Field of Science

Sarcoptoidea

Guinea pig mange mite Trixacarus caviae, from here.


Belongs within: Analgoidea.
Contains: Teinocoptinae.

The Sarcoptoidea are a group of mites that are found living on mammals, either as parasites or commensals, including the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei.

Characters (from OConnor 2009): All tarsi lacking proral setae, tarsus IV lacking seta s; genu I with 0-1 solenidion (2 in Hyracoptes); pretarsus with empodium clawlike in centre of ambulacral disc or may be flattened as central sclerite in fur mites, empodium rarely absent; if ambulacral disc well developed, condylophore guide typically present at junction of ambulacral stalk and disc; pretarsus not retractable. Paraproctal chaetome with 0-3 p setae and 0 ad setae.

Sarcoptoidea [Psoroptoidea]
    |--Lobalgidae K92
    |    |--Echimytricalges O09
    |    `--Lobalges trouessarti O09
    |--Myocoptidae K92
    |    |--Myocoptes musculinus K09
    |    |--Trichoecius tenax O09
    |    `--Dromiciocoptes caenolestes O09
    |--Atopomelidae K92
    |    |--Koalachirus perkinsi WP99
    |    |--Listrocarpus O09
    |    |--Oryzomysia O09
    |    |--Cytostethum O09
    |    |--Chirodiscoides caviae O09
    |    |--Listrophoroides cucullatus O09
    |    `--Didelphilichus serrifer O09
    |--Psoroptidae K92
    |    |  i. s.: Acaroptes K92
    |    |         Chorioptes bovis DW10
    |    |         Otodectes cynotis DW10
    |    |         Coendalges O09
    |    |         Caparinia tripilis O09
    |    |--Makialginae K92
    |    |--Cebalginae K92
    |    |--Listropsoralginae K92
    |    |--Psoralges K92 [Psoralginae O09]
    |    `--Psoroptes [Psoroptinae] K92
    |         |--P. cuniculi U91
    |         `--P. equi D01
    `--+--Rhyncoptidae K92
       |    |--Ursicoptes K92
       |    |--Saimirioptes paradoxus O09
       |    |--Audycoptes [Audycoptidae] K92
       |    |--Caenolestocoptes [Caenolestocoptinae] K92
       |    |    `--C. inca Fain & Lukoschus 1976 K92
       |    `--Rhyncoptes O09
       |         |--R. anastosi K09
       |         `--R. grabberi O09
       `--Sarcoptidae K92
            |--Diabolicoptinae K92
            |    |--Diabolicoptes Fain & Domrow 1974 K92
            |    |    `--*D. sarcophilus Fain & Domrow 1974 K92
            |    `--Satanicoptes Fain & Laurence 1975 K92
            |         |--*S. armatus Fain & Laurence 1975 K92
            |         `--S. phascogale (Fain & Domrow 1974) [=Diabolicoptes phascogale] K92
            `--+--Teinocoptinae K92
               `--Sarcoptinae K92
                    |--Trixacarus Sellnick 1944 [incl. Caviacoptes Fain et al. 1972] K92
                    |    |--T. eliurus Klompen 1992 K92
                    |    `--+--*T. diversus Sellnick 1944 [incl. Sarcoptes anacanthos Guilhon 1946] K92
                    |       `--T. caviae Fain, Hovell & Hyatt 1972 [=T. (*Caviacoptes) caviae] K92
                    `--+--Kutzerocoptes Lavoipierre 1970 K92
                       |    `--*K. grunbergi Lavoipierre 1970 K92
                       `--+--Sarcoptes Latreille 1802 K92
                          |    |--*S. scabiei (Linnaeus 1758) K92 (see below for synonymy)
                          |    `--S. strigis Genè 1848 CF77
                          `--Prosarcoptes Lavoipierre 1960 [incl. Cosarcoptes Fain 1968, Pithesarcoptes Fain 1965] K92
                               |--P. talapoini (Fain 1965) [=Pithesarcoptes talapoini] K92
                               `--+--*P. pitheci (Philippe 1948) (see below for synonymy) K92
                                  `--P. scanloni Smiley 1965 [=Cosarcoptes scanloni] K92

Sarcoptoidea incertae sedis:
  Gastronyssidae O09
    |--Gastronyssus bakeri WP99
    |--Opsonyssus brutsaerti O09
    |--Yunkeracarus O09
    `--Sciuracarus paraxeri O09
  Chirodiscidae O09
    |--Schizocarpus DW10
    |--Chirodiscus O09
    |--Lemuroecius O09
    |--Schizocoptes conjugatus O09
    |--Pseudoalabidocarpus K06 [Labidocarpidae, Labidocarpinae O09]
    |    `--P. secus K06
    `--Alabidocarpus O09
         |--A. chalinolobi O09
         `--A. vietnamensis O09
  Chirorhynchobia [Chirorhynchobiidae] O09
    `--C. urodermae O09
  Lemurnyssus [Lemurnyssidae] O09
    `--L. galagoensis O09
  Pneumocoptes [Pneumocoptidae] O09
    |--P. banksi O09
    |--P. jellisoni O09
    |--P. penrosei O09
    `--P. tiollaisi O09

*Prosarcoptes pitheci (Philippe 1948) [=Sarcoptes pitheci; incl. P. faini Lavoipierre 1970] K92

Sarcoptes scabiei (Linnaeus 1758) [=Acarus siro var. scabiei K92; incl. S. scabiei var. canis D01, S. scabiei var. hominis A01, S. scabiei var. wombati Railliet 1893 H01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A01] Andrews, J. R. H. 2001. A progress report on scabies in humans. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 552-557. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[D01] Desch, C. E. 2001. Anatomy and ultrastructure of the female reproductive system of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 203-212. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H01] Halliday, R. B. 2001. 250 years of Australian acarology. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 3-16. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

[K09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Form and function. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 5-53. Texas Tech University Press.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 565-657. Texas Tech University Press.

[U91] Uhlíř, J. 1991. Blood phagocytic cell response of rabbits infested with Psoroptes cuniculi. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 409-414. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Aedes

Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, copyright Muhammad Mahdi Karim.


Belongs within: Culicinae.

Aedes is a cosmopolitan genus of mosquitoes including the vectors of such diseases as dengue fever and Ross River virus (Liehne 1991).

Characters (from Liehne 1991): Palps generally short, less than 0.25× length proboscis. Upright forked scales on vertex numerous. Spiracular bristles absent, postspiracular bristles always present. Tarsal claws usually toothed, pulvilli absent. Wing membrane with distinct microtrichia. Larva with siphon usually short; seta 1-S a single pair of tufts, never inserted at base of siphon; saddle rarely complete ring.

Aedes
    |--A. (Aedes) cinereus S68
    |--A. (Aedimorphus) S68
    |    |--A. (A.) nocturnus RK04
    |    `--A. (A.) vexans S68
    |--A. (Finlaya) S68
    |    |--A. (F.) atropalpus S68
    |    |--A. (F.) notoscriptus PC66 [=Ochlerotatus (F.) notoscriptus D05b]
    |    |--‘Ochlerotatus’ (F.) papuensis RK04
    |    |--A. (F.) triseriatus S68
    |    `--A. (F.) varipalpus S68
    |--‘Ochlerotatus’ (Halaedes) australis D04
    |--A. (Kompia) purpureipes S81
    |--A. (Lorrainea) dasyorrhus RK04
    |--A. (Ochlerotatus) S81
    |    |--A. (O.) aboriginis S68
    |    |--A. (O.) abserratus S68
    |    |--‘Ochloerotatus’ (O.) antipodeus D05a
    |    |--A. (O.) aurifer S68
    |    |--A. (O.) barri S68
    |    |--A. (O.) campestris S68
    |    |--A. (O.) canadensis S68
    |    |--A. (O.) cantans DW84
    |    |--A. (O.) cantator S68
    |    |--A. (O.) cataphylla S68
    |    |--A. (O.) communis S68
    |    |--A. (O.) decticus S68
    |    |--A. (O.) diantaeus S68
    |    |--A. (O.) dorsalis S68
    |    |--A. (O.) excrucians S68
    |    |--A. (O.) fitchii S68
    |    |--A. (O.) flavescens S68
    |    |--A. (O.) hexodontus S68
    |    |--A. (O.) idahoensis S68
    |    |--A. (O.) impiger S68
    |    |--A. (O.) implicatus S68
    |    |--A. (O.) increpitus S68
    |    |--A. (O.) intrudens S68
    |    |--A. (O.) melanimon S68
    |    |--A. (O.) nigripes S68
    |    |--A. (O.) nigromaculis S68
    |    |--A. (O.) niphadopsis S68
    |    |--A. (O.) pionips S68
    |    |--A. (O.) pullatus S68
    |    |--A. (O.) punctodes S68
    |    |--A. (O.) punctor S68
    |    |--A. (O.) rempeli S68
    |    |--A. (O.) riparius S68
    |    |--A. (O.) sollicitans S68
    |    |--A. (O.) spencerii S68
    |    |--A. (O.) sticticus S68
    |    |--A. (O.) stimulans S68
    |    |--A. (O.) trichurus S68
    |    `--A. (O.) trivittatus S68
    `--A. (Stegomyia) D05b
         |--A. (S.) aegypti D05b
         |--‘Stegomyia’ atripes F15
         `--A. (S.) scutellaris RK04

Aedes incertae sedis:
  A. albopictus RK04
  A. caballus A71
  ‘Ochlerotatus’ camptorhynchus RK04
  A. caspius KK91
  A. geniculatus KK91
  A. grossbecki M81
  ‘Ochlerotatus’ japonicus RK04
  ‘Ochlerotatus’ kochi RK04
  ‘Ochlerotatus’ normanensis RK04
  A. polynesiensis RK04
  ‘Ochlerotatus’ procax RK04
  A. rusticus KK91
  A. sierrensis BMA03 [=Ochlerotatus sierrensis RK04]
  A. tarsalis A71
  A. togoi A71
  A. vigilax S91 [=Ochlerotatus vigilax RK04]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BMA03] Beard, C. E., J. W. McCreadie & P. H. Adler. 2003. Prevalence of the trichomycete fungus Harpella melusinae (Harpellales, Harpellaceae) in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) across a heterogeneous environment. Mycologia 95 (4): 577-583.

[DW84] Dahl, C., S. Wold, L. T. Nielsen & C. Nilsson. 1984. A SIMCA pattern recognition study in taxonomy: claw shape in mosquitoes (Culicidae, Insecta). Systematic Zoology 33 (4): 355-369.

[D05a] Derraik, J. G. B. 2005a. Notes on some adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) records from West Auckland. Weta 29: 12-15.

[D05b] Derraik, J. G. B. 2005b. Recommendations for mosquito control in zoological parks to reduce disease transmission risk. Weta 29: 16-20.

[F15] Ferguson, E. W. 1915. Descriptions of new Australian blood-sucking flies belonging to the family Leptidae. Journal of Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 69: 233-243.

[KK91] Kamarinchev, B., T. Kovacheva, T. Christova, G. Georgieva & V. Zlatanova. 1991. Studies on mosquitoes and ticks as carriers of alpha-, flavi- and bunyaviruses. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 89-92. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Liehne, P. F. S. 1991. An Atlas of the Mosquitoes of Western Australia. Health Department of Western Australia.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 9-63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[RK04] Russell, R. C., & B. H. Kay. 2004. Medical entomology: changes in the spectrum of mosquito-borne disease in Australia and other vector threats and risks, 1972-2004. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 271-282.

[S91] Southcott, R. V. 1991. Descriptions of larval Leptus (Acarina: Erythraeidae) ectoparasitic on Australian Diptera, and two earlier described Australian larvae. Invertebrate Taxonomy 5: 717-763.

[S68] Steward, C. C. 1968. Numerical classification of the Canadian species of the genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae). Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 426-437.

[S81] Stone, A. 1981. Culicidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 341-350. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Pulmonata

Judas' ear shell Ellobium aurisjudae, copyright Ron Yeo.


Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Siphonarioidea, Hygrophila, Systellommatophora, Stylommatophora, Melampinae, Pythiinae.

The Pulmonata are a group of gastropods characterised by modification of the mantle cavity into a vascularised 'pallial lung' allowing direct gas exchange with the air, and the concommitant loss of the gills. As such, the group includes the majority of terrestrial gastropods, though it also includes a number of primarily aquatic lineages.

Pulmonata [Adelopneumona, Aeropneusta, Archaeopulmonata, Limnophila, Limnophilidae, Petrophila, Pulmonifera]
    |  i. s.: Promenetus B97
    |           |--P. exacuous (Say 1821) P88
    |           `--P. umbilicatellus (Cockerell 1887) P88
    |--Basommatophora BR05
    |    |--Siphonarioidea BR05
    |    |--Hygrophila BR05
    |    `--Amphibolidae [Amphibolacea, Amphibolida, Amphiboliformes, Amphiboliformii, Amphiboloidea] BR05
    |         |--Ampullacera Quoy & Gaimard 1832 [Ampullacerae, Ampullaceridae] BR05
    |         |--Amphibola Schumacher 1817 BR05
    |         |    `--A. crenata O81
    |         `--Salinator Hedley 1900 [Salinatoridae] BR05
    |              |--S. fragilis (Lamarck 1822) [=Ampullaria fragilis] H09
    |              `--S. solida GO06
    `--Eupulmonata [Acteophila, Actophila, Akteophila] BR05
         |--Systellommatophora BR05
         |--Stylommatophora BR05
         |--Otinoidea BR05
         |    |--Otina Gray 1847 [Otinidae, Otininae] BR05
         |    `--Smeagol Climo 1980 [Smeagolidae, Smeagolina] BR05
         |         `--S. manneringi Climo 1980 APS-P86
         |--Trimusculidae [Trimusculoidea] BR05
         |    |--Trimusculus Schmidt 1818 [Trimusculinae] BR05
         |    `--Gadinia Gray 1824 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
         |         |--*G. peruviana O27
         |         |--G. nivea Hutton 1878 [incl. Hipponyx hexagonus] F27
         |         `--G. reticulata (Sowerby 1835) [=Mouretia reticulata] O27
         `--Ellobiidae [Auriculoidea, Ellobiacea, Ellobioidea] BR05
              |  i. s.: Marinula M54
              |           |--M. filholi HS01
              |           |--M. patula (Lowe 1835) [=Melampus patulus] H09
              |           |--M. striata Odhner 1924 [incl. Cremnobates parva Swainson 1855] F27
              |           `--M. xanthostoma M54
              |         Phytia Gray 1821 O27
              |           |--*P. denticulata [=Alexia denticulata] O27
              |           `--P. setifer Cooper 1872 O27
              |--Melampinae BR05
              |--Pythiinae W97
              |--Zaptychius Walcott 1883 [Zaptychiinae] BR05
              |    `--Z. quanshengxigouensis ZZ88
              |--Pedipedinae W97
              |    |--Microtralia alba (Gassies 1865) [=Ellobium (Auriculodes) album] W97
              |    `--Pedipes Férussac 1821 BR05
              |         |--*P. afer O27
              |         |--P. liratus Binney 1860 O27
              |         `--P. unisulcatus Cooper 1866 O27
              |--Carychiinae [Carychiadae, Carychiidae] BR05
              |    |--Zospeum Bourguignat 1856 [Zospeidae] BR05
              |    |    `--Z. exiguum (Kuščer 1932) BV86
              |    `--Carychium Müller 1773 BR05
              |         |--C. exile BP90
              |         |    |--C. e. exile BP90
              |         |    `--C. e. canadense BP90
              |         |--C. floridanum BP90
              |         |--C. nannodes BP90
              |         `--C. stygium BP90
              `--Ellobiinae W97
                   |--Auricula Lamarck 1799 [Amphibiae, Auriculacea, Auriculea, Auriculidae, Auriculinae] BR05
                   |--Leucophytia Winckworth 1949 [Leucophytiidae] BR05
                   `--Ellobium Röding 1798 W97
                        |--*E. aurisjudae (Linnaeus 1758) [=Bulla aurisjudae] W97
                        |--E. aurismidae Linnaeus 1767 [=Bulla aurismidae] W97
                        |--E. chinense (Pfeiffer 1855) W97
                        |--E. helvaceum (Pfeiffer 1876) [=Auriculus helvaceus] H09
                        |--E. polita (Metcalfe 1851) W97
                        `--E. semisculptum Adams & Adams 1854 [=E. (Auriculodes) semisculptum] W97

Gadinia Gray 1824 BR05 [incl. Mouretia Sowerby 1834 O27, Rowellia Cooper 1865 O27; Gadiniadae, Gadiniidae, Gadiniinae, Gadinioidea]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[APS-P86] Arnaud, P. M., Cl. Poizat & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Marine-interstitial Gastropoda (including one freshwater interstitial species).  In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 153-176. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BV86] Bole, J., & F. Velkovrh. 1986. Mollusca from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 177-208. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27-33.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201-309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320-485.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: Monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723-7728.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45-80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In The Archipelago of the Recherche (J. M. Willis, ed.) pp. 55-63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America, vol. II, pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P88] Pip, E. 1988. Niche congruency of freshwater gastropods in central North America with respect to six water chemistry parameters. Nautilus 102 (2): 65-72.

[W97] Wells, F. E. 1997. A review of the northern Australian species of the genera Cassidula and Ellobium (Gastropoda: Ellobiidae). In Proceedings of the Sixth International Marine Biological Workshop. The marine flora and fauna of Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia (J. R. Hanley, G. Caswell, et al., eds) pp. 213-229. Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory and the Australian Marine Sciences Association: Darwin.

[ZZ88] Zhu G.-X. & Zhou Y.-Z. 1988. Fresh-water molluscan fauna across Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in southeast Jilin. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 27 (6): 713-721.

Arionoidea

European red slug Arion rufus, copyright G. Brocker.


Belongs within: Stylommatophora.

The Arionoidea are a group of slugs and semislugs characterised by an aulacopod foot (surrounded by a supra-pedal groove) and odontognath (ribbed) jaw (Hausdorf 1998).

<==Arionoidea
    |--Anadenus Heynemann 1863 [Anadenidae, Anadeninae] BR05
    |--Binneya Cooper 1863 [Binneyidae, Binneyinae] BR05
    |    |--B. guadelupensis BP90
    |    `--B. notabilis BP90
    |--Oopeltidae BR05
    |    |--Oopelta Mörch in Heynemann 1867 [Oopeltinae] BR05
    |    `--Ariopelta Sirgel 1985 [Ariopeltinae] BR05
    |--Ariolimacidae BR05
    |    |--Ariolimax Mörch 1859 [Ariolimacinae] BR05
    |    |    `--A. columbianus BP90
    |    `--Zacoleus Pilsbry 1903 [Zacoleinae] BR05
    |         `--Z. lyrata BP90
    |              |--Z. l. lyrata BP90
    |              `--Z. l. russelli BP90
    |--Philomycidae BR05
    |    |--Tebennophorus Binney 1842 [Tebennophoridae, Tebennophorinae] BR05
    |    |--Pallifera Morse 1864 BP90
    |    |    `--P. dorsalis G59
    |    |--Megapallifera Hubricht 1956 BP90
    |    |    |--M. ragsdalei BP90
    |    |    `--M. wetherbyi BP90
    |    `--Philomycus Rafinesque 1820 [Philomycina, Philomycinae] BR05
    |         |--P. bisdosus Branson 1968 F89
    |         |--P. carolinianus Bosc 1802 F89
    |         |--P. flexuolaris G59
    |         |--P. togatus Gould 1841 F89
    |         `--P. venustus Hubricht 1953 F89
    `--Arionidae [Arconidae] BR05
         |--Tetraspis Hagenmuller 1885 [Tetraspididae] BR05
         |--Anadenulus Cockerell 1890 BP90
         |    `--A. cockerelli BP90
         |--Hemphillia Bland & Binney 1872 BP90
         |    `--H. dromedaria BP90
         |--Hesperarion Simroth 1891 BP90
         |    `--H. niger BP90
         |--Magnipelta Pilsbry 1953 BP90
         |    `--M. mycophaga BP90
         |--Prophysaon Bland & Binney 1873 BP90
         |    `--P. foliolatum BP90
         `--Arion Férussac 1819 [Arioninae] BR05
              |--A. circumscriptus Johnston 1828 HM07
              |--A. fasciatus BP90
              |--A. hortensis HM07
              |--A. intermedius F08
              |--A. lusitanicus HM07
              |--A. rufus RP91
              `--A. silvaticus PH06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201-309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[F89] Fairbanks, H. L. 1989. The reproductive anatomy and taxonomic status of Philomycus venustus Hubricht, 1953 and Philomycus bisdosus Branson, 1968 (Pulmonata: Philomycidae). Nautilus 103 (1): 20-23.

[F08] Fuhrmann, R. 2008. Die Ostrakoden- und Molluskenfauna des Auelehmprofils Zeitz (Landkreis Burgenland) und ihre Aussage zum Klima sowie zur Landnutzung im jüngeren Holozän Mitteldeutschlands. Mauritiana 20 (2): 253-281.

[G59] Grimm, W. 1959. Land snails of Carroll County, Maryland. Nautilus 72 (4): 122-127.

Hausdorf, B. 1998. Phylogeny of the Limacoidea sensu lato (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora). Journal of Molluscan Studies 64 (1): 35-66.

[HM07] Honek, A., & Z. Martinkova. 2007. A field method for quantifying the grazing activity of slugs, with particular reference to Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca). Malacologia 49 (2): 273-281.

[PH06] Passamaneck, Y., & K. M. Halanych. 2006. Lophotrochozoan phylogeny assessed with LSU and SSU data: Evidence of lophophorate polyphyly. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 20-28.

[RP91] Raut, S. K., & A. Panigrahi. 1991. The mite Fuscuropoda marginata (C. L. Koch) for the control of pest slugs Laevicaulis alte (Férussac). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 683-687. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Limacoidea

Mating grey garden slugs Deroceras reticulatum, copyright Lucie Juřičková.


Belongs within: Stylommatophora.

The Limacoidea are a group of slugs and semislugs found in more humid biotopes (Hausdorf 1998).

Synapomorphies (from Hausdorf 1998): Epiphallus absent; spermatophore absent; vas deferens running along inside of penial tunica.

<==Limacoidea
    |--Boettgerilla Simroth 1910 [Boettgerillidae] BR05
    |--Agriolimacidae BR05
    |    |--Mesolimax Pollonera 1888 [Mesolimacinae] BR05
    |    `--Agriolimacinae BR05
    |         |--Agriolimax Mörch 1865 BR05
    |         `--Deroceras Rafinesque 1820 [Deroceratinae] BR05
    |              |--D. agreste (Linnaeus 1758) HM07
    |              |--D. buchar (Simroth 1910) RA70
    |              |--D. kandaharensis van Regteren Altena 1970 RA70
    |              |--D. laeve (Müller 1774) RA70
    |              `--D. reticulatum (Müller 1774) HM07
    |--Vitrinidae (see below for synonymy) BR05
    |    |--‘Hyalina’ Studer 1820 non Schumacher 1817 BR05
    |    |--Plutonia Morelet in Stabile 1864 BR05
    |    |--Vitriplutonia Collinge 1893 BR05
    |    |--Semilimax Stabile 1859 [Semilimacinae, Semilimacini] BR05
    |    |--Oligolimax Schileyko 2003 [Oligolimacini] BR05
    |    |--Phenacolimax Stabile 1859 [Phenacolimacinae] BR05
    |    |    |--P. crassus Groh & Hemmen 1986 CC06
    |    |    `--P. portosanctanus Groh & Hemmen 1986 CC06
    |    `--Vitrina Draparnaud 1801 BR05
    |         |--V. birmanica Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
    |         |--V. limpida BP90
    |         `--V. papillispira [=Austenia papillispira] TC89
    `--Limacidae [Limacidia, Limaxia] BR05
         |  i. s.: Lehmania marginata (Müller 1774) HM07
         |         Malacolimax tenellus (Müller 1774) HM07
         |         Lehmannia Heynemann 1862 BP90
         |           |--L. marginata RP91
         |           `--L. valentiana BP90
         |--Eumilax Boettger 1881 [Eumilacinae] BR05
         `--Limacinae [Limacinia] BR05
              |--Limacopsis Simroth 1888 [Limacopsidae] BR05
              |--Bielzia Clessin 1887 [Bielziidae, Bielziinae] BR05
              `--Limax Linnaeus 1758 BR05
                   |--L. cinereoniger Wolf 1803 HM07
                   |--L. flavus RP91
                   `--L. maximus (Linnaeus 1758) HM07

Vitrinidae [Plutoniainae, Plutoniidae, Plutoniinae, Vitrinacea, Vitrinoidea, Vitrininae, Vitrinoplutoniinae, Vitriplutoniinae] BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201-309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[CC06] Cameron, R. A. D., L. M. Cook, G. A. Goodfriend & M. B. Seddon. 2006. Fossil land snails of Porto Santo, Madeiran archipelago: change and stasis in Pleistocene to Recent times. Malacologia 49 (1): 25-59.

Hausdorf, B. 1998. Phylogeny of the Limacoidea sensu lato (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora). Journal of Molluscan Studies 64 (1): 35-66.

[HM07] Honek, A., & Z. Martinkova. 2007. A field method for quantifying the grazing activity of slugs, with particular reference to Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca). Malacologia 49 (2): 273-281.

[RP91] Raut, S. K., & A. Panigrahi. 1991. The mite Fuscuropoda marginata (C. L. Koch) for the control of pest slugs Laevicaulis alte (Férussac). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 683-687. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[RA70] Regteren Altena, C. O. van. 1970. Notes on land slugs, 16: Deroceras from Afghanistan, including description of D. kandaharensis. Fieldiana Zoology 51 (15): 175-178.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII.—Molluschi terrestri e d’acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 295-359.

Testacelloidea

Varicella gracillima, copyright John Slapcinsky.


Belongs within: Stylommatophora.

The Testacelloidea are a group of predatory snails and slugs, including predators of earthworms and other snails.

<==Testacelloidea
    |--Testacella Draparnaud 1801 [Testacellacidae, Testacellidae, Testacellina, Testacellinae] BR05
    |    |--T. haliotidea BP90
    |    `--T. scutulum RP91
    |--Spiraxidae BR05
    |    |--Micromena Baker 1939 [Micromeninae] BR05
    |    `--Spiraxis Adams 1850 [Spiraxinae] BR05
    |         |  i. s.: S. irregularis T59
    |         |           |--S. i. irregularis T59
    |         |           `--S. i. negligens T59
    |         `--S. (Pseudosubulina Strebel & Pfeffer 1882) T59, BP90
    |              |--‘Pseudosubulina’ cheatumi BP90
    |              `--S. (P.) splendens Thompson 1959 T59
    `--Oleacinidae [Oleacinacea] BR05
         |--Euglandina Crosse & Fischer 1870 [Euglandinarum, Euglandininae, Euglandinini] BR05
         |    `--E. rosea SS96
         |--Varicella Pfeiffer 1854 [Varicellarum, Varicellinae, Varicellini] BR05
         |    `--V. gracillima BP90
         |         |--V. g. gracillima BP90
         |         `--V. g. floridana BP90
         `--Oleacininae BR05
              |--Oleacina Röding 1798 BR05
              |--‘Polyphemus’ Montfort 1810 non Müller 1776 BR05
              |--Streptostyla Shuttleworth 1852 [Streptostylarum, Streptostylinae, Streptostylini] BR05
              `--Glandina Schumacher 1817 [Glandinidae] BR05
                   |--G. carminensis A66
                   `--G. dactylus A66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A66] Adams, H. 1866. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440-445.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201-309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RP91] Raut, S. K., & A. Panigrahi. 1991. The mite Fuscuropoda marginata (C. L. Koch) for the control of pest slugs Laevicaulis alte (Férussac). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 683-687. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965-1974.

[T59] Thompson, F. G. 1959. A new Spiraxis from Guatemala. Nautilus 72 (4): 115.

Stenophlebioptera

Specimen of Stenophlebia latreillei, copyright Günter Bechly.


Belongs within: Euepiproctophora.

The Stenophlebioptera are a group of fossil dragonflies known from the Lower Jurassic to the Lower Cretaceous (Fleck et al. 2003).

Synapomorphies (from Fleck et al. 2003): Nodal Cr very oblique, angle Cr-RA >140°; subnodus Sn very oblique, with or without cross-veins reaching it; CuA with broad area between two most distal posterior branches; straight supplementary longitudinal veins present in areas between IR2 and MP, near posterior wing margin.

<==Stenophlebioptera
    |--Liassostenophlebia Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 [Liassostenophlebiidae] FB03
    |    `--*L. germanica Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
    `--Stenophlebioidea FB03
         |--Prostenophlebia Nel & Martínez-Delclòs in Nel et al. 1993 [Prostenophlebiidae] FB03
         |    `--*P. jurassica Nel & Martínez-Delclòs in Nel et al. 1993 FB03
         `--Stenophlebiidae [Stenophlebiinae, Stenophlebinae] FB03
              |  i. s.: Sinostenophlebia Hong 1984 FB03
              |           `--S. zhangjiakowensis Hong 1984 FB03
              |--+--Cretastenophlebia Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
              |  |    `--*C. mongolica Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
              |  `--+--Hispanostenophlebia Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
              |     |    `--*H. barremiana Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
              |     `--Mesostenophlebia Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
              |          `--*M. anglicana Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
              `--Stenophlebia Hagen 1866 FB03
                   |  i. s.: S. casta (Hagen 1862) [=Heterophlebia casta] FB03
                   |         S. corami Nel & Jarzembowski 1996 FB03
                   |         S. lithographica (Giebel 1857) (see below for synonymy) FB03
                   |--*S. amphitrite (Hagen 1862) [=Heterophlebia amphitrite] FB03
                   |--S. eichstaettensis Nel et al. 1993 [=S. eichstattense] FB03
                   |--S. phryne (Hagen 1862) [=Heterophlebia phryne] FB03
                   `--+--S. karatavica Pritykina 1968 FB03
                      `--S. latreillei (Germar 1839) (see below for synonymy) FB03

Stenophlebia latreillei (Germar 1839) [=Agrion latreillei, Calopteryx latreillei, Heterophlebia latreillei; incl. H. aequalis Hagen 1862, Stenophlebia aequalis, Cordulegaster muensteri Hagen 1850, Diastatomma muensteri] FB03

Stenophlebia lithographica (Giebel 1857) [=Calopteryx lithographica, Heterophlebia lithographica] FB03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FB03] Fleck, G., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs, E. Jarzembowski, R. Coram & A. Nel. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Stenophlebioptera (Odonata: Epiproctophora). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 39 (1): 55-93.