Polydora

Polydora cornuta, copyright Erica Keppel.


Belongs within: Spionida.

Polydora is a genus of polychaete worms that often burrow into calcareous substrata such as coral reefs or mollusk shells.

Characters (from Williams 2001): Prostomium with anterior incision or rounded; caruncle extending posteriorly, surrouded by cilia of nuchal organ. Segment 1 without notosetae. Segment 5 modified with one type of major spine in single curved row, with or without companion setae; juveniles may possess large, falcate major spines that are replaced by subsequent spines. Posterior notopodial spines present or absent. Bidentate hooded hooks beginning on segments 7–14, main fang at approximately right angle to shaft, wide angle between main fang and apical tooth, with constriction on shaft. Branchiae beginning posterior to segment 5. Pygidium variable: cuff-shaped, cup-shaped with dorsal gap, lobed, scoop-shaped, or with digitiform cirri. Anterior portion of digestive tract lacking gizzardlike structure.

<==Polydora Bosc 1802 [incl. Leipoceras Möbius 1874, Leucodore Johnston 1838, Protopolydora Czerniavsky 1881] W01
    |--*P. cornuta Bosc 1802 W01
    |--P. agassizi W01
    |--P. aggregata W01
    |--P. caeca Oersted 1843 W01
    |--P. cavitensis W01
    |--P. ciliata (Johnston 1838) [=*Leucodore ciliatus] W01
    |--P. giardi Masnil 1896 RP07
    |--P. hamata Webster 1879 W01
    |--P. hoplura H75
    |--P. limicola W01
    |--P. mabinii Williams 2001 W01
    |--P. neocaeca W01
    |--P. nuchalis W01
    |--P. pacifica W01
    |--P. posthamata Jones 1962 [=P. hamata Langerhans 1880 non Webster 1879, *Protopolydora hamata] W01
    |--P. robi Williams 2000 W01
    |--P. umangivora Williams 2001 W01
    |--*Leipoceras’ uviferum Möbius 1874 W01
    |--P. websteri W01
    `--P. woodwicki W01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[W01] Williams, J. D. 2001. Polydora and related genera associated with hermit crabs from the Indo-West Pacific (Polychaeta: Spionidae), with descriptions of two new species and a second polydorid egg predator of hermit crabs. Pacific Science 55 (4): 429–465.

Cheilostomata

Poricella spatulata, from here.


Belongs within: Bryozoa.
Contains: Calescharidae, Membraniporidae, Electridae, Calloporidae, Bugulidae, Beaniidae, Thalamoporellidae, Lepraliellidae, Smittinidae, Schizoporellidae, Petraliellidae, Phidoloporidae, Cribrilinidae, Hippothoidae.

The Cheilostomata are a group of bryozoans in which the individual zooids are calcareous and box-like, and have a small orifice closed by a hinged, chitinous operculum (Prothero 1998).

<==Cheilostomata [Hincksinidae]
    |--+--Anascina P98
    |  `--Ascophorina P98
    `--Cribrimorphina [Cribrimorpha] P98
         |  i. s.: Cribrilaria R79
         |         Triporula R79
         |         Tremogasterina problematica R79, THG01
         |--Cribrilinidae R79
         |--Hippothoidea R79
         |    |--Hippothoidae THG01
         |    `--Chorizopora Hincks 1879 [Chorizoporidae] THG01
         |         `--*C. brongniartii (Audouin 1826) [=Flustra brongniartii; incl. Berenicea annulata] THG01
         `--Arachnopusioidea R79
              |--Exechonella Duvergier 1921 [Exechonellidae] THG01
              |    |--*E. grandis (Duvergier 1921) [=Cyclicopora grandis] THG01
              |    `--E. brasiliensis Canu & Bassler 1928 THG01
              `--Poricella Canu 1904 [Arachnopusiidae] THG01
                   |--*P. maconnica Canu 1904 THG01
                   |--P. celleporoides THG01
                   |--P. robusta (Hincks 1884) [=Lepralia robusta, Tremogasterina robusta] THG01
                   `--P. spatulata (Canu & Bassler 1929) (see below for synonymy) THG01

Cheilostomata incertae sedis:
  Ogivalina CB01
    |--*O. eximopora Canu & Bassler 1917 CB01
    `--O. dimorpha CB01
  Rimosocella CB01
  Poricellaria CB01
  Mollia CB01
    |--*M. patellaria [=Amphiblestrum patellarium] CB01
    |--M. multijuncta Waters 1879 CB01
    `--M. rossellii Ryland & Hayward 1977 CB01
  Flustridae CB01
    |--Hincksina CB01
    `--Flustra H30
         |--F. aragoi H04
         |--F. gayii H04
         |--F. lineata L02
         `--F. truncata H30
  Chaperiidae CB01
    |--Patsyella tongensis Gordon 1982 CB01
    `--Hagenowinella vaginata CB01
  Calescharidae CB01
  Membrendoecium lagunculum THG01
  Cleidochasmatidae THG01
    |--Yrbozoon Gordon 1989 THG01
    |--Anchicleidochasma Soule, Soule & Chaney 1991 THG01
    |--Calyptooecia Winston 1984 THG01
    |--Fedorella Silén 1947 THG01
    `--Characodoma Maplestone 1900 THG01
         `--C. glabra Gordon & d’Hondt 1997 THG01
  Gephyrophora Busk 1884 THG01
  Hippoporella Canu 1917 THG01
    `--*H. hippopus (Smitt 1873) [=Lepralia hippopus] THG01
  Stephanollona Duvergier 1921 [incl. Brodiella Uttley & Bullivant 1972] THG01
    |--*S. spinifera Duvergier 1921 THG01
    `--‘Hippoporella’ labiata Hayward & Cook 1983 THG01
  Hippoporidra senegambiensis C79
  Cupuladria [Cupuladriidae] R79
    `--C. biporosa R79
  Tropidozoum cellariiforme C79
  Doryporella alcicornis C79
  Aspidostoma giganteum C79
  Scruparia R79
  Reteporellina evelinae R79
  Euthyroides episcopalis R79
  Catenaria parasitica [=Alysidium parasiticum] R79
  Leptocheilopora tenuilabrosa R79
  Bicellariella ciliata R79
  Membraniporella aragoni R79, KBC03
  Aetea Lamouroux 1812 [Aeteidae, Aeteoidea] THG01
    |--*A. anguina (Linnaeus 1758) [=Sertularia anguina] THG01
    |--A. australis Gordon 1984 THG01
    |--A. ligulata Busk 1852 THG01
    `--A. sica (Couch 1844) THG01
  Membraniporoidea THG01
    |--Membraniporidae THG01
    `--Electridae THG01
  Calloporoidea THG01
    |--Calloporidae THG01
    |--Quadricellariidae THG01
    |    |--Quadricellaria CB01
    |    `--Nellia Busk 1852 THG01
    |         |--*N. oculata Busk 1852 THG01
    |         |--N. tenella CB01
    |         `--N. tenuis Harmer 1926 THG01
    `--Antroporidae THG01
         |--Parantropora Tilbrook 1998 THG01
         |    `--*P. penelope Tilbrook 1998 THG01
         |--Antropora Norman 1903 THG01
         |    |--*A. granulifera (Hincks 1880) [=Membranipora granulifera] THG01
         |    `--A. minor (Hincks 1880) [=Membranipora trifolium var. minor, A. minus (l. c.)] THG01
         `--Aplousina CB01
              |--*A. gigantea CB01
              `--A. disjuncta (Gabb & Horn 1862) (see below for synonymy) CB01
  Buguloidea THG01
    |--Bugulidae THG01
    |--Beaniidae THG01
    |--Synnotum Pieper 1881 [Epistomiidae] THG01
    |    `--*S. aegyptiacum (Audouin 1826) (see below for synonymy) THG01
    `--Candidae THG01
         |--Tricellaria HJ08
         |    |--T. inopinata Hondt & Occhipinti Ambrogi 1985 HJ08
         |    |--T. occidentalis (Trask 1857) HJ08
         |    `--T. ziczac R79
         `--Scrupocellaria van Beneden 1845 THG01
              |--*S. scruposa (Linnaeus 1758) [=Sertularia scruposa] THG01
              |--S. reptans B79
              |--S. scabra R79
              `--S. spatulata (d’Orbigny 1851) [=Cellularia spatulata] THG01
  Microporoidea THG01
    |--Microporidae CB01
    |--Thalamoporellidae THG01
    |--Monoporella Hincks 1881 [Monoporellidae] THG01
    |    `--*M. nodulifera (Hincks 1881) (see below for synonymy) THG01
    |--Steginoporella Smitt 1873 [Steginoporellidae] THG01
    |    |--*S. magnilabris (Busk 1854) [=Membranipora magnilabris] THG01
    |    |--S. buskii Harmer 1900 THG01
    |    |--S. jellyae Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001 THG01
    |    `--S. lateralis MacGillivray 1895 [=Steganoporella (l. c.) lateralis] THG01
    `--Onychocellidae THG01
         |--Floridinella Canu & Bassler 1917 THG01
         |    `--*F. vicksburgica CB01
         |--Onychocella CB01
         |    |--O. cyclostoma M79
         |    `--O. inarmata Canu & Bassler 1929 CB01
         `--Smittipora Jullien 1882 THG01
              |--*S. abyssicola (Smitt 1873) [=Vincularia abyssicola] THG01
              `--S. cordiformis Harmer 1926 THG01
  Cellaria Ellis & Solander 1786 [Cellariidae, Cellarioidea] THG01
    `--C. punctata (Busk 1852) [=Salicornia punctata; incl. S. gracilis Busk 1852] THG01
  Catenicelloidea THG01
    |--Savignyella Levinsen 1909 [Savignyellidae] THG01
    |    `--*S. lafontii (Audouin 1826) [=Eucratea lafontii, Catenaria lafontii] THG01
    `--Catenicellidae THG01
         |--Vasignyella Gordon 1989 THG01
         |    `--*V. otophora (Kirkpatrick 1890) [=Catenaria otophora, Savignyella otophora] THG01
         `--Catenicella de Blainville 1830 THG01
              |--*C. contei (Audouin 1826) [=Eucratea contei] THG01
              `--C. triangulifera (Harmer 1957) [=Vittaticella triangulifera] THG01
  Reptadeonella Busk 1884 [Adeonidae, Adeonoidea] THG01
    |--*R. violacea (Johnston 1847) [=Lepralia violacea] THG01
    |--R. cellulanus Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001 THG01
    |--R. fissa (Hincks 1880) (see below for synonymy) THG01
    |--R. levinseni (Borg 1940) THG01
    `--R. novissima Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001 THG01
  Lepralielloidea THG01
    |--Lepraliellidae THG01
    `--Escharoides Milne Edwards 1836 [Romancheinidae] THG01
         |--*E. coccinea (Abildgaard 1806) [=Cellepora coccinea] THG01
         `--E. longirostris Dumont 1981 THG01
  Smittinoidea THG01
    |--Smittinidae THG01
    |--Metroperiella Canu & Bassler 1917 [Bitectiporidae] THG01
    |    |--*M. lepralioides (Calvet in Jullien & Calvet 1903) [=Schizoporella lepralioides] THG01
    |    `--M. montferrandii (Audouin 1826) [=Flustra montferrandii, Codonellina montferrandii] THG01
    |--Watersipora Neviani 1895 [Watersiporidae] THG01
    |    |--W. arcuata Banta 1969 HJ08
    |    |--W. cucullata B79
    |    |--W. nigra R79
    |    |--W. subovoidea [=Dakaria subovoidea] THG01
    |    `--W. subtorquata (d’Orbigny 1852) HJ08
    `--Teuchoporidae THG01
         |--Osthimosia Jullien 1888 THG01
         |--Lagenicella THG01
         `--Torquatella Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001 THG01
              |--*T. duolamellata (Scholz 1991) [=Osthimosia duolamellata] THG01
              |--‘Reptescharellina’ cornuta Gabb & Horn 1862 THG01
              `--‘Schizoporella’ dissimilis Osburn 1952 THG01
  Schizoporelloidea THG01
    |  i. s.: Robertsonidra Osburn 1952 THG01
    |           |--*R. oligopus (Robertson 1908) [=Schizoporella oligopus] THG01
    |           `--R. novella Ryland & Hayward 1992 THG01
    |--Schizoporellidae THG01
    |--Petraliellidae THG01
    |--Echinovadoma Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001 [Echinovadomidae] THG01
    |    `--*E. anceps Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001 THG01
    |--Nimba Jullien in Jullien & Calvet 1903 [Lacernidae] THG01
    |    |--*N. praetexta Jullien in Jullien & Calvet 1903 THG01
    |    `--N. saxatilis Hayward & Ryland 1995 THG01
    |--Microporella Hincks 1877 [Microporellidae] THG01
    |    |--*M. ciliata (Pallas 1766) [=Eschara ciliata] THG01
    |    `--M. orientalis Harmer 1957 THG01
    |--Calyptotheca Harmer 1957 [Lanceoporidae] THG01
    |    |--*C. wasinensis (Waters 1913) [=Schizoporella nivea wasinensis] THG01
    |    |--C. rupicola Hayward & Ryland 1995 THG01
    |    |--C. tenuata Harmer 1957 THG01
    |    `--C. thornelyae Dumont 1981 THG01
    |--Cosciniopsis Canu & Bassler 1927 [Gigantoporidae] THG01
    |    |--*C. coelatus Canu & Bassler 1927 THG01
    |    |--C. globosa Harmer 1957 THG01
    |    |--C. lonchaea (Busk 1884) (see below for synonymy) THG01
    |    |--‘Gephyrophora’ rubra Osburn 1940 THG01
    |    `--‘Aptonella’ violacea Canu & Bassler 1928 THG01
    `--Hippopodinidae THG01
         |--Thornelya Harmer 1957 THG01
         |    |--*T. ceylonica (Thornely 1905) [=Lepralia ceylonica] THG01
         |    `--T. fuscina Tilbrook, Hayward & Gordon 2001 THG01
         `--Hippopodina Levinsen 1909 THG01
              |--*H. feegeensis (Busk 1884) [=Lepralia feegeensis] THG01
              |--H. iririkensis Tilbrook 1999 THG01
              `--H. viriosa Tilbrook 1999 THG01
  Crepidacantha Levinsen 1909 [Crepidacanthidae, Mamilloporoidea] THG01
    |--*C. poissonii (Audouin 1826) [=Flustra poissonii] THG01
    |--C. carsioseta Winston & Heimberg 1986 THG01
    |--C. crinispina Levinsen 1909 THG01
    `--C. longiseta Canu & Bassler 1928 THG01
  Celleporoidea THG01
    |--Phidoloporidae THG01
    `--Turbicellepora Ryland 1963 [Celleporidae] THG01
         |--*T. coronopus (Wood 1849) [=Cellepora coronopus] THG01
         |--T. ampla (Kirkpatrick 1888) (see below for synonymy) THG01
         `--T. magnicosta BBB-S95
  Tessaradoma boreale R79
  Discoporella d’Orbigny 1852 H15
    `--D. umbellata [=Lunulites umbellata] H15
  Lepralia H15
    |--L. alata H04
    |--L. annulata H04
    |--L. celleporoides H15
    |--L. spinifera H04
    `--L. variolosa H04
  Euthyris obtecta H15
  Hippopetraliella P98
  Cryptosula [Cryptosulidae] HJ08
    |--C. pallasiana (Moll 1803) HJ08
    `--C. zavjalovensis KBC03
  Stichomicropora membranacea H75
  Umbonula H04
    |--U. reticulata H04
    `--U. verrucosa H04
  Cupularia stellata H04
  Farciminaria aculeata H04
  Smittia H04
    |--S. landsborovii H04
    `--S. reticulata H04
  Diachoris H04
    |--D. crotali H04
    `--D. magellanica H04

Aplousina disjuncta (Gabb & Horn 1862) [=Biflustra disjuncta; incl. Membranipora perampla Gabb & Horn 1862] CB01

Cosciniopsis lonchaea (Busk 1884) [=Lepralia lonchaea; incl. Hippaliosina auriculata Hayward 1988, Cosciniopsis fusca Canu & Bassler 1927, Gephyrophora rostrigera Canu & Bassler 1929, Lepralia vestita Hincks 1885] THG01

*Monoporella nodulifera (Hincks 1881) [=Haploporella nodulifera; incl. M. fimbriata carinifera Canu & Bassler 1929] THG01

Poricella spatulata (Canu & Bassler 1929) [=Hiantopora spatulata, Arachnopusia spatulata, Tremogasterina spatulata] THG01

Reptadeonella fissa (Hincks 1880) [=Microporella fissa; incl. Adeona joloensis Bassler 1936, Reptadeonella joloensis, A. porosa Canu & Bassler 1929] THG01

*Synnotum aegyptiacum (Audouin 1826) [=Loricaria aegyptiaca; incl. Gemellaria avicularis Pieper 1881] THG01

Turbicellepora ampla (Kirkpatrick 1888) [=Schizoporella ampla; incl. Stephanosella bernardii Harmer 1957] THG01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[C79] Cook, P. L. 1979. Some problems in interpretation of heteromorphy and colony integration in Bryozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 193–210. Academic Press: London.

[CB01] Cook, P. L., & P. E. Bock. 2001. Calescharidae, a new family for the Tertiary to Recent genera Caleschara MacGillivray and Tretosina Canu & Bassler (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata). Invertebrate Taxonomy 15: 527–550.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition—Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[H30] Harmer, S. F. 1930. Presidential address. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 68–118.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 4. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M79] Müller, A. H. 1979. Fossilization (taphonomy). In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A2–A78. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[R79] Ryland, J. S. 1979. Structural and physiological aspects of coloniality in bryozoans. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 211–242. Academic Press: London.

[THG01] Tilbrook, K. J., P. J. Hayward & D. P. Gordon. 2001. Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from Vanuatu. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 131: 35–109.

Sarcomeniaceae

Platysiphonia delicata, copyright Tom Schils.


Belongs within: Ceramiales.

The Sarcomeniaceae are a group of red algae intermediate in some respects between the related families Rhodomelaceae and Delesseriaceae: they have pericentral cells in the thallus that are cut off in an alternating sequence as in Rhodomelaceae, but they have tetrasporangia cut off before the cover cells as in Delesseriaceae (Womersley 2003).

Characters (from Womersley 2003): Thallus erect, much branched, branches terete or compressed, usually gelatinous and decaying rapidly. Apical cells prominent, protruding, axial cells with 4 pericentral cells cut off in alternating sequence with the first-formed transverse pericentral cells lying in a linear row. The slightly larger lateral pericentral cells each cut off 2 half-length flanking cells (only associated with reproduction in Malaconema) which produce rows of cells in some genera. Branching endogenous (except for monosiphonous filaments in Dotyella and Sarcotrichia). Trichoblasts absent, but some genera with simple, monosiphonous, rhodoplastic filaments from the pericentral or flanking cells, arising well below the apices, or endogenous from axial cells (in Cottoniella). Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps borne on the adaxial transverse pericentral cells, with a 4-celled carpogonial branch and 2 sterile cells; carposporophytes with a basal fusion cell and much branched gonimoblast with clavate terminal carposporangia, replaced from lower cells; cystocarps external to branches, ovoid to urceolate, pericarp arising post-fertilization, ostiolate, with numerous erect filaments developed from adjacent pericentral cells, each cell cutting off 2–3 outer pericentral cells, corticated or not. Spermatangia borne in sori on the surface of shorter, compressed, lateral blades. Tetrasporangia in stichidia, cut off from lateral pericentral cells, in 2 longitudinal, distichous, rows, in a single layer, with post-sporangial cover cells on both sides.

Sarcomeniaceae [Sarcomenieae]
    |--Dotyella W03
    |--Sarcomenia Sonder 1845 W03
    |    `--*S. delesserioides Sonder 1845 [incl. Hypoglossum muelleri Kützing 1866] W03
    |--Malaconema Womersley & Shepley 1959 W03
    |    |--*M. roeanum (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |    `--M. minimum Hollenberg 1963 W03
    |--Sarcotrichia Womersley & Shepley 1959 W03
    |    |--*S. tenera (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |    `--S. dolichocystidea (Agardh) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Sarcomenia dolichocystidea Agardh 1896] W03
    |--Cottoniella Børgesen 1919 W03
    |    |--*C. arcuata Børgesen 1919 W03
    |    |--C. filamentosa (Howe) Børgesen 1920 W03
    |    |--C. fusiformis Børgesen 1930 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |    `--C. triseriata Hollenberg 1967 W03
    `--Platysiphonia Børgesen 1931 W03
         |--P. delicata (Clemente) Cremades in Cremades & Perez-Cirera 1990 (see below for synonymy) W03
         |--P. clevelandii (Farlow) Papenfuss 1944 [=Taenioma clevelandii] W03
         |--P. hypneoides (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 W03
         |--P. intermedia (Grunow) Wynne 1983 W03
         |--P. marginalis Wynne, Millar & Kraft 1984 W03
         |--P. mutabilis (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 (see below for synonymy) W03
         `--P. victoriae (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 (see below for synonymy) W03

Cottoniella fusiformis Børgesen 1930 [=C. arcuata var. fusiformis (Børgesen) Schotter 1951, C. filamentosa var. fusiformis (Børgesen) Cormaci et al. 1978] W03

*Malaconema roeanum (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Polysiphonia roeana Harvey 1855, Vertebrata roeana (Harvey) Kuntze 1891] W03

Platysiphonia delicata (Clemente) Cremades in Cremades & Perez-Cirera 1990 [=Conferva delicata Clemente y Rubio 1807; incl. Hutchinsia miniata Agardh 1828, *Platysiphonia miniata (Agardh) Børgesen 1931, Polysiphonia miniata (Agardh) Kützing 1849, Sarcomenia miniata (Agardh) Agardh 1863] W03

Platysiphonia mutabilis (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Polysiphonia mutabilis Harvey 1855, Sarcomenia mutabilis (Harvey) Agardh 1863] W03

Platysiphonia victoriae (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Sarcomenia victoriae Harvey ex Agardh 1863, Polysiphonia victoriae (Harvey) Kützing 1864; incl. Platysiphonia corymbosa (Agardh) Womersley & Shepley 1959, Sarcomenia corymbosa Agardh 1896, S. dasyoides Agardh 1863, S. opposita Agardh 1899, S. wilsonis Agardh 1899] W03

*Sarcotrichia tenera (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Dasya tenera Harvey 1855, Sarcomenia tenera (Harvey) Agardh 1863; incl. Sarcomenia secundata Agardh 1899] W03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

Chondria

Chondria dasyphylla, copyright Ignacio Bárbara.


Belongs within: Rhodomelaceae.

Chondria is a genus of much-branched Rhodomelaceae with distinct pericentral cells throughout the thallus and flat spermatangial plates (Womersley 2003).

Characters (from Womersley 2003): Thallus usually erect, rarely prostrate or free-floating, much branched irregularly radially or unilaterally, rarely subdistichously, with or without one to a few percurrent axes; a few species with tendrils, axillary branches often present; branches terete or compressed, young branches basally constricted. Some species with swollen, bulbous, sterile storage organs. Attachment by discoid holdfasts or haptera from stolons; epilithic or epiphytic. Structure. Apices of branches depressed or rounded, or tapering, with an apical filament usually 10–20 cells long, the subapical cells cutting off 5 pericentral cells in alternating order and branched trichoblasts. Pericentral cells of similar length to axial cells except near apices of tetrasporangial thalli, producing 2–5 series of di- to quadrichotomous branchings, expanding rapidly to form the rounded ends of branches; pericentral cells remaining clear throughout the thallus, cortex of compact, ovoid cells with the epidermal cells ovoid or angular to elongate in surface view. Pericentral and often the inner cortical cells of most species developing wall thickenings of various forms often characteristic of the species. Rhizoids usually formed from pericentral and inner cortical cells, sparse to dense around these cells in larger branches. Secondary cortex absent or present on the lower axes by proliferation of the epidermis. Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps borne on a lower cell of trichoblasts, with the fifth-formed pericentral (supporting) cell bearing a 4-celled carpogonial branch and lateral and basal sterile cell groups; auxiliary cell cut off post-fertilization or in some species the supporting cell acting as auxiliary cell. Carposporophytes with a basal fusion cell and branched gonimoblast with clavate terminal carposporangia, replaced from lower cells. Cystocarps ovoid to slightly urceolate, in some species with a basal spur developed from trichoblast cells above the supporting cell; pericarp ostiolate, with 9–18 erect filaments arising pre-fertilization from adjacent pericentral cells, each cell with 2–3 outer pericentral cells and ecorticate or not. Spermatangial plates flat, discoid or slightly lobed, developed from the whole or a basal branch of a trichoblast, with the primary cells producing a layer of initials each cell of which cuts off 2–4 spermatangia, and with a sterile margin 1–3 cells broad. Tetrasporangia developed in lesser branchlets, cut off singly from near the outer ends of 1–3 radially elongate pericentral cells per axial cell, covered by the outer cortex and epidermal cells.

Chondria Agardh 1817 (nom. cons.) W03
    |--C. capillaris (Hudson) Wynne 1991 [incl. *C. tenuissima (Withering) Agardh 1817] W03
    |--C. angustata (Hooker & Harvey) Kylin ex Kylin & Skottsb. 1919 [=Laurencia pinnatifida var. angustata] L27
    |--C. angustissima Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 W03
    |--C. arcuata Hollenberg 1945 W03
    |--C. bulbosa Harvey 1859 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--C. capensis (Harvey) Falkb. 1901 [=Chondriopsis capensis] L27
    |--C. capreolis Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 [=Laurencia uncinata Kützing 1849 non Zanardini 1847] W03
    |--C. curdieana (Harvey) de Toni 1903 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--C. dasyphylla W03
    |--C. flagellaris Hooker & Harvey 1855 [=Chondriopsis flagellaris] L27
    |--C. foliifera (Agardh) Falkenberg 1901 [=Chondriopsis foliifera Agardh 1885] W03
    |--C. fusifolia (Hooker & Harvey) Harvey 1859 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--C. harveyana (Agardh) de Toni 1903 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--C. hieroglyphica Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 W03
    |--C. incrassata (Agardh) Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--C. incurva Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 W03
    |--C. infestans (Lucas) Millar 1990 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--C. lanceolata Harvey 1855 [=Chondriopsis lanceolata (Harvey) Agardh 1892] W03
    |--C. macrocarpa Hooker & Harvey 1855 [=Chondriopsis macrocarpa] L27
    |--C. subfasciculata (Agardh) Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--C. subsecunda Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 W03
    `--C. succulenta (Agardh) Falkenberg 1901 (see below for synonymy) W03

Chondria bulbosa Harvey 1859 [=Chondriopsis bulbosa (Harvey) Agardh 1890, Rhododactylis bulbosa (Harvey) Agardh 1876; incl. Chondria suprabulbosa Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987] W03

Chondria curdieana (Harvey) de Toni 1903 [=Chondriopsis curdieana Harvey ex Agardh 1892; incl. Chondria dasyphylla var. pyrifera Agardh 1863] W03

Chondria fusifolia (Hooker & Harvey) Harvey 1859 [=Laurencia fusifolia Hooker & Harvey 1847, Chondriopsis fusifolia (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1892] W03

Chondria harveyana (Agardh) de Toni 1903 [=Chondriopsis harveyana Agardh 1863; incl. Chondriopsis arborescens Agardh 1892, Chondria arborescens (Agardh) de Toni 1903, Bolboclinum rytidophloeum Agardh 1894 (n. n.)] W03

Chondria incrassata (Agardh) Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 [=Coeloclonium incrassatum Agardh 1876; incl. Dolichoscelis disticha Agardh 1899, Chondriopsis ovalifolia Agardh 1890, Chondria ovalifolia (Agardh) de Toni 1903] W03

Chondria infestans (Lucas) Millar 1990 [=Laurencia infestans Lucas 1919; incl. C. myriopoda Gordon-Mills & Millar in Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987] W03

Chondria subfasciculata (Agardh) Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 [=Chondriopsis succulenta var. subfasciculata Agardh 1892] W03

Chondria succulenta (Agardh) Falkenberg 1901 [=Chondriopsis succulenta Agardh 1892; incl. Chondria iridescens Lucas 1927, Chondria dasyphylla var. sedifolia Harvey 1863] W03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

Pterosiphonieae

Black tassel Pterosiphonia bipinnata, from Seaweeds of Alaska.


Belongs within: Rhodomelaceae.

The Pterosiphonieae is group of Rhodomelaceae exhibiting bilateral apical development but no primary dorsiventrality (Womersley 2003).

Characters Thallus erect (often with a prostrate base) or largely prostrate, branching bilateral with discrete, alternate, terete to compressed, distichous laterals, or flat and elongate with short marginal determinate laterals, or branched with foliose rounded apices. Branches one cell thick with a small-celled cortex, or 2 cells thick and ecorticate, with or without a midrib. Structure. Apical cells dividing transversely to form axial cells, with the subapical cells dividing obliquely to form alternate distichous laterals. Frond apices with a single apical cell or a margin of several to numerous apical cells, each forming polysiphonous systems congenitally fused at their base to the axis, or fused along their whole length to form flat fronds; pericentral cells 4 to numerous, in some genera transversely divided. Trichoblasts rare and associated only with sexual reproduction, or frequent on the thallus surface or margin. Cells generally uninucleate. Reproduction: Gametophytes usually dioecious. Procarps with a 4-celled carpogonial branch and sterile cells, surrounded by a pericarp prior to fertilization; carposporophyte with a basal fusion cell and branched gonimoblast with terminal carposporangia. Cystocarps usually ovoid, pericarp ecorticate or lightly corticate. Spermatangial organs replacing trichoblasts or branches thereof. Tetrasporangia in terete lateral branches or in stichidia associated with trichoblast tufts on the thallus margin or surface, spirally arranged and single per segment.

Pterosiphonieae
    |--Symphyocladia Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 W03
    |    `--*S. marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--Heterostroma Kraft & Wynne 1992 W03
    |    `--*H. nereidiis Kraft & Wynne 1992 W03
    |--Pollexfenia Harvey 1844 [incl. Jeannerettia Hooker & Harvey in Harvey 1847] W03
    |    |--*P. pedicellata Harvey 1844 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |    |--P. crispata (Zanardini) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |    `--P. lobata (Hooker & Harvey) Falkenberg 1901 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--Dictyomenia Greville 1830 W03
    |    |--*D. tridens (Mertens) Greville 1830 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |    |--D. angusta Agardh 1897 W03
    |    |--D. harveyana Sonder 1853 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |    `--D. sonderi Harvey 1858 [incl. D. sonderiana Agardh 1897] W03
    `--Pterosiphonia Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 W03
         |--*P. cloiophylla (Agardh) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 W03 [=Polysiphonia cloiophylla L27]
         |    |--P. c. var. cloiophylla L27
         |    `--P. c. var. corymbosa Kützing 1849 L27
         |--P. arctica Setchell & Gardner 1903 S57
         |--P. bipinnata (Postels & Ruprecht) Falkenberg 1901 [=Polysiphonia bipinnata] S57
         |    |--P. b. var. bipinnata S57
         |    `--P. b. var. robusta (Gardner) Doty 1947 S57
         |--P. dendroidea (Montagne) Falkenberg 1901 [=Polysiphonia dendroidea] S57
         |--P. gracilis Kylin 1925 S57
         |--P. pennata (Agardh) Sauvageau 1897 (see below for synonymy) W03
         `--P. simplicifilum (Agardh) Laing 1927 [=Polysiphonia simplicifilum] L27

Dictyomenia harveyana Sonder 1853 [incl. D. harveyana var. flabelligera Harvey 1863, D. interstincta Agardh 1885, D. spinulosa Kützing 1864] W03

*Dictyomenia tridens (Mertens) Greville 1830 [=Fucus tridens Mertens ex Turner 1819, Rhodomela tridens (Mertens) Agardh 1822] W03

Pollexfenia crispata (Zanardini) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 [=Melanoseris crispata Zanardini 1874, Jeannerettia crispata (Zanardini) Papenfuss 1942; incl. Pollexfenia ciliaris Agardh in Tate 1882 (n. n.)] W03

Pollexfenia lobata (Hooker & Harvey) Falkenberg 1901 [=Jeannerettia lobata Hooker & Harvey in Harvey 1847, Botryoglossum lobatum (Hooker & Harvey) Kützing 1849; incl. J. frondosa Harvey 1855, J. latifolia Kützing 1866] W03

*Pollexfenia pedicellata Harvey 1844 [=Jeannerettia pedicellata (Harvey) Papenfuss 1942; incl. P. crenata Agardh 1892, J. crenata (Agardh) Papenfuss 1942, P. nana Agardh 1892, J. nana (Agardh) Papenfuss 1942] W03

Pterosiphonia pennata (Agardh) Sauvageau 1897 [=Hutchinsia pennata Agardh 1824, Polysiphonia pennata (Agardh) Agardh 1842] W03

*Symphyocladia marchantioides (Harvey) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 [=Amansia marchantioides Harvey 1855] W03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

Bostrychieae

Bostrychia scorpioides, copyright Raquel Sánchez de Pedro.


Belongs within: Rhodomelaceae.

The Bostrychieae is a group of two genera of Rhodomelaceae, distinguished from other members of the family by the absence of trichoblasts, together with distinctive female reproductive features (Womersley 2003).

Characters (from Womersley 2003): Thallus apices dorsiventrally developed, with polysiphonous indeterminate axes bearing polysiphonous and monosiphonous determinate laterals usually at regular intervals; trichoblasts absent; axes attached by clumped rhizoids. Branching mostly exogenous. Polysiphonous branches with 4–9 pericentral cells dividing transversely into 2–5 tiers; ecorticate or corticated. Procarps formed on 2–6 or more successive polysiphonous segments, each segment with 1–4 procarps each with the fertile pericentral (supporting) cell, a lateral sterile group of 2–6 cells and a (3–) 4-celled carpogonial branch; carposporophyte with a branched gonimoblast bearing terminal carposporangia; cystocarps with a post fertilization pericarp of 6–14 longitudinal filaments, each cell cutting off 2 (–3) outer pericentral cells, usually corticated. Spermatangia forming an outer layer on polysiphonous determinate laterals. Tetrasporangial stichidia on determinate laterals, each segment with 4–5 pericentral cells and whorled tetrasporangia, protected by cover cells.

Bostrychieae
    |--Stictosiphonia Hooker & Harvey in Hooker 1847 W03
    |    |--S. intricata (Bory) Silva in Silva et al. 1996 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |    `--S. kelanensis ZW03
    `--Bostrychia Montagne 1842 (nom. cons.) W03
         |--*B. scorpioides W03
         |--B. arbuscula Hooker & Harvey 1855 L27
         |--B. caespitula Agardh 1899 L27
         |--B. harveyi Montagne 1852 [incl. B. australasica Sonder 1855, B. distans Harvey 1855] W03
         |--B. laingii Agardh 1899 L27
         |--B. moritziana (Sonder) Agardh 1863 [=Polysiphonia moritziana Sonder ex Kützing 1849] W03
         |--B. novae-zelandiae Agardh 1899 L27
         |--B. radicans ZW03
         |--B. similis Rbd. 1905 L27
         |--B. simpliciuscula W03
         `--B. tenuissima King & Puttock 1989 [incl. B. tenuis f. typica Post 1936] W03

Stictosiphonia intricata (Bory) Silva in Silva et al. 1996 [=Scytonema intricatum Bory 1828, Bostrychia intricata (Bory) Montagne 1852; incl. B. hookeri Harvey in Harvey & Hooker 1845, *Stictosiphonia hookeri (Harvey) Harvey in Hooker 1847, B. mixta Hooker & Harvey 1845, Amphibia mixta (Hooker & Harvey) Kuntze 1891] W03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

[ZW03] Zuccarello, G. C., & J. A. West. 2003. Multiple cryptic species: molecular diversity and reproductive isolation in the Bostrychia radicans/B. moritziana complex (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) with focus on North American isolates. Journal of Phycology 39: 948–959.

Laurencia

Laurencia obtusa, from here.


Belongs within: Rhodomelaceae.

Laurencia is a diverse genus of erect, often densely branching Rhodomelaceae.

Characters (from Womersley 2003): Thallus erect, moderately to much branched radially or distichously for 2–5 orders, soft to firm, usually drying cartilaginous, branches with truncated apices with a depressed apical pit; holdfast discoid or stoloniferous, epilithic or epiphytic. Structure. Apical depression with a central, short, apical filament bearing well-developed trichoblasts and four pericentral cells per axial cell, axial cells short, these and the pericentral cells soon obscured and not recognisable in sections, cortex extensive with relatively large, ovoid, usually compact, irregular cortical cells and a small-celled epidermis with secondary pit-connections between the cells lengthwise to the branch and usually with corps en cerise; inner cortical cells often producing rhizoids and in some species with lenticular wall thickenings. Lateral branches arising from basal cells of trichoblasts. Cells uni- or multinucleate; rhodoplasts discoid to elongate, often chained in larger inner cells. Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps formed on the fourth pericentral cells on the suprabasal cell of trichoblasts, consisting of a lateral sterile group of 4–6 cells, a four-celled carpogonial branch and a basal sterile group of 2–3 cells. Carposporophytes with a basal fusion cell and branched gonimoblast bearing clavate terminal carposporangia, usually replaced from cells below when lost. Cystocarps usually lateral on branches, usually sessile, basally constricted or broad-based and in some species conical; pericarp arising pre-fertilization, ostiolate, corticated and 3–6 cells thick. Spermatangia borne in lateral whorls on cells of modified trichoblasts in the apical cup-like depressions, each axial cell with four pericentral cells and ultimate spermatangia, the filaments terminated by an enlarged globular cell. Tetrasporangia borne, usually abaxially, on outer ends of laterally elongate pericentral cells or pit-connected to outer cortical cells, usually in "parallel" (down the branch) arrangement, tetrahedrally divided.

Laurencia Lamouroux 1813 (nom. cons.) W03
    |--*L. obtusa (Hudson) Lamouroux 1813 W03
    |--L. aldingensis Saito & Womersley 1974 W03
    |--L. arbuscula Sonder 1845 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--L. botrychioides Harvey 1855 L27
    |--L. botryoides (Agardh) Gaillon 1828 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--L. brongniartii Agardh 1841 [incl. L. concinna Montagne 1842, L. grevilleana Harvey 1855] W03
    |--L. clavata Sonder 1853 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--L. cymosa Kützing 1865 W03
    |--L. distichophylla Agardh 1852 W03
    |--L. elata (Agardh) Hooker & Harvey 1847 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--L. filiformis (Agardh) Montagne 1845 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--L. forsteri (Mertens) Greville 1830 (see below for synonymy) W03
    |--L. gracilis Harvey 1847 L27
    |--L. hybrida (Desne) Kützing 1849 L27
    |--L. intricata W03
    |--L. majuscula (Harvey) Lucas 1935 [=L. obtusa var. majuscula Harvey 1863] W03
    |--L. papillosa (Agardh) Greville 1830 W03
    |--L. pinnatifida (Gmelin) Lamouroux 1813 L27
    |--L. shepherdii Saito & Womersley 1974 W03
    |--L. spectabilis Postels & Ruprecht 1840 S57
    |--L. tasmanica Hooker & Harvey ex Harvey 1849 [incl. L. excelsa Kützing 1865] W03
    |--L. thyrsifera Agardh 1876 L27
    |--L. uncinata Zanardini 1847 W03
    `--L. virgata (Agardh) Agardh 1852 L27

Laurencia arbuscula Sonder 1845 [incl. L. botryoides var. minor Harvey 1863, L. obtusa var. regia Harvey 1863, L. regia (Harvey) Yamada 1931] W03

Laurencia botryoides (Agardh) Gaillon 1828 [=Chondria botryoides Agardh 1817, Fucus botryoides Turner 1811 (nom. illeg.)] W03

Laurencia clavata Sonder 1853 [=Chondria clavata (Sonder) Harvey 1862, Corynecladia clavata (Sonder) Agardh 1876; incl. Corallopsis australasica Sonder 1853, Corynecladia auatralasica (Sonder) Sonder 1880, Chondria corynephora Harvey 1855, Ch. clavata var. dendroides Harvey 1863, Corynecladia umbellata Agardh 1876 (nom. illeg.)] W03

Laurencia elata (Agardh) Hooker & Harvey 1847 [=Chondria pinnatifida var. elata Agardh 1822, L. pinnatifida var. elata (Agardh) Sonder 1846; incl. L. elata var. luxurians Harvey 1863, L. luxurians (Harvey) Agardh 1876] W03

Laurencia filiformis (Agardh) Montagne 1845 [=Chondria filiformis Agardh 1822, Gracilaria filiformis (Agardh) Greville 1930; incl. L. affinis Sonder 1845, L. forsteri f. affinis (Sonder) Yamada 1931, Coeloclonium claviferum Agardh 1897, Dolichoscelis clavifera (Agardh) Agardh 1899, Laurencia forsteri f. delicatula Sonder 1848, L. filiformis f. dendritica Saito & Womersley 1974, L. forsteri f. dilatata Kützing 1865, L. forsteri f. elata Sonder 1848, L. forsteri f. fasciculata Agardh 1876, L. forsteri f. fragilis Sonder 1848, L. forsteri f. gracilis Sonder 1848 non L. gracilis Harvey 1847, L. heteroclada Harvey 1855, L. filiformis f. heteroclada (Harvey) Saito & Womersley 1974, L. forsteri f. pyramidata Agardh 1876, L. forsteri f. setacea Kützing 1865, L. forsteri f. subpinnata Agardh 1876] W03

Laurencia forsteri (Mertens) Greville 1830 [=Fucus forsteri Mertens ex Turner 1809, Chondria forsteri (Mertens) Agardh 1823] W03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.