Field of Science

Austrosaginae

Robust fan-winged katydid Psacadonotus robustus, copyright Patrick Honan.


Belongs within: Tettigonioidea.

The Austrosaginae are a group of flightless predatory katydids endemic to Australia. Members of this group lack apical spurs on the dorsal surface of the hind tibia (Rentz 1996).

Austrosaginae R96
    |--Austrosaga spinifer R96
    |--Sciarasaga quadrata R96
    |--Hemisaga R96
    |    |--H. denticulata R96
    |    |--H. mullaya R96
    |    |--H. pericalles R96
    |    |--H. saussurei R96
    |    `--H. venator R96
    |--Pachysaga R96
    |    |--P. australis R96
    |    |--P. croceopteryx R96
    |    |--P. eneabba R96
    |    |--P. ocrocercus R96
    |    `--P. strobila R96
    `--Psacadonotus R96
         |--P. insulanus R96
         |--P. kenkulun R96
         |--P. psithyros R96
         |--P. robustus R96
         |--P. serratimerus R96
         `--P. viridis R96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Gryllinae

Female field cricket Gryllus campestris, copyright Gilles San Martin.


Belongs within: Grylloidea.

The Gryllinae, field crickets and house crickets, include the most familiar members of the cricket family.

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Head without dorsal bristles. Fore tibia with both anterior and posterior auditory tympana, with posterior tympanum only, or without tympana. Hind tibia without spines between spurs.

<==Gryllinae R96
    |--Modicogryllini O94
    |    |--Modicogryllus pacificus Otte 1994 O94
    |    `--Gryllodes O94
    |         |--G. sigillatus (Walker 1869) [=Gryllus sigillatus] O94
    |         `--G. supplicans FJ01
    |--Brachytrupini [Brachytrupinae] O94
    |    |--Apterogryllus brunnerianus R96
    |    |--Anurogryllus O94
    |    |    |--A. arborius O94
    |    |    `--A. muticus (DeGeer 1773) [=Gryllus muticus] R18
    |    `--Brachytrupes BM76
    |         |--B. achatinus BM76
    |         `--B. megacephalus BM76
    `--Gryllini O94
         |--Acheta domesticus O94
         |--Teleogryllus O94
         |    |--T. commodus R96
         |    |--T. oceanicus (le Guillou 1841) [=Gryllus oceanicus] O94
         |    `--T. wernerianus O94
         `--Gryllus GJR97
              |--G. assimilis (Fabricius 1775) [=Acheta assimilis] R18
              |--G. bimaculatus De Geer 1773 P05
              |--G. campestris F01
              |--G. firmus GJR97
              |--G. frontalis B01
              |--G. fultoni O94
              |--G. gryllus MC05
              |--G. infernalis C01
              |--G. integer GJR97
              |--G. ovisopis GJR97
              |--G. pennsylvanicus GJR97
              |--G. rubens GJR97
              `--G. veletis O94

Gryllinae incertae sedis:
  Maluagryllus R96
  Eurygryllodes R96
  Mjobergella R96
  Copholandrevus R96
  Gymnogryllus R96
  Cyrtoprosopus R96
  Daintria bookandrini R96
  Cephalogryllus R96
  Loxoblemmus R96
  Yarrita pikiara R96
  Comidogryllus R96
  Birubia R96
  Buangina diminuens R96
  Lepidogryllus R96
    |--L. comparatus R96
    `--L. parvulus R96
  Melanogryllus desertus (Pallas 1771) P05
  Eumodicogryllus bordigalensis (Latreille 1804) (see below for synonymy) P05
  Hygronemobius albipalpus (Saussure 1877) [=Nemobius albipalpus] R18
  Hemigryllus ortonii (Scudder 1869) [=Nemobius ortonii; incl. H. kreichbaumeri] R18
  Aphemogryllus Rehn 1918 R18
    `--*A. gracilis Rehn 1918 R18
  Miogryllus R18
    |--M. convolutus (Johannson 1763) [=Gryllus convolutus] R18
    |--M. tucumanensis (Giglio-Tos 1894) [=Gryllus (Miogryllus) tucumanensis] R18
    `--M. verticalis (Serville 1839) [=Gryllus verticalis] R18

Eumodicogryllus bordigalensis (Latreille 1804) [=Modicogryllus bordigalensis, Tartarogryllus bordigalensis, T. burdigalensis (l. c.)] P05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 223-243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Utivázlat [Reiseskizze]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. xii-xli. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F01] Field, L. H. 2001. Sensory physiology. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 429-458. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[FJ01] Field, L. H., & T. H. Jarman. 2001. Mating behaviour. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 317-332. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GJR97] Giordano, R., J. J. Jackson & H. M. Robertson. 1997. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 11439-11444.

[MC05] Machado, G., P. C. Carrera, A. M. Pomini & A. J. Marsaioli. 2005. Chemical defense in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): do benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators? Journal of Chemical Ecology 31 (11): 2519-2539.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese ("southern Sporadhes) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3-11.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Goodenia section Eugoodenia

Hop goodenia Goodenia ovata, copyright Friends of Baluk Willam Nature Conservation Reserve.


Belongs within: Goodeniaceae.

The section Eugoodenia of the genus Goodenia is characterised by having the ovules few or many in number, and imbricate in two rows in each cell (Black & Robertson 1965).

Goodenia sect. Eugoodenia
    |--G. subsect. Bracteolatae BR65
    |    |--G. affinis [incl. G. geniculata var. eriophylla] BR65
    |    |--G. amplexans BR65
    |    |    |--G. a. var. amplexans BR65
    |    |    `--G. a. var. angustifolia BR65
    |    |--G. geniculata BR65
    |    |--G. hirsuta BR65
    |    |--G. lanata BR65
    |    |--G. ovata BR65
    |    |--G. primulacea [=G. geniculata var. primulacea] BR65
    |    |--G. robusta [=G. geniculata var. robusta] BR65
    |    |--G. rotundifolia BR65
    |    |--G. strophiolata BR65
    |    |--G. unilobata Black 1927 BR65
    |    |--G. varia BR65
    |    `--G. vernicosa Black 1919 BR65
    |--G. subsect. Ebracteolatae BR65
    |    |--G. albiflora [=G. grandiflora var. albiflora] BR65
    |    |--G. anfracta BR65
    |    |--G. argentea BR65
    |    |--G. calcarata BR65
    |    |--G. cycloptera BR65
    |    |--G. glauca BR65
    |    |--G. grandiflora BR65
    |    |    |--G. g. var. grandiflora BR65
    |    |    |--G. g. var. chambersii BR65
    |    |    `--G. g. var. nicholsonii BR65
    |    |--G. havilandii BR65
    |    |    |--G. h. var. havilandii BR65
    |    |    `--G. h. var. pauperata BR65
    |    |--G. heterochila BR65
    |    |--G. heteromera BR65
    |    |    |--G. h. var. heteromera BR65
    |    |    `--G. h. var. deminuta BR65
    |    |--G. lunata BR65
    |    |--G. mitchellii BR65
    |    |--G. pinnatifida BR65
    |    |--G. pusilliflora BR65
    |    `--G. subintegra Mueller 1888 [incl. G. glauca var. sericea Bentham 1869] BR65
    `--G. (subsect. Racemosae) ramelii BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

Cremanthodium

Cremanthodium reniforme, copyright Ulrika Johansson.


Belongs within: Asteraceae.

Cremanthodium is a genus of perennial herbs known from China and the Himalayas.

Characters (from Flora of China): Herbs, perennial. Rhizomes short, with rosette leaves, very rarely without rosette leaves. Roots fleshy, numerous. Stem arising from outer axil of rosette leaves, solitary, or 2- or 3-crowded, usually scapelike. Leaves all or many crowded and basal, petiolate; petiolar base broadly sheathed; leaf blade palmately, pinnately, or parallel veined. Stem leaves alternate, bracteal, with or without sheath. Capitula solitary or many in raceme, nodding; leaflike bracts linear, rarely broadly ovate or elliptic. Involucre hemispheric, rarely broadly campanulate, base rounded; phyllaries in 2 rows, imbricate, outer phyllaries narrow; inner phyllaries broad, often margin membranous, or phyllaries in one row, equal in size, base united; all phyllaries outside glabrous or hairy, apex ciliate. Receptacle flat, without scales. Outer florets female, radiate or rarely narrowly tubular; lamina well developed, diverse, usually several times as long as involucre, rarely absent. Central florets tubular, bisexual; limb five-lobed. Anthers basally obtuse. Style branches compressed, apex obtuse or triangular, papillose-hairy. Achenes glabrous, ribbed. Pappus of denticulate hairs as long as or shorter than tubular corolla, rarely absent.

<==Cremanthodium
    |--C. arnicoides O88
    |--C. cuculliferum O88
    |--C. decaisnei O88
    |--C. ellisii O88
    |--C. hookeri O88
    |--C. nanum O88
    |--C. nepalense O88
    |--C. oblongatum O88
    |--C. pinnatifidum O88
    |--C. purpureifolium O88
    |--C. reniforme O88
    `--C. retusum O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

Eneopterinae

Female Insulascirtus nythos, copyright D. C. F. Rentz.


Belongs within: Grylloidea.

The Eneopterinae, bush crickets, are a diverse group of crickets characterised by adhesive pads on the tarsi.

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Males often with elongate hind wings; females winged or wingless. Head usually without dorsal bristles. Hind tibia with spines between most spurs. Middle tarsal segment with an adhesive pad.

<==Eneopterinae R96
    |--Itarini [Itarinae] R96
    |    |--Phaloria anapina R96
    |    `--Tremellia australis R96
    |--Eneopterini R96
    |    |--Cardiodactylus novaeguineae R96
    |    |--Eurepa R96
    |    |--Eurepella R96
    |    |--Lebinthus miripara R96
    |    |--Salmonites wittiliko R96
    |    |--Myara R96
    |    |    |--M. pakaria R96
    |    |    `--M. wintrena R96
    |    `--Arilpa R96
    |         |--A. gidya R96
    |         |--A. milkappa R96
    |         |--A. panaroo R96
    |         |--A. pitanae R96
    |         `--A. wirrilla R96
    `--Podoscirtini [Euscyrtinae, Podoscirtinae] R96
         |--Hemiphonus R96
         |--Mundeicus tindalei R96
         |--Unka boreena R96
         |--Riatina callosifrons R96
         |--Tamborina australis R96
         |--Madasumma R96
         |--Merrinella tandanya R96
         |--Turana R96
         |--Tozeria R96
         |--Patiscus R96
         |--Euscyrtus hemelytrus R96
         |--Adenopterus norfolkensis R96
         |--Matuanus O94
         |--Archenopterus O94
         |--Umbulgaria R96
         |    |--U. hillimunga R96
         |    `--U. ita R96
         |--Aphonoides R96
         |    |--A. angustissimus R96
         |    |--A. debilis R96
         |    `--A. weeronga R96
         `--Insulascirtus R96
              |--I. christiani R96
              |--I. ellops R96
              `--I. nythos R96

Eneopterinae incertae sedis:
  Tafalisca lurida O94
  Hapithus O94
    |--H. brevipennis O94
    `--H. melodius O94
  Aphonomorphus R18
    |--A. conspersus R18
    |--A. griseus Chopard 1912 R18
    |--A. lividus R18
    |--A. major Chopard 1912 R18
    |--A. surdus Rehn 1918 R18
    `--A. variegatus R18
  Orocharis BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Nemobiinae

Caconemobius fori, copyright Alan Cressler.


Belongs within: Grylloidea.

The Nemobiinae, pygmy field crickets, are small ground-dwelling crickets found in moist habitats (Rentz 1996).

Characters (from Rentz 1996): With or without tegmina. Head with dorsal bristles. Hind tibia shorter than hind femur, with 2-4 internal and external subapical spurs, without spines between spurs, and with three internal and three external apical spurs. Second tarsal segment laterally compressed, without large pads.

<==Nemobiinae R96
    |--Pteronemobius R96 [Pteronemobiini O94]
    |    |--P. bigelowi M83
    |    |--P. heydeni D37
    |    |--P. nigrovus M83
    |    |--P. nundra R96
    |    |--P. regulus R96
    |    `--P. truncatus R96
    |--Nemobius I92 [Nemobiini O94]
    |    |--N. allardi BM76
    |    |--N. brasiliensis (Walker 1869) [=Argizala brasiliensis] R18
    |    |--N. csikii Bolivar 1901 B01
    |    |--N. fasciatus BM76
    |    |--N. hebardi Rehn 1915 [incl. N. argentinus Bruner 1916] R18
    |    |--N. heydeni B01
    |    |--N. infernalis B01
    |    |--N. nitidus Bolivar 1901 B01
    |    `--N. sylvestris I92
    `--Thetellini [Burcini] O94
         |--Thetella tarnis Otte & Alexander 1983 [incl. Burcus koblovae] O94
         |--Aperonemobius O94
         |--Fikola O94
         |--Ionemobius O94
         |--Orintia O94
         |--Parapteronemobius O94
         `--Caconemobius Kirby 1906 [=Paranemobius Alfken 1901 non Saussure 1877] O94
              |--*C. schauinslandi (Alfken 1901) [=*Paranemobius schauinslandi] O94
              |--C. albus Otte 1994 O94
              |--C. anahulu Otte 1994 O94
              |--C. fori Gurney & Rentz 1978 O94
              |--C. howarthi Gurney & Rentz 1978 O94
              |--C. nihoensis Otte 1994 O94
              |--C. paralbus Otte 1994 O94
              |--C. sandwichensis Otte 1994 O94
              |--C. uuku Otte 1994 O94
              `--C. varius Gurney & Rentz 1978 O94

Nemobiinae incertae sedis:
  Apteronemobius R96
  Bobilla victoriae R96
  Narellina R96
  Tincanita R96
  Silvinella R96
  Nambungia R96
  Specnia R96
  Dictyonemobius R96
    |--D. lateralis R96
    `--D. pacificus R96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 223-243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Acridinae

Slant-faced pasture grasshopper Orphulella speciosa, copyright Mathew Brust.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.

The Acridinae are a group of grasshoppers in which the prosternum lacks a central tubercle or spine (Rentz 1996).

<==Acridinae [Locustinae] R96
    |--Froggattina australis R96
    |--Calephorops R96
    |--Schizobothrus R96
    |--Cryptobothrus chrysophorus R96
    |--Perala R96
    |--Caledia captiva R96
    |--Rapsilla R96
    |--Qualetta maculata R96
    |--Pycnostictus seriatus R96
    |--Pseudaiolopus R96
    |--Heteropternis R96
    |--Gastrimargus musicus R96
    |--Chortoicetes terminifera R96
    |--Colpolopha obsoleta (Serville 1831) [=Tropinotus obsoletus] R18
    |--Tropidacris collaris (Stoll 1813) [=Gryllus (Locusta) collaris] R18
    |--Stenacris cylindrodes (Stål 1860) [=Opsomala cylindrodes] R18
    |--Oxyblepta xanthoclora (Marschall 1835) [=Gryllus xanthochlorus] R18
    |--Mastusia caeruleipennis Bruner 1911 R18
    |--Eumastusia R18
    |--Vilerna aeneooculata (DeGeer 1773) [=Acrydium aeneooculatum] R18
    |--Ageneotettix BM76
    |--Amphitornus BM76
    |--Aulocara BM76
    |--Chloropseustes Rehn 1918 R18
    |    `--*C. leucotylus Rehn 1918 R18
    |--Tetrataenia R18
    |    |--T. phila Rehn 1918 R18
    |    `--T. surinama (Linnaeus 1764) [=Gryllus surinamus] R18
    |--Bucephalacris R18
    |    |--*B. corallipes Bruner 1911 R18
    |    `--B. falcifer Rehn 1918 R18
    |--Osmilia R18
    |    |--O. flavolineata (DeGeer 1773) [=Acrydium flavolineatum] R18
    |    `--O. violacea R18
    |--Austroicetes R96
    |    |--A. cruciata R96
    |    |--A. frater R96
    |    |--A. tricolor K90
    |    `--A. vulgaris R96
    |--Sitalces R18
    |    |--S. apterus (Scudder 1875) [=Ommatolampis apterus] R18
    |    |--S. debilis R18
    |    |--S. jugatus Rehn 1918 R18
    |    |--S. nudus R18
    |    `--S. ovatipennis Bruner 1908 R18
    |--Acrida R96
    |    |--A. chinensis [=Tryxalis chinensis] B01
    |    |--A. conica R96
    |    |--A. csikii Bolivar 1901 B01
    |    |--A. lata BM76
    |    |--A. lineata B01
    |    `--A. nasuta C01
    |--Locusta R96
    |    |--L. migratoria R96
    |    |    |--L. m. migratoria R96
    |    |    |--L. m. manilensis K-P83
    |    |    `--L. m. migratorioides R96
    |    |--L. savignyi Lucas 1847 E12
    |    `--L. viridissima B01
    `--Orphulella R18
         |--O. boucardi (Bruner 1904) [=Linoceratium boucardi] R18
         |--O. compta E70
         |--O. concinnula E70
         |--O. olivacea E70
         |--O. pelidna E70
         |--O. punctata (DeGeer 1773) [=Acrydium punctatum] R18
         |--O. speciosa E70
         `--O. tepaneca E70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 223-243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

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