G. antipoda (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 (see below for synonymy)
  G. astonii (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. aspera SK02
  G. aurantiaca RJ11
  ‘Chionogentias’ barringtonensis Adams 1995 A95
  ‘Chionogentias’ bawbawensis Adams 1995 A95
  G. bellidifolia (Hooker) Holub 1968 SK02, A95 (see below for synonymy)
  ‘Chionogentias’ brevisepala Adams 1995 A95
  G. bulgarica JS02
  G. caucasica JS02
  G. cephalantha JS02
  G. cephantha JS02
  G. cerastioides SK02
  G. cerina (Hooker) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. c. var. cerina A61
    `--‘Gentiana’ cerina var. suberecta (Kirk) Cheeseman 1906 [=G. cerina f. suberecta Kirk 1895] A61
  G. chathamica (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  ‘Chionogentias’ clelandii Adams 1995 A95
  G. concinna (Hooker) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 (see below for synonymy)
  G. corymbifera (Kirk) Holub 1968 A95 (see below for synonymy)
  G. cunninghamii BC02 [=Chionogentias cunninghamii Adams 1995 A95]
    |--C. c. ssp. cunninghamii A95
    `--C. c. ssp. major Adams 1995 A95
  ‘Chionogentias’ demissa Adams 1995 A95
  G. diemensis (Grisebach) Willis 1957 (see below for synonymy) A95
    |--G. d. ssp. diemensis A95
    `--‘Chionogentias’ d. ssp. plantaginea Adams 1995 A95
  G. diffusa SK02 [=Gentiana (sect. *Andicola) diffusa A95]
  ‘Chionogentias’ divisa (Kirk) Adams 1995 A95 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. d. var. divisa A61
    `--‘Gentiana’ d. var. magnifica (Kirk) Allan 1961 [=G. bellidifolia var. magnifica Kirk 1895] A61
  ‘Chionogentias’ eichleri Adams 1995 A95
  G. falcata O88
  G. filipes (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. foliosa SK02
  G. germanica SK02
  G. gibbsii (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. glanduligera O88
  ‘Chionogentias’ grandis Adams 1995 A95
  G. gracilifolia (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. grisebachii (Hooker) Ho 1993 A95 (see below for synonymy)
  ‘Chionogentias’ gunniana Adams 1995 A95
  ‘Gentiana’ lilliputiana Webb 1990 [=Chionogentias lilliputiana (Webb) Adams 1995] A95
  G. lineata (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 (see below for synonymy)
  G. lowndesii O88
  G. matthewsii (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. montana (Forster) Holub 1967 (see below for synonymy) A95
    |--G. m. var. montana A95
    |--‘Gentiana’ m. var. flaccida Grisebach 1838 (n. d.) A95
    `--‘Gentiana’ m. var. stolonifera Cheeseman 1906 A61
  ‘Chionogentias’ muelleriana Adams 1995 A95
    |--C. m. ssp. muelleriana A95
    |--C. m. ssp. alpestris Adams 1995 A95
    |--C. m. ssp. jingerensis Adams 1995 A95
    `--C. m. ssp. willisiana Adams 1995 A95
  G. paludosa O88
  G. patula (Cheeseman) Holub 1968 A95 (see below for synonymy)
  G. pedunculata O88
  G. peruviana SK02
  ‘Gentiana’ pleurogynoides Grisebach 1838 (see below for synonymy) A95
    |  i. s.: G. p. var. abbreviata Grisebach in de Candolle 1845 (n. d.) A95
    |--G. p. ssp. pleurogynoides A95
    `--‘Chionogentias’ p. ssp. milliganii Adams 1995 A95
  ‘Chionogentias’ polysperes Adams 1995 A95
  G. pygmaea [=*Aliopsis pygmaea] SK02
  G. ramosa JS02
  G. serotina (Cockayne) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 (see below for synonymy)
  G. spenceri (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. stellariifolia O88
  G. stenocalyx JS02
  ‘Chionogentias’ sylvicola Adams 1995 A95
  G. tenuifolia (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. tereticaulis (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. tornezyana SK02
  G. townsonii (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. uliginosus SK02
  G. vernicosa (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 (see below for synonymy) A95
  G. vvedenskyi O88

‘Chionogentias’ divisa (Kirk) Adams 1995 A95 [=Gentiana bellidifolia var. divisa Kirk 1895 A95, Gentiana divisa (Kirk) Cheeseman 1906 A95, Gentianella bellidifolia var. divisa (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 A95; incl. G. bellidifolia var. vacillata Kirk 1895 A61]

‘Gentiana’ pleurogynoides Grisebach 1838 [=Chionogentias pleurogynoides (Grisebach) Adams 1995, G. montana var. pleurogynoides (Grisebach) Hooker 1857, G. saxosa var. pleurogynoides (Grisebach) Hooker 1853] A95

Gentianella Moench 1794 A95 [incl. Aliopsis SK02, Aloitis SK02, Gentiana sect. Andicola Grisebach 1838 A95, Gentianella sect. Andicola (Grisebach) Holub 1967 A95, Gentiana sect. Antarctophila Grisebach 1838 A95, Gentianella sect. Antarctophila (Grisebach) Holub 1967 A95, Chionogentias Adams 1995 SK02, A95, Pitygentias Gilg 1916 SK02, A95]

Gentianella antarctica (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 [=Gentiana antarctica Kirk 1895 A95, Chionogentias antarctica (Kirk) Adams 1995 A95; incl. Gentiana antarctica var. imbricata Kirk 1895 A61, Gentiana concinna β elongata A61, Gentiana concinna var. robusta Hooker 1844 A95]

Gentianella antipoda (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 [=Gentiana antipoda Kirk 1895 A95, Chionogentias antipoda (Kirk) Adams 1995 A95; incl. G. antipoda f. pallida Kirk 1895 A61]

Gentianella astonii (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana astonii Petrie 1916, Chionogentias astonii (Petrie) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella bellidifolia (Hooker) Holub 1968 SK02, A95 [=Gentiana bellidifolia Hooker 1844 A95, Chionogentias bellidifolia (Hooker) Adams 1995 A95; incl. Gentiana amabilis Petrie 1926 A61, Gentiana bellidifolia var. australis Petrie ex Cheeseman 1925 A61, Gentiana flaccida Petrie 1911 non G. montana var. flaccida Grisebach 1838, Gentiana bellidifolia var. pulchella Kirk 1895 A61]

Gentianella cerina (Hooker) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 [=Gentiana cerina Hooker 1844 A95, Chionogentias cerina (Hooker) Adams 1995 A95; incl. G. campbellii Homb. & Jacq. ex Decne 1853 A61]

Gentianella chathamica (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana chathamica Cheeseman 1906, Chionogentias chathamica (Cheeseman) Adams 1995, Gentiana pleurogynoides var. umbellata Kirk 1895] A95

Gentianella concinna (Hooker) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 [=Gentiana concinna Hooker 1844 A95, Chionogentias concinna (Hooker) Adams 1995 A95, Gentiana cerina f. concinna Kirk 1895 A61]

Gentianella corymbifera (Kirk) Holub 1968 A95 [=Gentiana corymbifera Kirk 1895 A95, Chionogentias corymbifera (Kirk) Adams 1995 A95; incl. Gentiana pleurogynoides var. rigida Kirk 1895 A61]

Gentianella diemensis (Grisebach) Willis 1957 [=Gentiana diemensis Grisebach 1838, Chionogentias diemensis (Grisebach) Adams 1995, Gentiana montana var. diemensis (Grisebach) Hooker 1857] A95

Gentianella filipes (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana filipes Cheeseman 1896, Chionogentias filipes (Cheeseman) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella gibbsii (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana gibbsii Petrie 1917, Chionogentias gibbsii (Petrie) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella gracilifolia (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana gracilifolia Cheeseman 1906, Chionogentias gracilifolia (Cheeseman) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella grisebachii (Hooker) Ho 1993 A95 [=Gentiana grisebachii Hooker 1844 A95, Chionogentias grisebachii (Hooker) Adams 1995 A95; incl. Gentiana novae-zelandiae Armstrong 1872 A61, G. grisebachii var. novae-zealandiae C06, G. montana f. novae-zelandiae Kirk 1895 A61]

Gentianella lineata (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 [=Gentiana lineata Kirk 1895 A95, Chionogentias lineata (Kirk) Adams 1995 A95; incl. Gentiana verecunda Simpson 1952 A61]

Gentianella matthewsii (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana matthewsii Petrie 1912, Chionogentias matthewsii (Petrie) Adams 1995, Gentiana grisebachii var. matthewsii (Petrie) Cheeseman 1925] A95

Gentianella montana (Forster) Holub 1967 [=Gentiana (sect. *Antarctophila) montana Forster 1786, Chionogentias montana (Forster) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella patula (Cheeseman) Holub 1968 A95 [=Gentiana bellidifolia var. patula Kirk 1895 A95, Chionogentias patula (Kirk) Adams 1995 A95, Gentiana patula (Kirk) Cheeseman 1906 A95; incl. Gentiana spedenii Petrie 1926 A61]

Gentianella saxosa (Forster) Holub 1968 SK02, A95 [=Gentiana saxosa Forster 1777 A95, *Chionogentias saxosa (Forster) Adams 1995 A95; incl. Gentiana hookeri Armstrong 1881 A61, Gentiana saxosa var. recurvata Kirk 1885 A61]

Gentianella serotina (Cockayne) Ho & Liu 1993 A95 [=Gentiana serotina Cockayne 1915 A95, Chionogentias serotina (Cockayne) Adams 1995 A95, Gentiana scrotina (l. c.) CA27]

Gentianella spenceri (Kirk) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana spenceri Kirk 1895, Chionogentias spenceri (Kirk) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella tenuifolia (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana tenuifolia Petrie 1913, Chionogentias tenuifolia (Petrie) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella tereticaulis (Petrie) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana tereticaulis Petrie 1917, Chionogentias tereticaulis (Petrie) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella townsonii (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana townsoni Cheeseman 1906, Chionogentias townsonii (Cheeseman) Adams 1995] A95

Gentianella vernicosa (Cheeseman) Ho & Liu 1993 [=Gentiana vernicosa Cheeseman 1906, Chionogentias vernicosa (Cheeseman) Adams 1995] A95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A95] Adams, L. G. 1995. Chionogentias (Gentianaceae), a new generic name for the Australasian ‘snow-gentians’, and a revision of the Australian species. Australian Systematic Botany 8: 935–1011.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BC02] Bouman, F., L. Cobb, N. Devente, V. Goethals, P. J. M. Maas & E. Smets. 2002. The seeds of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 498–572. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48–72.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JS02] Jensen, S. R., & J. Schripsema. 2002. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 573–631. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Logania

Logania albiflora, copyright John Tann.


Belongs within: Loganiaceae.

Logania is a genus of shrubs found in Australia and New Zealand.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Shrubs; leaves connected at base by a more or less distinct stipular line. Flowers small, in corymbose dichotomous or trichotomous axillary and terminal cymes, with two opposite bracts at each branching of peduncles, rarely clustered. Calyx 5-sect, usually purplish or blackish; corolla usually white, with five imbricate, rounded spreading lobes about as long as tube; stamens 5; ovary two-celled, with several ovules in each cell; style simple, with capitate or oblong stigma; capsule coriaceous, ovoid and contracted towards summit, dehiscing septicidally and loculicidally at summit, so that it appears to open by four teeth, the two carpels finally almost separating.

Logania Br. 1810 [Euloganieae] A61
    |--L. albiflora SK02
    |--L. campanulata GK00
    |--L. crassifolia BR65
    |    |--L. c. var. crassifolia BR65
    |    `--L. c. var. minor BR65
    |--L. depressa Hooker 1854 A61
    |--L. exilis G04
    |--L. flaviflora G04
    |--L. floribunda H87
    |--L. insularis BR65
    |--L. judithiana G04
    |--L. linifolia BR65
    |--L. nuda BR65
    |--L. ovata BR65
    |--L. perryana G04
    |--L. recurva [incl. L. longifolia var. subsessilis] BR65
    |--L. serpyllifolia GK00
    |--L. stenophylla BR65
    `--L. vaginalis BJ99 (see below for synonymy)

Logania vaginalis BJ99 [=Exacum vaginale Labillardière 1804 BR65; incl. L. latifolia BR65, L. longifolia Brown 1810 BR65]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413–435.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Cuscuta

Greater dodder Cuscuta europaea on dwarf elder Sambucus ebulus, copyright Bogdan.


Belongs within: Convolvulaceae.

Cuscuta, the dodders, is a cosmopolitan genus of parasitic vines.

Characters (from Stefanović et al. 2003): Plants parasitic, with little or no chlorophyll, attached to hosts by haustoria. Roots absent. Stems twining, slender, pale to bright orange, with no internal phloem. Leaves reduced, scale-like. Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, with infrastaminal fimbriate scales. Sepals equal, non-accrescent. Styles entire or partially to completely divided. Stigmas elongate, capitate, ovoid. Fruit dehiscent, capsular, 2-locular, 1–4-seeded. Embryo spirally coiled, almost acotyledonous. Pollen 3-colpate or pantocolpate, non-echinate.

Cuscuta Linnaeus 1753 [Cuscutaceae, Cuscuteae, Cuscutoideae] A61
    |--C. approximata ST98 [incl. C. epithymum H93, C. novae-zelandiae Kirk 1888 (n. n.) C06, A61]
    |    |--C. a. ssp. approximata ST98
    |    |--C. a. ssp. episonchum ST98
    |    `--C. ‘epithymum’ var. trifolii C06
    |--C. australis ST98
    |--C. californica H93
    |    |--C. c. var. californica H93
    |    |--C. c. var. apiculata H93
    |    |--C. c. var. breviflora (see below for synonymy) H93
    |    `--C. c. var. papillosa H93
    |--C. cephalanthi H93
    |--C. chinensis LK14
    |--C. corymbosa C55
    |--C. denticulata [incl. C. veatchii] H93
    |--C. epilinum Weihe 1824 C06
    |--C. europaea SAO03
    |    |--C. e. var. europaea O88
    |    `--C. e. var. indica O88
    |--C. exaltata MS10
    |--C. howelliana H93
    |--C. indecora H93
    |    |--C. i. var. indecora [incl. C. jepsonii] H93
    |    `--C. i. var. neuropetala H93
    |--C. japonica SAO03
    |--C. lupuliformis CS77
    |--C. palaestina ST98
    |--C. pentagona [incl. C. campestris] H93
    |--C. planiflora AGF98
    |--C. racemosa C06
    |    |--C. r. var. racemosa C06
    |    `--C. r. var. chiliana [incl. C. hassiaca Pfeiff. 1843] C06
    |--C. reflexa D07
    |--C. salina H93
    |    |--C. s. var. salina H93
    |    |--C. s. var. major H93
    |    `--C. s. var. papillata H93
    |--C. suaveolens Sér. 1840 A61
    |    |--C. s. var. suaveolens A61
    |    `--C. s. var. densiflora (Hooker) Yuncker 1932 [=C. densiflora Hooker 1854] A61
    |--C. subinclusa H93
    |--C. tasmanica BR65
    `--C. victoriana BR65

Cuscuta californica var. breviflora [incl. C. brachycalyx var. apodanthera, C. brachycalyx, C. occidentalis, C. suksdorfii var. subpedicellata, C. suksdorfii] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MS10] Moore, M. J., P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, J. G. Burleigh & D. E. Soltis. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (10): 4623–4628.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[ST98] Schimming, T., B. Tofern, P. Mann, A. Richter, K. Jenett-Siems, B. Dräger, N. Asano, M. P. Gupta, M. D. Correa & E. Eich. 1998. Distribution and taxonomic significance of calystegines in the Convolvulaceae. Phytochemistry 49: 1989–1995.

[SAO03] Stefanović, S., D. F. Austin & R. G. Olmstead. 2003. Classification of Covolvulaceae: a phylogenetic approach. Systematic Botany 28 (4): 791–806.

Convolvulus

Bindweed Convolvulus arvensis, copyright Matt Lavin.


Belongs within: Convolvuloideae.

Convolvulus is a cosmopolitan genus of tufted or twining herbs with flowers bearing one style, two stigmas and unlobed ovaries (Hickman 1993); members of this genus have historically been divided between the genera Convolvulus and Calystegia but phylogenetic analysis indicates that the latter is nested within the former (Stefanović et al. 2003).

<==Convolvulus Linnaeus 1753 A61 [incl. Calystegia Br. 1810 SAO03, A61]
    |--C. althaeoides PT98
    |--C. angustissimus KM08
    |--C. argillicola CV06
    |--C. arvensis SAO03
    |--‘Calystegia’ atriplicifolia H93
    |    |--C. a. ssp. atriplicifolia H93
    |    `--C. a. ssp. buttensis [incl. Convolvulus nyctagineus] H93
    |--C. auricomus PP07
    |--C. cantabrica Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |--C. caput-medusae ST98
    |--C. chilensis ST98
    |--C. cneorum ST98
    |--C. collinus [=Calystegia collina, Co. malacophyllus ssp. collinus] H93
    |    |--C. c. ssp. collinus H93
    |    |--‘Calystegia collina’ ssp. oxyphylla H93
    |    |--‘Calystegia collina’ ssp. tridactylosa [=Convolvulus tridactylosus] H93
    |    `--‘Calystegia collina’ ssp. venusta H93
    |--C. dissectus C55b
    |--C. elegantissimus PT98
    |--C. erubescens KM08
    |--C. fracto-saxosa Petrie 1913 A61
    |--C. glaucifolius C55a
    |--C. incanus C01
    |--C. lanuginosus C55a
    |--C. lineatus C55a
    |--C. longipes [=Calystegia longipes; incl. Co. linearilobus] H93
    |--C. macrostegius [=Calystegia macrostegia, C. occidentalis var. macrostegius] H93
    |    |--C. m. ssp. macrostegia ST98
    |    |--‘Calystegia macrostegia’ ssp. amplissima H93
    |    |--‘Calystegia macrostegia’ ssp. arida [=Convolvulus aridus] H93
    |    |--‘Calystegia macrostegia’ ssp. cyclostegia [=Convolvulus cyclostegius] H93
    |    |--‘Calystegia macrostegia’ ssp. intermedia (see below for synonymy) H93
    |    `--‘Calystegia macrostegia’ ssp. tenuifolia [=Convolvulus aridus ssp. tenuifolius] H93
    |--C. malacophyllus [=Calystegia malacophylla] H93
    |    |--C. m. ssp. malacophyllus [incl. Calystegia malacophyllus var. berryi] H93
    |    `--C. m. ssp. pedicellatus [=Calystegia malacophylla ssp. pedicellata] H93
    |--C. marginatus C06 [=Calystegia marginata Br. 1810 A61]
    |--C. minor PT01
    |--C. occidentalis [=Calystegia occidentalis] H93
    |    |--C. o. ssp. occidentalis [incl. C. fruticetorum, C. polymorphus] H93
    |    `--‘Calystegia’ o. ssp. fulcrata [=Convolvulus fulcratus; incl. Co. deltoideus] H93
    |--C. oleifolius PT98
    |--‘Calystegia’ peirsonii H93
    |--C. platanifolius C55b
    |--C. prostratus PP07
    |--‘Calystegia’ purpurata H93
    |    |--C. p. ssp. purpurata [=Convolvulus occidentalis var. purpuratus; incl. Co. occidentalis var. solanensis] H93
    |    `--C. p. ssp. saxicola [=Convolvulus occidentalis var. saxicola] H93
    |--C. purpureus C55b
    |--C. sabatius ST98
    |    |--C. s. ssp. sabatius ST98
    |    `--C. s. ssp. mauritanicus ST98
    |--C. sepium Linnaeus 1753 [=Calystegia sepium (Linnaeus) Br. 1810] A61
    |    |--C. s. ssp. sepium H93
    |    |--‘Calystegia’ s. ssp. binghamiae [=Convolvulus binghamiae; incl. Co. sepium var. dumetorum] H93
    |    `--‘Calystegia’ s. ssp. limnophila [=Convolvulus limnophilus; incl. Co. sepium var. repens] H93
    |--C. siculus PT98
    |--C. simulans H93
    |--C. sindicus Stock in Hook 1852 [incl. C. brachyphyllus Boiss. 1856] P06
    |--C. soldanella Linnaeus 1753 A61 [=Calystegia soldanella (Linnaeus) Br. 1810 A61; incl. Ca. reniformis C55b]
    |--‘Calystegia’ stebbinsii H93
    |--C. subacaulis [=Calystegia subacaulis] H93
    |    |--C. s. ssp. subacaulis H93
    |    `--‘Calystegia’ s. ssp. episcopalis H93
    |--‘Calystegia’ sylvatica H59
    |--C. tuguriorum Forster 1786 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--C. undulatus C55a
    `--C. verecundus Allan 1961 A61

‘Calystegia macrostegia’ ssp. intermedia [=Convolvulus aridus ssp. intermedius; incl. Co. aridus ssp. longilobus] H93

Convolvulus tuguriorum Forster 1786 [=Calystegia tuguriorum (Forster) Br. ex Hooker 1854; incl. Ca. truncatella Colenso 1889] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—X. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 125–131.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

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