Cavilabiata

Alpine redspot dragonfly Austropetalia tonyana, copyright Gunther Theischinger.


Belongs within: Eteoanisoptera.
Contains: Brachystigmata.

The Cavilabiata are a clade of dragonflies uniting the Cordulegastridae, Libellulidae and related families.

Synapomorphies (from Bechly & Ueda 2002): Discoidal triangles at least somewhat longitudinal elongate in both wings, especially in the hind wing; distal part of antesubnodal area free of crossveins (“cordulegastrid gap”); “gaff” (basal CuA before its branching) of hindwing at least slightly prolonged; RP3/4 and MA slightly undulating in both pairs of wings.

<==Cavilabiata
    |--Cordulegaster I92 [Cordulegastrida BU02, Cordulegastridae, Cordulegastroidea]
    |    `--C. boltoni I92
    `--Cristotibiata BU02
         |--Brachystigmata BU02
         `--+--Phyllopetalia WO91 [Neopetaliidae BU02]
            |--Archipetalia WO91 [Archipetaliidae TH06]
            |    `--A. auriculata Tillyard 1917 TH06
            `--Austropetalia WO91 [Austropetaliidae] TH06
                 |--A. patricia (Tillyard 1910) TH06
                 `--A. tonyana Theischinger 1995 TH06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BU02] Bechly, G. & K. Ueda. 2002. The first fossil record and first New World record for the dragonfly clade Chlorogomphida (Insecta: Odonata: Anisoptera: Araripechlorogomphidae n. fam.) from the Crato Limestone (Lower Cretaceous, Brazil). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 328: 1–11.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[TH06] Theischinger, G., & J. Hawking. 2006. The Complete Field Guide to Dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[WO91] Watson, J. A. L., & A. F. O’Farrell. 1991. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 294–310. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

Oedipodinae

Locusta migratoria, copyright Alpsdake.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.

The Oedipodinae are a group of grasshoppers characterised by male genitalia in which the ventral aedeagal valves are very closely associated with the dorsal valves, and the narrow ventral lobe appears to participate in directing the neck of the spermatophore into the spermathecal duct (Eades 2000).

<==Oedipodinae P05
    |--Dissosteira carolina E00
    |--Camnula pellucida E00
    |--Arphia BM76
    |--Celes variabilis BM76, B01
    |--Encoptolophus BM76
    |--Pardalophora BM76
    |--Sciretetica BM76
    |--Spharagemon BM76
    |--Trilophida annulata BM76
    |--Xyleus BM76
    |--Duroniella P05
    |    |--D. fracta (Kraus 1890) P05
    |    `--D. laticornis (Karus 1909) P05
    |--Acrotylus P05
    |    |--A. insubricus (Scopoli 1786) P05
    |    |--A. patruelis Y70
    |    `--A. strepens D95
    |--Aiolopus P05
    |    |--A. strepens (Latreille 1804) P05
    |    |--A. tamulus BM76
    |    `--A. thalassinus (Fabricius 1781) P05
    |--Trimerotropis BM76
    |    |--T. citrina D37
    |    |--T. cyaneipennis SM87
    |    |--T. suffusa SM87
    |    `--T. pallidipennis Z94
    |--Sphingonotus P05
    |    |--S. erythropterus R96
    |    |--S. lucasii Saussure 1888 D95
    |    |--S. rubescens (Walker 1870) D95
    |    `--S. tricinctus D95
    |--Oedaleus P05
    |    |--O. australis R96
    |    |--O. decorus (Germar 1817) P05
    |    |--O. infernalis B01
    |    |--O. marmoratus B01
    |    `--O. mlokosiewiczi B01
    |--Oedipoda BM76
    |    |--O. albolineata Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. algeriana Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. arenaria Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. coerulescens D95
    |    |    |--O. c. coerulescens D95
    |    |    `--O. c. sulfurescens Saussure 1884 D95
    |    |--O. fuscocincta Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. mauritanica Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. miniata (Pallas 1771) D95
    |    `--O. virescens Lucas 1847 E12
    |--Papipappus clarazianus R15
    `--Locusta E00
         |--L. acuminata L02
         |--L. citrifolia L02
         |--L. coronata (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Gryllus coronatus L02]
         |--L. migratoria E00
         |    |--L. m. migratoria E00
         |    |--L. m. manilensis K-P83
         |    `--L. m. migratorioides E00
         |--L. savignyi Lucas 1847 E12
         |--L. verrucivora (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Gryllus verrucivorus L02]
         |--L. viridis L02
         `--L. viridissima B01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D95] Damerdji, A. 1995. Bio-écologie du peuplement des orthoptères de la région de Ghazaouet (Tlemcen, Algérie). Mésogée 54: 73–80.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181–210.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese (“southern Sporadhes”) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[SM87] Sites, J. W., Jr & C. Moritz. 1987. Chromosomal evolution and speciation revisited. Systematic Zoology 36 (2): 153–174.

[Y70] Yinon, U. 1970. Electrophysiological evidence of relationships in acridid insects. Systematic Zoology 19 (4): 397–398.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205–237.

Stenobothrus

Male Stenobothrus lineatus, copyright Gilles San Martin.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.

Stenobothrus is a genus of grasshoppers found in Eurasia and Africa, characterised by the presence of a tooth on the ovipositor.

<==Stenobothrus
    |--S. apricarius B01
    |--S. bicolor B01
    |--S. cognatus B01
    |--S. dorsatus B01
    |--S. elegans B01
    |--S. horvathi Bolivar 1901 B01
    |--S. lineatus F01
    |--S. morio B01
    |--S. nigromaculatus B01
    |--S. parallelus B01
    |--S. petraeus B01
    |--S. simplex B01
    `--S. vagans B01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F01] Field, L. H. 2001. Stridulatory mechanisms and associated behaviour in New Zealand wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 271–295. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Aphididae

Giant conifer aphids Cinara sp., copyright Frank Mikley.


Belongs within: Aphidoidea.
Contains: Aphidini.

The Aphididae, aphids, are a morphologically diverse group of phytophagous bugs that show an alternation between parthenogenetic and sexually reproducing generations, with parthenogenetic individuals usually being wingless and sexually reproducing individuals alate.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Parthenogenetic females viviparous, sexual females oviparous. Antennae 4—6-segmented; apical segment usually with well-delimited processus terminalis; one primary rhinarium basal to processus terminalis and one subapically on penultimate segment; other (secondary, adult) rhinaria present in most alatae and some apterae, usually concentrated on segment III. Eyes of apterae compound or 3—faceted. Siphunculi and cauda (modified apical segment) usually present; paired siphunculi marginally on or near T5, varying from rings to long, cylindrical tubes. Fore wings, if present, tectiform or, less often, held flat in repose; RP mostly present, M simple or 1— or 2-branched, CuA,sub>1 and CuA2 usually separate. Hind wings mostly with 2 oblique veins.

Aphididae [Eriosomatidae, Pemphigidae]
    |--Periphyllus [Chaitophorinae] CGW91
    |    `--P. californiensis CGW91
    |--Hormaphidinae [Hormaphididae] GE05
    |    |--Ceratovacuna lanigera CGW91, MHG04
    |    |--Oregma WEE70
    |    |--Cerataphis WEE70
    |    `--Pseudoregma CGW91
    |         |--P. bambucicola GE05
    |         `--P. panicola CGW91
    |--Pemphiginae GE05
    |    |--Germaraphis Z02
    |    |--Aploneura lentisci M83
    |    |--Geoica lucifuga WEE70
    |    |--Smynthurodes betae WEE70
    |    |--Eriosoma WEE70
    |    |    |--E. lanigerum CGW91
    |    |    `--E. pyricola WEE70
    |    `--Pemphigus SB80
    |         |--P. bursarius CGW91
    |         |--P. populicaulis SB80
    |         |--P. populitransversus SS74
    |         `--P. populivenae S87
    |--Drepanosiphinae [Drepanosiphidae] GE05
    |    |--Jurocallis SP02
    |    |--Drepanosiphum platanoides A71
    |    |--Paoliella CGW91
    |    |--Ceriferella CGW91
    |    |--Neuquenaphis CGW91
    |    |--Lizerius CGW91
    |    |--Taiwanaphis CGW91 [incl. Sensoriaphis AY04]
    |    |    |--T. furcifera CGW91
    |    |    `--T. tasmaniae CGW91 [=Sensoriaphis tasmaniae WEE70]
    |    `--Neophyllaphis CGW91
    |         |--N. brimblecombei CGW91
    |         `--N. gingerensis CGW91
    |--Cinara [Lachnidae, Lachninae] CGW91
    |    |--C. apini H61a
    |    |--C. brevispinosa H61a
    |    |--C. commatula Hottes & Essig 1954 H61c
    |    |--C. diabola Hottes 1961 H61b
    |    |--C. dubia Hottes & Essig 1954 H61c
    |    |--C. essigi Hottes 1961 H61a
    |    |--C. glabra H61b
    |    |--C. montanesa Hottes 1961 H61b
    |    |--C. osborni H61b
    |    |--C. ponderosae H61a
    |    |--C. pseudotaxifoliae Palmer 1952 H61c
    |    |--C. pseudotsugae (Wilson 1912) [=Lachnus pseudotsugae] H61c
    |    |--C. schwarzii H61b
    |    |--C. solitaria H61b
    |    |--C. splendens (Gillette & Palmer 1924) [=Lachnus splendens] H61c
    |    |--C. taxifoliae (Swain 1918) [=Lachnus taxifoliae] H61c
    |    |--C. tsugae Bradley 1960 H61c
    |    |--C. vagabunda Hottes & Essig 1953 H61c
    |    `--C. wahsugae Hottes 1960 H61c
    `--Aphidinae GE05
         |  i. s.: Aphidocallis caudatus GE05
         |         Cavariella aegopodii CGW91
         |         Aulacorthum CGW91
         |           |--A. circumflexum A71
         |           `--A. solani CGW91
         |         Brachycaudus CGW91
         |           |--B. helichrysi CGW91
         |           |--B. persicae CGW91
         |           `--B. (Appelia) schwartzi (Börner 1931) MF05
         |         Hyalopterus pruni CGW91
         |         Macrosiphum CGW91
         |           |--M. colylicola Shinji 1930 TYM08
         |           |--M. euphorbiae WFS04
         |           |--M. miscanthi WEE70
         |           |--M. (Macrosiphum) rosae (Linnaeus 1758) MF05
         |           `--M. urticae (Linnaeus 1758) V09, L58 [=Aphis urticae V09]
         |         Metopolophium dirhodum CGW91
         |         Myzus CGW91
         |           |--M. ascalonicus CGW91
         |           |--M. cymbalariae CGW91
         |           |--M. inuzakurae Shinji 1930 TYM08
         |           |--M. ornatus CGW91
         |           `--M. persicae B88
         |         Capitophorus elaeagni CGW91
         |         Hyperomyzus lactucae CGW91
         |         Rhopalosiphum CGW91
         |           |--R. insertum CGW91
         |           |--R. maidis CGW91
         |           |--R. nymphaeae CGW91
         |           |--R. padi M83
         |           `--R. rufiabdominalis CGW91
         |         Neomyzus circumflexus WEE70
         |         Brevicoryne brassicae WEE70
         |         Lipaphis erysimi WEE70
         |         Chaetosiphon fragaefolii WEE70
         |         Elatobium abietinum WEE70
         |         Idiopterus nephrelepidis WEE70
         |         Shinjia pteridifoliae WEE70
         |         Longiunguis sacchari WEE70
         `--Aphidini NNA-ZPH05

Aphididae incertae sedis:
  Acyrthosiphon WCH11
    |--A. kondoi CGW91
    `--A. pisum WCH11
  Uroleucon LD04
  Macrosiphoniella madeirensis Aguiar & Ilharco 2005 F05
  Pseudoprotaphis Kadyrbekov 2001 F05
    `--*P. erigerontis (Holman 1966) [=Aphis (Protaphis) erigerontis] F05
  Tuberocephalus Shinji 1929 TYM08
    `--T. artemisiae Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Caraviella azamii Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Eumyzus Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Amphorophora katsurae Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Illinoia kerriae Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Macrocaudus Shinji 1930 TYM08
    `--M. phaseoli Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Microtarsus Shinji 1929 TYM08
    `--M. pterydifoliae Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Anuraphis mumecola Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Pseudomegoura Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Somaphis Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Trama taraxaci Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Trichonosiphoniella Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Tuberocorpus Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Microlophium carnosum V09
  Pterochlorus rosae H01
  Chromaphis juglandicola KU07
  Panaphis juglandis KU07
  Calaphis CGW91
  Euceraphis CGW91
  Therioaphis trifolii CGW91
  Neotoxoptera oliveri CGW91
  Sitobion avenae CGW91, K09
  Pentalonia nigronervosa CGW91
  Megoura viciae N70
  Kallistaphis basalis WEE70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[H61a] Hottes, F. C. 1961a. A new species of Cinara from knob-cone pine (Aphidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 1–2.

[H61b] Hottes, F. C. 1961b. Two new species of Cinara from California (Aphidae) which have Pinus coulteri as host. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 95–100.

[H61c] Hottes, F. C. 1961c. Notes on and a key to species of the genus Cinara (Aphidae) which have Tsuga and Pseudotsuga for host. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 111–118.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[LD04] Lin, C.-P., & B. N. Danforth. 2004. How do insect nuclear and mitochondrial gene substitution patterns differ? Insights from Bayesian analyses of combined datasets. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 686–702.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J., & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163–179.

[NNA-ZPH05] Nieto Nafría, J. M., M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga & N. Pérez Hidalgo. 2005. Toxoptera citricida or Toxoptera citricidus? The validity of a specific name (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Aphidini). Graellsia 61 (1): 141–142.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[S87] Sabrosky, C. W. 1987. Chloropidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1067. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SS74] Senner, J. W., & R. R. Sokal. 1974. Analysis of dimorphism in natural populations with consideration of methodological and epistemological problems. Systematic Zoology 23 (3): 363–386.

[SB80] Sokal, R. R., & C. A. Braumann. 1980. Significance tests for coefficients of variation and variability profiles. Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 50–66.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WCH11] Welch, K. D., P. R. Crain & J. D. Harwood. 2011. Phenological dynamics of web-building spider populations in alfalfa: implications for biological control. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 244–249.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Naucoroidea

Naucoris cimicoides, from here.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Naucoroidea are a group of aquatic, predatory bugs with raptorial forelegs, spinose mid and hind tibiae, and lacking veins in the membrane of the hemelytron (if present) (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Naucoroidea SP02
    |  i. s.: Schizopteryx S02
    |--Triassocoridae GE05
    |--Potamocoridae [Potamocorinae] GE05
    |--Aphelocheiridae [Aphelocheirinae] GE05
    |    |--Coreoidus latus SP02
    |    `--Aphelocheirus I92
    |         |--A. australicus CGW91
    |         `--A. kawamurae Matsumura 1915 I92
    `--Naucoridae GE05
         |  i. s.: Mongonecta S02
         |         Aidium GE05
         |         Angaronecta GE05
         |         Heleonaucoris GE05
         |         Liadonaucoris GE05
         |         Nectodes GE05
         |         Nectonaucoris GE05
         |         Scaphocoris [Scaphocoridae] GE05
         |         Aphlebocoris [Aphlebocoridae] GE05
         |         Apopnus GE05
         |         Scaphodemopsis GE05
         |         Cantaeronecta GE05
         |--Ambrysinae CGW91
         |--Limnocorinae CGW91
         |--Laccocorinae CGW91
         |--Cryphocricinae CGW91
         |--Cheirochelinae CGW91
         `--Naucoris [Naucorinae] CGW91
              |--N. cimicoides H01
              `--N. congrex CGW91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Leptopodomorpha

Salda pallipes, copyright Stephanie Boucher.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Leptopodomorpha are a group of large-eyed, predatory bugs most commonly found on the margins of ponds and streams. They are united by adaptations to a side-by-side copulatory position, with the male abdomen possessing an apparatus for grasping the female (Schuh & Polhemus 1980).

<==Leptopodomorpha [Acanthioideae, Leptopinae] GE05
    |  i. s.: Britannicola GE05
    |         Helenosaldula aberrans SP80
    |         Saldonia [Archegocimicidae] GE05
    |           `--S. sibirica SP02
    |--Leptopodoidea SP80
    |    |--Omaniidae SP80
    |    |    |--Omania SP80
    |    |    |    |--O. coleoptrata SP80
    |    |    |    `--O. marksae WEE70
    |    |    `--Corallocoris SP80
    |    |         |--C. marksae N91
    |    |         `--C. nauruensis SP80
    |    `--Leptopodidae GE05
    |         |--Leptosaldinae SP80
    |         |    |--Leptosalda chiapensis SP80
    |         |    `--Saldolepta Schuh & Polhemus 1980 SP80
    |         |         `--S. kistnerorum SP80
    |         `--Leptopodinae SP80
    |              |--Patapius spinosus SP80
    |              |--Valleriola wilsoni SP80, CGW91
    |              |--Erianotus lanosus SP80
    |              |--Martiniola SP80
    |              `--Leotichius [Leotichiidae] SP80
    |                   `--L. speluncarum SP80
    `--Saldoidea SP80
         |--Aepophilus [Aepophilidae] SP80
         |    `--A. bonnairei SP80
         `--Saldidae [Acanthiidae] SP80
              |  i. s.: Micracanthia ripula SP80
              |         Ioscytus nasti D62
              |         Teoleuca D62
              |         Lampracanthia D62
              |         Oreokora Drake 1962 [=Oreocora] D62
              |           |--*O. chilensis (Blanchard 1852) (see below for synonymy) D62
              |           |--O. amazona (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora amazona] D62
              |           |--O. andensis (Distant 1893) [=Acanthia andensis; incl. Pentacora bruesi Drake 1949] D62
              |           |--O. angusta (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Pentacora angusta] D62
              |           |--O. bacayana (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora bacayana] D62
              |           |--O. bergi (Haglund 1899) [=Salda bergi; incl. Saldula lynchi Drake & Carvalho 1948] D62
              |           |--O. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Saldula doeringi] D62
              |           |--O. perula (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora perula] D62
              |           |--O. pillaona (Drake 1955) D62
              |           |--O. regilla (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora regilla] D62
              |           |--O. rogeri (Kirkaldy 1899) [=Acanthia rogeri] D62
              |           `--O. sola (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Saldula sola] D62
              |         Pelachoris Drake 1962 D62
              |           `--*P. leucographa [=Pentacora leucographa] D62
              |--Chiloxanthinae SP80
              |    |--Enalosalda SP80
              |    `--+--Paralosalda SP80
              |       `--+--Chiloxanthus SP80
              |          `--Pentacora SP80
              |               |--P. salina D62
              |               `--P. sphacelata (Uhler 1877) (see below for synonymy) D62
              |--Mesolygaeus [Enicocorinae, Mesolygaeidae] ZG05
              |    `--M. laiyangensis Ping 1928 ZG05
              `--Saldinae SP80
                   |  i. s.: Saldula CGW91
                   |           |--S. brevicornis CGW91
                   |           |--S. hirsuta D62
                   |           |--S. pallipes SP80
                   |           |--S. palustris (Douglas 1874) [=Salda palustris; incl. Saldula fernaldi Drake 1949] D62
                   |           `--S. pexa Drake 1950 [=S. hirsuta pexa] D62
                   |--Salduncula SP80
                   `--+--Saldoidini SP80
                      |    |--Orthophrys SP80
                      |    `--Saldoida D62
                      `--Salda D62 [Saldini SP80]
                           |--S. coxalis [incl. S. argentina] D62
                           |--S. nobilis H01
                           |    |--S. n. nobilis H01
                           |    `--S. n. reuteri H01
                           `--S. pallipes H01

*Oreokora chilensis (Blanchard 1852) [=Acanthia chilensis, Salda chilensis; incl. A. araucanica Kirkaldy 1889] D62

Pentacora sphacelata (Uhler 1877) [=Salda sphacelata, Saldula sphacelata; incl. Salda rubromaculata Heidemann 1901, Pentacora rubomaculata] D62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D62] Drake, C. J. 1962. Synonymic data and two new genera of shore-bugs (Hemiptera: Saldidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 115–124.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[SP80] Schuh, R. T., & J. T. Polhemus. 1980. Analysis of taxonomic congruence among morphological, ecological and biogeographic data sets for the Leptopodomorpha (Hemiptera). Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 1–26.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.

Notonectoidea

Anisops sp., from Landcare Research.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Notonectoidea, backswimmers, are a group of aquatic, predatory bugs with a strongly, transversely arched body and a short or absent forewing membrane (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Notonectoidea CGW91
    |  i. s.: Mesotrephes S02 [Mesotrephidae SP02]
    |--+--Helotrephidae GE05
    |  `--Plea D14 [Pleidae GE05, Pleinae]
    |       |--P. leachi [incl. P. minutissima] H01
    |       `--P. rufonotata Distant 1914 D14
    `--Notonectidae GE05
         |  i. s.: Nepidium GE05
         |         Asionecta GE05
         |         Notonectites GE05
         |         Pelonecta GE05
         |         Buenoa scimitra WL09
         |--Clypostemmatinae S02
         |    |--Canteronecta irajae S02
         |    `--Clypostemma GE05
         |         |--C. limna S02
         |         `--C. xyphiale Popov 1964 ZG05
         |--Notonectinae D14
         |    |--Nychia sappho CGW91
         |    |--Enithares CGW91
         |    |    |--E. bergrothi Montand. 1892 D14
         |    |    `--E. woodwardi CGW91
         |    `--Notonecta Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. glauca Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. handlirschi CGW91
         |         |--N. minutissima Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. montandoni Kirkaldy 1897 I92
         |         |--N. sieblosiensis S02
         |         |--N. striata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         `--N. triguttata I92
         `--Anisopinae CGW91
              |--Paranisops inconstans CGW91
              |--Walambianisops CGW91
              `--Anisops D14
                   |--A. assimilis D14
                   |--A. calcaratus TDC06
                   |--A. cleopatra Distant 1914 D14
                   |--A. deichmuelleri S02
                   |--A. gratus TDC06
                   |--A. heydeni S02
                   |--A. hyperion Kirk 1898 D14
                   |--A. inconstans WEE70
                   |--A. stali Kirkaldy 1904 T13
                   |--A. thienemanni TDC06
                   `--A. wakefieldi PC66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.