Liparetrus

Liparetrus sp., copyright Fir0002.


Belongs within: Melolonthinae.

Liparetrus is a diverse genus of chafers endemic to Australia; the genus' diversity makes it difficult to define categorically, but species are small and robust with short elytra and/or a pale, transparent posterior margin to the rear coxae (Britton 1980).

Characters (from Britton 1980): Small (length 3–14 mm), of stout build; elytra usually short, so that propygidium is largely exposed; eye usually truncate posteriorly and so almost semicircular in outline; posterior coxae usually with pale transparent posterior margins; proximal (second) tooth on outer edge of anterior tibia, when present, not closely applied to base of tibia; labrum not fused to clypeus; claws without pulvilli; propygidium and penultimate ventrite usually fused into a continuous ring, without trace of a longitudinal suture which normally separates the two on each side; antennae usually 9-segmented, rarely 7- or 8-segmented; antenna1 club always 3-lamellate.

<==Liparetrus Guérin-Méneville 1831 [incl. Liparetra Hope 1837] HW92
    |  i. s.: L. collesi Britton 1980 HW92
    |         L. lottinii M86
    |--L. nudipennis group B80
    |    |--L. nudipennis Germar 1848 B80
    |    `--L. squamipennis Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. squamiger group B80
    |    |--L. bellarus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. imbricatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. squamiger Macleay 1886 B80
    |--L. sericeus group B80
    |    |--L. collessi Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. picipennis Germar 1848 [incl. L. nitidior Macleay 1886, L. obscurus Macleay 1886 non Blanchard 1853] B80
    |    |--L. sericeus Macleay 1871 [incl. L. latiusculus Macleay 1886] B80
    |    `--L. triangulatus Britton 1959 B80
    |--L. erythropterus group B80
    |    |--L. dispar Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. ebeninus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. erythropterus Blanchard 1851 B80
    |    `--L. puer Blackburn 1905 [incl. L. longipilis Lea 1924] B80
    |--L. convexior group B80
    |    |--L. adelus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. argenteus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. carnei Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. convexior Macleay 1886 [incl. L. caviceps Blackburn 1888] B80
    |    |--L. newmani Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. pallidus Macleay 1871 B80
    |--L. dixoni group B80
    |    |--L. armstrongi Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. dixoni Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. jubatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. rotundipennis Macleay 1886 [incl. L. simplex Blackburn 1888] B80
    |    |--L. sericeipennis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    `--L. wilsoni Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. alienus group B80
    |    |--L. alienus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. diversus Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. limbatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. opacus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pauxillus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pusillus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. suavis Blackburn 1889 B80
    |    `--L. vicinus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. discoidalis group B80
    |    |--L. bakeri Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. bimaculatus Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. discoidalis Macleay 1864 B80
    |    |--L. hattanus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. orestes Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. reburrus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. ulingus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. ferrugineus group B80
    |    |--L. confusus Blackburn 1912 B80
    |    |--L. convexus Boisduval 1835 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. curtulus Burmeister 1855 [incl. L. brunneipennis Blackburn 1892, L. ubiquitosus Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. erythropygus Blanchard 1851 B80
    |    |--L. ferrugineus Blanchard 1851 B80
    |    |--L. mimicus Lea 1917 B80
    |    `--L. teres Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. laetus group B80
    |    |--L. albipennis Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cribripennis Lea 1924 B80
    |    |--L. geminatus Lea 1924 B80
    |    |--L. laetus Blackburn 1888 [incl. L. basicollis Lea 1917] B80
    |    |--L. longidens Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. modestus Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    `--L. stygius Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. discipennis group B80
    |    |--*L. discipennis Guérin-Méneville 1831 B80, HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--L. aethiops Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. albohirtus Masters 1886 [=L. basalis Macleay 1864 non Blanchard 1851] B80
    |    |--L. gravidus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. squamosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. rotundicollis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. trichopygus Lea 1917 B80
    |    `--L. ventralis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |--L. atratus group B80
    |    |--L. amabilis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. asper Macleay 1886 [incl. L. spretus Blackburn 1892] B80
    |    |--L. atratus Burmeister 1855 B80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--L. hirpex Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. mixtus Lea 1919 B80
    |    |--L. monartus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. subsquamosus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. tristis Blanchard 1851 B80
    |    `--L. uniformis Blanchard 1851 B80
    |--L. luridipennis group B80
    |    |--L. carnabyi Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cribriceps Lea 1924 B80
    |    |--L. flavipennis Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. glabripennis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. lepidopygus Lea 1917 [incl. L. trichosternus Lea 1917] B80
    |    |--L. lissapterus Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. luridipennis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. necessarius Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. trivialis Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. vestitus Blanchard 1846 B80, HW92
    |         |--L. v. vestitus [incl. L. nigroumbratus Blackburn 1888, L. pruinosus Burmeister 1855] HW92
    |         `--L. v. sedani Blackburn 1888 HW92
    |--L. monticola group B80
    |    |--L. atomus Britton 1959 B80
    |    |--L. flavopictus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. gilvus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. glaber Macleay 1871 [=L. laevatus Macleay 1886; incl. L. parvulus Macleay 1871] B80
    |    |--L. luridus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. micros Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. minor Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. monticola (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. ‘pygmaeus’ Britton 1980 non Burmeister 1855 B80
    |    `--L. unidentatus Lea 1917 B80
    |--L. capillatus group B80
    |    |--L. amplus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. angulatus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. capillatus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. cognatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. laevis Blanchard 1851 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. rothei Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. rotundiformis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. rubicundus Macleay 1864 [incl. L. irregularis Lea 1917, L. propinquus Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. rugatus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. seclusus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. tridentatus Macleay 1871 [incl. L. acutidens Macleay 1886] B80
    |--L. striatus group B80
    |    |--L. brevipes Blackburn 1905 [incl. L. leai Blackburn 1905] B80
    |    |--L. incertus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. insularis Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. jenkinsi Britton 1959 B80
    |    |--L. lividipennis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. merredinensis Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. mulurus Britton 1959 B80
    |    |--L. obscurior Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. plautus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. striatus Blanchard 1851 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. sylvicola (Fabricius 1775) B80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--L. tibialis Lea 1924 B80
    |--L. fulvohirtus group B80
    |    |--L. albosetosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. andersoni Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. ater Macleay 1886 [incl. L. nitidipennis Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. fulvohirtus Macleay 1871 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. karallus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. kennedyi Macleay 1886 [incl. L. majorinus Lea 1919] B80
    |    |--L. niger Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. pandus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. phoenicopterus Germar 1848 B80
    |    |--L. urbulus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. vastus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. wanamarus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. concolor group B80
    |    |--L. analis Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. collaris Macleay 1886 [incl. L. maurus Blackburn 1892] B80
    |    |--L. concolor Erichson 1842 B80
    |    |--L. consanguineus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. fimbriatus Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. karinus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. kreuslerae Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. lugens Blackburn 1892 [incl. L. tarsalis Lea 1924] B80
    |    |--L. ovipennis Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pectinatus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. rubefactus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    `--L. septuosus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. marginipennis group B80
    |    |--L. criniger Macleay 1886 [incl. L. perplexus Blackburn 1888] B80
    |    |--L. flavicornis Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. germari Macleay 1886 [incl. L. insignis Lea 1917, L. mastersi Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. insolitus Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. marginipennis Blanchard 1851 (see below for synonymy) B80
    |    |--L. nigrinus Germar 1848 [incl. L. rugosus Macleay 1886] B80
    |    |--L. paryphus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pimbus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. trichotus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. umbrosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. villosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. xanthotrichus Blanchard 1851 B80
    |--L. flavus group B80
    |    |--L. arenosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. aridus Blackburn 1895 B80
    |    |--L. ascius Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. assitus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cerinus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cinnameus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. flavidus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. flavus Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. furfurosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. luteus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. medius Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. pallidulus (Macleay 1888) [=Scitala pallidula; incl. L. bilobus Lea 1924] B80
    |    |--L. paulus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. pulvereus Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. lanaticollis group B80
    |    |--L. cantrelli Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. castaneus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. cinctipennis Blackburn 1905 B80
    |    |--L. commoni Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. demarzi Britton 1959 B80
    |    |--L. halei Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. lanaticollis Macleay 1888 [incl. L. albovillosus Lea 1917] B80
    |    |--L. minimus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. minusculus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. minutus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. obesus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. occidentalis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. pallens Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. palmerstoni Blackburn 1888 B80
    |    |--L. pholiotus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. semiflavus Lea 1917 B80
    |    |--L. simulator Lea 1926 B80
    |    |--L. tanami Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. tatakus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. uptoni Britton 1980 B80
    |--L. gracilipes group B80
    |    |--L. abnormalis Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. atrox Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. aulax Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. comes Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. convexiusculus Macleay 1883 [incl. L. acutangulus Lea 1919] B80
    |    |--L. finitimus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. fumosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. gracilipes Blackburn 1888 [incl. L. tuberculatus Lea 1895] B80
    |    |--L. ithonus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. kungarus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. laeticulus Blackburn 1889 B80
    |    |--L. mimus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. nigrifrons Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. obscurus Blanchard 1846 B80, HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--L. parvus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. robustus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. satanus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. simillimus Macleay 1886 B80
    |    |--L. tenebrosus Britton 1980 B80
    |    |--L. tulanus Britton 1980 B80
    |    `--L. vespertinus Britton 1980 B80
    `--L. rufipennis group B80
         |--L. atriceps Macleay 1864 [incl. L. fallax Blackburn 1888, L. micans Macleay 1886] B80
         |--L. badius Macleay 1888 B80
         |--L. bituberculatus Macleay 1886 [incl. L. melaleucae Lea 1917, L. piliceps Lea 1924] B80
         |--L. carpentariae Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. compositus Lea 1917 B80
         |--L. crassus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. distans Blackburn 1905 B80
         |--L. distinctus Blackburn 1895 B80
         |--L. glauerti Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. globulus Macleay 1886 [incl. L. mysticus Blackburn 1889] B80
         |--L. hilli Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. impressicollis Macleay 1886 B80
         |--L. kiatanus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. laciniatus Lea 1917 B80
         |--L. malara Britton 1959 B80
         |--L. melallus Britton 1959 B80
         |--L. melanocephalus Blackburn 1895 B80
         |--L. merus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. nigricollis Hope 1842 B80
         |--L. nudus Lea 1917 B80
         |--L. opacicollis Macleay 1886 [incl. L. clypealis Lea 1924] B80
         |--L. orsinus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. periosus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. perkinsi Blackburn 1905 B80
         |--L. pezus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. politus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. posticalis Blackburn 1888 B80
         |--L. quinquelobatus Lea 1919 B80
         |--L. rubrus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. rufipennis Macleay 1864 B80
         |--L. semiatriceps Lea 1917 B80
         |--L. semicastaneus Lea 1917 [incl. L. apicalis Lea 1917] B80
         |--L. validus Britton 1980 B80
         |--L. vestjensi Britton 1980 B80
         `--L. waningus Britton 1980 B80

Liparetrus atratus Burmeister 1855 B80 [incl. L. intermedius Lea 1919 B80, L. obtusidens Macleay 1886 B80, L. orthodoxus Lea 1924 HW92, L. parvidens Macleay 1886 HW92]

Liparetrus convexus Boisduval 1835 [incl. L. basalis Blanchard 1851, L. macleayi Blackburn 1888, L. salebrosus Macleay 1886] B80

*Liparetrus discipennis Guérin-Méneville 1831 B80, HW92 [incl. L. assimilis Macleay 1886 B80, L. canescens Macleay 1886 B80, L. montanus Macleay 1886 B80, L. puncticeps Lea 1917 B80]

Liparetrus fulvohirtus Macleay 1871 [incl. L. adelaidae Blackburn 1892, L. comatus Macleay 1886, L. flavopilosus Macleay 1871, L. mitchelli Macleay 1886, L. pilosus Macleay 1871, L. rufiventris Macleay 1871, L. villosicollis Macleay 1886] B80

Liparetrus laevis Blanchard 1851 [incl. L. agrestis Blackburn 1888, L. nigriceps Macleay 1886, L. nigriclavus Lea 1917] B80

Liparetrus marginipennis Blanchard 1851 [=L. marginicollis (l. c.); incl. L. callosus Macleay 1886, L. hirsutus Burmeister 1855, L. nigrohirtus Macleay 1886] B80

Liparetrus monticola (Fabricius 1775) [=Melolontha monticola; incl. L. blanchardi Blackburn 1905, L. gagaticeps Macleay 1888] B80

Liparetrus obscurus Blanchard 1846 B80, HW92 [incl. L. carus Lea 1917 B80, L. holosericeus Macleay 1886 B80, L. iridipennis Germar 1848 B80, L. senex Blackburn 1888 B80, L. sylvicola Blanchard 1853 non Melolontha sylvicola Fabricius 1775 B80]

Liparetrus striatus Blanchard 1851 [incl. L. glabratus Burmeister 1855, L. ovatus Macleay 1886, L. picipennis Macleay 1886 non Germar 1848] B80

Liparetrus sylvicola (Fabricius 1775) B80 [=Melolontha sylvicola B80, *Liparetra sylvicola HW92; incl. Liparetrus juvenis Blackburn 1888 B80, Liparetrus vicarius Blackburn 1905 B80]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B80] Britton, E. B. 1980. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 3. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Liparetrus. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 76: 1–209.

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

Melolonthinae

Emerald eucalyptus chafer Xylonichus piliger, copyright Mark Ridgway.


Belongs within: Scarabaeoidea.
Contains: Rhizotrogus, Diphucephala, Automolius, Aplopsis, Maechidius, Heteronyx, Neoheteronyx, Phyllotocus, Lepidiota, Antitrogus, Rhopaea, Melolontha, Gnaphalopoda, Sericesthis, Scitala, Liparetrus, Colpochila.

The Melolonthinae, chafers, is a cosmopolitan group of scarabaeid beetles with soil-dwelling larvae that feed on roots and hummus. Though larvae may live for up to two years, the adult life period is relatively brief and lasts only a few days or weeks. Adults of some species feed on the leaves of trees; others do not feed as adults at all (Houston & Weir 1992).

Characters (from Houston & Weir 1992): Head and pronotum of males unarmed; mandibles completely concealed from above; abdominal spiracles diverging, with one pair exposed beneath edge of elytra; fore coxae transverse, mesothoracic epimera not visible from above; mid coxae transverse or only slightly oblique; tarsal claws equal. Larvae with apical antennal segment about as wide as penultimate segment; mandibles withouyt transverse granular ridges forming stridulatory areas; galea and lacinia either partly fused proximally or fitting tightly together; anal cleft usually Y-shaped or angulate.

<==Melolonthinae [Melolonthidae, Melolonthides]
    |--Comophorina Strand 1928 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    `--*C. testaceipennis (Blanchard 1850) [=*Comophorus testaceipennis, *Comophus testaceipennis] HW92
    |--Plectris Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 [Macrodactylini] HW92
    |    |--*P. tomentosa Saint-Fargeau & Serville 1828 HW92
    |    `--P. aliena Chapin 1934 HW92
    |--Phyllotocidium Blackburn 1898 [Phyllotocidiini] HW92
    |    |--*P. macleayi (Blackburn 1892) [=Cheiragra macleayi] HW92
    |    |--P. bimaculiflavum Lea 1917 HW92
    |    |--P. pictum Lea 1916 HW92
    |    `--P. viridis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Diphucephalini [Diphucephalides] HW92
    |    |--Diphucephala HW92
    |    `--Cunderdinia Lea 1916 HW92
    |         |--*C. variabilis Lea 1916 HW92
    |         `--C. setistriata Lea 1916 HW92
    |--Pachytricha Hope 1841 [=Pachytrichia (l. c.); Pachytrichini] HW92
    |    |--*P. castanea Hope 1841 [incl. P. munda Sharp 1874, P. pallens Sharp 1874] HW92
    |    |--P. demarzi Frey 1966 HW92
    |    |--P. minor Sharp 1874 HW92
    |    |--P. robusta Sharp 1874 HW92
    |    `--P. tecta Sharp 1874 HW92
    |--Euchirini B14
    |    |--Euchirus B14
    |    |--Propomacrus B14
    |    `--Cheirotonus B14
    |         |--C. arnaudi B14
    |         |--C. battareli B14
    |         |--C. formosanus B14
    |         |--C. gestroi B14
    |         |--C. jambar Kurosawa 1984 I92
    |         |--C. jansoni B14
    |         |--C. macleayi Hope 1840 B14
    |         |--C. otai I92
    |         `--C. parryi B14
    |--Automoliini [Automolini] HW92
    |    |--Automolius B78
    |    |--Aplopsis HW92
    |    |--Bryantella Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*B. castaneua Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Maechidinus Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    |--*M. latericollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    |--M. marginalis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    `--M. sculptilis Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--Phyllochlaenia Blanchard 1846 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |         |--*P. rufescens Blanchard 1846 HW92 [=Caulobius rufescens M86; incl. C. advena Blackburn 1898 HW92]
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ cervinus Boisd. 1835 M86
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ modestus Blanch. 1850 M86
    |         |--‘Caulobius’ pubescens Erichs. 1842 M86
    |         `--P. villosus (Guillou 1844) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |--Maechidiini [Maechidiides] B78
    |    |--Maechidius HW92
    |    |--Microcoenus Britton 1957 B78
    |    |    `--*M. nanus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Harpechys Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*H. chilo Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Microthopus Burmeister 1855 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. castanopterus Burmeister 1855 [incl. Macleayia hybrida Blackburn 1888] HW92
    |    |--Termitophilus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*T. spadix Britton 1957 HW92
    |    `--Epholcis Waterhouse 1875 HW92
    |         |--*E. divergens Waterhouse 1875 [incl. Maechidius albertisi Fairmaire 1877] HW92
    |         |--E. bilobiceps (Fairmaire 1877) [=Maechidius bilobiceps] HW92
    |         |--E. gracilis (Waterhouse 1875) [=Maechidius gracilis] HW92
    |         |--E. longior Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |         `--E. uniformis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Xylonychini HW92
    |    |--Exostethus Britton 1979 HW92
    |    |    `--*E. brunneus Britton 1979 HW92
    |    |--Nitorellus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*N. splendidus (Lea 1919) [=Colymbomorpha splendida] HW92
    |    |--Phyllococerus Waterhouse 1876 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. purpurascens Waterhouse 1876 HW92
    |    |--Chariochilus Brenske 1898 [incl. Lepidostethaspis Arrow 1924] HW92
    |    |    |--*C. metallescens Brenske 1898 HW92
    |    |    `--C. costipennis Moser 1907 [incl. Stethaspis squamosus Lea 1919, *Lepidostethaspis squamosus] HW92
    |    |--Colymbomorpha Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. lineata Blanchard 1850 HW92 [=Calonota lineata M86; incl. Ca. hilaris M86]
    |    |    |--C. uniformis Britton 1959 B78
    |    |    `--C. vittata Britton 1959 B78
    |    `--Xylonichus Boisduval 1835 [=Stethaspis Hope 1837, Xylonychus (l. c.)] HW92
    |         |--*X. eucalypti Boisduval 1835 [=*Stethaspis eucalypti] HW92
    |         |    |--X. e. eucalypti (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |         |    `--X. e. pentaphyllus (Arrow 1924) [=Stethaspis laetus pentaphyllus] HW92
    |         |--X. dispar (Arrow 1924) [=Stethaspis dispar] HW92
    |         |--X. monticola (Blackburn 1911) [=Stethaspis monticola] HW92
    |         |--X. nigrescens Blanchard 1851 HW92
    |         |--X. orpheus Fauvl. 1862 M86
    |         |--X. piliger Blanchard 1851 HW92
    |         `--X. sternalis (Blackburn 1912) [=Stethaspis sternalis] HW92
    |--Systellopini B78
    |    |--Chilodiplus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. albertisii Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |--Metascelis Westwood 1842 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. flexilis Westwood 1842 HW92
    |    |--Systellopus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    `--*S. obtusus Sharp 1877 [incl. S. ater Lea 1919, S. validus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |    |--Prochelyna Erichson 1847 [incl. Atholerus Sharp 1877, Tosotarsus Sharp 1877, Toxotarsus (l. c.)] HW92
    |    |    |--*P. heterodoxa Erichson 1847 [incl. *Atholerus obscurus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |    |    |--P. houstoni Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--P. velutina (Sharp 1877) [=*Tosotarsus velutinus] HW92
    |    |--Sarothromerus Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |    |    |--*S. sharpi (Blackburn 1905) [=Enamillus sharpi] HW92
    |    |    |--S. aranda Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--S. niger Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |--Sphyrocallus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    |--*S. brunneus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |    |    |--S. desertus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--S. lloydi Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |    `--Enamillus Sharp 1877 [incl. Trichelasmus Sharp 1877] HW92
    |         |--*E. striatus Sharp 1877 HW92
    |         |--E. basalis (Blackburn 1907) [=Trichelasmus basalis] HW92
    |         |--E. bicolor (Blackburn 1905) [=Sphyrocallus bicolor] HW92
    |         |--E. clavensis Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |         |--E. mauricei Blackburn 1907 HW92
    |         |--E. pilicollis (Sharp 1877) [=*Trichelasmus pilicollis] HW92
    |         |--E. rectus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |         `--E. septus Allsopp 1990 HW92
    |--Heteronycini B78
    |    |--Heteronyx HW92
    |    |--Neoheteronyx HW92
    |    |--Callabonica Blackburn 1895 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. propria Blackburn 1895 HW92
    |    |--Cubidens Britton in Houston & Weir 1992 [=Paraheteronyx Britton 1988 non Moser 1924] HW92
    |    |    `--*C. unguiculatus (Burmeister 1855) [=Heteronyx unguiculata, *Paraheteronyx unguiculata] HW92
    |    |--Eurychelus Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |    `--*E. marmoratus Blanchard 1850 HW92
    |    |--Nepytis Erichson 1842 HW92
    |    |    `--*N. russula Erichson 1842 HW92
    |    |--Proborhinus Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. cornutus (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx cornutus] HW92
    |    |--Odontotonyx Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    |--*O. brunneipennis Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    `--O. ruficeps Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |--Webbella Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    |--*W. firma (Blackburn 1909) [=Heteronyx firmus] HW92
    |    |    `--W. labralis (Blackburn 1908) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Acheilo Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. capitalis (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx capitalis] HW92
    |    |    |--A. clypeatus Britton 1988 HW92
    |    |    `--A. pedarius (Blackburn 1910) [=Heteronyx pedarius] HW92
    |    `--Pseudoheteronyx Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |         |--*P. baldiensis (Blackburn 1892) [=Heteronyx baldiensis] HW92
    |         |--P. basicollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |         |--P. creber Blackburn 1908 [incl. P. seticollis Lea 1919] HW92
    |         |--P. helaeoides Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |         |--P. laticollis Blackburn 1908 HW92
    |         `--P. puncticollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |--Sericini [Phyllotocides, Sericides] B78
    |    |--Phyllotocus HW92
    |    |--Sphaeroscelis Burmeister 1855 [incl. Cheirrhamphica Blackburn 1898] HW92
    |    |    `--*S. pectoralis (Burmeister 1855) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |--Cheirora Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. interstitialis (Blackburn 1898) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |--Opsitocus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--*O. obscurus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus obscurus] HW92
    |    |--Cheirodontus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. basicollis (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus basicollis] HW92
    |    |    `--C. bilobus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus bilobus] HW92
    |    |--Ancylonyx Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. vittatus (Macleay 1887) HW92 [=Phyllotocus vittatus HW92, Cheiragra vittata L19]
    |    |    |--A. melanurus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--A. sobrinus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Anthotocus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--*A. luridus (Macleay 1864) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--A. antennalis (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus antennalis] HW92
    |    |    |--A. cribriceps (Lea 1919) [=Phyllotocus cribriceps] HW92
    |    |    |--A. fugitivus (Lea 1920) [=Phyllotocus fugitivus] HW92
    |    |    `--A. perissus Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |--Cheiragra Macleay 1864 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. pusilla (Blanchard 1850) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--C. leai Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    |--C. ruficollis Macleay 1864 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--C. septentrionalis Britton 1957 HW92
    |    |    `--C. sericeipennis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    `--Neophyllotocus Blackburn 1898 [=Macrothops Macleay 1864 non Boisduval 1835] HW92
    |         |--N. cuspis Britton 1959 B78
    |         |--N. dispar (Blackburn 1890) [=Phyllotocus dispar] HW92
    |         |--N. legnotus Britton 1957 HW92
    |         |--N. pallidipennis (Macleay 1864) [=Macrothops pallidipennis] HW92
    |         |--N. rostratus (Macleay 1864) [=Macrothops rostrata] HW92
    |         |--N. undarus Allsopp 1976 HW92
    |         `--N. xanthipennis Britton 1957 HW92
    |--Melolonthini B78
    |    |--Holotrichia serrata [incl. Neolepidiota obscura Blackburn 1890] B78
    |    |--Lepidiota B78
    |    |--Antitrogus B78
    |    |--Rhopaea B78
    |    |--Phyllophaga helleri B14, MHG04
    |    |--Melolontha E12
    |    |--Zietzia Blackburn 1894 B78
    |    |    `--*Z. geologa Blackburn 1894 B78
    |    |--Holorhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*H. sagata Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Nanorhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*N. testacea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Microrhopaea Lea 1920 B78
    |    |    `--*M. flavipennis Lea 1920 B78
    |    |--Othnonius Olliff 1891 HW92
    |    |    `--*O. batesii Olliff 1891 HW92
    |    |--Megarhopaea Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*M. gigas (Lea 1916) [=Pararhopaea gigas; incl. Rhopaea demarzi Frey 1969] B78
    |    |--Hypolepida Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--*H. wilsoni Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Megacoryne Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*M. carnabyorum Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Allothnonius Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--*A. brooksi Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--A. barretti Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Metatrogus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--*M. septuosus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--M. castaneus Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    `--M. praeceps Britton 1978 B78
    |    |--Dermolepida Arrow 1941 [=Lepidoderma Waterhouse 1875 non Reuss 1855] B78
    |    |    |--*D. albohirtum (Waterhouse 1875) (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--D. lixi (Nonfried 1894) [=Lepidoderma lixi; incl. L. glaber Brenske 1895] HW92
    |    |    `--D. nigrum B78
    |    |--Pararhopaea Blackburn 1911 B78
    |    |    |--*P. callabonensis (Blackburn 1894) [=Rhopaea callabonensis] B78
    |    |    |--P. minor Britton 1978 B78
    |    |    |--P. moffatensis Allsop 1990 HW92
    |    |    `--P. rhipidocera Lea 1916 B78
    |    |--Pseudholophylla Blackburn 1911 (see below for synonymy) HW92
    |    |    |--*P. furfuracea (Burmeister 1855) [=Holophylla furfuracea] B78
    |    |    |--P. castaneipennis (Macleay 1888) [=Rhopaea castaneipennis] B78
    |    |    |--P. cavifrons (Lea 1919) [=Paralepidiota cavifrons] B78
    |    |    |--P. lepidoptera (Blackburn 1912) [=*Paralepidiota lepidoptera] HW92
    |    |    `--P. soror Britton 1978 B78
    |    `--Xenotrogus Britton 1978 B78
    |         |--*X. vitiensis (Fairmaire 1879) [=Rhopaea vitiensis] B78
    |         |--X. bisquamulatus (Moser 1919) [=Rhopaea bisquamulata] B78
    |         |--X. solomonensis (Moser 1919) [=Rhopaea solomonensis] B78
    |         |--X. subnitidus (Arrow 1915) [=Rhopaea subnitida] B78
    |         `--X. vestitus (Arrow 1915) [=Rhopaea vestita] B78
    |--Scitalini B78
    |    |--Sericoides HW92
    |    |--Gnaphalopoda HW92
    |    |--Sericesthis HW92
    |    |--Scitala HW92
    |    |--Colpochelyne Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*C. dux Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Idanastes Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*I. abditus Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Phorine Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*P. anomala (Blackburn 1907) [=Byrrhomorpha anomala] HW92
    |    |--Synchilus Britton 1955 HW92
    |    |    `--*S. gisleni Britton 1955 HW92
    |    |--Xyrodes Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--*X. calorata (Blackburn 1907) [=Frenchella calorata] HW92
    |    |--Protelura Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*P. nana Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--P. guttata Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Hadrops Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*H. halei Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--H. flavus (Lea 1919) [=Engyops flavus] HW92
    |    |--Colpochilodes Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |    |--*C. raucipennis Blackburn 1898 HW92
    |    |    `--C. peregrina Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Xyrine Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*X. carnei Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--X. inusitatus Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Byrrhomorpha Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |    |--*B. verres Blackburn 1892 HW92
    |    |    |--B. basicollis Lea 1919 HW92
    |    |    `--B. ponderosa Blackburn 1892 [incl. B. rudis Lea 1919] HW92
    |    |--Ophropyx Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*O. hispida (Blackburn 1898) [=Frenchella hispida] HW92
    |    |    |--O. approximans (Blackburn 1898) [=Frenchella approximans] HW92
    |    |    `--O. ciliata (Boisduval 1835) HW92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Xyroa Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--*X. polita Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--X. alta Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    |--X. amoena Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |    `--X. nitida Britton 1987 HW92
    |    |--Homolotropus Macleay 1871 [=Homalotropus (l. c.)] HW92
    |    |    |--*H. luridipennis Macleay 1871 HW92
    |    |    |--H. metallicus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    |--H. sagus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    |--H. sericeus Britton 1970 HW92
    |    |    `--H. taylori Britton 1970 HW92
    |    `--Telura Erichson 1842 HW92
    |         |--*T. vitticollis Erichson 1842 HW92
    |         |--T. alta Britton 1987 HW92
    |         |--T. imparilis Britton 1987 HW92
    |         |--T. monticola Britton 1987 HW92
    |         `--T. petiolata Britton 1987 HW92
    `--Liparetrini [Colpochilini] B80
         |  i. s.: ‘Melolontha’ astrolabei Boisduval 1835 [=Haplonycha astrolabei] HW92
         |--Liparetrus B80
         |--Colpochila HW92
         |--Dysphanochila Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*D. pilosipennis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Parasciton Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*P. inermis Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Allara Britton 1955 HW92
         |    `--*A. insularis Britton 1955 HW92
         |--Anacanthodes Britton 1990 [=Anacanthopus Blackburn 1898 non Montandon 1894] HW92
         |    `--*A. inermis (Blackburn 1898) [=*Anacanthopus inermis] HW92
         |--Macleayella Britton 1990 [=Macleayia Blackburn 1888 non Haswell 1830] HW92
         |    `--*M. singularis (Blackburn 1888) [=*Macleayia singularis] HW92
         |--Aneucomides Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*A. coloratus Blackburn 1898 [incl. Haplonycha mauricei Blackburn 1906] HW92
         |--Aphanesia Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*A. grayi Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Astibicola Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*A. bicolor Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Cheilo Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*C. liparetroides Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Dikellites Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*D. abditus Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Engyopsina Britton 1990 [=Engyops Blackburn 1898 non Bauer & Bergenstamm 1889] HW92
         |    `--*E. spectans (Blackburn 1898) [=Engyops spectans] HW92
         |--Hadropechys Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*H. victoriae (Blackburn 1897) [=Pachygastra victoriae] HW92
         |--Ictigaster Britton 1986 HW92
         |    `--*I. ruficollis (Lea 1917) [=Haplonycha ruficollis] HW92
         |--Leonotus Britton 1986 HW92
         |    `--*L. pilosicollis (Lea 1930) [=Haplonycha pilosicollis] HW92
         |--Pachygastra Germar 1848 HW92
         |    `--*P. tasmanica Germar 1848 [incl. Prochelyna rubella Schaufuss 1882] HW92
         |--Paronyx Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*P. setifera Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Petinopus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--*P. aegrotus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Scitaloides Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*S. malanda Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Stenochelyne Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*S. noctis Britton 1990 HW92
         |--Xyridea Britton 1990 HW92
         |    `--*X. hirticollis (Blackburn 1912) [=Aneucomides hirticollis] HW92
         |--Nosphisthis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*N. parvicornis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--N. perkinsi Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |--Biphyllocera White 1841 [=Diphyllocera Agassiz 1847] HW92
         |    |--*B. kirbyana White 1841 HW92 [=Diphyllocera kirbyana M86]
         |    `--B. fabriciana White 1841 HW92
         |--Glossocheilifer Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*G. labialis Blackburn 1898 [incl. G. addendus Blackburn 1907] HW92
         |    `--G. bidentatus Lea 1919 HW92
         |--Teluroides Britton 1990 HW92
         |    |--*T. suturalis (Lea 1920) [=Telura suturalis] HW92
         |    `--T. clypealis (Lea 1919) [=Telura clypealis] HW92
         |--Sciton Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--*S. ruber Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--S. flavocastaneus Lea 1917 HW92
         |    |--S. paullus Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    `--S. variicollis Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |--Neso Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--*N. usta Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--N. castaneus (Lea 1920) [=Engyops castaneus] HW92
         |    |--N. ducalis Blackburn 1907 HW92
         |    |--N. flavipennis (Macleay 1887) [=Platydesmus flavipennis; incl. N. planicollis Blackburn 1898] HW92
         |    |--N. minuta (Lea 1926) HW92 [=Haplonycha minuta HW92, Pteroplatydesmus minutus B86]
         |    `--N. yorkensis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |--Frenchella Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--*F. lubrica Blackburn 1892 HW92
         |    |--F. cribriceps Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. fimbriata Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. gagatina Lea 1919 HW92
         |    |--F. hirticillis Blackburn 1898 HW92
         |    |--F. iridescens (Blanchard 1850) [=Haplonycha iridescens] HW92
         |    `--F. russula Britton 1959 HW92
         `--Colobostoma Blanchard 1840 (see below for synonymy) HW92
              |--*C. rufipennis (Boisduval 1835) (see below for synonymy) HW92
              |--C. castaneus (Lea 1919) [=Platydesmus castaneus] HW92
              |--C. hirsuta (Frey 1966) [=Frenchella hirsuta] HW92
              |--C. inamoenus (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus inamoenus] HW92
              |--C. inusitatus (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus inusitatus] HW92
              |--C. major (Blackburn 1907) [=Platydesmus major] HW92
              |--C. obscuricornis (Blanchard 1850) [=Haplonycha obscuricornis] HW92
              `--C. punctulaticeps (Blackburn 1908) [=Platydesmus punctulaticeps] HW92

Melolonthinae incertae sedis:
  Pyronota festiva T27
  Chasmatopterus annamariae Branco 2004 F05
  Maladera castanea T90
  Ancistrosoma klugii Curtis 1835 B14
  Hoplia B14
    |--H. aureola [incl. H. aureola var. sibirica] C01
    |--H. coerulea (Drury 1773) B14
    |--H. parvula C01
    `--H. sulphurea Chevrolat 1847 E12
  Polyphylla decemlineata (Say 1824) B14
  Sparrmannia B14
    |--S. alopex B14
    |--S. flava Arrow 1917 B14
    |--S. similis B14
    `--S. vicinus B14
  Chlorochiton suturalis [=Stethaspis suturalis] L19
  Rhizotrogus M86

*Anthotocus luridus (Macleay 1864) HW92 [=Cheiragra lurida HW92, Phyllotocus luridus L19; incl. P. truncatidens Lea 1920 HW92]

*Cheiragra pusilla (Blanchard 1850) [=Phyllotocus pusillus; incl. C. aphodioides Macleay 1864, C. atra Macleay 1864, C. pygmaea Macleay 1864] HW92

Cheiragra ruficollis Macleay 1864 [=Phyllotocus collaris Harold 1869; incl. C. pallida Macleay 1864, C. variabilis Lea 1919] HW92

*Cheirora interstitialis (Blackburn 1898) [=Cheirrhamphica interstitialis; incl. Cheirr. coxalis Lea 1919, Cheirr. insularis Lea 1919, Cheirr. tuberculata Lea 1919] HW92

Colobostoma Blanchard 1840 [incl. Platydesmus Macleay 1887 non Lucas 1843, Pteroplatydesmus Dalla Torre 1912] HW92

*Colobostoma rufipennis (Boisduval 1835) [=Sericesthis rufipennis; incl. Frenchella sparsiceps Blackburn 1898, Platydesmus sulcipennis Macleay 1887, *Pteroplatydesmus sulcipennis] HW92

Comophorina Strand 1928 [=Comophorus Blanchard 1850 non Agassiz 1846, Comophus Britton 1978; Comophini, Comophorini, Comophorinini] HW92

*Dermolepida albohirtum (Waterhouse 1875) [=*Lepidoderma albohirtum; incl. Rhopaea aruense Lansberge 1879, L. lansbergei Brenske 1894, L. waterhousei Brenske 1894] HW92

Ophropyx ciliata (Boisduval 1835) HW92 [=Melolontha ciliata HW92, Aplonycha ciliata B86, Haplonycha ciliata B86, Heteronyx ciliata B86; incl. Frenchella aspericollis Blackburn 1898 HW92, Ha. rugosa Burmeister 1855 HW92]

Phyllochlaenia Blanchard 1846 [=Philochlaenia (l. c.); incl. Caulobius Guillou 1844 non Duponchel 1838, Deuterocaulobius Dalla Torre 1912] HW92

Phyllochlaenia villosus (Guillou 1844) HW92 [=*Caulobius villosus HW92, *Deuterocaulobius villosus HW92; incl. Hymenoplia villigera Blanchard 1846 HW92, Caulobius villiger M86]

Pseudholophylla Blackburn 1911 [=Holophylla Burmeister 1844 non Erichson 1847; incl. Paralepidiota Blackburn 1911] HW92

*Sphaeroscelis pectoralis (Burmeister 1855) [=Phyllotocus (*Sphaeroscelis) pectoralis; incl. Cheirrhamphica pubescens Blackburn 1898] HW92

Webbella labralis (Blackburn 1908) HW92 [=Heteronyx labralis HW92; incl. H. anomalus Blackburn 1908 B00, HW92, H. leai Blackburn 1909 B00, HW92]

Xylonichus eucalypti eucalypti Boisduval 1835 [incl. Xylonychus laetus Blanchard 1851, Xylonychus metrosideri Burmeister 1855] HW92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B78] Britton, E. B. 1978. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 2. Tribe Melolonthini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 60: 1–150.

[B80] Britton, E. B. 1980. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 3. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Liparetrus. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 76: 1–209.

[B86] Britton, E. B. 1986. A revision of the Australian chafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) vol. 4. Tribe Liparetrini: genus Colpochila. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 118: 1–135.

[B00] Britton, E. B. 2000. A review of Heteronyx Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 14: 465–589.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901b. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[T90] Tashiro, H. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Scarabaeidae larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1191–1209. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

Palpatores

Acropsopilio neozelandiae, copyright Stephen Thorpe.


Belongs within: Opiliones.
Contains: Ischyropsalidoidea, Troguloidea, Phalangioidea.

The Palpatores, the long-legged harvestmen, are a diverse group of harvestmen including many of the most familiar members of the order. Members of this clade have ozopores flush with the body surface (not raised on ozophores) and simple, single claws on the legs; most (but not all) also have particularly elongate legs. Basal members of the Palpatores with small bodies and greatly enlarged eye mounds were classified until recently in a family Caddidae, but phylogenetic analyses have recently indicated that this group is para- or polyphyletic, and may represent the plesiomorphic appearance of the clade as a whole (Groh & Giribet 2015).

Palpatores [Apagosterni, Caddidae, Caddoidea, Plagiostethi]
    |--Dyspnoi [Nemastomini, Nemastomoidae, Trogulini] GG15
    |    |  i. s.: Echinopustulus samuelnelsoni Dunlop 2004 D07
    |    |--Acropsopilionidae [Acropsopilioninae, Acropsopilionoidea] GFB14
    |    |    |--Caddella Hirst 1925 SC06 [=Cadella (l. c.) K61; incl. Oonopsopilio Lawrence 1931 SC03]
    |    |    |    |--*C. capensis Hirst 1925 S75 [=C. (Oonopsopilio) capensis K61]
    |    |    |    |--C. africana (Lawrence 1931) [=*Oonopsopilio africanus] S75
    |    |    |    |--C. croeseri Staręga 1988 S92
    |    |    |    |--C. haddadi Lotz 2011 L11
    |    |    |    |--C. jocquei Staręga 2008 L11
    |    |    |    `--C. spatulipilis Lawrence 1934 S92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--Austropsopilio Forster 1955 [incl. Tasmanopilio Hickman 1957] GG15
    |    |    |    |--*A. novaehollandiae Forster 1955 SC03
    |    |    |    |--A. altus Cantrell 1980 C80
    |    |    |    |--A. cygneus Hickman 1957 H57
    |    |    |    |--A. fuscus (Hickman 1957) GG15 [=*Tasmanopilio fuscus H57]
    |    |    |    |--A. inermis Cantrell 1980 C80
    |    |    |    |--A. megalops (Hickman 1957) [=Tasmanopilio megalops] GG15
    |    |    |    `--A. sudamericanus Shultz & Cekalovic 2003 SC03
    |    |    `--Acropsopilio Silvestri 1904 SC06 [incl. Zeopsopilio Forster 1948 SC03]
    |    |         |--*A. chilensis Silvestri 1904 S75 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         |--A. australicus Cantrell 1980 C80
    |    |         |--A. boopis (Crosby 1904) [=Caddo boopis] S75
    |    |         |--A. chomulae (Goodnight & Goodnight 1948) [=Caddo chomulae, A. chommulae (l. c.)] S75
    |    |         |--A. neozelandiae (Forster 1948) GFB14 [=*Zeopsopilio neozelandiae F48]
    |    |         |--A. talishensis Morin 1937 S04
    |    |         `--A. venezuelensis González-Sponga 1992 GG15
    |    `--+--Ischyropsalidoidea GG15
    |       `--Troguloidea GG15
    `--Eupnoi [Phalangioidae] GG15
         |  i. s.: Brigantibunum Dunlop & Anderson 2005 DA05
         |           `--*B. listoni Dunlop & Anderson 2005 DA05
         |         Daohugopilio Huang, Selden & Dunlop 2009 HSD09
         |           `--*D. sheari Huang, Selden & Dunlop 2009 HSD09
         |--Mesobunus Huang, Selden & Dunlop 2009 GS14, HSD09
         |    |--*M. martensi Huang, Selden & Dunlop 2009 HSD09
         |    `--M. dunlopi Giribet, Tourinho et al. 2012 GT12
         `--+--Phalangioidea GS14
            `--+--Macrogyion Garwood, Dunlop et al. 2011 GS14, GD11
               |    `--*M. cronus Garwood, Dunlop et al. 2011 GD11
               `--Caddo Banks 1892 GS14, S75 [Caddinae, Caddini, Caddoinae]
                    |--*C. agilis Banks 1892 [incl. C. glaucopis Crosby 1904] S75
                    |--C. dentipalpus (Koch & Berendt 1854) [=Platybunus dentipalpus] S02
                    `--C. pepperella Shear 1975 S75

Nomen nudum: Caddo medama Suzuki 1958 GG15

*Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri 1904 S75 [incl. A. normae Cekalovic 1974 GG15, A. chilensis var. ogloblini Canals 1932 S75]

Caddella spatulipilis Lawrence 1934 S92 [=Cadella spatulipilis L34, Caddella spatulipalpis (l. c.) S75; incl. Cadella spatulipilis var. caledonica Lawrence 1934 L34]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C80] Cantrell, B. K. 1980. Additional Australian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 19: 241–253.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[DA05] Dunlop, J. A., & L. I. Anderson. 2005. A fossil harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones) from the Mississippian of East Kirkton, Scotland. Journal of Arachnology 33: 482–489.

[F48] Forster, R. R. 1948. A new genus and species of the family Acropsopilionidae (Opiliones) from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (1): 139–141.

[GD11] Garwood, R. J., J. A. Dunlop, G. Giribet & M. D. Sutton. 2011. Anatomically modern Carboniferous harvestmen demonstrate early cladogenesis and stasis in Opiliones. Nature Communications 2 (444): 1–7.

[GS14] Garwood, R. J., P. P. Sharma, J. A. Dunlop & G. Giribet. 2014. A Paleozoic stem group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development. Current Biology 24 (9): 1017–1023.

[GFB14] Giribet, G., R. Fernández & S. L. Boyer. 2014. On four poorly known harvestmen from New Zealand (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Eupnoi: Dyspnoi: Laniatores). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 41 (4): 223–233.

[GT12] Giribet, G., A. L. Tourinho, C. Shih & D. Ren. 2012. An exquisitely preserved harvestman (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) from the Middle Jurassic of China. Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 12: 51–66.

[GG15] Groh, S., & G. Giribet. 2015. Polyphyly of Caddoidea, reinstatement of the family Acropsopilionidae in Dyspnoi, and a revised classification system of Palpatores (Arachnida, Opiliones). Cladistics 31 (3): 277–290.

[H57] Hickman, V. V. 1957. Some Tasmanian harvestmen of the sub-order Palpatores. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 91: 65–79.

[HSD09] Huang, D., P. A. Selden & J. A. Dunlop. 2009. Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Middle Jurassic of China. Naturwissenschaften 96 (8): 955–962.

[K61] Kauri, H. 1961. Opiliones. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 9–197. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[L34] Lawrence, R. F. 1934. New South African Opiliones. Annals of the South African Museum 30 (4): 549–586.

[L11] Lotz, L. N. 2011. Three new harvestmen species from southern Africa (Arachnida: Opiliones: Caddidae, Neopilionidae, Assamiidae). Journal of Afrotropical Zoology 7: 3–8.

[S75] Shear, W. A. 1975. The opilionid family Caddidae in North America, with notes on species from other regions (Opiliones, Palpatores, Caddoidea). Journal of Arachnology 2: 65–88.

[SC03] Shultz, J. W., & T. Cekalovic. 2003. First species of Austropsopilio (Opiliones, Caddoidea, Caddidae) from South America. Journal of Arachnology 31: 20–27.

[SC06] Shultz, J. W., & T. Cekalovic. 2006. First species of Hesperopilio (Opiliones, Caddoidea) from South America. Journal of Arachnology 34 (1): 46–50.

[S04] Snegovaya, N. Y. 2004. Preliminary notes on the harvestman fauna (Opiliones) of Azerbaijan. Arthropoda Selecta Special Issue 1: 307–318.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

[S02] Staręga, W. 2002. Baltic amber harvestmen (Opiliones) from Polish collections. Annales Zoologici 52 (4): 601–604.