Asioryctitheria

Reconstructed skull of Uchkudukodon nessovi, from McKenna et al. (2000).


Belongs within: Eutheria.

The Asioryctitheria are a group of small, probably insectivorous mammals known from the Late Cretaceous of Asia. Monophyly of this group is uncertain: Wible et al.'s (2007) phylogenetic analysis found them to be paraphyletic to modern placentals whereas Halliday et al. (2017) found a clade uniting Asioryctitheria with the contemporary Zalambdalestidae.

<==Asioryctitheria WR07
    |--+--+--Bulaklestes kezbe HUG17, WR07
    |  |  `--Uchkudukodon nessovi HUG17, OB13
    |  `--Daulestes Trofimov & Nessov in Nessov & Trofimov 1979 HUG17, FN03
    |       |--D. inobservabilis WR07
    |       |--D. kulbeckensis WR07
    |       `--D. nessovi AAE01
    `--+--+--Kennalestes Kielan-Jaworowska 1969 HUG17, FN03
       |  |    `--K. gobiensis WR07
       |  `--+--Ukhaatherium Novacek 1997 HUG17, D07
       |     |    `--U. nessovi OB13
       |     `--Asioryctes Kielan-Jaworowska 1975 HUG17, FN03
       |          `--A. nemegtensis WR07
       `--Zalambdalestidae WR07
            |--Kulbeckia HUG17
            |    |--K. kansaica HUG17
            |    `--K. kulbecke WR07
            `--+--Lainodon orueetxebarriai HUG17, WR07
               |--Zhangolestes jilinensis HUG17
               |--Barunlestes butleri HUG17, WR07
               `--+--Alymlestes kielanae HUG17
                  `--Zalambdalestes Gregory & Simpson 1926 HUG17, D07
                       |--Z. grangeri HUG17
                       `--Z. lechei WR07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AAE01] Archibald, J. D., A. O. Averianov & E. G. Ekdale. 2001. Late Cretaceous relatives of rabbits, rodents, and other extant eutherian mammals. Nature 414: 62–65.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FN03] Fox, R. C., & B. G. Naylor. 2003. A Late Cretaceous taeniodont (Eutheria, Mammalia) from Alberta, Canada. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 229 (3): 393–420.

[HUG17] Halliday, T. J. D., P. Upchurch & A. Goswami. 2017. Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals. Biological Reviews 92 (1): 521–550.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003–1006.

Ptilodontoidea

Skull of Ptilodus mediaevus, copyright Nobu Tamura.


Belongs within: Cimolodonta.

The Ptilodontoidea are a group of multituberculate mammals known from the Upper Cretaceous to the Eocene of Eurasia and North America, characterised by a very large, arcuate lower rear premolar protruding dorsally above the level of the molars (Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum 2001).

Characters (from Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum 2001): Dental formula 2.0.4.2/1.0.2.2; enamel usually microprismatic (gigantoprismatic in Cimolodon); I2 probably single-cusped, I3 placed on margin of premaxilla; lower incisor usually gracile, completely covered with enamel (robust with limited enamel band in Neoliotomus); P4 elongated, shaped as isosceles triangle in lateral view, protruding ventrally over level of anterior premolars and molars; p4 very large, arcuate, strongly protruding dorsally over level of molars; molars with ornamentation of grooves and ridges, cusps tending to coalesce. Snout wide, gently incurved in front of zygomatic arches. Frontals small, pointed posteriorly.

<==Ptilodontoidea
    |--Cimolodontidae K-JH01
    |    |--Anconodon Jepsen 1940 K-JH01
    |    |--Liotomus Cope 1884 K-JH01
    |    `--Cimolodon Marsh 1889 K-JH01
    |         `--C. electus K-JH01
    `--+--Neoliotomus Jepsen 1930 K-JH01
       `--+--Ptilodontidae [Chirogidae] K-JH01
          |    |--Kimbetohia Simpson 1936 K-JH01
          |    |--Prochetodon Jepsen 1940 K-JH01
          |    |--Baiotomeus Krause 1987 SFY02
          |    |    |--B. douglassi (Simpson 1935) SFY02
          |    |    |--B. lamberti Krause 1987 SFY02
          |    |    `--B. russelli Scott, Fox & Youzwyshyn 2002 SFY02
          |    `--Ptilodus Cope 1881 SFY02
          |         |--P. douglassi Simpson 1935 S35b
          |         |--P. fractus Dorr 1952 SFY02
          |         |--P. gidleyi Simpson 1935 S35b
          |         |--P. gnomus Scott, Fox & Youzwyshyn 2002 SFY02
          |         |--P. kummae Krause 1977 SFY02
          |         |--P. mediaevus Cope 1881 SFY02
          |         |--P. montanus Douglass 1908 [incl. P. admirabilis Hay 1930, P. gracilis Gidley 1909 (preoc.)] S35b
          |         |--P. sinclairi Simpson 1935 S35b
          |         |--P. trovessartianus S35b
          |         |--P. tsosiensis Sloan 1981 SFY02
          |         `--P. wyomingensis D07
          `--Neoplagiaulacidae K-JH01
               |--Xyronomys Rigby 1980 K-JH01
               |--Cernaysia Vianey-Liaud 1986 K-JH01
               |--Krauseia Vianey-Liaud 1986 K-JH01
               |--Mesodma Jepsen 1940 K-JH01
               |--Mimetodon Jepsen 1940 K-JH01
               |--Mesodmops Tong & Wang 1994 K-JH01
               |--Xanclomys Rigby 1980 K-JH01
               |--Neoplagiaulax Lemoine 1882 K-JH01
               |    `--N. hazeni K-JH01
               |--Parectypodus Jepsen 1930 K-JH01
               |    |--P. jepseni Simpson 1935 S35b
               |    |--P. laytoni K-JH01
               |    |--P. simpsoni S35b
               |    `--P. tardus S35b
               `--Ectypodus Matthew & Granger 1921 K-JH01
                    |--*E. musculus Matthew & Granger 1921 S35a
                    |--E. cochranensis S35b
                    |--E. grangeri Simpson 1935 S35b
                    |--E. russelli Simpson 1935 S35b
                    |--E. silberlingi Simpson 1935 S35b
                    `--E. tardus K-JH01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[K-JH01] Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., & J. H. Hurum. 2001. Phylogeny and systematics of multituberculate mammals. Palaeontology 44 (3): 389–429.

[SFY02] Scott, C. S., R. C. Fox & G. P. Youzwyshyn. 2002. New earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) mammals from Cochrane 2, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 691–704.

[S35a] Simpson, G. G. 1935a. The Tiffany fauna, Upper Paleocene. I.—Multituberculata, Marsupialia, Insectivora, and ?Chiroptera. American Museum Novitates 795: 1–19.

[S35b] Simpson, G. G. 1935b. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221–244.

Cimolodonta

Lower jaw of Cimexomys, from Palaeos.


Belongs within: Multituberculata.
Contains: Ptilodontoidea.

The Cimolodonta are a group of multituberculate mammals known from the Early Cretaceous to the Eocene, including all multituberculates to survive the end of the Cretaceous (Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum 2001).

Characters (from Kielan-Jaworowska & Hurum 2001): Enamel prismatic; dental formula 2.0.1–4.2/1.0.1–2.2; I1 absent, I2 single- or two-cusped, I3 small, single-cusped; p1 and p2 absent, p3, if present, peg-like, non-functional; p4 primitively arcuate with oblique ridges, single or no posterobuccal cusp present.

Cimolodonta [Boffiini]
    |--Barbatodon Râdulescu & Samson 1986 K-JH01
    |--Dakotamys Eaton 1995 K-JH01
    |    `--D. malcolmi K-JH01
    |--Bryceomys Eaton 1995 K-JH01
    |    `--B. fumosus K-JH01
    |--Paracimexomys Archibald 1982 K-JH01
    |    |--P. crossi K-JH01
    |    `--P. robinsoni K-JH01
    |--Cimexomys Sloan & van Valen 1965 K-JH0
    |    |--C. antiquus D07
    |    |--C. gratus D07
    |    |--C. gregoryi D07
    |    |--C. hausoi D07
    |    |--C. judithae K-JH01
    |    |--C. magnus D07
    |    `--C. minor D07
    `--+--Boffius Vianey-Liaud 1979 [Boffiidae] K-JH01
       |--Ptilodontoidea K-JH01
       `--Taeniolabidoidea K-JH97
            |--Cimolomyidae K-JH01
            |    |--Meniscoessus Cope 1882 K-JH01
            |    |--Cimolomys Marsh 1889 K-JH01
            |    |--Essonodon Simpson 1927 K-JH01
            |    `--Buginbaatar Kielan-Jaworowska & Sochava 1969 [Buginbaatarinae] K-JH01
            |         `--B. transaltaiensis Kielan-Jaworowska & Sochava 1969 K-JH97
            `--+--Djadochtatherioidea K-JH01
               |--Kogaionidae K-JH01
               |    |--Hainina Vianey-Liaud 1979 K-JH01
               |    `--Kogaionon Râdulescu & Samson 1996 K-JH01
               |--Eucosmodontidae K-JH01
               |    |--Eucosmodon Matthew & Granger 1921 K-JH01
               |    |--Stygimys Sloan & van Valen 1965 K-JH01
               |    `--Clemensodon Krause 1992 K-JH01
               |--Microcosmodontidae K-JH01
               |    |--Microcosmodon Jepsen 1930 K-JH01
               |    |--Pentacosmodon Jepsen 1940 K-JH01
               |    `--Acheronodon Archibald 1982 K-JH01
               `--Taeniolabididae K-JH01
                    |--Prionessus Matthew & Granger 1925 K-JH01
                    |--Sphenopsalis Matthew, Granger & Simpson 1928 K-JH01
                    |--Lambdopsalis Chow & Qi 1978 K-JH01
                    |    `--L. bulla K-JH97
                    |--Catopsalis Cope 1882 K-JH01
                    |    `--C. joyneri K-JH01
                    `--Taeniolabis Cope 1882 K-JH01
                         |--T. lamberti D07
                         |--T. sulcatus D07
                         `--T. taoensis K-JH97

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[K-JH97] Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., & J. H. Hurum. 1997. Djadochtatheria - a new suborder of multituberculate mammals. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 42 (2): 201–242.

[K-JH01] Kielan-Jaworowska, Z., & J. H. Hurum. 2001. Phylogeny and systematics of multituberculate mammals. Palaeontology 44 (3): 389–429.

Hueneosauria

Reconstruction of Cymbospondylus natans, copyright Teratophoneus.


Belongs within: Ichthyosauria.
Contains: Thunnosauria.

The Hueneosauria are a clade of ichthyosaurs defined by Maisch & Matzke (2000) as the most exclusive clade including Mixosaurus cornalianus and Ophthalmosaurus icenicus.

Synapomorphies (from Maisch & Matzke 2000): External naris placed largely laterally; anterior margin of orbit regularly rounded; ramus occipitalis of supratemporal well developed; processus transversus pterygoidei absent; posterior dorsal centra discoidal; sacral ribs indistinguishable; caudal vertebral centra short; interclavicle of triradiate shape; radius and ulna distinctly shortened; posterior margin of ulna convex or straight; distal carpals II–IV of similar size; metacarpal V with straight or concave posterior margin or absent; pubis and ischium with strongly convex medial margins, not forming symphysis; less than five toes present.

<==Hueneosauria
    |  i. s.: Guizhouichthyosaurus tangae Cao & Lu in Yin et al. 2000 (see below for synonymy) JH05
    |--+--Wimanius Maisch & Matzke 1998 MM03, MM00
    |  |    `--*W. odontopalatus Maisch & Matzke 1998 MM00
    |  `--Mixosauridae JH05
    |       |--Barracudasaurus Jiang, Hao et al. 2005 JH05
    |       |    `--*B. maotaiensis (Young 1965) [=Mixosaurus maotaiensis] JH05
    |       `--+--Mixosaurus Baur 1887 JH05, MM00 [incl. Sangiorgiosaurus Brinkmann 1998 MM00]
    |          |    |--*M. cornalianus (Bassani 1886) MM00
    |          |    `--M. kuhnschnyderi (Brinkmann 1998) MM00 [=Sangiorgiosaurus kuhnschnyderi H02]
    |          `--Phalarodontinae JH05
    |               |--Contectopalatus Maisch & Matzke 1998 JH05, MM00
    |               |    `--*C. atavus (Quenstedt 1852) MM00, H02 [=Mixosaurus atavus H02]
    |               `--Phalarodon Merriam 1910 JH05, MM00
    |                    |--*P. nordenskioeldii (Hulke 1873) MM00 [=Mixosaurus nordenskioldi H02]
    |                    |--P. atavus FF13
    |                    |--P. callawayi FF13
    |                    |--P. fraasi FF13
    |                    `--P. major (von Huene 1916) MM00
    `--Longipinnati [Euichthyosauria, Shastasauridae] MM00
         |--‘Cymbospondylus’ buchseri Sander 1989 FF13, MM00
         `--+--Cymbospondylidae MM00
            |    |--Phantomosaurus Maisch & Matzke 2000 MM03, MM00
            |    |    `--*P. neubigi (Sander 1997) [=Shastasaurus neubigi] MM00
            |    `--Cymbospondylus Leidy 1868 FF13, MM00
            |         |--*C. piscosus Leidy 1868 MM00
            |         |--C. germanicus D07
            |         |--C. grandis D07
            |         |--C. natans D07
            |         |--C. nevadanus D07
            |         |--C. parvus D07
            |         |--C. petrinus Leidy 1868 MM00
            |         `--C. piscosus D07
            `--+--+--Californosaurus Kuhn 1934 FF13, MM00 [incl. Delphinosaurus Merriam 1905 (preoc.) MM00]
               |  |    `--*C. perrini (Merriam 1902) MM00
               |  `--Toretocnemidae MM00
               |       |--Qianichthyosaurus Li 1999 MM03, MM00
               |       |    `--*Q. zhoui Li 1999 MM00
               |       `--Toretocnemus Merriam 1903 FF13, MM00 (see below for synonymy)
               |            |--*T. californicus Merriam 1903 MM00
               |            `--T. zitteli (Merriam 1903) MM00
               `--+--Merriamosaurus MM03 [incl. Rotundopteryx Maisch & Matzke 2000 MM03, MM00]
                  |    `--M. hulkei (Maisch & Matzke 2000) MM03 [=*Rotundopteryx hulkei MM00]
                  `--Merriamosauria MM00
                       |--Besanosaurus Dal Sasso & Pinna 1996 MM03, MM00
                       |    `--*B. leptorhynchus Dal Sasso & Pinna 1996 MM00
                       `--+--Thalattoarchon Fröbisch, Fröbisch et al. 2013 FF13
                          |    `--*T. saurophagis Fröbisch, Fröbisch et al. 2013 FF13
                          `--+--+--Shonisaurus Camp 1976 FF13, MM00
                             |  |    |--*S. popularis Camp 1976 MM00
                             |  |    `--S. sikanniensis D07
                             |  `--Shastasaurus Merriam 1895 FF13, MM00 [Shastasauria]
                             |       |  i. s.: S. alexandrae Merriam 1902 [incl. S. altispinus, S. osmonti] MM00
                             |       |--S. sikanniensis FF13
                             |       `--+--*S. pacificus Merriam 1895 MM00, FF13, MM00
                             |          `--S. liangae FF13
                             `--+--Mikadocephalus Maisch & Matzke 1997 JH05, MM00
                                |    `--*M. gracilirostris Maisch & Matzke 1997 MM00
                                `--+--Callawayia Maisch & Matzke 2000 MM03, MM00 (see below for synonymy)
                                   |    `--*C. neoscapularis (McGowan 1994) MM00 (see below for synonymy)
                                   `--Parvipelvia MM00
                                        |--Hudsonelpidia McGowan 1995 MM03, MM00
                                        |    `--*H. brevirostris McGowan 1995 MM00
                                        `--Neoichthyosauria MM00
                                             |  i. s.: Nannopterygius von Huene 1922 MM00
                                             |           `--*N. enthekiodon (Hulke 1871) MM00
                                             |--Suevoleviathan Maisch 1998 FF13, MM00 [Suevoleviathanidae]
                                             |    |--*S. disinteger (von Huene 1926) MM00
                                             |    `--S. integer (Bronn 1844) MM00
                                             `--+--+--Temnodontosaurus Lydekker 1889 FF13, MM00 (see below for synonymy)
                                                |  |    |--*T. platyodon (Conybeare 1822) MM00
                                                |  |    |--T. acutirostris (Owen 1840) MM00
                                                |  |    |--T. eurycephalus McGowan 1974 MM00
                                                |  |    |--T. longirostris D07
                                                |  |    |--T. nuertingensis (von Huene 1931) MM00
                                                |  |    `--T. trigonodon (von Theodori 1843) MM00
                                                |  `--Leptonectidae [Eurhinosauria, Eurhinosauridae] MM00
                                                |       |--+--Eurhinosaurus Abel 1909 FF13, MM00
                                                |       |  |    `--*E. longirostris (von Jaeger 1856) MM00
                                                |       |  `--Excalibosaurus McGowan 1986 FF13, MM00
                                                |       |       `--*E. costini McGowan 1986 [=Eurinosaurus costini] MM00
                                                |       `--Leptonectes McGowan 1996 FF13, MM00 (see below for synonymy)
                                                |            |--*L. tenuirostris (Conybeare 1822) MM00
                                                |            |--L. moorei McGowan & Milner 1999 MM00
                                                |            `--L. solei (McGowan 1993) MM00
                                                `--+--Thunnosauria FF13
                                                   `--Macgowania Motani 1999 FF13, MM00
                                                        `--*M. janiceps (McGowan 1996) [=Ichthyosaurus janiceps] MM00

Callawayia Maisch & Matzke 2000 MM03, MM00 [=Metashastasaurus Nicholls & Manabe 2001 H02]

*Callawayia neoscapularis (McGowan 1994) MM00 [=Shastasaurus neoscapularis MM00, *Metashastasaurus neoscapularis H02]

Guizhouichthyosaurus tangae Cao & Lu in Yin et al. 2000 [incl. Cymbospondylus asiaticus Li & You 2002] JH05

Leptonectes McGowan 1996 FF13, MM00 [incl. Leptopterygius von Huene 1922 (preoc.) MM00]

Temnodontosaurus Lydekker 1889 FF13, MM00 [incl. Proteosaurus Home 1814 MM00; Temnodontosauridae]

Toretocnemus Merriam 1903 FF13, MM00 [incl. Leptocheirus Merriam 1903 (preoc.) MM00, Merriamia Boulenger 1904 MM00]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FF13] Fröbisch, N. B., J. Fröbisch, P. M. Sander, L. Schmitz & O. Rieppel. 2013. Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (4): 1393–1397.

[H02] Haubold, H. 2002. Literaturbericht: Ichthyosaurier und Sauropterygier. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil II 5-6: 367–403.

[JH05] Jiang, D.-Y., W.-C. Hao, M. W. Maisch, A. T. Matzke & Y.-L. Sun. 2005. A basal mixosaurid ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic of China. Palaeontology 48 (4): 869–882.

[MM00] Maisch, M. W., & A. T. Matzke. 2000. The Ichthyosauria. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 298: 1–159.

[MM03] Maisch, M. W., & A. T. Matzke. 2003. Observations on Triassic ichthyosaurs. Part XII. A new Early Triassic ichthyosaur genus from Spitzbergen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 229 (3): 317–338.

Ichthyosauria

Reconstruction of Grippia longirostris, copyright Dmitry Bogdanov.


Belongs within: Reptilia.
Contains: Hueneosauria.

The Ichthyosauria are a major clade of marine reptiles known from the Lower Triassic to the lower Upper Cretaceous, members of which evolved a remarkably fish-like body form (Maisch & Matzke 2000).

Characters (from Maisch & Matzke 2000): Premaxillary rostrum elongate; naris displaced posteriorly, close to orbit; upper temporal fenestra with very considerable contribution of supratemporal; ectopterygoid absent; thoracal ribs articulating exclusively with centrum; manus and pes exhibiting hyperphalangy; fibula immobile relative to femur.

<==Ichthyosauria [Eoichthyosauria, Ichthyopterygia]
    |--Thaisaurus Mazin, Suteethorn et al. 1991 MM03
    |    `--*T. chonglakmanii Mazin, Suteethorn et al. 1991 MM00
    `--+--Parvinatator Nicholls & Brinkman 1995 FF13, MM03
       |    `--*P. wapitiensis Nicholls & Brickman 1995 MM00
       `--+--Utatsusaurus Shikama, Kamei & Murata 1978 FF13, MM03
          |    `--*U. hataii Shikama, Kamei & Murata 1978 MM00
          `--+--Grippiidae [Grippidia] MM00
             |    |--Chaohusaurus Young & Dong 1972 MM03 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |    `--*C. geishanensis Young & Dong 1972 MM00
             |    `--Grippia Wiman 1929 FF13, MM03
             |         `--*G. longirostris Wiman 1929 MM00
             `--+--Hueneosauria FF13
                `--Quasianosteosaurus Maisch & Matzke 2003 [Quasianosteosauridae] MM03
                     `--*Q. vikinghoegdai Maisch & Matzke 2003 MM03

Ichthyosauria incertae sedis:
  Isfjordosaurus Motani 1999 MM03
    `--*I. minor (Wiman 1910) [=Pessopteryx minor] MM00
  Svalbardosaurus Mazin 1981 (n. d.) MM03
    `--S. crassidens MM03
  Himalayasaurus Young & Dong 1972 (n. d.) MM00
    `--*H. tibetensis Young & Dong 1972 (n. d.) MM00
  Tibetosaurus Dong in Young et al. 1982 (n. d.) MM00
    `--*T. tingjiensis Dong in Young et al. 1982 (n. d.) MM00
  Pessosaurus Wiman 1910 (n. d.) MM00
    |--*P. polaris (Hulke 1873) (n. d.) MM00
    `--P. suevicus von Huene 1916 MM00
  Macropterygius von Huene 1922 (n. d.) MM00
    `--*M. trigonus (Owen 1840) MM00
  Pachygonosaurus von Huene 1916 (n. d.) MM00
    `--*P. robustus Maisch & Matzke 1997 (n. d.) MM00
  Omphalosauridae H02
    |--Tholodus schmidi H02
    `--Omphalosaurus Merriam 1906 D07 [incl. Pessopteryx Wiman 1910 MM00]
         |--O. nettarhynchus D07
         |--O. nevadanus Merriam 1906 MM00
         |--O. nisseri (Wiman 1910) (see below for synonymy) MM00
         `--O. wolfi D07

Chaohusaurus Young & Dong 1972 MM03 [incl. Anhuisaurus Chen 1985 (preoc.) MM00, Chensaurus Mazin, Suteethorn et al. 1991 MM00]

Omphalosaurus nisseri (Wiman 1910) [=*Pessopteryx nisseri; incl. P. arctica Wiman 1910, P. pinguis Wiman 1910] MM00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FF13] Fröbisch, N. B., J. Fröbisch, P. M. Sander, L. Schmitz & O. Rieppel. 2013. Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (4): 1393–1397.

[H02] Haubold, H. 2002. Literaturbericht: Ichthyosaurier und Sauropterygier. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil II 5-6: 367–403.

[MM00] Maisch, M. W., & A. T. Matzke. 2000. The Ichthyosauria. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 298: 1–159.

[MM03] Maisch, M. W., & A. T. Matzke. 2003. Observations on Triassic ichthyosaurs. Part XII. A new Early Triassic ichthyosaur genus from Spitzbergen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 229 (3): 317–338.

Plesiosauroidea

Reconstructed skeleton of Plesiosaurus, copyright Kumiko.


Belongs within: Eusauropterygia.

The Plesiosauroidea are a clade of mostly long-necked (sometimes extraordinarily so) marine reptiles known from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.

<==Plesiosauroidea
    |--Plesiosaurus de la Beche & Conybeare 1821 H02, D07 [Plesiosauridae]
    |    |--P. brachypterygius Huene 1923 H02
    |    |--P. dolichodeirus Conybeare 1824 DV06
    |    |--P. eurymerus D07
    |    |--P. guilelmiimperatoris D07
    |    |--P. macrocephalus D07
    |    |--P. megdeirus D07
    |    `--P. winspitensis D07
    `--Euplesiosauria [Tricleidida] H02
         |  i. s.: Muraenosaurus Seeley 1874 H02, DV06
         |           |--M. beloclis D07
         |           |--M. elasmosauroides D07
         |           |--M. leedsii D07
         |           `--M. purbecki D07
         |         Alzadasaurus H02
         |         Thalassomedon H02
         |--Elasmosauridae H02
         |    |  i. s.: ‘Plesiosaurus australis Owen 1861 (n. d.) CF02
         |    |         ‘Plesiosaurus’ crassicostatus Owen 1870 (n. d.) CF02
         |    |         ‘Plesiosaurus’ holmesi Hector 1874 (n. d.) CF02
         |    |         ‘Plesiosaurus’ hoodi Owen 1870 (n. d.) CF02
         |    |         ‘Plesiosaurus’ mackayi Hector 1874 (n. d.) CF02
         |    |--Mauisaurus haasti Hector 1874 (see below for synonymy) CF02
         |    |--Tuarangisaurus keyesi Wiffen & Moisley 1986 CF02
         |    |--Occitanosaurus Bardet et al. 1999 H02
         |    |    `--*O. tournemirensis (Sciau, Crochet & Mattei 1990) [=Plesiosaurus tournemirensis] H02
         |    |--Hydrotherosaurus Welles 1943 H02, D07
         |    |    `--H. alexandrae D07
         |    `--Elasmosaurus Cope 1868 D07
         |         |--E. morgani D07
         |         |--E. platyurus D07
         |         |--E. serpentines D07
         |         `--E. snowii D07
         |--Microcleidus H02
         `--+--Cryptoclididae [Cryptocleidoidea] H02
            |    |--Kaiwhekea Cruickshank & Fordyce 2002 CF02
            |    |    `--*K. katiki Cruickshank & Fordyce 2002 CF02
            |    |--Mortuneria Chatterjee & Creisler 1994 CF02
            |    |    `--M. seymourensis CF02
            |    |--Aristonectes Cabrera 1941 CF02
            |    |    `--A. parvidens CF02
            |    |--Colymbosaurus Seeley 1874 [incl. Kimmerosaurus Brown 1981] CF02
            |    |    `--C. trochanterius CF02
            |    |--Cryptoclidus Seeley 1892 CF02
            |    |    |--C. eurymerus CF02
            |    |    |--C. oxoniensis N85
            |    |    `--C. richardsoni D07
            |    `--Tricleidus Andrews 1909 CF02
            |--Cimoliosaurus F71 [Cimoliasauridae H02]
            |    |--C. australis F71
            |    |--C. maccoyi Etheridge 1904 F71
            |    `--C. sutherlandi F71
            `--Polycotylidae H02
                 |--Polycotylus tenuis Hector 1874 (n. d.) CF02
                 |--Dolichorhynchus H02
                 |--Trinacromerum Cragin 1888 DV06
                 |--Plesiopleurodon wellesi H02
                 `--Edgarosaurus Druckenmiller 2002 H02
                      `--E. muddi Druckenmiller 2002 H02

Mauisaurus haasti Hector 1874 [incl. M. brachiolatus Hector 1874, Cimoliosaurus caudalis Hutton 1894] CF02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF02] Cruickshank, A. R. I., & R. E. Fordyce. 2002. A new marine reptile (Sauropterygia) from New Zealand: further evidence for a Late Cretaceous austral radiation of cryptoclidid plesiosaurs. Palaeontology 45 (3): 557–575.

[DV06] Dalla Vecchia, F. M. 2006. A new sauropterygian reptile with plesiosaurian affinity from the Late Triassic of Italy. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 112 (2): 207–225.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H02] Haubold, H. 2002. Literaturbericht: Ichthyosaurier und Sauropterygier. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil II 5-6: 367–403.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

Varanidae

Desert monitor Varanus griseus caspius, copyright Denis Nuridjanov.


Belongs within: Anguimorpha.

The Varanidae, monitor lizards, are a group of lizards found in warmer parts of the Old World, characterised by a long, slender neck together with a long, strong tail, pentadactyl limbs with a strong claw on each digit, a covering of small, juxtaposed scales, and a long, deeply bifid tongue.

<==Varanidae
    |--Iberovaranus Hoffstetter 1969 RB05
    `--Varanus Merrem 1820 RB05 [incl. Megalania Owen 1859 D07]
         |  i. s.: V. baritji DK14
         |         V. bengalensis USDI77
         |         V. bushi DK14
         |         V. caudolineatus ADD08
         |         V. exanthematicus K08
         |         V. flavescens USDI77
         |         V. giganteus TW05
         |         V. gilleni DK14
         |         V. glauerti PP13
         |         V. glebopalma PP13
         |         V. gouldii (Gray 1838) ADD08
         |         V. hamersleyensis DK14
         |         V. hofmanni Roger 1898 RB05
         |         V. indicus WH02
         |         V. komodoensis DK14
         |         V. mertensi PP13
         |         V. mitchelli PP13
         |         V. niloticus D56
         |         ‘Tupinambis’ ornatus Daudin 1803 M54
         |         V. ‘ornatus’ Gray 1845 non Daudin 1803 M54
         |         V. panoptes HD04
         |         V. pilbarensis HD04
         |         V. prasinus DV87
         |         V. priscus [=Megalania prisca; incl. Notiosaurus dentatus] F71
         |         V. pronini Zerova & Ckhikvadze 1986 RB05
         |         V. punctatus [=V. p. var. typica; incl. V. p. var. orientalis Fry 1913] F13
         |         V. rosenbergi DK14
         |         V. rudicollis GWN71
         |         V. rusingensis Clos 1995 RB05
         |         V. salvator MH11
         |         V. scalaris PP13
         |         V. semiremex DK14
         |         V. tristis ADD08
         |         V. tsukamotoi Kishida 1929 TYM08
         |--*V. (Varanus) varius (White 1790) [=Lacerta varia] DK14
         |--V. (Odatria Gray 1838) DK14
         |    |--V. (O.) acanthurus Boulenger 1885 DK14
         |    |    |--V. a. acanthurus DK14
         |    |    `--V. a. insulanicus DK14
         |    |--V. (O.) brevicauda Boulenger 1898 DK14
         |    |--V. (O.) eremius Lucas & Frost 1895 DK14
         |    `--V. (O.) sparnus Doughty, Kealley et al. 2014 DK14
         `--V. (Psammosaurus) griseus (Daudin 1803) [=Tupinambis griseus] M54
              |--V. g. griseus (see below for synonymy) M54
              |--V. g. caspius (Eichwald 1931) [=Psammosaurus caspius; incl. V. caspicus Gray 1845] M54
              `--V. g. koniecznyi Mertens 1954 (see below for synonymy) M54

Inorganic: Varanus salvator protominilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Varanus griseus griseus (Daudin 1803) [incl. Psammosaurus arabicus Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899, V. arenaceus Gervais 1848, Tupinambis arenarius Geoffroy 1827, V. scincus Merrem 1820, V. terrestris Schinz 1834] M54

Varanus griseus koniecznyi Mertens 1954 [=V. ornatus Carlleyle 1869 nec Tupinambis ornatus Daudin 1803 nec V. ornatus Gray 1845] M54

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ADD08] Aplin, K., S. Donnellan & J. Dell. 2008. The herpetofauna of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 39–53.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[DV87] De Vis, C. W. 1887. On new or rare vertebrates from the Herbert River, north Queensland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1129–1137.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[DK14] Doughty, P., L. Kealley, A. Fitch & S. C. Donnellan. 2014. A new diminutive species of Varanus from the Dampier Peninsula, western Kimberley region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (2): 128–140.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F13] Fry, D. B. 1913. On a Varanus and a frog from Burnett River, Queensland, and a revision of the variations in Limnodynastes dorsalis, Gray. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (2): 17–34, pls 1–3.

[GWN71] Gorman, G. C., A. C. Wilson & M. Nakanishi. 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 167–185.

[HD04] How, R. A., & J. Dell. 2004. Reptile assemblage of the Abydos Plain, north-eastern Pilbara, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (3): 85–95.

[K08] Korsós, Z. 2008. History of the Herpetological Collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 37–93.

[M54] Mertens, R. 1954. Über die Rassen des Wüstenwarans (Varanus griseus). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 353–357.

[MH11] Müller, J., C. A. Hipsley, J. J. Head, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, M. Wuttke & R. R. Reisz. 2011. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins. Nature 473: 364–367.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[PP13] Palmer, R., D. J. Pearson, M. A. Cowan & P. Doughty. 2013. Islands and scales: a biogeographic survey of reptiles on Kimberley islands, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 183–204.

[RB05] Rage, J.-C., & S. Bailon. 2005. Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the late early Miocene (MN 4) of Béon 1 (Montréal-du-Gers, southwestern France). Geodiversitas 27 (3): 413–441.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[TW05] Thompson, S. A., P. C. Withers, G. G. Thompson & D. Robinson. 2005. Range extension for the perentie, Varanus giganteus (Squamata, Varanidae). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 41–43.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).