Pseudophasmatidae

Guadeloupe stick insects Lamponius guerini, copyright Drägüs.


Belongs within: Phasmatodea.

The Pseudophasmatidae are a group of stick insects in which the femora of the fore legs have four distinct edges.

<==Pseudophasmatidae Z04
    |--Pseudophasmatinae WBM03
    |    |--Pseudophasma rufipes WBM03
    |    |--Paraphasma rufipes TW05
    |    `--Anisomorpha WBM03
    |         |--A. buprestoides K91
    |         `--A. ferruginea WBM03
    `--Xerosomatinae Z04
         |--Xerosomatini Z04
         `--Hesperophasmatini Z04
              |--Hesperophasma Rehn 1904 Z04
              |--Rhynchacris Redtenbacher 1908 Z04
              |--Taraxippus Moxey 1971 Z04
              |--Agamemnon Z04
              `--Lamponius Stål 1875 [incl. Antillophilus Carl 1913, Hypocyrtus Redtenbacher 1908] Z04
                   |--*L. guerini (Saussure 1868) [=Pygirhynchus guerini] Z04
                   |--*Antillophilus’ brevitarsus Carl 1913 Z04
                   `--*Hypocyrtus’ substrumosus Redtenbacher 1908 Z04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K91] Key, K. H. L. 1991. Phasmatodea (stick-insects). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 394–404. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[WBM03] Whiting, M. F., S. Bradler & T. Maxwell. 2003. Loss and recovery of wings in stick insects. Nature 421: 264–267.

[Z04] Zompro, O. 2004. A key to the stick-insect genera of the ‘Anareolatae’ of the New World, with descriptions of several new taxa (Insecta: Phasmatodea). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 39 (2): 133–144.

Phaneropterinae

Caedicia simplex, copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Tettigonioidea.

The Phaneropterinae are a group of katydids characterised by a round, globular head, an unarmed prosternum, tibiae that are usually rectangular in cross-section, and a usually short, upcurved ovipositor (Rentz 1996).

<==Phaneropterinae R96
    |--Acripeza reticulata R96
    |--Alectoria superba R96
    |--Elephantodeta nobilis R96
    |--Torbia viridissima R96
    |--Psyra R96
    |--Paracaedicia serrata R96
    |--Ducetia japonica R96
    |--Parableta integricauda Brunner 1878 R18
    |--Aganacris micans Walker 1871 R18
    |--Stilpnochlora marginella (Serville 1839) [=Phylloptera marginella] R18
    |--Viadana myrtifolia (Linnaeus 1758) [=Gryllus (Tettigonia) myrtifolius] R18
    |--Dichopetala BM76
    |--Holochlora BM76
    |--Tylopsis lilifolia BM76, I92
    |--Amblycorypha rotundifolia BM76, G37
    |--Platylyra BM76
    |--Burgilis missionum R15
    |--Hyperophora major R15
    |--Ligocatinus olivaceus R15
    |--Homotoicha fuscopunctata R15
    |--Theudoria melanocnemis R15
    |--Ephippithytha [incl. Ochrida] R96
    |    `--E. trigintiduoguttata R96
    |--Tinzeda R96
    |    |--T. albosignata R96
    |    `--T. eburneata C70
    |--Polichne R96
    |    |--P. argentata R96
    |    `--P. parvicauda R96
    |--Poecilimon P05
    |    |--P. sanctipauli Brunner von Wattenwyl 1878 P05
    |    `--P. veluchianus FJ01
    |--Ceraia R18
    |    |--C. capra Rehn 1918 R18
    |    `--C. punctulata R18
    |--Anaulacomera R18
    |    |--A. albonodulosa R18
    |    `--A. nodulosa Stål 1873 R18
    |--Coelophyllum R18
    |    |--C. coriaceum (Pictet 1888) [=Prosagoga coriacea] R18
    |    `--C. rectinerve (Brunner 1891) [=Prosagoga rectinervis] R18
    |--Grammadera R15
    |    |--G. albida R15
    |    `--G. clara R15
    |--Phylloptera R15
    |    |--P. alliedea R15
    |    |--P. laurifolia B00
    |    `--P. spinulosa R15
    |--Microcentrum R15
    |    |--M. angustatum R15
    |    `--M. rhombifolium TW05
    |--Phaneroptera R96
    |    |--P. falcata K09
    |    |--P. gracilis R96
    |    `--P. quadripunctata R13
    |--Scaphura R18
    |    |--S. nigra R15
    |    |--S. nitida R18
    |    `--S. sphex Rehn 1918 R18
    `--Caedicia R96
         |--C. araucariae R96
         |--C. major R91
         |--C. marginata R96
         `--C. simplex R96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B00] Bordage, E. 1900. On the absence of regeneration in the posterior limbs of the Orthoptera saltatoria and its probable causes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 234–236.

[C70] CSIRO. 1970. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Melbourne University Press.

[FJ01] Field, L. H., & T. H. Jarman. 2001. Mating behaviour. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 317–332. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[G37] Gurney, A. B. 1937. Collecting and biological notes on some minor orders of insects. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (8): 239.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese (“southern Sporadhes”) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

Tridactyloidea

Koch's sandgroper Cylindraustralia kochii, photographed by Terry Houston.


Belongs within: Caelifera.

The Tridactyloidea are a group of burrowing, cricket-like orthopterans characterised by tarsi with two segments in the fore and mid legs, and only a single segment (if tarsi are present at all) in the hind legs (Rentz 1996).

<==Tridactyloidea
    |--Rhipipteryx R18 [Rhipipterygidae GE05]
    |    `--R. circumcincta Saussure 1874 R18
    |--Cylindrachetidae [Oryttica] GE05
    |    |--Cylindroryctes spegazzinii R96
    |    |--Cylindracheta R96
    |    |    |--C. campbelli R96
    |    |    |--C. kochii R96
    |    |    `--C. psammophila R91
    |    `--Cylindraustralia R96
    |         |--C. acuta R96
    |         |--C. arenivaga R96
    |         |--C. cookensis R96
    |         |--C. divisa R96
    |         |--C. granulata R96
    |         |--C. karumbensis R96
    |         |--C. kochii R96
    |         |--C. parakochia R96
    |         |--C. parvitarsata R96
    |         |--C. setosa R96
    |         |--C. tindalei R96
    |         `--C. ustulata R96
    `--Tridactylidae TW05
         |  i. s.: Monodactylus dolichopterus GR02
         |         Mongoloxya ponomarenkoi GR02
         |         Ellipes TW05
         |           |--E. gurneyi K02
         |           `--E. minutus TW05
         |         Cratodactylus ferreirai Martins-Neto 1990 RJ93
         |--Dentridactylus [Dentridactylinae] R96
         |    |--D. albosignatus R96
         |    `--D. keyi R96
         `--Tridactylinae R96
              |--Tridactylus R96
              |    |--T. australicus R96
              |    |--T. mutus R96
              |    `--T. paradoxus L02
              `--Xya R96
                   |--X. muta R96
                   |--X. nautarrae R96
                   |--X. nitobae R96
                   |--X. pseudomuta R96
                   |--X. smithersi R96
                   `--X. unicolor R96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K02] Katovich, K. 2002. Heteroceridae MacLeay 1825. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 127–132. CRC Press.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

Cyrtacanthacridinae

American bird grasshopper Schistocerca americana, copyright Judy Gallagher.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.

The Cyrtacanthacridinae are a group of often large grasshoppers characterised by mesosternal lobes with their mesal margins separate and parallel or converging posteriorly with their inner posterior angles acute, and a pronotum lacking lateral carinae (Rentz 1996).

<==Cyrtacanthacridinae [Cyrtacanthacridini]
    |--Valanga R96
    |    |--V. irregularis R96
    |    `--V. meleager K91
    |--Paraidemona BM76
    |--Trigonophymus BM76
    |--Pezotettix giournai (Rossi 1794) E66, D95
    |--Anacridium P05
    |    |--A. aegyptium (Linnaeus 1764) P05
    |    `--A. moestum F92
    |--Nomadacris R96
    |    |--N. basalis K90
    |    |--N. proxima K91
    |    `--N. septemfasciata Y70
    |--Austracris R96
    |    |--A. basalis R96
    |    |--A. guttulosa R96 [=Nomadacris guttulosa R91]
    |    `--A. proxima R96
    |--Oedaleonotus SH72
    |    |--O. borckii SH72
    |    |--O. enigma SH72
    |    |--O. orientis SH72
    |    `--O. phryneicus SH72
    `--Schistocerca Y70
         |--S. americana D01
         |--S. gregaria (Forskål 1775) SB05
         |--S. melanocera PP72
         |--S. nitens HSS13
         |--S. paranensis R15
         |--S. peregrina F92
         |--S. piceifrons HSS13
         `--S. tartarica WB37

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[D95] Damerdji, A. 1995. Bio-écologie du peuplement des orthoptères de la région de Ghazaouet (Tlemcen, Algérie). Mésogée 54: 73–80.

[D01] Dohle, W. 2001. Are the insects terrestrial crustaceans? A discussion of some new facts and arguments and the proposal of the proper name ‘Tetraconata’ for the monophyletic unit Crustacea + Hexapoda. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 37 (1–2): 85–103.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[K90] Key, K. H. L. 1990. Host relations and distribution of species of Caeculisoma (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitising grasshoppers in Australia, with supplementary information for the genus Trombella (Trombellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38: 11–18.

[K91] Key, K. H. L. 1991. Host relations and distribution of Australian species of Charletonia (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitising grasshoppers. Australian Journal of Zoology 39: 31–43.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese (“southern Sporadhes”) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[SB05] Sala, J., & D. Boix. 2005. Presence of the Nearctic water boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis (Fieber, 1851) (Heteroptera, Corixidae) in the Algarve region (S Portugal). Graellsia 61 (1): 31–36.

[SH72] Schroeter, G. L., & G. M. Hewitt. 1972. Cytology of some California grasshoppers. 1. Taxonomic considerations (Orthoptera: Acridoidea). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (1): 27–36.

[WB37] Walton, W. R., & F. C. Bishopp. 1937. Dr. L. O. Howard and the Entomological Society of Washington. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 121–132.

[Y70] Yinon, U. 1970. Electrophysiological evidence of relationships in acridid insects. Systematic Zoology 19 (4): 397–398.

Mantoidea

Pygmy ground mantis Bolbe sp., possibly B. nigra, copyright Steve Kerr.


Belongs within: Mantodea.
Contains: Mantinae.

The Mantoidea are a major clade of mantids characterised by a long pronotum and the presence of a unique hearing organ (the 'cyclopean' ear) on the metathorax between the sternites and just anterior to the hind coxae (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Mantoidea GE05
    |  i. s.: Prochaeradodis enigmaticus G03
    |--Empusidae GE05
    |    |--Gongylus gongyloides TW05
    |    |--Empusa R13
    |    |    |--E. egena R13
    |    |    |--E. gongylodes G20
    |    |    `--E. pauperata R13
    |    `--Idolum de Saussure 1870 L89
    |         `--*I. diabolicum de Saussure 1870 L89
    |--Hymenopodidae GE05
    |    |--Chrysomantis TW05
    |    |--Hymenopus coronatus GE05
    |    |--Oxypilus RD77
    |    `--Acromantis [Acromantinae] TW05
    |         `--A. australis R96
    `--Mantidae [Manteidae] GE05
         |  i. s.: Tarachodes [Tarachodidae] Z02
         |         Myomantis caffra H04
         |         Prochaerododis enigmaticus GE05
         |         Iris [Irides] AN-A04
         |           `--L. oratoria AN-A04
         |         Ameles AN-A04
         |           |--A. abjecta AN-A04
         |           |--A. decolor AN-A04
         |           `--A. spallanzania AN-A04
         |         Pyrgomantis RD77
         |         Miomantis RD77
         |         Stagmomantis carolina RD77, BB16
         |--Choeradodis [Choeradodinae] Z02
         |--Comsothespinae Z02
         |--Liturgusinae [Liturgusidae] Z02
         |--Toxoderinae Z02
         |--Thespinae B91
         |--Compsothespinae B91
         |--Mantinae Z02
         |--Vatinae [Vatidae] Z02
         |    |--Stagmatoptera hyaloptera Z02, R15
         |    `--Parastagmatoptera Z02
         |         |--P. flavoguttata (Serville 1839) [=Mantis flavoguttata] R18
         |         `--P. unipunctata R15
         |--Miopteryginae R18
         |    |--Miopteryx argentina R15
         |    `--Musonia [=Promusonia Giglio-Tos 1916; incl. Mionyx] R18
         |         |--*M. surinama [=*Promusonia surinama] R18
         |         |--M. lineativentris [=*Mionyx lineativentris] R18
         |         `--M. major Saussure & Zehntner 1894 R18
         |--Orthoderinae Z02
         |    |--Orthoderina straminea R96
         |    `--Orthodera H04
         |         |--O. gunnii W70
         |         |--O. ministralis R96
         |         `--O. novaezealandiae H04
         |--Photinainae SB07
         |    |--Coptopteryx [Coptopteriges, Coptopterygini] SB07
         |    |    |--C. argentina R15
         |    |    |--C. crenaticollis BM76
         |    |    `--C. gayi BM76
         |    `--Photinaini [Orthoderellae] SB07
         |         |--Orthoderella ornata R15
         |         `--Photina Burmeister 1838 SB07
         |              `--*P. vitrea (Burmeister 1838) (see below for synonymy) SB07
         `--Iridopteryginae R96
              |--Ciulfina R96
              |--Neomantis australis R96
              |--Kongobatha diademata R96
              |--Calofulcinia R96
              |--Ima fusca R96
              `--Bolbe R96
                   |--B. maia B91
                   |--B. nigra R96
                   `--B. pallida K70

*Photina vitrea (Burmeister 1838) [=Mantis (*Photina) vitrea (nom. cons.) non Stoll 1813, Cardioptera vitrea, Metriomantis vitrea; incl. Photina amplipennis Stål 1877] SB07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AN-A04] Askew, R. R., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27–39.

[BB16] Bai, M., R. G. Beutel, K.-D. Klass, W. Zhang, X. Yang & B. Wipfler. 2016. Alienoptera—a new insect order in the roach-mantodean twilight zone. Gondwana Research 39: 317–326.

[B91] Balderson, J. 1991. Mantodea (praying mantids). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 348–356. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G03] Grimaldi, D. 2003. A revision of Cretaceous mantises and their relationships, including new taxa (Insecta: Dictyoptera: Mantodea). American Museum Novitates 3412: 1–47.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04] Harris, A. C. 2004. Range extensions of Ancistrocerus gazella (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) and Myomantis caffra (Mantodea: Mantidae). Weta 27: 31–32.

[K70] Key, K. H. L. 1970. Mantodea (praying mantids). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 294–301. Melbourne University Press.

[L89] Lucas, H. 1889. Notes suivantes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: lxxxii–lxxxiii.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[SB07] Svenson, G. J., & M. A. Branham. 2007. Photinini LeConte, 1881 (Insecta, Coleoptera) and Photininae Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Insecta, Mantodea): proposed resolution of homonymy between family-group names. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 64 (4): 243–251.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Order Mantida Latreille, 1802. The mantises (=Mantodea Burmeister, 1838). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 273–276. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Blattellidae

Little gem cockroach Aglaopteryx gemma, copyright Jeff Garner.


Belongs within: Blattaria.
Contains: Ischnoptera, Parcoblattini.

The Blattellidae are a diverse group of small to medium-sized, mostly fast-running cockroaches.

Characters (from Roth 1991): Size usually small to medium; antennae longer than half body length. Legs long, slender, spiny, ventral surfaces of tarsi spined. Tegmina and wings fully developed or with reduced wings in both sexes, sometimes with small tegmina only. In fully alate forms, hind wings with or without an apical triangle; R usually well developed, with simple, regularly spaced anterior rami; CuA unbranched (simple), or with complete branches only, or with both complete and incomplete rami. Cerci fairly long, tapering, extending well beyond body. Male abdominal terga unspecialised, or with one or two modified terga used in sexual behaviour. Male subgenital plate (S9) asymmetrical or symmetrical, usually with two styles; hooklike genital phallomere on right or left sides. Female subgenital plate broad, rounded, rarely bivalvular. Oviparous or ovoviparous.

<==Blattellidae [Phyllodromiidae] BP10
    |--Nyctiborinae BP10
    |    |--Paratropes elegans (Burmeister 1838) [=Phoraspis elegans] R18
    |    `--Nyctibora glabra R15
    |--Anaplecta Burmeister 1838 [Anaplectidae, Anaplectinae] BP10
    |    |--A. bivittata Brunner 1865 R18
    |    |--A. lateralis R18
    |    |--A. minutissima [=Holocompsa minutissima] R18
    |    |--A. pumila R18
    |    `--A. replicata Saussure & Zehntner 1893 R18
    |--Attaphila Wheeler 1900 G37 [Attaphilinae BP10]
    |    |--*A. fungicola Wheeler 1900 G37
    |    |--A. bergi Bolivar 1901 G37
    |    |    |--A. b. bergi G37
    |    |    `--A. b. minor Bruch 1916 G37
    |    |--A. fiava Gurney 1937 G37
    |    |--A. schuppi Bolivar 1905 G37
    |    `--A. sexdentis Bolivar 1905 G37
    |--Ectobiinae [Ectobiidae] BP10
    |    |--Choristima Tepper 1895 BP10
    |    |--Choristimoides R96
    |    |--Ectoneura Shelford 1907 BP10
    |    |--Stenectoneura Hebard 1943 BP10
    |    |--Phyllodromica Fieber 1853 BP10
    |    |    `--P. megerlei BM76
    |    |--Ectobius Stephens 1835 BP10
    |    |    |--‘Ectobia’ ericetorum (Wesm. 1838) [=Blatta ericetorum] K00
    |    |    |--E. germanicus B88
    |    |    |--E. lapponica A99 [=Phyllodromia lapponica B01; incl. P. hemiptera B01]
    |    |    |--E. lividus BM76
    |    |    `--E. silvestris BB16
    |    `--Aphlebia K00
    |         |--A. bicolor Kirby 1900 K00
    |         `--A. transvaaliensis Kirby 1900 K00
    |--Pseudophyllodromiinae [Plectopteridae, Plectopterinae] BP10
    |    |--Balta bicolor R96
    |    |--Allacta R96
    |    |--Margattea R96
    |    |--Mediastinia R96
    |    |--Megamareta phaneropyga R96
    |    |--Nahublattella Brujining 1959 BP10
    |    |--Shelfordina Hebard 1929 R96, V10
    |    |    `--S. orchidae [=Imblattella orchidae] R96
    |    |--Ellipsidion R96
    |    |    |--E. australe R96
    |    |    |--E. bicolor R96
    |    |    |--E. humerale R96
    |    |    |--E. magnificum C91
    |    |    `--E. pellucidum B88
    |    `--Supella Shelford 1911 BP10
    |         |--S. longipalpa TW05
    |         `--S. supellectilium (see below for synonymy) B37
    |--Pseudomopinae R90
    |    |--Xestoblatta nyctiboroides (Rehn 1906) [=Ischnoptera nyctiboroides] R18
    |    |--Pseudomops R18
    |    |    |--P. affinis (Burmeister 1838) [=Thyrsocera affinis] R18
    |    |    |--P. angusta Walker 1868 R18
    |    |    |--P. annulicornis (Burmeister 1838) [=Thyrsocera annulicornis; incl. P. deceptura] R18
    |    |    `--P. neglecta R15
    |    |--Neoblattella R18
    |    |    |--N. conspersa (Brunner 1865) [=Phyllodromia conspersa] R18
    |    |    |--N. pellucida (Burmeister 1838) [=Blatta pellucida] R18
    |    |    `--N. titania (Rehn 1903) [=Blatella titania] R18
    |    |--Cariblatta R18
    |    |    |--C. fossicauda Hebard 1916 R18
    |    |    |--C. igarapensis Rehn 1918 R18
    |    |    |--C. lutea BM76
    |    |    `--C. minima BM76
    |    |--Ceratinoptera R15
    |    |    |--C. otomia (Saussure 1868) R15
    |    |    `--C. puerilis Rehn 1915 R15
    |    |--Ischnoptera R18
    |    `--Aglaopteryx Hebard 1917 G37
    |         |--*A. gemma Hebard 1917 G37
    |         |--A. absimilis Gurney 1937 G37
    |         |--A. devia G37
    |         |--A. diaphana G37
    |         |--A. lita Hebard 1919 G37
    |         |--A. mira G37
    |         |--A. notabilis Gurney 1937 G37
    |         |--A. occulta G37
    |         `--A. vegeta G37
    `--Blattellinae BP10
         |  i. s.: Carbrunneria R96
         |         Dyakinides R96
         |         Eowilsonia biglandulifera R96
         |         Escala R96
         |         Hensaussurea R96
         |         Johnrehnia R96
         |         Richanistchia R96
         |         Robshelfordia circumducta R96
         |         Hemithyrsocera Saussure 1893 BP10
         |         Symplocodes Hebard 1929 BP10
         |         Pseudothyrsocera Shelford 1906 BP10
         |         Burchellia Rehn 1933 BP10
         |         Beybienkoa Roth 1991 R96, V10
         |           `--B. kurandaensis R96
         |         Saltoblattella Bohn, Picker et al. 2010 BP10
         |           `--*S. montistabularis Bohn, Picker et al. 2010 BP10
         |         Blattella BP10
         |           |--B. conspersa R15
         |           |--B. germanica Linnaeus 1767 W08
         |           `--B. signata BM76
         `--Parcoblattini RD77

Blattellidae incertae sedis:
  Piniblattella vitimica VVR02
  Theganopteryx BP10
  Richanitschia luteomarginata R91
  Stavella R91
  Phyllodromia D51
    |--P. bivittata (Serv. 1839) [=Blatta bivittata] K00
    |--P. delta Kirby 1900 K00
    |--P. germanica D51
    |--P. ruficeps Kirby 1900 K00
    |--P. supellectilium K00
    `--P. vinula [incl. P. amoena] K00
  Blattina P92
  Temnopteryx variegata P92, K00

Supella supellectilium [incl. Blatta capensis, B. cubensis, Phlodromia delta, B. extenuata, B. figurata, B. incisa, B. phalerata, Ischnoptera quadriplaga, B. subsastiata, B. transversalis] B37

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[B37] Back, E. A. 1937. The increasing importance of the cockroach, Supella supellectilium Serv., as a pest in the United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (8): 205–213.

[BB16] Bai, M., R. G. Beutel, K.-D. Klass, W. Zhang, X. Yang & B. Wipfler. 2016. Alienoptera—a new insect order in the roach-mantodean twilight zone. Gondwana Research 39: 317–326.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BP10] Bohn, H., M. Picker, K.-D. Klass & J. Colville. 2010. A jumping cockroach from South Africa, Saltoblattella montistabularis, gen. nov., spec. nov. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68 (1): 53-69.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[G37] Gurney, A. B. 1937. Studies in certain genera of American Blattidae (Orthoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (5): 101–112.

[K00] Kirby, W. F. 1900. Notes on a collection of African Blattidae, chiefly from the Transvaal, formed by Mr. W. L. Distant. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 277–294.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R90] Roth, L. M. 1990. A revision of the Australian Parcoblattini (Blattaria: Blattellidae: Blattellinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 28 (2): 531–596.

[R91] Roth, L. M. 1991. Blatttodea. Blattaria (cockroaches). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 320–329. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793–808.

[VVR02] Vršanský, P., V. N. Vishniakova & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Blattida Latreille, 1810. The cockroaches (=Blattodea Brunner von Wattenvill, 1882). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 263–270. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[W08] Wetterer, J. K. 2008. Worldwide spread of the longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 11: 137–149.

Phthiraptera

Laemobothrion tinnunculi, copyright Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.


Belongs within: Nanopsocetae.
Contains: Philopteridae, Trichodectidae, Anoplura, Menoponidae.

The Phthiraptera, true lice, are a group of small, wingless insects that live as external parasites on warm-blooded vertebrates.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Apterous; head with very limited movement; eyes highly reduced (only several facets), usually completely lost; ocelli absent; dorsal tentorial arms lost; lacinial stylets reduced or lost; maxillae reduced or lost; antennae reduced to three flagellomeres. Metathoracic spiracle absent; third thoracic ganglion fused with abdominal ganglion. Egg with hydropile and operculum, cemented to host hair or feather. Three nymphal instars.

<==Phthiraptera [Mallophaga, Nyrmida, Parasita, Pediculida, Philopterina, Siphunculata]
    |--Euphthiraptera [Ischnocera, Philopteroidea] A99
    |    |  i. s.: Syrrhaptoecus Waterson 1928 T62
    |    |         Fulicoffula lurida A71
    |    |         Rallicola A71
    |    |         Sturnidoecus sturni A71
    |    |         Dasyonygidae RD77
    |    |--+--Trichophilopterus RD77 [Trichophilopteridae GE05]
    |    |  |--Philopteridae GE05
    |    |  `--+--Goniodes CM91 [Goniodidae GE05]
    |    |     |    `--G. dissimilis CM91
    |    |     `--Rhopaloceras [Heptapsogasteridae] GE05
    |    |          `--R. rudimentarius GE05
    |    `--+--Trichodectidae GE05
    |       |--Saurodectes [Saurodectidae] R02
    |       |    `--S. vrsanskyi GE05
    |       `--Lipognatha A99
    |            |--Anoplura R02
    |            `--Haematomyzus CM91 [Haematomyzidae, Haematomyzoidea, Rhynchophthiraptera, Rhynchophthirina R02]
    |                 |--H. elephantis GE05
    |                 |--H. hopkinsi GE05
    |                 `--H. porci GE05
    `--Amblycera [Ricinoidea] GE05
         |  i. s.: Neomenopon Bedford 1920 T62
         |         Bonomiella Conci 1937 T62
         |         Piagetiella australis CM91
         |--Abrocomophagidae GE05
         |--Menoponidae CM91
         |--Trimenoponidae CM91
         |    |--Trimenopon hispidum (Burmeister 1838) T62
         |    `--Harrisonia uncinata GE05
         |--Gyropidae CM91
         |    |--Gliricola porcelli CM91
         |    `--Gyropus CM91
         |         |--G. gracilis G20 [incl. Pediculus porcelli Linnaeus 1758 G20, L58]
         |         `--G. ovalis CM91
         |--Ricinidae CM91
         |    |--Trochilocoetes RD77
         |    `--Ricinus CM91
         |         |--R. corvi (Linnaeus 1758) L02b, L58 [=Pediculus corvi L02b]
         |         |--R. diffusus RD77
         |         |--R. ernstlangi CM91
         |         `--R. pavonis (Linnaeus 1758) L02a, L58 [=Pediculus pavonis L02a]
         |--Laemobothrion [Laemobothriidae] CM91
         |    |--L. africanum Kellogg 1908 K08
         |    |--L. atrum CM91
         |    |--L. circi A71
         |    |--L. gypsis K08
         |    |--L. setigerum K08
         |    |--L. tinnunculi CM91
         |    `--L. titan K08
         `--Boopiidae CM91
              |--Paraheterodoxus insignis CM91
              |--Therodoxus CM91
              |--Boopia [incl. Phacogalia] C74
              `--Heterodoxus CM91
                   |--H. ampullatus CM91
                   |--H. longitarsus C70
                   |--H. octoseriatus CM91
                   `--H. spiniger CM91

Phthiraptera incertae sedis:
  Esthiopterum Harrison 1916 T62
    |--*E. gruis T62
    `--E. raphidium A71
  Pseudolipeurus plumbeus (Pessoa & Guimarães 1935) [incl. P. uoe Eichler 1950] T62
  Trogoninirmus Eichler 1944 T62
  Trogoniella Tendeiro 1960 T62
  Splendoroffula Clay & Meinertzhagen 1941 T62
  Falcolipeurus A71
  Trochiloecetes A71
  Aquanirmus A71
    |--A. americanus A71
    |--A. bucomfistii A71
    `--A. colymbinus A71
  Ibidoecus bisignatus A71
  Ferribia A71
  Campanulotes defectus GE05
  Neotrichodectes mephitidis HN90
  Bruelia S69
    |--B. saltatora Carriker 1956 S69
    `--B. violacea Carriker 1963 S69
  Heptapsus nothocercae Carriker 1936 S69
  Oxylipeurus S69
    |--O. craxae Carriker 1944 S69
    `--O. pauxus Carriker 1944 S69
  Amyrisidea simplex S69
    |--A. s. simplex S69
    `--A. s. pauxis Carriker 1950 S69
  Conciella clamatori Carriker 1966 S69
  Trochiliphagus mellivorus Carriker 1960 S69
  Strigiphilus E61
    |--S. acutifrons Emerson 1961 E61
    |--S. cursor (Burmeister 1838) E61
    `--S. oculatus (Rudow 1870) [incl. S. bubonis (Osborn 1896)] E61
  Kurodaia E61
    |--K. edwardsi Emerson 1961 E61
    |--K. keleri Emerson 1961 E61
    |--K. magna Emerson 1960 E61
    `--K. pectinata (Osborn 1902) E61
  Liotheidae K08
    |--Liotheum cornicis [=Ricinus cornicis] G20
    `--Trinoton K08
         |--T. femoratum Piaget 1880 PJ02
         `--T. luridum K08
  ‘Neumannia’ Uchida 1926 nec Trouessart 1888 nec Weise 1907 EH19

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[C70] Calaby, J. H. 1970. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 376–386. Melbourne University Press.

[C74] Calaby, J. H. 1974. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 51–52. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Calaby, J. H., & M. D. Murray. 1991. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 421–428. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E61] Emerson, K. C. 1961. Three new species of Mallophaga from the great horned owl. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 187–192.

[EH19] Énay, R., & M. K. Howarth. 2019. Part L, revised, volume 3B, chapter 7: Systematic descriptions of the Perisphinctoidea. Treatise Online 120: 1–184.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HN90] Hafner, M. S., & S. A. Nadler. 1990. Cospeciation in host-parasite assemblages: comparative analysis of rates of evolution and timing of cospeciation events. Systematic Zoology 39 (3): 192–204.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 3 section 15. Corrodentia pt 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[L02a] Latreille, P. A. 1802a. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L02b] Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PJ02] Palma, R. L., A. R. Johnson, F. Cezilly, F. Thomas & F. Renard. 2002. Diversity and distribution of feather lice on greater flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) in the Camargue, sothern France. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 87–89.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 125–133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.