Field of Science

Lagenida

Longitudinal section of Syzrania pulchra, from Groves et al. (2003).


Belongs within: Foraminifera.
Contains: Lagenidae, Polymorphinidae, Glandulinidae, Geinitzinidae.

The Lagenida are a group of foraminifera with a low-magnesium, calcitic secreted test that is monolamellar and radial (Groves et al. 2004).

Lagenida [Lagenina, Syzraniidae]
    |--Syzrania Reitlinger 1950 GAR03
    |    |--*S. bella Reitlinger 1950 [=Earlandia bella] LT64
    |    |--S. amazonica Atliner & Savini 1997 GAR03
    |    |--S. grovesi Altiner & Savini 1997 GAR03
    |    `--S. pulchra Kireeva 1958 GAR03
    `--+--Tezaquina Vachard 1980 [incl. Syzranella] GAR03
       |    `--*T. clivuli Vachard 1980 GAR03
       |--Amphoratheca Mamet & Pinard 1992 GAR03
       |    `--A. iniqua Mamet & Pinard 1992 GAR03
       `--+--Geinitzinidae GAR03
          `--Protonodosariidae GAR03
               |--Frondina Sellier de Civrieux & Dessauvagie 1965 GRA04
               |--Tauridia Sellier de Civrieux & Dessauvagie 1965 GRA04
               `--Protonodosaria Gerke 1959 GAR03
                    |--*P. proceraformis (Gerke 1952) [=Nodosaria proceraformis] LT64
                    |--P. praecursor (Rauser-Chernousva 1949) GRA04
                    `--P. rauserae Gerke 1959 GAR03

Lagenida incertae sedis:
  Polarisella Mamet & Pinard 1992 GAR03
    `--*P. blindensis Mamet & Pinard 1992 GAR03
  Nodosariacea [Enclinostegia, Lagenicae, Lagenidea, Nodosalidia, Titanostichostegia] S-VC91
    |--Lagenidae C40
    |--Polymorphinidae C40
    `--Glandulinidae S-VC91
  Nodosinellidae [Nodosinellida, Nodosinellinae] LT64
    |--Frondilina Bykova 1952 LT64
    |    `--*F. devexis Bykova 1952 LT64
    |--Hipporina Bykova in Bykova & Polenova 1955 [=Hypporina (l. c.)] LT64
    |    `--*H. hastila Bykova in Bykova & Polenova 1955 LT64
    |--Lunucammina Spandel 1898 (n. d.) (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |    |--*L. permiana (Spandel 1898) [=Geinitzella (*Lunucammina) permiana] LT64
    |    |--*Eogeinitzina’ devonica Lipina 1950 LT64
    |    |--L. excavata (Cushman & Waters 1928) [=*Spandelina excavata] LT64
    |    |--L. orientalis (Miklukho-Maklay 1954) [=*Neogeinitzina orientalis] LT64
    |    `--L. perforata (Lange 1925) [=*Padangia perforata] LT64
    `--Nodosinella Brady 1876 (n. d.) GRA04 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*N. digitata Brady 1876 [=*Arnodosinum digitatum] LT64
         |--*Monogenerina’ atava Spandel 1901 LT64
         |--*Eonodosaria’ evlanensis Lipina 1950 LT64
         |--N. glennensis C40
         |--N. measpis (Bykova 1952) [=*Tikhinella measpis] LT64
         `--N. nodosariformis (Cushman & Waters 1928) [=Spandelina (*Spandelinoides) nodosariformis] LT64
  Olympina Reichel 1946 GRA04
    `--*O. insolita Reichel 1945 LT64
  Colaniellidae [Colaniellinae] LT64
    |--Multiseptida Bykova 1952 LT64
    |    `--*M. corallina Bykova 1952 LT64
    `--Colaniella Licharev 1939 W76 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*C. parva (Colani 1924) [=*Pyramis parva] LT64
         |--C. cylindrica M.-Maclay 1954 W76
         |--C. nana M.-Maclay 1954 W76
         `--C. ussuriensis (Sosnina in Kiparisova et al. 1956) [=*Wanganella ussuriensis] LT64

Colaniella Licharev 1939 W76 [=Pyramis Colani 1924 nec Röding 1798 nec Schumacher 1817 nec Otto 1821 nec Brown 1827 nec Putzeys 1846 nec Haeckel 1887 LT64; incl. Wanganella Sosnina in Kiparisova et al. 1956 LT64]

Lunucammina Spandel 1898 (n. d.) [incl. Eogeinitzina Lipina 1950, Neogeinitzina Miklukho-Maklay 1954, Padangia Lange 1925 nec Babor 1900 nec Werner 1924, Spandelina Cushman & Waters 1928] LT64

Nodosinella Brady 1876 (n. d.) GRA04 [=Arnodosinum Rhumbler 1913 LT64; incl. Eonodosaria Lipina 1950 LT64, Monogenerina Spandel 1901 LT64, Spandelinoides Cushman & Waters 1928 LT64, Tikhinella Bykova 1952 LT64]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use (3rd ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GAR03] Groves, J. R., D. Altiner & R. Rettori. 2003. Origin and early evolutionary radiation of the order Lagenida (Foraminifera). Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 831-843.

[GRA04] Groves, J. R., R. Rettori & D. Altiner. 2004. Wall structures in selected Paleozoic lagenide Foraminifera. Journal of Paleontology 78: 245-256.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195-224.

[W76] Wang K. 1976. The foraminifera from the Changhsing Formation in western Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 15 (2): 187-195.

Trochamminidae

Trochammina inflata, copyright Dr. Fabrizio Frontalini and Prof. Rodolfo Coccioni.


Belongs within: Foraminifera.

The Trochamminidae are a group of trochospiral agglutinating foraminifera known from the Carboniferous to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test free or attached, trochospiral; wall agglutinated, interior simple; aperture interiomarginal or areal.

Trochamminidae [Artrochammidia, Trochamminae, Trochamminida, Trochamminidea]
    |--Remaneica Rhumbler 1938 C40 [Remaneicinae LT64]
    |    |--*R. helgolandica Rhumbler 1938 [=Trochammina (*Remaneica) helgolandica] LT64
    |    `--R. plicata C40
    `--Trochammininae [Ammosphaeroidininae] LT64
         |--Rotaliammina Cushman 1924 C40
         |    `--*R. mayori Cushman 1924 C40
         |--Entzia Daday 1883 C40
         |    `--*E. tetrastomella Daday 1883 C40
         |--Ammosphaeroidina Cushman 1910 C40
         |    `--*A. sphaeroidiniformis (Brady 1884) [=Haplophragmium sphaeroidiniformis] C40
         |--Cystammina Neumayr 1889 [=Ammochilostoma Eimer & Fickert 1899] LT64
         |    `--*C. pauciloculata (Brady 1879) C40 [=Trochammina pauciloculata C40, *Ammochilostoma pauciloculata LT64]
         |--Arenoparrella Andersen 1951 LT64
         |    `--*A. mexicana (Kornfeld 1931) [=Trochammina inflata var. mexicana] LT64
         |--Conotrochammina Finlay 1940 LT64
         |    `--*C. whangaia Finlay 1940 LT64
         |--Siphotrochammina Saunders 1957 LT64
         |    `--*S. lobata Saunders 1957 LT64
         |--Tiphotrocha Saunders 1957 LT64
         |    `--*T. comprimata (Cushman & Brönnimann 1948) [=Trochammina comprimata] LT64
         |--Trochamminula Shchedrina 1955 LT64
         |    `--*T. fissuraperta Shchedrina 1955 [=Trochammina fissuraperta Shchedrina 1953 (n. n.)] LT64
         |--Arenonionella Marks 1951 [incl. Mendesia Petri 1962 non de Joannis 1902] LT64
         |    |--*A. voutei Marks 1951 LT64
         |    `--*Mendesia’ minuta Petri 1962 LT64
         |--Budashevaella Loeblich & Tappan 1964 LT64 [=Circus Voloshinova & Budasheva 1961 non Lacépède 1799] LT64
         |    |--*B. multicamerata (Voloshinova & Budasheva 1961) [=*Circus multicameratus] LT64
         |    `--B. symmetrica (Ujiié & Watanabe 1960) [=Trochammina symmetrica] H03
         |--Tritaxis Schubert 1921 [incl. Trochamminella Cushman 1943] LT64
         |    |--*T. fusca (Williamson 1858) [=Rotalina fusca] LT64
         |    `--T. siphonifera (Cushman 1943) [=*Trochamminella siphonifera] LT64
         |--Jadammina Bartenstein & Brand 1938 [incl. Borovina Schmalgausen 1950, Trochamminisca Shchedrina 1955] LT64
         |    |--*J. polystoma Bartenstein & Brand 1938 LT64
         |    |--J. cyclostoma (Shchedrina 1955) [=*Trochamminisca cyclostoma] LT64
         |    |--J. macrescens PH03
         |    `--*Borovina’ zernovi Schmalgausen 1950 LT64
         `--Trochammina Parker & Jones 1859 C40 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*T. inflata (Montagu 1808) [=Nautilus inflatus] C40
              |--T. arenosa C40
              |--T. charlottensis Cushman 1925 H03
              |--T. diagonis C40
              |--*Rhaphidohelix’ elegans Möbius 1880 [=*Raphidohelix elegans] LT64
              |--T. globigeriniformis (Parker & Jones 1865) (see below for synonymy) LT64
              |--‘Lituola’ globigerinoides Perner 1892 [=*Glomerina globigerinoides] LT64
              |--T. glomerata BL79
              |--T. nipponica Asano 1953 H03
              |--T. rotaliformis LT64
              `--T. squamata LT64

Trochammina Parker & Jones 1859 C40 [=Trochamina (l. c.) LT64; incl. Ammoglobigerina Eimer & Fickert 1899 C40, Glomerina Franke 1928 C40, Raphidohelix Goës 1882 LT64, Reussina Grzybowski 1896 non Neviani 1896 LT64, Rhaphidohelix Möbius 1880 LT64]

Trochammina globigeriniformis (Parker & Jones 1865) [=Lituola nautiloidea var. globigeriniformis; incl. *Ammoglobigerina bulloides Eimer & Fickert 1899] LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BL79] Basov, V. A., B. G. Lopatin, I. S. Gramberg, A. I. Danjushevskaya, V. Ya. Kaban’kov, V. M. Lazurkin & D. K. Patrunov. 1979. Lower Cretaceous lithostratigraphy near Galicia Bank. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47: 683-717.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use (3rd ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene-Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293-340.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483-487.

Geinitzinidae

Longitudinal section of Pachyphloia ovata under plane-polarised light, from Groves et al. (2004).


Belongs within: Lagenida.

The Geinitzinidae are a group of uniserial foraminifera known from the Late Carboniferous and Permian, with an atelo-monolamellar, hyaline-radial wall structure (Groves et al. 2003, 2004).

<==Geinitzinidae
    |--Vervilleina Groves in Groves & Boardman 1999 GAR03
    |    `--V. bradyi (Spandel 1901) GAR03
    |--Nodosinelloides Mamet & Pinard 1992 GAR03
    |    |--N. netschajewi (Cherdyntsev 1914) GAR03
    |    |--N. pinardae Groves & Wahlmann 1997 GRA04
    |    `--N. ronda (Lipina 1949) GAR03
    `--+--Geinitzina Spandel 1901 GAR03 [=Geinitzella Spandel 1898 non Waagen & Wentzel 1866 LT64]
       |    |--‘Textularia’ jonesi Brady 1876 LT64 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--G. ciscoensis C40
       |    |--G. postcarbonica Spandel 1901 GAR03 [incl. G. triangularis F71]
       |    `--G. tcherdynzevi Miklukho-Maclay 1954 W76
       `--+--Howchinella Palmieri in Foster et al. 1985 GAR03
          |    |--*H. woodwardi (Howchin 1895) [=Frondicularia woodwardi] GAR03
          |    `--‘Geinitzina’ caseyi Crespin 1958 GAR03
          `--Pachyphloia Lange 1925 GAR03 (see below for synonymy)
               |--*P. ovata Lange 1925 LT64
               |--P. asymmetrica (Miklukho-Maklay 1954) [=*Parapachyphloia asymmetrica] LT64
               |--P. cukurkoyi Sellier de Civrieux & Dessauvagie 1965 GRA04
               |--P. depressa (Miklukho-Maklay 1954) [=*Parageinitzina depressa] LT64
               |--P. gefoensis (Miklukho-Maklay 1953) [=*Parapermodiscus gefoensis] LT64
               |--P. magna (Miklukho-Maklay 1954) [=*Pseudogeinitzina magna] LT64
               `--P. pigmobesa Wang 1976 W76

Pachyphloia Lange 1925 GAR03 [incl. Parageinitzina Miklukho-Maklay 1954 LT64, Parapachyphloia Miklukho-Maklay 1954 LT64, Parapermodiscus Miklukho-Maklay 1953 LT64, Pseudogeinitzina Miklukho-Maklay 1954 LT64; Pachyphloiidae]

‘Textularia’ jonesi Brady 1876 LT64 [=Lunucammina jonesi LT64; incl. Textularia cuneiformis Jones 1850 non d’Orbigny 1876 C40, *Geinitzella cuneiformis LT64, *Geinitzina cuneiformis C40]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use (3rd ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[GAR03] Groves, J. R., D. Altiner & R. Rettori. 2003. Origin and early evolutionary radiation of the order Lagenida (Foraminifera). Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 831-843.

[GRA04] Groves, J. R., R. Rettori & D. Altiner. 2004. Wall structures in selected Paleozoic lagenide Foraminifera. Journal of Paleontology 78: 245-256.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[W76] Wang K. 1976. The foraminifera from the Changhsing Formation in western Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 15 (2): 187-195.

Lagenidae

Lingulina pagoda, from Haeckel (1899-1904), via micro*scope.


Belongs within: Lagenida.
Contains: Plectofrondiculariinae, Astacolus, Lenticulina, Marginulina, Dentalina, Nodosaria, Lagena, Frondicularia.

The Lagenidae are a group of foraminifera known from the Permian to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b, as Nodosariidae): Test free, one or more chambers in planispiral, biserial, uncoiling, curved or straight series; aperture simple, slitlike or radiate, peripheral in coiled forms, terminal in straight forms, may have apertural chamberlet, or may have elongate neck.

<==Lagenidae [Aequilateralidae, Equilateralidae, Nautiloidae, Nodosariidae, Stichostegia]
    |  i. s.: Parafissurina Parr 1947 H03, LT64b
    |           |--*P. ventricosa (Silvestri 1904) [=Lagena ventricosa, Ellipsolagena ventricosa] LT64b
    |           `--P. ovalis Todd 1957 H03
    |--Plectofrondiculariinae LT64a
    |--Lingulininae LT64b
    |    |--Berthelinella Loeblich & Tappan 1957 LT64b
    |    |    `--*B. paradoxa (Berthelin 1879) [=Frondicularia paradoxa] LT64b
    |    |--Daucinoides de Klasz & Rérat 1962 LT64b
    |    |    `--*D. circumtegens de Klasz & Rérat 1962 LT64b
    |    |--Ellipsocristellaria Silvestri 1920 LT64b
    |    |    `--*E. sequana (Berthelin 1880) [=Lingulinopsis sequana] LT64b
    |    |--Rimulina d’Orbigny 1826 LT64b
    |    |    `--*R. glabra d’Orbigny 1826 LT64b
    |    |--Gonatosphaera Guppy 1894 [incl. Linguloglandulina Silvestri 1903] LT64b
    |    |    |--*G. prolata Guppy 1894 LT64b
    |    |    `--G. laevigata (Silvestri 1903) [=*Linguloglandulina laevigata] LT64b
    |    |--Lingulinopsis Reuss 1860 LT64b
    |    |    |--*L. bohemica (Reuss 1846) [=Lingulina bohemica] LT64b
    |    |    `--L. carlofortensis LT64b
    |    |--Lingulonodosaria Silvestri 1903 [incl. Lingulinella Gerke 1952] LT64b
    |    |    |--*L. nodosaria (Reuss 1863) [=Lingulina nodosaria] LT64b
    |    |    `--L. arctica (Gerke 1952) [=*Lingulinella arctica] LT64b
    |    |--Mucronina d’Orbigny 1826 [incl. Nodomorphina Cushman 1927, Staffia Schubert 1911] LT64b
    |    |    |--*M. hasta (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Nodosaria (Mucronine) hasta] LT64b
    |    |    |--‘Nodosaria’ compressiuscula Neugeboren 1852 [=*Nodomorphina compressiuscula] LT64b
    |    |    `--M. tetragona (Costa 1855) [=Nodosaria tetragona, *Staffia tetragona] LT64b
    |    `--Lingulina d’Orbigny 1826 C40 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--*L. carinata d’Orbigny 1826 C40
    |         |--L. buddencanyonensis BL79
    |         |--L. dubiella (Gerke 1957) [=Frondicularia (*Frondiculina) dubiella, *Frondiculinita dubiella] LT64b
    |         |--L. loryi BL79
    |         |--L. pagoda H04
    |         |--L. strigata Wang 1976 W76
    |         |--L. tenera [incl. L. tenera var. hexogonella, L. tenera var. maxima] W76
    |         `--L. wilcoxensis BL79
    `--Lageninae [Nodosariinae] LT64b
         |  i. s.: ‘Cribrella’ Gawor-Biedowa 1987 nec Agassiz 1835 nec Lütken 1857 G-B87
         |           |--*C. lacrima Gawor-Biedowa 1987 G-B87
         |           |--C. fusiformis Gawor-Biedowa 1987 G-B87
         |           `--C. ovata Gawor-Biedowa 1987 G-B87
         |         Alfredosilvestris Andersen 1961 LT64b
         |           `--*A. levinsoni Andersen 1961 LT64b
         |         Astacolus LT64b
         |         Austrocolomia Oberhauser 1960 LT64b
         |           `--*A. marschalli Oberhauser 1960 LT64b
         |         Chrysalogonium Schubert 1907 LT64b
         |           |--*C. polystoma (Schwager 1866) [=Nodosaria polystoma] LT64b
         |           `--C. cretaceum C40
         |         Citharina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |           |--*C. strigillata (Reuss 1846) [=Vaginulina (*Citharina) strigillata] LT64b
         |           |--C. colliezi (Terquem 1866) [=Marginulina colliezi, *Pseudocitharina colliezi] LT64b
         |           |--C. discors LT64b
         |           |--C. gracilana M08
         |           |--C. inaequistriata (Terquem 1864) [=Marginulina inaequistriata, *Saccularia inaequistriata] LT64b
         |           |--*Hybridina’ obliqua Kübler & Zwingli 1866 LT64b
         |           `--*Pseudovaginulina’ oxyacantha Wedekind 1937 LT64b
         |         Citharinella Marie 1938 LT64b
         |           |--*C. karreri (Berthelin 1880) [=Flabellina karreri] LT64b
         |           `--C. tarrantensis LT64b
         |         Cribrorobulina Thalmann 1947 LT64b
         |           `--*C. serpens (Seguenza 1880) [=Robulina serpens] LT64b
         |         Dentalinoides Marie 1941 LT64b
         |           `--*D. canulina Marie 941 LT64b
         |         Dentalinopsis Reuss 1860 LT64b
         |           `--*D. semitriquetra Reuss 1860 LT64b
         |         Dimorphina d’Orbigny 1826 [=Glandulodimorphina Silvestri 1901] LT64b
         |           `--*D. tuberosa d’Orbigny 1826 [=*Glandulodimorphina tuberosa] LT64b
         |         Dyofrondicularia Asano 1936 LT64b
         |           `--*D. nipponica Asano 1936 C40
         |         Flabellinella Schubert 1900 LT64b
         |           |--*F. tetschensis (Matouschek 1895) [=Frondicularia tetschensis] LT64b
         |           `--F. zittelliana C40
         |         Involutaria Gerke 1957 LT64b
         |           `--*I. triassica Gerke 1957 LT64b
         |         Kyphopyxa Cushman 1929 LT64b
         |           `--*K. christneri (Carsey 1926) [=Frondicularia christneri] LT64b
         |         Lagenoglandulina Silvestri 1923 LT64b
         |           `--*L. subovata (Stache 1865) [=Glandulina subovata] LT64b
         |         Lankesterina Loeblich & Tappan 1961 LT64b
         |           `--*L. frondea (Cushman 1922) [=Bolivina frondea] LT64b
         |         Marginulinopsis Silvestri 1904 LT64b
         |           `--*M. densicostata Thalmann 1937 LT64b
         |         Neoflabellina Bartenstein 1948 [=Flabellina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 non Voigt 1834] LT64b
         |           |--*N. rugosa (d’Orbigny 1840) LT64b [=*Flabellina rugosa LT64b, Palmula rugosa C40]
         |           `--N. reticulata G-B87
         |         Orthomorphina Stainforth 1952 LT64b
         |           `--*O. havanensis (Cushman & Bermudez 1937) [=Nodogenerina havanensis] LT64b
         |         Palmula Lea 1833 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |           |--*P. sagittaria Lea 1833 C40
         |           |--*Planularia’ elliptica Nilsson 1826 LT64b
         |           |--*Frondiculina’ obliqua von Münster 1838 LT64b
         |           |--P. reticulata C40
         |           `--P. tenuistriata (Franke 1936) [=Flabellina tenuistriata, *Falsopalmula tenuistriata] LT64b
         |         Pandaglandulina Loeblich & Tappan 1955 [=Pandoglandulina (l. c.)] LT64b
         |           `--*P. dinapolii Loeblich & Tappan 1955 LT64b
         |         Planularia Defrance in de Blainville 1826 [incl. Megathyra Ehrenberg 1843] LT64b
         |           |--*P. auris (Defrance 1824) [=Peneroplis auris] LT64b
         |           |--P. advena C40
         |           |--P. crepidula M62
         |           `--*Megathyra’ planularia Ehrenberg 1843 LT64b
         |         Pseudarcella Spandel 1909 LT64b [=Arpseudacelloum Rhumbler 1913 LT64b, Pseudoarcella (l. c.) H75]
         |           |--*P. rhumbleri Spandel 1909 H75
         |           |--P. campanula LT64b
         |           |--P. feugueuri LT64b
         |           `--P. patella LT64b
         |         Pseudonodosaria Boomgaart 1949 [incl. Rectoglandulina Loeblich & Tappan 1955] LT64b
         |           |--*P. discreta (Reuss 1850) [=Glandulina discreta] LT64b
         |           |--P. appressa (Loeblich & Tappan 1955) [=*Rectoglandulina appressa] LT64b
         |           |--P. humilis BL79
         |           `--P. obesa G-B87
         |         Pseudotristix Miklukho-Maklay 1960 LT64b
         |           `--*P. tcherdynzevi (Miklukho-Maklay 1960) [=Tristix (*Pseudotristix) tcherdynzevi] LT64b
         |         Tentifrons Loeblich & Tappan 1957 LT64b
         |           `--*T. barnardi Loeblich & Tappan 1957 LT64b
         |         Tribrachia Schubert 1912 LT64b
         |           `--*T. inelegans Loeblich & Tappan 1950 LT64b
         |         Vaginulinopsis Silvestri 1904 LT64b
         |           |--*V. carinata (Silvestri 1898) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |           |--V. hochstetteri B49
         |           `--V. soluta (Silvestri 1898) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |--Saracenaria Defrance in de Blainville 1824 [incl. Hemirobulina Stache 1865, Saracenella Franke 1936] LT64b
         |    |--*S. italica Defrance 1824 C40
         |    |--S. akitaensis Iwasa & Kikuchi 1954 H03
         |    |--S. angularis JW99
         |    |--*Hemirobulina’ arcuatula Stache 1865 LT64b
         |    |--S. spinosa BL79
         |    |--S. triangularis BL79
         |    `--S. trigona (Terquem 1866) C40, LT64b [=Marginulina trigona LT64b, *Saracenella trigona C40]
         `--+--Lenticulina C40
            `--+--Amphicoryna Schlumberger in Milne-Edwards 1881 C40, LT64b (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. scalaris (Batsch 1791) LT64b (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--*Plesiocorine’ edwardsi Schlumberger 1882 LT64b
               |    |--*Vaginoglandulina’ laevigata Silvestri 1906 LT64b
               |    `--A. separans (Brady 1884) [=Nodosaria scalaris var. separans, *Lagenonodosaria separans] LT64b
               |--+--Marginulina C40
               |  `--+--Dentalina C40
               |     `--+--Nodosaria C40
               |        `--Lagena C40
               `--+--Frondicularia C40
                  `--Vaginulina d’Orbigny 1826 C40 [=Vaginula Risso 1826 LT64b, Vaginulinella (l. c.) LT64b]
                       |--*V. legumen (Linné 1758) [=Nautilus legumen, *Vaginula legumen] LT64b
                       |--V. directa M08
                       |--V. elegans B49
                       |--V. kochii [incl. V. kochii var. striolata] C40
                       |--V. midwayana QS03
                       |--V. patens C40
                       `--V. webbervillensis C40

Amphicoryna Schlumberger in Milne-Edwards 1881 C40, LT64b [=Amphicoryne Brady 1884 LT64b, Amphycorina (l. c.) LT64b; incl. Lagenonodosaria Silvestri 1900 LT64b, Nodosariopsis Silvestri 1902 non Rzehak 1895 LT64b, Plesiocorine Schlumberger in Milne-Edwards 1882 LT64b, Plesiocoryna (l. c.) LT64b, Vaginoglandulina Silvestri 1906 LT64b]

Amphicoryna scalaris (Batsch 1791) LT64b [=Nautilus scalaris LT64b, Lagenonodosaria scalaris B49; incl. Marginulina falx Jones & Parker 1860 LT64b, *Amphicoryna falx LT64b, *Nodosariopsis falx LT64b]

Citharina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 [=Cytharina (l. c.); incl. Hybridina Kübler & Zwingli 1866, Pseudocitharina Payard 1947, Pseudovaginulina Wedekind 1937, Saccularia Wedekind 1937] LT64b

Lingulina d’Orbigny 1826 C40 [incl. Frondiculina Gerke 1957 nec Lamarck 1816 nec Muenster 1835 LT64b, Frondiculinita Gerke 1961 LT64b]

Palmula Lea 1833 [incl. Falsopalmula Bartenstein 1948, Frondiculina von Münster in Roemer 1838 non Lamarck 1816, Phalsopalmula Agalarova 1960, Planularia Nilsson 1826 non Defrance 1826] LT64b

*Vaginulinopsis carinata (Silvestri 1898) [=Vaginulina soluta var. carinata, Vaginulinopsis inversa var. carinata] LT64b

Vaginulinopsis soluta (Silvestri 1898) [=Vaginulina soluta; incl. Marginulina inversa Costa 1856 non Neugeboren 1851, Vaginulinopsis inversa] LT64b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BL79] Basov, V. A., B. G. Lopatin, I. S. Gramberg, A. I. Danjushevskaya, V. Ya. Kaban’kov, V. M. Lazurkin & D. K. Patrunov. 1979. Lower Cretaceous lithostratigraphy near Galicia Bank. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47: 683-717.

[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429-455.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use (3rd ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G-B87] Gawor-Biedowa, E. 1987. New benthic foraminifers from the Late Cretaceous of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 32 (1-2): 49-72.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene-Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293-340.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea. Supplement 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica, 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[JW99] Jian, Z.-M., L.-J. Wang, M. Kienast, M. Sarnthein, W. Kuhnt, H.-L. Lin & P.-X. Wang. 1999. Benthic foraminiferal paleoceanography of the South China Sea over the last 40,000 years. Marine Geology 156: 159-186.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M08] McMillan, I. K. 2008. Reappraisal of foraminiferal assemblages of the Santonia-Campanian Mzamba Formation type section, and their correlation with the stratigraphic succession of the KwaZulu Basin. African Natural History 4: 25-34.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231-322.

[QS03] Quattrocchio, M. E., & W. A. S. Sarjeant. 2003. Dinoflagellates from the Chorrillo Chico Formation (Paleocene) of southern Chile. Ameghiniana 40 (2): 129-153.

[W76] Wang K. 1976. The foraminifera from the Changhsing Formation in western Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 15 (2): 187-195.

Discorbidae

Rosalina villardeboana, from Brady (1884).


Belongs within: Spirillinacea.
Contains: Baggininae, Siphoninidae, Rotaliidae, Elphidiidae, Calcarinidae, Nummulitidae, Miogypsinidae, Discorbis.

The Discorbidae are a group of trochospiral foraminifera known from the Middle Triassic to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test free, trochospiral; chambers simple; wall calcareous, perforate, radial in structure, monolamellid; aperture basal or areal.

Discorbidae
    |--+--Baggininae C40
    |  |--Siphoninidae C40
    |  `--Rotaliacea S-VC91
    |       |--Rotaliidae C40
    |       |--Elphidiidae S-VC91
    |       |--Calcarinidae LT64a
    |       |--Nummulitidae LT64a
    |       `--Miogypsinidae LT64a
    `--Discorbinae LT64b
         |--Discorbis C40
         |--Aboudaragina Nakkady 1955 LT64b
         |    `--*A. eponidelliformis Nakkady 1955 LT64b
         |--Bronnimannia Bermúdez 1952 LT64b
         |    `--*B. palmerae (Bermúdez 1935) [=Discorbis palmerae] LT64b
         |--Conorbina Brotzen 1936 LT64b
         |    `--*C. marginata Brotzen 1936 C40
         |--Diplotremina Kristan-Tollman 1960 LT64b
         |    `--*D. astrofimbriata Kristan-Tollman 1960 LT64b
         |--Discorbitura Bandy 1949 LT64b
         |    `--*D. dignata Bandy 1949 LT64b
         |--Duostomina Kristan-Tollmann 1960 LT64b
         |    `--*D. biconvexa Kristan-Tollmann 1960 LT64b
         |--Eurycheilostoma Loeblich & Tappan 1957 LT64b
         |    `--*E. altispira Loeblich & Tappan 1957 LT64b
         |--Helenina Saunders 1961 [=Helenia Saunders 1957 non Walcott 1889] LT64b
         |    `--*H. anderseni (Warren 1957) [=Pseudoeponides anderseni, *Helenia anderseni] LT64b
         |--Lamellodiscorbis Bermúdez 1952 LT64b
         |    `--*L. dimidiata (Jones & Parker in Carpenter, Jones & Parker 1862) [=Discorbina dimidiata] LT64b
         |--Planodiscorbis Bermúdez 1952 LT64b
         |    `--*P. rarescens (Brady 1884) [=Discorbina rarescens] LT64b
         |--Pseudopatellinella Takayanagi 1960 LT64b
         |    `--*P. cretacea Takayanagi 1960 LT64b
         |--Pseudopatellinoides Krasheninnikov 1958 LT64b
         |    `--*P. primus Krasheninnikov 1958 LT64b
         |--Stetsonia Parker 1954 LT64b
         |    `--*S. minuta Parker 1954 LT64b
         |--Variostoma Kristan-Tollmann 1960 LT64b
         |    `--*V. spinosum Kristan-Tollmann 1960 LT64b
         |--Vernonina Puri 1957 LT64b
         |    `--*V. tuberculata Puri 1957 LT64b
         |--Earlmyersia Rhumbler 1938 LT64b
         |    |--*E. liliputana (Rhumbler 1938) [=E. punctulata f. liliputana] LT64b
         |    `--E. punctulata (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Rotalia punctulata, Pulvinulina punctulata] LT64b
         |--Eoeponidella Wickenden 1949 [incl. Heminwayina Bermúdez 1951] LT64b
         |    |--*E. linki Wickenden 1949 LT64b
         |    `--E. multisecta (Galloway & Heminway 1941) [=Discorbis multisectus, *Heminwayina multisecta] LT64b
         |--Gavelinopsis Hofker 1951 LT64b
         |    |--*G. praegeri (Heron-Allen & Earland 1913) [=Discorbina praegeri] LT64b
         |    `--G. translucens JW99
         |--Laticarinina Galloway & Wissler 1927 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    |--*L. pauperata (Parker & Jones 1865) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    `--L. altocamerata (Heron-Allen & Earland 1922) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |--Neoconorbina Hofker 1951 LT64b
         |    |--N. terquemi (Rzehak 1888) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    `--N. pacifica LT64b
         |--Patellinella Cushman 1928 LT64b
         |    |--*P. inconspicua (Brady 1884) [=Textularia inconspicua] LT64b
         |    `--P. jugosa JW99
         |--Pijpersia Thalmann 1954 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    |--*P. coronaeformis (Pijpers 1933) [=*Bonairea coronaeformis, *Ruttenia coronaeformis] LT64b
         |    `--P. diadematoides (Le Calvez 1959) [=*Pseudoruttenia diadematoides] LT64b
         |--Planulinoides Parr 1941 [incl. Discotruncana Shirai 1960] LT64b
         |    |--*P. biconcava (Jones & Parker in Carpenter, Parker & Jones 1862) [=Discorbina biconcava] LT64b
         |    `--P. japonica (Shirai 1960) [=*Discotruncana japonica] LT64b
         |--Tretomphalus Möbius 1880 LT64b
         |    |--*T. bulloides (d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839) LT64b [=Rosalina bulloides, Cymbalopora bulloides]
         |    `--T. myersi LT64b
         |--Discorbinella Cushman & Martin 1935 [incl. Discopulvinulina Hofker 1951] LT64b
         |    |--*D. montereyensis Cushman & Martin 1935 C40
         |    |--D. bertheloti (d’Orbigny in Barker-Webb & Berthelot 1839) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    `--D. chincaensis S05
         |--Buccella Andersen 1952 LT64b
         |    |--*B. hannai (Phleger & Parker 1951) [=Eponides hannai] LT64b
         |    |--B. frigida LT64a
         |    |--B. inusitata Andersen 1952 H03
         |    `--B. mansfieldi (Cushman 1930) [=Eponides mansfieldi] C91
         |--Epistominella Husezima & Maruhasi 1944 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |    |--E. pacifica (Cushman 1927) H03 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--E. exigua JW99
         |    |--E. rugosa JW99
         |    `--E. subperuviana (Cushman 1926) [=*Pulvinulinella subperuviana, *Pseudoparrella subperuviana] LT64b
         `--Rosalina d’Orbigny 1826 (see below for synonymy) LT64b
              |--*R. globularis d’Orbigny 1826 LT64b [=Discorbis globularis H03, *Turbinolina globularis LT64b]
              |--R. atlantica (Hofker 1956) [=Gavelinopsis atlantica] LT64b
              |--R. australis LJ98
              |--R. bradyi (Cushman 1915) [=Discorbis globularis var. bradyi] H03
              |--R. concinna JW99
              |--R. inflata (Hornibrook 1961) [=*Semirosalina inflata] LT64b
              `--R. villardeboana d’Orbigny 1839 H03 [=Discorbis villardeboanus M62]

Discorbinella bertheloti (d’Orbigny in Barker-Webb & Berthelot 1839) [=Rosalina bertheloti, *Discopulvinulina bertheloti] LT64b

Epistominella Husezima & Maruhasi 1944 [incl. Pseudoparrella Cushman & Ten Dam 1948, Pulvinulinella Cushman 1926 non Eimer & Fickert 1899] LT64b

Epistominella pacifica (Cushman 1927) H03 [=Pulvulinella pacifica H03; incl. *E. pulchella Husezima & Maruhasi 1944 LT64b, H03]

Laticarinina Galloway & Wissler 1927 [=Carinina Galloway & Wissler 1927 non Hubrecht 1887; incl. Parvicarinina Finlay 1940] LT64b

Laticarinina altocamerata (Heron-Allen & Earland 1922) [=Truncatulina tenuimargo var. altocamerata, T. tenuimargo var. alatocamerata (l. c.), *Parvicarinina altocamerata, P. alatocamerata (l. c.)] LT64b

*Laticarinina pauperata (Parker & Jones 1865) [=Pulvinulina repanda var. menardii subvar. pauperata, *Carinina pauperata] LT64b

Neoconorbina terquemi (Rzehak 1888) [=Discorbina terquemi; incl. Rosalina orbicularis Terquem 1876 non d’Orbigny 1850, *Neoconorbina orbicularis] LT64b

Pijpersia Thalmann 1954 [=Bonairea Pijpers 1933 non Burrington Baker 1924, Ruttenia Pijpers 1933 non Rodhain 1924; incl. Pseudoruttenia Le Calvez 1959] LT64b

Rosalina d’Orbigny 1826 [=Turbinolina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839; incl. Semirosalina Hornibrook 1961] LT64b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use (3rd ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene-Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293-340.

[JW99] Jian, Z.-M., L.-J. Wang, M. Kienast, M. Sarnthein, W. Kuhnt, H.-L. Lin & P.-X. Wang. 1999. Benthic foraminiferal paleoceanography of the South China Sea over the last 40,000 years. Marine Geology 156: 159-186.

[LJ98] Li, Q., N. P. James, B. McGowran, Y. Bone & J. Cann. 1998. Synergetic influence of water masses and Kangaroo Island barrier on foraminiferal distribution, Lincoln and Lacepede shelves, South Australia: a synthesis. Alcheringa 22 (2): 153-176.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231-322.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195-224.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177-190.

Endothyrinae

Endothyra baileyi, from Lousville Fossils.


Belongs within: Fusulinida.

The Endothyrinae are a group of enrolled foraminifera known from the Upper Devonian to the Permian (Loeblich & Tappan 1964a).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964a): Test enrolled, planispiral to streptospiral, possibly uncoiling in later stages; may be incompletely septate; wall of granular calcite, nonporous, with two or three distinct layers in well-preserved specimens, may have agglutinated material in addition; aperture single, simple, basal or areal.

Endothyrinae [Plectogyrinae]
    |--+--Septammina Meunier 1888 C40
    |  |    |--*S. renaulti Meunier 1888 C40
    |  |    `--S. bradyi C40
    |  `--Endothyranella Galloway & Harlton in Galloway & Ryniker 1930 C40 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |--*E. powersi (Harlton 1927) [=Ammobaculites powersi] LT64a
    |       |--E. mirabilis (Lipina 1948) [=Spiroplectammina mirabilis, *Rectochernyshinella mirabilis] LT64a
    |       `--E. pygmaea (Malakhova 1954) [=Ammobaculites pygmaeus, *Chernyshinellina pygmaea] LT64a
    `--Endothyra Phillips 1846 (nom. cons.) C40 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*E. bowmani Phillips 1846 (nom. cons.) [incl. E. bradyi Mikhaylov 1939, Involutina lobata Brady 1870] LT64a
         |--E. baileyi LT64a
         |--E. fomichaensis Lebedeva 1954 [=*Plectogyrina fomichaensis] LT64a
         |--E. globulus F71
         |--E. media C40
         |--E. pauciseptata R79
         |--E. plectogyra (Zeller 1950) [=*Plectogyra plectogyra] LT64a
         |--E. prisca R79
         `--E. timanica Durkina 1959 CV01

Endothyrinae incertae sedis:
  Kahlerina Kochansky-Devidé & Ramovs 1955 (see below for synonymy) LT64a
    |--*K. pachytheca Kochansky-Devidé & Ramovs 1955 LT64a
    `--K. ussurica (Sosnina in Kiparisova et al. 1956) [=*Ussuriella ussurica] LT64a
  Novella Grozdilova & Lebedeva 1950 LT64a
    `--*N. evoluta Grozdilova & Lebedeva 1950 LT64a
  Paraendothyra Chernysheva 1940 LT64a
    `--*P. nalivkini Chernysheva 1940 LT64a
  Paraplectogyra Okimura 1958 LT64a
    `--*P. masanae Okimura 1958 LT64a
  Rectoseptaglomospiranella Reytlinger 1961 LT64a
    |--*R. asiatica (Reytlinger 1961) [=Septaglomospiranella (*Rectoseptaglomospiranella) asiatica] LT64a
    `--R. elegantula E03
  Seminovella Rauzer-Chernousova 1951 LT64a
    `--*S. elegantula (Rauzer-Chernousova 1951) [=Eostaffella (*Seminovella) elegantula] LT64a
  Pseudonovella Kireeva 1949 LT64b

Endothyra Phillips 1846 (nom. cons.) C40 [incl. Plectogyra Zeller 1950 LT64a, Plectogyrina Reytlinger in Rauzer-Chernousova & Fursenko 1959 LT64a]

Endothyranella Galloway & Harlton in Galloway & Ryniker 1930 C40 [incl. Chernyshinellina Reytlinger in Rauzer-Chernousova & Fursenko 1959 LT64a, Rectochernyshinella Lipina 1960 LT64a]

Kahlerina Kochansky-Devidé & Ramovs 1955 [incl. Ussuriella Sosnina in Kiparisova et al. 1956 non Paramonov 1929] LT64a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CV01] Cózar, P., & D. Vachard. 2001. Dainellinae subfam. nov. (Foraminiferida du Carbomifère inférieur), révision et nouveaux taxons. Geobios 34 (5): 505-526.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use (3rd ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E03] Edgell, H. S. 2003. Upper Devonian Charophyta of Western Australia. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 359-374.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[R79] Ross, C. A. 1979. Carboniferous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A254-A290. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Cibicididae

Cibicides lobatulus, copyright Marek Zajaczkowski & Patrycja Jernas.


Belongs within: Rotaliina.

The Cibicididae are a group of spiral foraminifera known from the Cretaceous to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test free or attached, trochospiral to nearly planispiral, or later spreading, irregular or cyclical; wall coarsely perforate, radial in structure, septa double (bilamellar); aperture interiomarginal, may extend onto spiral side, and peripheral supplementary apertures may occur.

Cibicididae
    |--Planulininae LT64b
    |    |--Cibicidina Bandy 1949 LT64b
    |    |    `--*C. walli Bandy 1949 LT64b
    |    |--Hyalinea Hofker 1951 [=Hofkerinella Bermúdez 1952] LT64b
    |    |    `--*H. balthica (Schröter 1783) [=Nautilus balthicus, *Hofkerinella balthica] LT64b
    |    `--Planulina d’Orbigny 1826 C40
    |         |--*P. ariminensis d’Orbigny 1826 C40
    |         |--P. ornata C40
    |         |--P. renzi H90
    |         `--P. wuellerstorfi B49
    `--Cibicidinae LT64a
         |  i. s.: Stichocibicides Cushman & Bermúdez 1936 C40
         |           `--*S. cubensis Cushman & Bermúdez 1936 C40
         |         Caribeanella Bermúdez 1952 [incl. Oinomikadoina Matsunaga 1954, Pseudocibicidoides Ujiié 1956] LT64b
         |           |--*C. polystoma Bermúdez 1952 LT64b
         |           |--C. katasensis (Ujiié 1956) [=*Pseudocibicidoides katasensis] LT64b
         |           `--C. ogiensis (Matsunaga 1954) [=*Oinomikadoina ogiensis] LT64b
         |         Cycloloculina Heron-Allen & Earland 1908 [=Cycloloceilina (l. c.)] LT64b
         |           |--*C. annulata Heron-Allen & Earland 1908 LT64b
         |           `--C. miocenica
         |         Planorbulinoides Cushman 1928 LT64b
         |           `--*P. retinaculata (Parker & Jones in Carpenter, Parker & Jones 1862) (see below for synonymy) LT64b
         |--Dyocibicides Cushman & Valentine 1930 C40 [incl. Rectocibicidella McLean 1956 LT64b]
         |    |--*D. biserialis Cushman & Valentine 1930 C40
         |    |--D. robertsi (McLean 1956) [=*Rectocibicidella robertsi] LT64b
         |    `--D. variabilis LJ98
         |--+--Annulocibicides Cushman & Ponton 1932 C40
         |  |    `--*A. projectus Cushman & Ponton 1932 C40
         |  `--Rectocibicides Cushman & Ponton 1932 C40
         |       `--*R. miocenicus Cushman & Ponton 1932 C40
         |--+--Cibicidella Cushman 1927 C40
         |  |    `--*C. variabilis (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Truncatulina variabilis] LT64b
         |  `--Cyclocibicides Cushman 1927 C40
         |       `--*C. vermiculata (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Planorbulina vermiculata] LT64b
         `--Cibicides Monfort 1808 C40, G86 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*C. refulgens de Montfort 1808 [=*Truncatulina refulgens] LT64b
              |--C. advenum M62
              |--*Craterella’ albescens Dons 1942 [=*Crateriola albescens] LT64b
              |--‘Truncatulina’ boueana F71
              |--C. collinsi B49
              |--*Polyxenes’ cribratus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
              |--*Soldanina’ exagona Costa 1856 LT64b
              |--C. kullenbergi H90
              |--C. lobatulus C40 [=Truncatulina lobulata BK77, Lobatula lobatula M08]
              |--C. mediocris H90
              |--C. neoperforatus H90
              |--C. notocenicus H90
              |--C. novozelandicus H90
              |--C. perforatus H90
              |--C. pseudolobatus S05
              |--*Storilus’ radiatus de Montfort 1808 LT64b
              |--C. strelkovi Mikhalevich 1976 G86
              |--C. temperata  H90
              |--‘Truncatulina’ ungeriana H04
              |--C. variabilis LT64a
              `--*Lobatula’ vulgaris Fleming 1828 LT64b

Nomen nudum: Cibicides molestus Battey 1949 B49

Cibicides Monfort 1808 C40, G86 [=Cymbicides (l. c.) LT64b, Truncatulina d’Orbigny 1826 LT64b; incl. Aristeropora Ehrenberg 1858 C40, Craterella Dons 1942 nec Schrammen 1901 nec Kofoid & Campbell 1929 LT64b, Crateriola Strand 1943 LT64b, Lobatula Fleming 1828 C40, Polyxenes de Montfort 1808 LT64b, Soldanina Costa 1856 LT64b, Storilus de Montfort 1808 LT64b]

*Planorbulinoides retinaculata (Parker & Jones in Carpenter, Parker & Jones 1862) [=Planorbulina retinaculata] LT64b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429-455.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use (3rd ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Foraminiferida. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 17-20. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H90] Hayward, B. W. 1990. Use of foraminiferal data in analysis of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 20: 71-83.

[LJ98] Li, Q., N. P. James, B. McGowran, Y. Bone & J. Cann. 1998. Synergetic influence of water masses and Kangaroo Island barrier on foraminiferal distribution, Lincoln and Lacepede shelves, South Australia: a synthesis. Alcheringa 22 (2): 153-176.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M08] McMillan, I. K. 2008. Aragonitic-walled benthic foraminifera (Epistomina) in the Cretaceous 'mudbelt' off southern Africa, and postmortem cross-shelf transport of tests. African Natural History 4: 17-24.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231-322.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177-190.