Field of Science

Feltria

Feltria sp., copyright Andrea J. Radwell & Ian M. Smith.


Belongs within: Neohydrachnidia.

Feltria is a genus of water mites found in springs and streams in Eurasia and North America. Their larvae are parasites of Chironomidae (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adults with sclerotisation of dorsum varying from scattered platelets of varying size up to a complete dorsal shield; palptibia lacking a peg-like seta; integument between coxal plates IV and genital field with two pairs of glandularia arranged more or less in a row. Larvae with dorsal and coxal plates, and leg sclerites, conspicuously longitudinally striate; cheliceral bases fused; coxal plates I separate from posterior coxal group on each side; one pair of urstigmata borne distally between coxal plates I-II; coxal plates III rounded posteriorly; legs with five movable segments, leg tarsi bearing paired claws; tibia I bearing seven setae (and two solenidia), lacking Ti10 and Ti11; tarsi I-II bearing ten setae and one solenidion.

<==Feltria Koenike 1892 [Feltriidae]
    |  i. s.: F. anahoffmannae WL09
    |         F. armata Koenike 1902 VBB91
    |         F. minuta Koenike 1892 GS91
    |         F. setigera CS91
    |         F. wyomingensis WL09
    |--F. (Feltria) S86
    |    |--F. (F.) cataphracta Cook 1963 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) conica Imamura 1957 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) conjuncta Viets 1953 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) cornuta S86
    |    |    |--F. c. cornuta S86
    |    |    |--F. c. americana Cook 1963 S86
    |    |    |--F. c. longispina S86
    |    |    `--F. c. paucipora Szalay 1946 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) cornutopsis Cook 1963 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) denticulata Angelier 1949 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) disjuncta Walter 1947 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) echinopalpis Cook 1963 S86
    |    |    |--F. e. echinopalpis S86
    |    |    `--F. e. projecta Cook 1970 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) exilis Cook 1970 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) faceta Cook 1963 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) falcicorna Cook 1970 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) fossea van Rendsburg 1971 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) gennada Cook 1963 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) obihiroensis Imamura 1962 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) pectinifera Szalay 1946 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) phreaticola Schwoerbel 1961 S86
    |    |--F. (F.) stygophila Waltrer 1947 S86
    |    `--F. (F.) subterranea Viets 1937 S86
    |--F. (Azugofeltria Motas & Tanasachi 1948) S86
    |    |--F. (A.) acutipalpis (Habeeb 1954) S86
    |    |--F. (A.) insolita (Walter 1947) S86
    |    |--F. (A.) matsumotoi (Imamura 1959) S86
    |    |--F. (A.) mira (Motas & Tanasachi 1948) S86
    |    |--F. (A.) miura (Imamura 1957) S86
    |    |--F. (A.) motasi (Schwoerbel 1961) S86
    |    `--F. (A.) testudo (Cook 1970) S86
    |--F. (Feltriella Viets 1930) S86
    |    |--F. (F.) airoloensis van Rendsburg 1971 S86
    |    `--F. (F.) golatensis van Rendsburg 1971 S86
    `--F. (Neofeltria Cook 1963) S86
         |--F. (N.) similis Cook 1963 S86
         `--F. (N.) virginiensis Cook 1963 S86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CS91] Cicolani, B., & A. Di Sabatino. 1991. Sensitivity of water mites to water pollution. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 465-474. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[GS91] Gerecke, R., & J. Schwoerbel. 1991. Water quality and water mites (Acari, Actinedida) in the Upper Danube region, 1959-1984. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 483-491. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 652-696. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[VBB91] Valdecasas, A. G., A. Baltanás & E. Bello. 1991. A preliminary assessment of single rocks for sampling water mites. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 503-507. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

Ixodidae

Female Hyalomma marginatum, copyright Adam Cuerden.


Belongs within: Parasitiformes.
Contains: Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Amblyomma, Ixodes (Ixodes).

The Ixodidae, hard ticks, are a group of ticks characterised by the presence of a hardened dorsal scutum. Members of this group include most the familiar disease-vectoring ticks.

Characters (from Keirans 2009): Podonotal scutum present in larval and nymphal stages and in adult female; holonotal scutum present in male. Scutal ornamentation present or absent. Capitulum situated anteriorly in all active stages, visible when viewed from above. Palpi four-segmented; fourth segment usually inserted into a pit ventrally on segment III. Hypostome usually well armed with denticles, usually with a specific dental formula. Paired spiracular plates present in postlarval stages, situated dorsoventrally posterior to coxa IV.

<==Ixodidae
    |  i. s.: Dermacentonomma Dias 1978 KDB02
    |         Palpoboophilus minningi Kishida 1936 TYM08
    |--Metastriata K09
    |    |  i. s.: Margaropus winthemi K09, B91
    |    |         Rhipicentor K09
    |    |         Nosomma K09
    |    |         Anomalohimalaya Hoogstraal, Kaiser & Mitchell 1970 K09, KDB02
    |    |         Cosmiomma hippopotamensis K09
    |    |--Haemaphysalis K09
    |    |--Rhipicephalinae WN01
    |    |    |--Rhipicephalus K09
    |    |    `--Dermacentor JR91
    |    |--Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad 1994 K09, KDB02 [Bothriocrotoninae]
    |    |    |--*B. glebopalma (Keirans, King & Sharrad 1994) [=Aponomma (*Bothriocroton) glebopalma] KDB02
    |    |    |--B. auruginans (Schulze 1936) [=Aponomma auruginans] KDB02
    |    |    |--B. concolor (Neumann 1899) [=Aponomma concolor] KDB02
    |    |    |--B. hydrosauri (Denny 1843) [=Aponomma hydrosauri; incl. Aponomma trachysauri Neumann 1899] KDB02
    |    |    `--B. undatum (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) KDB02
    |    `--Amblyomminae KDB02
    |         |--Amblyomma K09
    |         `--Hyalomma LD91
    |              |--H. anatolicum KK91
    |              |--H. asiaticum Sch. & SChl. 1929 P91
    |              |--H. detritum KK91
    |              |--H. dromedarii RK01
    |              |--H. marginatum H91
    |              |--H. plumbeum KK91
    |              |--H. rufipes (Koch 1844) ADG91 [=H. marginatum rufipes R91]
    |              |--H. scupense KK91
    |              `--H. truncatum (Koch 1844) ADG91
    `--Ixodes Latreille 1795 KDB02 [Ixodinae, Prostriata K09]
         |  i. s.: I. anatis Chilton 1904 NS00
         |         I. australasiae Fabricius 1805 H01
         |         I. canisuga LO91
         |         I. carinatus Kishida 1930 TYM08
         |         I. cornuatus R01
         |         I. coxalis Gervais 1842 H01
         |         I. fecialis R01
         |         I. gibbosus KK91
         |         I. hirsti R01
         |         I. holocyclus Neumann 1899 KDB02
         |         I. kohlsi R01
         |         I. kopsteini OW01
         |         I. lisphilus Kishida 1930 TYM08
         |         I. moluccus Doleschall 1859 D59
         |         I. ornithorhynchi Lucas 1846 H01
         |         I. ovatus (Neumann 1899) MN91
         |         I. phascolomyis MacAlister 1871 S69
         |         I. tasmani R01
         |         I. tertiarius WP99
         |         I. trianguliceps K91
         |         I. trichosuri R01
         |         I. uriae R01
         |         I. vespertilionis HJH91
         |--I. (Ixodes) F91
         |--I. (Ixodiopsis Filippova 1957) HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) angustus Neumann 1899 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) eastoni Keirans & Clifford 1983 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) ochotonae Gregson 1941 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) pomarentzevi Serdyukova 1942 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) soricis Gregson 1942 HRK91
         |    |--I. (I.) stromi Filippova 1957 HRK91
         |    `--I. (I.) woodi Bishopp 1911 HRK91
         |--I. (Multidentatus Clifford, Sonenshine et al. 1973) HRK91
         |    `--I. (M.) laysanensis HRK91
         |--I. (Pholeoixodes Schulze 1942) HRK91
         |    |--I. (P.) arboricola Schulze & Schlottke 1930 HRK91
         |    |--I. (P.) cookei Packard 1869 HRK91 [=I. (Ixodiopsis) cookei F91]
         |    |--I. (P.) hearlei Gregson 1941 HRK91
         |    |--I. (P.) hexagonus Leach 1815 HRK91
         |    |--I. (P.) lividus Koch 1814 HRK91
         |    `--I. (P.) marmotae Cooley & Kohls 1938 HRK91
         `--I. (Sternalixodes Schulze 1935) HRK91
              `--I. (S.) confusus HRK91

Bothriocroton undatum (Fabricius 1775) [=Acarus undatus, Aponomma undatum; incl. Aponomma decorosum (Koch 1867)] KDB02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ADG91] Amoo, A. O. J., O. O. Dipeolu & L. N. Gichuru. 1991. Tick ecology: on-host population dynamics of ticks in the Coast Province of Kenya. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 461-468. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B91] Belozerov, V. N. 1991. Evolution of life cycles in ticks (Ixodidae) due to climate seasonality. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 135-139. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1-60, plates 1-18.

[F91] Filippova, N. A. 1991. A hypothesis for the palaeogenesis of the distribution of the main vectors for Lyme disease. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 109-118. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H01] Halliday, R. B. 2001. 250 years of Australian acarology. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 3-16. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[HRK91] Homsher, P. J., R. G. Robbins & J. E. Keirans. 1991. Scanning electron microscopy of Haller’s organ for subgeneric systematic studies in the genus Ixodes. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 335-342. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[HJH91] Hubálek, Z., Z. Juřicová & J. Halouzka. 1991. Tick-borne viruses and bacteria isolated in Czechoslovakia. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 49-53. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[JR91] Jaworski, D. C., R. Rosell, L B. Coons & G. R. Needham. 1991. Evidence that a 90 kDa tick salivary gland polypeptide is a cement component. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 335-340. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KK91] Kamarinchev, B., T. Kovacheva, T. Christova, G. Georgieva & V. Zlatanova. 1991. Studies on mosquitoes and ticks as carriers of alpha-, flavi- and bunyaviruses. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 89-92. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K09] Keirans, J. E. 2009. Order Ixodida. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, pp. 111-123. Texas Tech University Press.

[KDB02] Klompen, H., S. J. Dobson & S. C. Barker. 2002. A new subfamily, Bothriocrotoninae n. subfam., for the genus Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994 status amend. (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the synonymy of Aponomma Neumann, 1899 with Amblyomma Koch, 1844. Systematic Parasitology 53: 101-107.

[K91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199-204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LD91] Leonovich, S. A., & F. Dusbábek. 1991. Pheromone sensory subsystem in ticks: correlation between structure of sensilla and evolution of behaviour. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 53-58. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LO91] Liebisch, A., & S. Olbrich. 1991. The hedgehog tick, Ixodes hexagonus Leach, 1815, as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi in Europe. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 67-71. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MN91] Miyamoto, K., M. Nakao, N. Sato & M. Mori. 1991. Isolation of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes from tick vectors and feral rodents in Japan. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 125-132. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37-48.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 100-109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[P91] Podboronov, V. M. 1991. Antibacterial protective mechanisms of ixodoid ticks. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 375-380. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[R91] Rechav, Y. 1991. The ecology of the vectors of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in southern Africa. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 93-99. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[RK01] Roe, R. M., V. Kallapur, P. A. Neese, C. S. Apperson & D. E. Sonenshine. 2001. Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis and reproduction in ticks: A critical re-examination of the evidence and a new perspective. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 604-611. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R01] Russell, R. C. 2001. The medical significance of Acari in Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 535-546. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339-342.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WN01] Wang, H., & P. A. Nuttall. 2001. Characterisation of immunoglobulin G binding proteins in male Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 618-621. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Ixodes (Ixodes)

Western black-legged tick Ixodes pacificus, copyright Kaldari.


Belongs within: Ixodidae.

Ixodes subgenus Ixodes is the group of ticks including the primary vectors of Lyme disease, caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi (Filippova 1991). Members of this subgenus are distinguished by the absence of spurs on the first segment of the palp (Kleinjan & Lane 2008).

Characters (from Kleinjan & Lane 2008): Palpal article I lacking anterior or posterior spurs; auriculae present; small external spur present on coxae I and II; alloscutal setae conspicuously long (often 0.08–0.10 mm), with typically seven marginal dorsal setae, two or more central dorsal setae, and one pair of dorsal supplementary setae; normally 3 setae on coxae III; anal groove usually evident; three posterior marginal festoons faint.

<==Ixodes (Ixodes) F91
    |--*I. (I.) ricinus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Acarus ricinus] B94
    |--I. (I.) affinis Neumann 1899 HRK91
    |--I. (I.) brunneus Koch 1844 HRK91
    |--I. (I.) dammini Spilman, Clifford et al. 1979 F91
    |--I. (I.) dentatus Marx 1899 F91
    |--I. (I.) frontalis (Panzer 1798) HRK91
    |--I. (I.) hyatti Clifford, Hoogstraal & Kohls 1971 F91
    |--I. (I.) jellisoni Cooley & Kohls 1938 F91
    |--I. (I.) kashmiricus Pomerantzev 1946 F91
    |--I. (I.) kazakstani Olenev & Sorokoumov 1934 F91
    |--I. (I.) kuntzi Hoogstraal & Kohls 1965 HRK91
    |--I. (I.) montoyanus Cooley 1944 HRK91
    |--I. (I.) muris Bishopp & Smith 1937 F91
    |--I. (I.) neotomae Cooley 1944 HRK91
    |--I. (I.) nipponensis Kitaoka & Saito 1967 F91
    |--I. (I.) nuttallianus Schulzew 1930 F91
    |--I. (I.) pacificus Cooley & Kohls 1943 F91
    |--I. (I.) pavlovskyi Pomerantzev 1946 F91
    |--I. (I.) persulcatus Schulze 1930 F91
    |--I. (I.) pomerantzi Kohls 1957 HRK91
    `--I. (I.) scapularis Say 1821 F91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[F91] Filippova, N. A. 1991. A hypothesis for the palaeogenesis of the distribution of the main vectors for Lyme disease. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 109-118. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[HRK91] Homsher, P. J., R. G. Robbins & J. E. Keirans. 1991. Scanning electron microscopy of Haller’s organ for subgeneric systematic studies in the genus Ixodes. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 335-342. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Kleinjan, J. E., & R. S. Lane. 2008. Larval keys to the genera of Ixodidae (Acari) and species of Ixodes (Latreille) ticks established in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 84 (2): 121-142.

Amblyomma

Cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense, from the US Dept of Health and Health Services.


Belongs within: Ixodidae.

Amblyomma is a large genus of ticks including both large, brightly ornamented mammal parasites and smaller, less ornamented parasites of reptiles and amphibians (Keirans 2009). The genus in its current circumscription is supported by molecular analysis, though no unique morphological synapomorphies are known (Klompen et al. 2002).

<==Amblyomma Koch 1844 [incl. Aponomma Neumann 1899; Amblyommini] KDB02
    |--A. americanum (Linnaeus 1758) SH91
    |--A. cajennense K09
    |--A. darwini WP99
    |--A. elaphense (Price 1959) [=Aponomma elaphense] KDB02
    |--A. fimbriatum (Koch 1844) [=Aponomma fimbriatum] KDB02
    |--A. gemma (Dönitz 1909) ADG91
    |--A. hebraeum (Koch 1844) ADG91
    |    |--A. h. hebraeum J98
    |    `--A. h. magnum Neumann 1909 J98
    |--A. latum (Koch 1844) [=Aponomma latum] KDB02
    |--A. lepidum (Dönitz 1909) ADG91
    |--A. loculosum R01
    |--A. macfarlandi S91
    |--A. maculatum Koch 1844 SH91
    |--A. moreliae R01
    |--A. nitidum WP99
    |--A. pilosum S91
    |--A. postoculatum R01
    |--A. quadricavum (Schulze 1941) [=Aponomma quadricavum] KDB02
    |--A. rotundatum WP99
    |--A. sphenodonti (Dumbleton 1943) [=Aponomma sphenodonti] KDB02
    |--A. transversale (Lucas 1845) [=Aponomma transversale] KDB02
    |--A. triguttatum Koch 1844 KDB02
    |--A. tuberculatum OW01
    |--A. usingeri S91
    |--A. variegatum (Fabricius 1794) ADG91
    `--A. yajimai Kishida 1935 [=Ambyomma (l. c.) yajimai] TYM08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ADG91] Amoo, A. O. J., O. O. Dipeolu & L. N. Gichuru. 1991. Tick ecology: on-host population dynamics of ticks in the Coast Province of Kenya. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 461-468. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81-91.

[K09] Keirans, J. E. 2009. Order Ixodida. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, pp. 111-123. Texas Tech University Press.

[KDB02] Klompen, H., S. J. Dobson & S. C. Barker. 2002. A new subfamily, Bothriocrotoninae n. subfam., for the genus Bothriocroton Keirans, King & Sharrad, 1994 status amend. (Ixodida: Ixodidae), and the synonymy of Aponomma Neumann, 1899 with Amblyomma Koch, 1844. Systematic Parasitology 53: 101-107.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 100-109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R01] Russell, R. C. 2001. The medical significance of Acari in Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 535-546. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SH91] Sonenshine, D. E., J. G. Hamilton, J. S. Phillips & W. R. Lusby. 1991. Mounting sex pheromone: its role in regulation of mate recognition in the Ixodidae. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 69-78. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Rhodacaridae

Generalised dorsum of Rhodacarus, from here.


Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Rhodacaridae are a group of mostly small, delicate free-living predatory mites commonly found in deeper soil layers (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Palpi five-segmented, with separate tibia and tarsus; palptarsal apotele three-timed; legs IV with ten setae on genu (2 2/1, 3/1 1), ten on tibia (2 1/1, 3/1 2); male with sternal setae st5 on sternitigenital shield; female sternal shield fused with metasternal plates so as to include fourth pair of sternal setae; anterior portion of female sternal shield and male sternitigenital shield undifferentiated from more posterior portions.

<==Rhodacaridae [Rhodacarellinae, Rhodacarinae]
    |--Afrogamasellus K86
    |--Protogamasellopsis corticalis LKW09
    |--Tangaroellus LKW09
    |--Rhodacarellus Willmann 1935 K86
    |    |--R. corniculatus Willmann 1935 K86
    |    |--R. silesiacus Willmann 1936 K86
    |    `--R. vervacti K86
    |--Rhodacaropsis Willmann 1935 K86
    |    |--R. attenuata Loots 1969 K86
    |    |--R. botosaneanui Petrova & Beron 1973 K86
    |    |--R. cubana Petrova & Beron 1973 K86
    |    `--R. inexpectata Willmann 1935 K86
    `--Rhodacarus Oudemans 1902 K86
         |--R. ancorae Karg 1971 K91
         |--R. angustiformis K86
         |--R. berresfordi Loots 1969 K86
         |--R. calcarulatus Berlese 1921 K86
         |--R. coronatus Berlese 1921 K91
         |--R. denticulatus K86
         |--R. marksae K86
         |--R. minimus KA90
         |--R. pallidus Hull 1918 K86
         |--R. roseus Oudemans 1902 K86
         `--R. strenzkei Willmann 1957 K86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. A five year study on the secondary succession of Gamasina on a ruderal site: the influence of recultivation. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 373-383. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K86] Krantz, G. W. 1986. Acari: Rhodacaridae. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 632-634. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583-665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, pp. 124-232. Texas Tech University Press.

Parasitidae

Pergamasus crassipes, copyright Maria Minor.


Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Parasitidae are a group of free-living predatory mites (not, despite their name, parasites) that are primarily found in ground-level substrates where they feed on microarthropods and nematodes. The group's misleading name comes from phoretic deutonymphs on insects being mistaken for parasites (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Adult dorsal shield entire or divided or with a pair of lateral incisions in female, entire with at most a transverse line of fusion of two shields in male. Female sternal shield with three pairs of setae; epigynal shield triangular, flanked by large discrete metasternal shields, and abutting or rarely coalescing with a ventrianal shield that is variously fused with podal, peritrematic or, more rarely, dorsal shield elements; presternal platelets frequently present. Tibia I typically with four ventral setae, six dorsal setae and two anterolateral setae (2 3/2, 3/2 2); tibia III with eight or nine setae (2 1/1, 2/1 1(2)); chaetotaxy of genu IV 2 2/1, 3/1 1. Palptarsal apotele three-timed. Female tocospermous. Male with genital aperture at anterior margin of holoventral or sternitigenital shield, typically with highly developed spurs and apophyses on legs II; chelicerae with sperm-holding structure (spermatotreme) that is coalesced distally with movable digit. Larva without pygidial shield; protonymphal pygidial shield reduced laterally, generally with four or five pairs of setae (without setae S4-S5), of shield sometimes absent; dorsal shield of deutonymph divided.

<==Parasitidae [Neotocospermata, Parasitiae, Parasitina, Parasitoidea]
    |  i. s.: Euparasitus similis DW10
    |         Schizosthetus LKW09
    |         Psilogamasus LKW09
    |--Pergamasinae KA90
    |    |--Holoparasitus KA90
    |    |    |--H. excipuliger KA90
    |    |    `--H. stramenti Karg 1971 D91
    |    `--Pergamasus D91
    |         |--P. alpestris Koh91
    |         |--P. alstoni Bhattachar 1963 D91
    |         |--P. barbarus BC91
    |         |--P. brevicornis K09
    |         |--P. conus D91
    |         |--P. crassicornutus D91
    |         |--P. crassipes (Linnaeus 1758) Koe91 [incl. P. crassipes var. alsacienne Dielmann 1991 (n. n.) D91]
    |         |--P. cuneatus D91
    |         |--P. digitulus Karg 1963 Koe91b
    |         |--P. germanicus FFB88
    |         |--P. hamatus (Koch 1839) D91
    |         |--P. homopodoides Athias-Henriot 1967 D91
    |         |--P. lapponicus Trägårdh 1910 D91
    |         |--P. lobatus Koh91
    |         |--P. longicornis IHC01
    |         |--P. misellus Berlese 1903 Koe91a
    |         |--P. obesus Koh91
    |         |--P. parvulus Koh91
    |         |--P. quisquiliarum (Canestrini 1882) Koe91a
    |         |--P. runcatellus (Berlese 1903) Koe91a
    |         |--P. septentrionalis (Oudemans 1902) Koe91a
    |         |--P. suecicus (Trägardh 1936) Koe91a
    |         `--P. vagabundus Karg 1968 Koe91a
    `--Parasitinae D91
         |--Vulgarogamasus KA90
         |--Trachygamasus KA90
         |--Parasitellus fucorum LKW09, WP99
         |--Gamasodes KA90
         |    |--G. bispinosus KA90
         |    `--G. queenslandicus LKW09
         |--Poecilochirus KA90
         |    |--P. carabi Canestrini & Canestrini 1882 SMB91
         |    |--P. monospinosus A91
         |    `--P. necrophori Koh91
         `--Parasitus Koh91
              |--P. americanus Koh91
              |--P. berlesei (Willmann 1935) D91
              |--P. bituberosus LKW09
              |--P. coleoptratorum Koe91b
              |--P. congener Koh91
              |--P. diversus LKW09
              |--P. eta Oudemans & Voigts 1904 Koe91a
              |--P. fimetorum (Berlese 1903) Koe91a
              |--P. gregarius LKW09
              |--P. kraepelini Koh91
              |--P. lunaris Koh91
              |--P. lunulatus (Müller 1859) Koe91a
              |--P. magnus (Kramer 1876) D91
              |--P. niveus Koh91
              |--P. numerus Koh91
              |--P. remberti Koh91
              `--P. talparum Koh91

Nomina nuda: Pergamasus arcuatus Dielmann 1991 D91
             Pergamasus carniolus Dielmann 1991 D91
             Pergamasus italicus Dielmann 1991 D91
             Pergamasus minutissimus Dielmann 1991 D91
             Pergamasus turriger Dielmann 1991 D91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A91] Axtell, R. C. 1991. Role of mesostigmatid mites in integrated fly control. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 639-646. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[BC91] Baker, G. T., & A. Chandrapatya. 1991. Fine structure of the chorion of the broak mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae). In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 325-328. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[D91] Dielmann, M. 1991. Computer in acarine taxonomy: a method for systematical analysis of the genus Pergamasus (Acari: Mesostigmata). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 239-248. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[FFB88] Franke, U., B. Friebe & L. Beck. 1988. Methodisches zur Ermittlung der Siedlungsdichte von Bodentieren aus Quadratproben und Barberfallen. Pedobiologia 32: 253-264.

[IHC01] Ireson, J. E., R. J. Holloway & W. S. Chatterton. 2001. An overview of investigations into the use of predatory mites to control the lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae), in Tasmanian pastures. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 444-452. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[Koe91a] Koehler, H. H. 1991a. A five year study on the secondary succession of Gamasina on a ruderal site: the influence of recultivation. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 373-383. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Koe91b] Koehler, H. H. 1991b. The impact of aldicarb on the succession of Gamasina; a one year study. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 749-758. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Koh91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199-204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Form and function. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, pp. 5-53. Texas Tech University Press.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, pp. 124-232. Texas Tech University Press.

[SMB91] Schwarz, H. H., J. K. Müller & A. Baker. 1991. Genetic differentiation between deuteronymphs of Poecilochirus carabi (Mesostigmata, Parasitidae) living on sympatric Necrophorus species (Coleoptera, Silphidae). In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 431-436. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Euseius

Euseius stipulatus, from Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias.


Belongs within: Phytoseioidea.

Euseius is a diverse group of predatory mites, including some species used in the biological control of the citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri (Grout 2001).

Euseius
    |--E. addoensis G01
    |--E. aizwai WL01
    |--E. citri G01
    |--E. dowdi W99
    |--E. elinae [=Amblyseius elinae] SG01
    |--E. hibisci G01
    |--E. mesembrinus BF01
    |--E. neovictoriensis W99
    |--E. nicholsi WL01
    |--E. orygmus G01
    |--E. ovalis WL01
    |--E. pafuriensis G01
    |--E. rhusi G01
    |--E. rubini RC91
    |--E. scutalis [incl. Amblyseius gossipi] RC91
    |--E. similiovalis WL01
    |--E. stipulatus R-CT01
    |--E. subplebeius WL01
    |--E. transvaalensis G01
    |--E. tutsi G01
    |--E. utilis WL01
    `--E. victoriensis SG01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BF01] Badii, M. H., A. E. Flores, G. Ponce, J. Landeros & H. Quiroz. 2001. Does the Lorryia formosa Cooreman (Acari: Prostigmata: Tydeidae) population visit or reside on citrus foliage? In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 413-418. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[G01] Grout, T. G. 2001. Advances in understanding the ecology of Euseius (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) species on citrus in southern Africa. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 464-469. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RC91] Ragusa Di Chiara, S. 1991. Using native phytoseiids in agricultural cropping systems. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 159-166. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SG01] Steiner, M. Y., & S. Goodwin. 2001. Phytoseiids with potential for commercial exploitation in Australia. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 476-483. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197-200.

[WL01] Wu, W.-N., & W.-M. Lan. 2001. The phytoseiid mites of major crops in China. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 530-532. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.