Histeridae

Saprinus aeneus, copyright K. V. Makarov.


Belongs within: Staphyliniformia.
Contains: Chlamydopsis.

The Histeridae are a group of carnivorous beetles with a generally compact body form, deeply inserted head and compactly clubbed antennae (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Adult with compact body form, length 1–16 mm; head deeply inserted; antenna 8–11-segmented, almost always geniculate, with compact, pilose, one- or three-segmented club; fore coxae large, transverse, fore trochantin concealed, fore coxal cavity open; fore tibiae dentate; elytra with six or fewer striae, truncate, exposing one or two abdominal segments; middle coxal cavities very widely separated, open laterally; tarsal formula 5-5-5 or 5-5-4; abdomen with five ventrites, none connate. Larva with head prognathous; one or no stemmata; antenna three-segmented; frontoclypeal suture absent; labrum fused; mandibular mola absent; ventral mouth-parts prognathous; penicillus of hairs present at base of each mandible; maxilla without lobes; maxillary palp four- or five-segmented; labial palp two- or three-segmented; hypopharyngeal sclerome absent; hypostomal rods absent; ventral epicranial ridges absent; legs five-segmented; two or no tarsungular setae; urogomphi almost always two-segmented; abdominal spiracles biforous.

Histeridae
    |--Niponius [Niponiinae] B14
    |    `--N. osoriceps Lewis 1885 B14
    |--Trypeticus [Trypeticinae, Trypeticini] B14
    |    `--T. cinctipygus (Marseul 1864) B14
    |--Trypanaeus [Trypanaeinae] B14
    |    `--T. bipustulatus (Fabricius 1801) B14
    |--Onthophilus [Onthophilinae] B14
    |    `--O. punctatus (Müller 1776) B14
    |--Haeterius [Haeteriini] B14
    |    `--H. tristriatus Horn 1874 B14
    |--Chlamydopsinae B14
    |    |--Eucurtia comata (Blackburn 1901) B14
    |    |--Pheidoliphila magna Dégallier & Caterino 2005 B14
    |    `--Chlamydopsis L19
    |--Paromalini [Dendrophilinae] B14
    |    |--Platylomalus aequalis (Say 1825) B14
    |    |--Xestipyge B14
    |    |--Carcinops B14
    |    `--Paromalus B14
    |--Abraeinae B14
    |    |  i. s.: Abraeus globulus C01
    |    `--Teretriini B14
    |         |--Pleuroleptus B14
    |         |--Teretriosoma B14
    |         |--Xyphonotus B14
    |         `--Teretrius B14
    |              |--T. nigrescens B14
    |              |--T. (Teretrius) poneli Gomy 2005 F05
    |              `--T. pulex (Fairmaire 1877) B14
    |--Saprinus [Saprininae, Saprinini] B14
    |    |--S. aeneus C01
    |    |--S. chalcites [=Hister chalcites] G89
    |    |--S. concinnus C01
    |    |--S. conjungens C01
    |    |--S. cyaneus (Fabricius 1775) B14
    |    |--S. dimidiatus C01
    |    |--S. externus C01
    |    |--S. immundus C01
    |    |--S. mauritanicus Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--S. metallicus C01
    |    |--S. moyses Mars 1862 G89
    |    |--S. punctatissimus Erichs. 1824 G89
    |    |--S. semistriatus [incl. S. nitidulus, S. semipunctatus] C01
    |    |--S. speculifer [=Hister speculifer] G89
    |    `--S. virescens C01
    `--Histerinae B14
         |  i. s.: Pachylister inaequalis (Olivier 1789) B14
         |--Hololeptini B14
         |    |--Oxysternus maximus (Linnaeus 1767) B14
         |    `--Hololepta B14
         |         |--H. batchiana Mars 1860 M86
         |         |--H. plana (Sulzer 1776) B14
         |         `--H. sidnensis Mars 1860 M86
         `--Hister Linnaeus 1758 L58 [Histerini LB91]
              |--H. bimaculatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--H. bissexstriatus C01
              |--H. cadaverinus C01
              |--H. czikanni Csiki 1901 C01
              |--H. fimetarius C01
              |--H. funestus C01
              |--H. purpurascens C01
              |--H. pygmaeus Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--H. quadrimaculatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--H. quadrinotatus Scriba 1790 B14
              |--H. unicolor Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--H. ventralis C01
              `--H. walkeri LB91

Histeridae incertae sedis:
  Aeletes O94
  Phelister S89
    |--P. balzanii Schmidt 1889 S89
    `--P. fulvulus S89
  Halacritus MC13
  Epiechinus LB91
  Platysoma algiricum Lucas 1847 LB91, E12
  Hypocaccus LB91
  Euspilotus MW15
  Bacanius MW15
  Plaesius javanus Z93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[S89] Schmidt, J. 1889. Descrizione di una nuova specie di Histeridae. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 112.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

Fusobacteria

Stained culture of Fusobacterium nucleatum, copyright J. Michael Miller.


Belongs within: Life.

The Fusobacteria are a group of anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism (Garrity & Holt 2001).

<==Fusobacteria [Fusobacteriaceae, Fusobacteriales]
    |  i. s.: Ilyobacter GH01
    |         Cetobacterium GH01
    |--+--Leptotrichia buccalis MP95
    |  `--+--Sebaldella termitidis [=Bacteroides termitidis] MP95
    |     `--Streptobacillus moniliformis MP95
    `--+--Propionigenium modestum MP95
       `--Fusobacterium MP03
            |  i. s.: F. perfoetens PHK96
            |--F. necrogenes MP95
            |--+--F. varium MP95
            |  `--+--F. mortiferum MP95
            |     `--F. ulcerans MP95
            `--+--+--F. gonidiaformans MP95
               |  `--F. necrophorum MP95
               `--+--F. russii MP95
                  `--+--+--F. alocis MP95
                     |  `--F. simiae MP95
                     `--+--F. nucleatum MP95
                        `--F. periodonticum MP95

Nomen invalidum: Leptotrichia trevisanii Tee, Midolo et al. 2002VP JC08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[MP95] Maher, M., R. Palmer, F. Gannon & T. Smith. 1995. Relationship of a novel bacterial fish pathogen to Streptobacillus moniliformis and the fusobacteria group, based on 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 18: 79–84.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

Polyangiaceae

Fruiting body of Nannocystis exedens, copyright Leibniz-Institut DSMZ.


Belongs within: Deltaproteobacteria.

The Polyangiaceae are a group of myxobacteria with stout, rigid rod-shaped cells that tend to sink into the agar in culture, and change little in shape when producing myxospores.

Polyangiaceae [Sorangineae]
    |--+--‘Sorangium cellulosum’ IJ03
    |  `--Chondromyces IJ03
    |       |--C. apiculatus IJ03
    |       `--C. crocatus IJ03
    `--+--+--Polyangium vitellinum IJ03
       |  `--Haliangium IJ03
       |       |--H. ochraceum IJ03
       |       `--H. tepidum IJ03
       `--+--Plesiocystis Iizuka, Jojima et al. 2003 IJ03
          |    `--*P. pacifica Iizuka, Jojima et al. 2003 IJ03
          `--Nannocystis IJ03
               |--‘N. aggregans’ IJ03
               `--N. exedens IJ03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[IJ03] Iizuka, T., Y. Jojima, R. Fudou, A. Hiraishi, J.-W. Ahn & S. Yamanaka. 2003. Plesiocystis pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine myxobacterium that contains dihydrogenated menaquinone, isolated from the Pacific coasts of Japan. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 189–195.

Cystobacterineae

Fruiting bodies of Myxococcus xanthus, copyright Michiel Vos.


Belongs within: Deltaproteobacteria.

The Cystobacterineae are a group of myxobacteria with slender, flexible rod-shaped cells that tend to form thin, filmlike swarms on agar and transform into myxospores via sustantial shortening and fattening.

Cystobacterineae [Cystobacteraceae, Myxococcaceae]
    |--Stigmatella aurantiaca IJ03
    `--+--+--Cystobacter fuscus IJ03
       |  `--+--Angiococcus disciformis IJ03
       |     `--Archangium [Archangiaceae] IJ03
       |          `--A. gephyra IJ03
       `--+--Melittangium lichenicola IJ03
          `--Myxococcus IJ03
               |--M. coralloides IJ03
               |--M. fulvus PHK96
               |--M. stipitatus PHK96
               `--M. xanthus IJ03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[IJ03] Iizuka, T., Y. Jojima, R. Fudou, A. Hiraishi, J.-W. Ahn & S. Yamanaka. 2003. Plesiocystis pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine myxobacterium that contains dihydrogenated menaquinone, isolated from the Pacific coasts of Japan. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 189–195.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

Life

Scanning electron micrograph of colony of Fibrobacter succinogenes, from here.


Contains: Neobacteria, Protoarchaea, Eukaryota, Crenarchaeota, Reitlingerellidae, Fusobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Chromatibacteria, Geovibriales, Clostridea, Actinobacteria, Deinococci, Cyanobacteria, Chlorobacteria, Togobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Planctobacteria, Spirochaetes, Epsilonproteobacteria.

The total group of living organisms can be divided for convenience between eukaryotes, in which the greater part of the cell's genetic material is contained within a nuclear membrane, and the prokaryotes which lack a distinct nucleus. It is generally agreed that the prokaryotes are paraphyletic with regard to the monophyletic eukaryotes.

LIFE [Algae, Monera, Monodermata, Mychota, Prokaryota, Thallophyta, Unibacteria]
    |--Neomura (see below for synonymy) C-S02
    |    |--Methanopyrus Kurr, Huber et al. 1992VP SS15, GH01b [Methanopyraceae, Methanopyrales, Methanopyri]
    |    |    `--*M. kandleri Kurr, Huber et al. 1992VP GH01b
    |    `--+--Neobacteria SS15
    |       `--+--+--+--Candidatus Micrarchaeum acidiphilum SS15
    |          |  |  `--Candidatus Iainarchaeum RS13 [Diapherotrites SS15]
    |          |  |       `--I. andersonii RS13
    |          |  `--+--+--Candidatus Nanoarchaeum Huber, Hohn et al. 2002 HH02 [Nanoarchaeota RS13]
    |          |     |  |    `--*N. equitans Huber, Hohn et al. 2002 HH02
    |          |     |  `--Candidatus Parvarchaeum [Parvarchaeota] SS15
    |          |     |       `--P. acidophilus RS13
    |          |     `--+--Candidatus Aenigmarchaeum [Aenigmarchaeota] RS13
    |          |        |    `--A. subterraneum RS13
    |          |        `--Nanohaloarchaeota RS13
    |          |             |--Candidatus Nanosalina RS13
    |          |             |--Candidatus Nanosalinarum RS13
    |          |             `--Candidatus Haloredivivus RS13
    |          `--+--Protoarchaea SS15
    |             `--+--+--Eukaryota WF13
    |                |  `--Candidatus Lokiarchaeum [Lokiarchaeota] SS15
    |                `--+--Candidatus Korarchaeum WF13 [Korarchaeota SS15]
    |                   |    `--K. cryptofilum WF13
    |                   `--+--Crenarchaeota WF13
    |                      `--+--Candidatus Caldiarchaeum [Aigarchaeota] RS13
    |                         |    `--C. subterraneum RS13
    |                         `--Thaumarchaeota RS13
    |                              |--Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis SS15
    |                              `--+--Cenarchaeum Preston et al. 1996 RS13, C-S02 [Cenarchaeales]
    |                                 |    `--C. symbiosum RS13
    |                                 `--+--Nitrosopumilus maritimus RS13
    |                                    `--Nitrosoarchaeum SS15
    |                                         |--N. koreensis SS15
    |                                         `--N. limnia WF13
    `--Bacteria (see below for synonymy) C-S02
         |  i. s.: Albidovulum Albuquerque, Santos et al. 2003VP IJSEM03
         |           `--*A. inexpectatum Albuquerque, Santos et al. 2003VP IJSEM03
         |         Oceanobacillus Lu, Nogi & Takami 2002VP IJSEM02
         |           `--*O. iheyensis Lu, Nogi & Takami 2002VP IJSEM02
         |         Sneathia Collins, Hoyles et al. 2002VP IJSEM02
         |           `--*S. sanguinegens Collins, Hoyles et al. 2002VP IJSEM02
         |         Marinitoga MiKo03
         |           |--M. camini MiKo03
         |           `--M. piezophila MiKo03
         |         Geobacillus JC08
         |           |--G. kaustophilus (Priest et al. 1989) Nazina et al. 2001 JC08
         |           |--G. stearothermophilus (Donk 1920) Nazina et al. 2001 JC08
         |           |--G. thermodenitrificans (Manachini et al. 2000) Nazina et al. 2001 JC08
         |           |--G. thermoglucosidasius (Suzuki et al. 1984) Nazina et al. 2001 JC08
         |           `--G. thermoleovorans (Zarilla & Perry 1988) Nazina et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Reitlingerellidae X04
         |         Salome hubeiensis Zhang 1986 X04
         |         Polytrichoides Hermann 1974 X04
         |           `--P. lineatus X04
         |         Nannococcus vulgaris X04
         |         Nitrocystis oceanus PHK96
         |         Beneckea natriegens PHK96
         |         Microcyclus flavus PHK96
         |         Branhamella catarrhalis PHK96
         |         Siderocapsaceae PHK96
         |           |--Siderocapsa PHK96
         |           |--Naumanniella PHK96
         |           |--Siderococcus PHK96
         |           `--Ochrobium PHK96
         |         Pelonemataceae PHK96
         |           |--Pelonema PHK96
         |           |--Achroonema PHK96
         |           |--Peloploca PHK96
         |           `--Desmanthos PHK96
         |         Schismatispaeridium kumauni T84
         |         Trachysphaeridium decorum T84
         |         Bryantella Wolin, Miller et al. 2004VP non Britton 1957 (ICZN) IJSEM04
         |           `--*B. formatexigens Wolin, Miller et al. 2004VP IJSEM04
         |         Megasphaera BJ07
         |           |--M. inornata BJ07
         |           `--M. ornata X04
         |         Parapandorina raphospissa BJ07, G02
         |         Asaia siamensis Katsura et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Trichlorobacter thiogenes De Wever et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Anaerococcus JC08
         |           |--A. octavius (Murdoch et al. 1997) Ezaki et al. 2001 JC08
         |           `--A. prevotii (Foubert & Douglas 1948) Ezaki et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Carboxydibrachium pacificum JC08
         |         Desulfotignum balticum Kuever et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Dorea formicigenerans (Holdeman & Moore 1974) Taras et al. 2002 JC08
         |         Gallicola barnesae (Schiefer-Ullrich & Andreesen 1986) Ezaki et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Marinibacillus marinus (Rüger & Richter 1979) Yoon et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Olsenella JC08
         |           |--O. profusa Dewhirst et al. 2001 JC08
         |           `--O. uli (Olsen et al. 1991) Dewhirst et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Peptoniphilus JC08
         |           |--P. asaccharolyticus (Distaso 1912) Ezaki et al. 2001 JC08
         |           |--P. harei (Murdoch et al. 1997) Ezaki et al. 2001 JC08
         |           |--P. indolicus (Christiansen 1934) Ezaki et al. 2001 JC08
         |           `--P. ivorii (Murdoch et al. 1997) Ezaki et al. 2001 JC08
         |         Nitrosolobus multiformis PHK96
         |         Candidatus Saccharobacterium [Saccharobacteria] RS13
         |           `--S. alaburgensis RS13
         |         Rhodopirellula baltica SS15
         |         Liberobacter asiaticum BJ02
         |--+--Fusobacteria MiKo03
         |  `--Proteobacteria [Thiobacteria] RS13
         |       |  i. s.: Accumulibacter phosphatis ZS03
         |       |         Epulopiscium fishelsoni C-S02, PHK96
         |       |         Bacteriovorax stolpii IJ03
         |       |--Deltaproteobacteria MoKi03
         |       `--Rhodobacteria [Athiorhodaceae, Hydrogenophilaceae, Hydrogenophilales] C-S02
         |            |--Alphaproteobacteria MoKi03
         |            `--Chromatibacteria MoKi03
         `--+--+--+--Candidatus Aminicenans [Aminicenantes] RS13
            |  |  |    `--A. sakinawicola RS13
            |  |  `--Acidobacteria [Acidobacteriaceae, Acidobacteriales] RS13
            |  |       |--Acidobacterium capsulatum HP98
            |  |       `--+--Holophaga foetida HP98
            |  |          `--Geothrix fermentans HP98
            |  `--+--Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera RS13
            |     `--Nitrospirae [Nitrospiraceae, Nitrospirales] RS13
            |          |--+--Candidatus Magnetobacterium Spring, Amann et al. 1993 GH01c
            |          |  |    `--Candidatus *M. bavaricum Spring, Amann et al. 1993 GH01c
            |          |  `--Thermodesulfovibrio Henry, Devereux et al. 1994VP GH01c
            |          |       `--*T. yellowstonii Henry, Devereux et al. 1994VP GH01c
            |          `--+--Nitrospira Watson, Bock et al. 1986VP GH01c
            |             |    `--*N. marina Watson, Bock et al. 1986VP GH01c
            |             `--Leptospirillum (ex Markosyan 1972) Hippe 2000VP GH01c
            |                  |--*L. ferrooxidans (ex Markosyan 1972) Hippe 2000VP GH01c
            |                  `--L. thermoferrooxidans Hippe 2000VP GH01c
            `--+--Geovibriales RS13
               `--+--+--Terrabacteria [Eobacteria] RS13
                  |  |    |--Clostridea RS13
                  |  |    `--+--+--Actinobacteria RS13
                  |  |       |  `--+--Deinococci RS13
                  |  |       |     `--Armatimonadetes RS13
                  |  |       `--+--+--Pyrenomonas salina MP95
                  |  |          |  `--Cyanobacteria RS13
                  |  |          `--+--Chlorobacteria RS13
                  |  |             `--Thermodesulfobium Mori, Kim et al. 2004VP MoKi03, IJSEM04 [Thermodesulfobiaceae]
                  |  |                  `--*T. narugense Mori, Kim et al. 2004VP IJSEM04
                  |  `--+--Synergistes Allison, Mayberry et al. 1993VP GH01d [Synergistetes RS13]
                  |     |    `--S. jonesii Allison, Mayberry et al. 1993VP GH01d
                  |     `--+--Candidatus Caldatribacterium [Atribacteria] RS13
                  |        |    `--C. californiense RS13
                  |        `--+--+--Togobacteria RS13
                  |           |  `--Candidatus Acetothermum [Acetothermia] RS13
                  |           |       `--A. autotrophicum RS13
                  |           `--+--Candidatus Fervidibacter [Fervidibacteria] RS13
                  |              |    `--F. sacchari RS13
                  |              `--+--Caldiserica RS13
                  |                 `--Dictyoglomus MiKo03 [Dictyoglomaceae, Dictyoglomales, Dictyoglomi RS13]
                  |                      `--D. thermophilum MiKo03
                  `--+--+--Candidatus Hydrogenedens [Hydrogenedentes] RS13
                     |  |    `--H. terephthalicus RS13
                     |  `--+--Candidatus Cloacimonas [=Cloacamonas; Cloacimonetes] RS13
                     |     |    `--C. acidaminovorans RS13
                     |     `--+--+--Gemmatimonas Zhang, Sekiguchi et al. 2003 ZS03 (see below for synonymy)
                     |        |  |    `--*G. aurantiaca Zhang, Sekiguchi et al. 2003 ZS03
                     |        |  `--Fibrobacter ZS03 (see below for synonymy)
                     |        |       |--F. intestinalis ALS95
                     |        |       `--F. succinogenes HP98
                     |        `--+--Candidatus Latescibacter [Latescibacteria] RS13
                     |           |    `--L. anaerobius RS13
                     |           `--+--Sphingobacteria C-S02
                     |              |    |--Bacteroidetes RS13
                     |              |    `--Chlorobi RS13
                     |              `--+--Caldithrix Miroshnichenko, Kostrikina et al. 2003 RS13, MiKo03
                     |                 |    `--*C. abyssi Miroshnichenko, Kostrikina et al. 2003 MiKo03
                     |                 `--Candidatus Marinimicrobium [Marinimicrobia] RS13
                     |                      `--M. atlanticum RS13
                     `--+--+--Planctobacteria RS13
                        |  `--Candidatus Omnitrophus [Omnitrophica] RS13
                        |       `--O. fodinae RS13
                        `--+--Spirochaetes RS13
                           `--+--+--Elusimicrobia RS13
                              |  `--Candidatus Aerophobus [Aerophobetes] RS13
                              |       `--A. profundus RS13
                              `--+--+--Epsilonproteobacteria RS13
                                 |  `--Desulfurellaceae [Desulfurellales] GH01a
                                 |       |--Desulfurella acetivorans MoKi03
                                 |       `--Hippea GH01a
                                 `--Patescibacteria RS13
                                      |--Candidatus Microgenomatus [Microgenomates] RS13
                                      |    `--M. auricola RS13
                                      `--+--Candidatus Paceibacter [Parcubacteria] RS13
                                         |    `--P. normanii RS13
                                         `--Candidatus Altimarinus [Gracilibacteria] RS13
                                              `--A. pacificus RS13

Life incertae sedis:
  Anabaenidium Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*A. johnsonii Schopf 1968 G79
  Animikiea Barghoorn 1965 G79
    `--*A. septata Barghoorn 1965 G79
  Antigus Butin 1959 G79
    `--*A. cusarandicus Butin 1959 G79
  Archaeogloeocapsa Reitlinger 1956 G79
    `--*A. povarovkensis Reitlinger 1956 G79
  Archaeonema Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*A. longicellularis Schopf 1968 G79
  Archaeorestis Barghoorn 1965 G79
    `--*A. schreiberensis Barghoorn 1965 G79
  Archaeosphaeroides Schopf & Barghoorn 1967 G79
    `--*A. barbertonensis Schopf & Barghoorn 1967 G79
  Archaeotrichion Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*A. contortum Schopf 1968 G79
  Calyptothrix Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*C. annulata Schopf 1968 G79
  Catinella Pflug 1966 nec Pease 1870 (ICZN) nec Stache 1877 (ICZN) G79
    `--*C. polymorpha Pflug 1966 G79
  Caudiculophycus Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*C. rivularioides Schopf 1968 G79
  Cephalophytarion Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*C. grande Schopf 1968 G79
  Chlamydomonopsis Edhorn 1973 G79
    `--*C. primordialis Edhorn 1973 G79
  Contortothrix Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*C. vermiformis Schopf 1968 G79
  Cumulosphaera Edhorn 1973 G79
    `--*C. lamellosa Edhorn 1973 G79
  Cyanonema Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*C. attenuata Schopf 1968 G79
  Entosphaeroides Barghoorn 1965 G79
    `--*E. amplus Barghoorn 1965 G79
  Eoastrion Barghoorn 1965 G79
    `--*E. simplex Barghoorn 1965 G79
  Eobacterium Barghoorn & Schopf 1966 G79
    `--*E. isolatum Barghoorn & Schopf 1966 G79
  Eoepiphyton Butin 1959 G79
    `--*E. jalgamicum Butin 1959 G79
  Eosphaera Barghoorn 1965 G79
    `--*E. tyleri Barghoorn 1965 G79
  Fibularix Pflug 1965 G79
    `--*F. funicula Pflug 1965 G79
  Filamentella Pflug 1965 G79
    `--*F. plurima Pflug 1965 G79
  Filiconstrictosus Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
    `--*F. majusculus Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
  Halythrix Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*H. nodosa Schopf 1968 G79
  Heliconema Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*H. australiensis Schopf 1968 G79
  Kakabekia Barghoorn 1965 G79
    `--*K. umbellata Barghoorn 1965 G79
  Millaria Pflug 1966 G79
    `--*M. implexa Pflug 1966 G79
  Montanella Pflug 1965 G79
    `--*M. beltensis Pflug 1965 G79
  Obconiphycus Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
    `--*O. amadeus Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
  Palaeoanacystis Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*P. vulgaris Schopf 1968 G79
  Palaeolyngbya Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*P. barghoorniana Schopf 1968 G79
  Palaeomicrocoleus Korde in Vologdin & Korde 1965 G79
    `--*P. gruneri Korde in Vologdin & Korde 1965 G79
  Palaeopleurocapsa Knoll, Barghoorn & Golubić 1975 G79
    `--*P. wopfnerii Knoll, Barghoorn & Golubić 1975 G79
  Palaeorivularia Korde 1965 G79
    `--*P. ontarica Korde 1965 G79
  Palaeoscytonema Edhorn 1973 G79
    `--*P. moorhousei Edhorn 1973 G79
  Palaeospiralis Edhorn 1973 G79
    `--*P. canadensis Edhorn 1973 G79
  Palaeospirulina Edhorn 1973 G79
    `--*P. arcuata Edhorn 1973 G79
  Partitiofilum Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
    `--*P. gongyloides Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
  Petraphera Nagy 1974 G79
    `--*P. vivescenticula Nagy 1974 G79
  Phanerosphaerops Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
    `--*P. capitaneus Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
  Polycellaria Pflug 1965 G79
    `--*P. bonnerensis Pflug 1965 G79
  Primorivularia Edhorn 1973 G79
    `--*P. thunderbayensis Edhorn 1973 G79
  Protorivularia Butin 1959 G79
    `--*P. onega Butin 1959 G79
  Ramsaysphaera Pflug 1979 G79
    `--*R. ramses Pflug 1979 G79
  Scintilla Pflug 1966 non Deshayes 1855 (ICZN) G79
    `--*S. perforata Pflug 1966 G79
  Tenuofilum Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*T. septatum Schopf 1968 G79
  Tormentella Pflug 1966 G79
    `--*T. tubiformis Pflug 1966 G79
  Tricellaria Pflug 1965 G79
    `--*T. deylensis Pflug 1965 G79
  Veteronostocale Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
    `--*V. amoenum Schopf & Blacic 1971 G79
  Zosterosphaera Schopf 1968 G79
    `--*Z. tripunctata Schopf 1968 G79
  Agamus Vologdin 1970 G79
    `--*A. shungiticus Vologdin 1970 G79
  Aseptalia Vologdin in Vologdin & Strygin 1969 G79
    `--*A. ukrainica Vologdin in Vologdin & Strygin 1969 G79
  Asterosphaeroides Reitlinger 1959 G79
  Conferta Klinger 1968 G79
    `--*C. rara Klinger 1968 G79
  Crenulata Bertrand-Sarfati 1972 G79
    `--*C. gigantea Bertrand-Sarfati 1972 G79
  Foninia Korde 1973 G79
    `--*F. fasciculata Korde 1973 G79
  Globoidella Milstein 1970 G79
    `--*G. jusmastachica Milstein 1970 G79
  Gonamophyton Vologdin & Drozdova 1964 G79
    `--*G. ovale Vologdin & Drozdova 1964 G79
  Gorlovella Vologdin 1970 G79
    `--*G. obvoluta Vologdin 1970 G79
  Ladogaella Vologdin 1967 G79
    `--*L. variabilis Vologdin 1967 G79
  Marenita Korde 1973 G79
    `--*M. kundatica Korde 1973 G79
  Medullarites Narozhnykh in Narozhnykh & Rabotnov 1965 G79
  Nelcanella Vologdin & Drozdova 1964 G79
    `--*N. stellata Vologdin & Drozdova 1964 G79
  Protospira Vologdin in Vologdin & Strygin 1969 non Ruedemann 1916 (ICZN) G79
    `--*P. strygini Vologdin in Vologdin & Strygin 1969 G79
  Ptilophyton Vologdin 1967 G79
    `--*P. makarovae Vologdin 1967 G79
  ‘Vermiculites’ Reitlinger 1959 nec Bronn 1848 nec Rouault 1850 G79
  Vermiculus Bertrand-Sarfati 1972 G79
    `--*V. contortus Bertrand-Sarfati 1972 G79
  Vesicophyton Vologdin in Vologdin & Drozdova 1969 G79
    `--*V. punctatum Vologdin in Vologdin & Drozdova 1969 G79

Nomina invalida: Nitrospira moscoviensis Ehrich, Behrens et al. 1995 GH01c
                 Thermodesulfovibrio islandicus Sonne-Hansen & Ahring 1999 GH01c

Bacteria [Didermata, Endobacteria, Eubacteria, Eubacteriales, Eurybacteria, Exoflagellata, Firmibacteria, Geobacteria, Glycobacteria, Gracilicutes, Lipobacteria, Mastigomonera, Myxomonera, Negibacteria, Nitrobacteraceae, Photobacteria, Photomonera, Pimelobacteria, Posibacteria, Protobacteria, Schizomycetes, Schyzomycophyta] C-S02

Fibrobacter ZS03 [Fibrobacteraceae, Fibrobacterales, Fibrobacteres RS13, Fibrobacteria]

Gemmatimonas Zhang, Sekiguchi et al. 2003 ZS03 [Gemmatimonadaceae, Gemmatimonadales, Gemmatimonadetes RS13]

Neomura [Archaea, Archaebacteria, Archaeobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Eurytherma, Eurythermea, Mendosicutes, Metabacteria, Sulfobacteria] C-S02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ALS95] Amann, R. I., W. Ludwig & K.-H. Schleifer. 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiological Reviews 59 (1): 143–169.

[BJ07] Bailey, J. V., S. B. Joye, K. M. Kalanetra, B. E. Flood & F. A. Corsetti. 2007. Evidence of giant sulphur bacteria in Neoproterozoic phosphorites. Nature 445: 198–201.

[BJ02] Becnel, J. J., A. Jeyaprakash, M. A. Hoy & A. Shapiro. 2002. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new microsporidian species from the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari, Phytoseiidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 79: 163–172.

[C-S02] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2002. The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 7–76.

[GH01a] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001a. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[GH01b] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001b. Phylum AII. Euryarchaeota phy. nov. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 211–355. Springer.

[GH01c] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001c. Phylum BVIII. Nitrospirae phy. nov. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 451–464. Springer.

[GH01d] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001d. Phylum BIX. Deferribacteres phy. nov. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 465–471. Springer.

[G02] Giribet, G. 2002. Current advances in the phylogenetic reconstruction of metazoan evolution. A new paradigm for the Cambrian explosion? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24: 345–357.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[HH02] Huber, H., M. J. Hohn, R. Rachel, T. Fuchs, V. C. Wimmer & K. O. Stetter. 2002. A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic symbiont. Nature 417: 63–67.

[HP98] Hugenholtz, P., C. Pitulle, K. L. Hershberger & N. R. Pace. 1998. Novel division level bacterial diversity in a Yellowstone hot spring. Journal of Bacteriology 180 (2): 366–376.

[IJ03] Iizuka, T., Y. Jojima, R. Fudou, A. Hiraishi, J.-W. Ahn & S. Yamanaka. 2003. Plesiocystis pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine myxobacterium that contains dihydrogenated menaquinone, isolated from the Pacific coasts of Japan. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 189–195.

[IJSEM02] IJSEM. 2002. Validation list no. 85. Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 685–690.

[IJSEM03] IJSEM. 2003. Validation list no. 89. Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1–2.

[IJSEM04] IJSEM. 2004. Validation list no. 95. Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54: 1–2.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[MP95] Maher, M., R. Palmer, F. Gannon & T. Smith. 1995. Relationship of a novel bacterial fish pathogen to Streptobacillus moniliformis and the fusobacteria group, based on 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 18: 79–84.

[MiKo03] Miroshnichenko, M. L., N. A. Kostrikina, N. A. Chernyh, N. V. Pimenov, T. P. Tourova, A. N. Antipov, S. Spring, E. Stackebrandt & E. A. Bonch-Osmolovskaya. 2003. Caldithrix abyssi gen. nov., sp. nov., a nitrate-reducing, thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium isolated from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent, represents a novel bacterial lineage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 323–329.

[MoKi03] Mori, K., H. Kim, T. Kakegawa & S. Hanada. 2003. A novel lineage of sulfate-reducing microorganisms: Thermodesulfobiaceae fam. nov., Thermodesulfobium narugense, gen. nov., sp. nov., a new thermophilic isolate from a hot spring. Extremophiles 7: 283–290.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RS13] Rinke, C., P. Schwientek, A. Sczyrba, N. N. Ivanova, I. J. Anderson, J.-F. Cheng, A. Darling, S. Malfatti, B. K. Swan, E. A. Gies, J. A. Dodsworth, B. P. Hedlund, G. Tsiamis, S. M. Sievert, W.-T. Liu, J. A. H. Eisen, S. J., N. Kyrpides, C., R. Stepanauskas, E. M. Rubin, P. Hugenholtz & T. Woyke. 2013. Insights into the phylogeny and coding potential of microbial dark matter. Nature 499: 431–437.

[SS15] Spang, A., J. H. Saw, S. L. Jørgensen, K. Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, J. Martijn, A. E. Lind, R. van Eijk, C. Schleper, L. Guy & T. J. G. Ettema. 2015. Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Nature 521: 173–179.

[T84] Tewari, V. C. 1984. Stromatolites and Precambrian–Lower Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Lesser Himalaya. Proc. Vth India Geophytol. Conf., Lucknow (1983), Spec. Publ. 1984: 71–97.

[WF13] Williams, T. A., P. G. Foster, C. J. Cox & T. M. Embley. 2013. An archaeal origin of eukaryotes supports only two primary domains of life. Nature 504: 231–236.

[X04] Xiao, S. 2004. New multicellular algal fossils and acritarchs in Doushantuo chert nodules (Neoproterozoic; Yangtze Gorges, south China). Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 393–401.

[ZS03] Zhang, H., Y. Sekiguchi, S. Hanada, P. Hugenholtz, H. Kim, Y. Kamagata & K. Nakamura. 2003. Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1155–1163.

Chlorophyta

Nephroselmis olivacea, copyright William Bourland.


Belongs within: Corticata.
Contains: Chlorosarcinaceae, Tetraphytae.

The Chlorophyta is a major group of green algae including both unicellular and multicellular lineages, with most representatives being aquatic.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Cilia of swimming cells in pairs or multiples of two, with stellate structure linking nine pairs of microtubules at basal body transition zone; thylakoids single or stacked; plastid with two membranes without periplastid endoplasmic reticulum; starch inside plastid; glycolate dehydrogenase present; cell wall, when present, of cellulose; cell division without phragmoplast.

<==Chlorophyta [Micromonadophyceae, Nephrophyceae, Prasinophytae]
    |--Pyramimonas [Pyramimonadales] WM14
    |    |--P. parkeae WM14
    |    `--P. propulsa OI05
    `--+--+--+--Micromonas pusilla L-BC03
       |  |  `--Mantoniella L-BC03
       |  |       |--M. antarctica L-BC03
       |  |       `--M. squamata L-BC03
       |  `--Mamiellophyceae AS12
       |       |  i. s.: Bathycoccus AS12
       |       |         Dolichomastix AS12
       |       |         Monomastix opisthostigma WM14
       |       `--Mamiellales OS03
       |            |--Mamiella L-BC03
       |            `--Ostreococcus OS03
       |                 |--O. lucimarinus C-SCL15
       |                 `--O. tauri OS03
       `--+--Pycnococcaceae L-BC03
          |    |--Pycnococcus provasoli L-BC03
          |    `--Pseudoscourfieldia marina L-BC03
          `--+--Nephroselmis Stein 1878 L-BC03, AS12 [Nephroselmidophyceae]
             |    |--N. olivacea L-BC03
             |    `--N. pyriformis AS12
             `--+--Tetraphytae KM01
                `--Chlorodendrophyceae AS12
                     |  i. s.: Scherffelia dubia L-BC03
                     |         Tetraselmis Stein 1878 C03
                     |           |--T. maculata BS-L99
                     |           |--T. striata L-BC03
                     |           `--T. subcordiformis [=Platymonas subcordiformis] BS-L99
                     `--Chlorangiaceae [Chlorodendrineae] S57
                          |--Collinsiella tuberculata Setchell & Gardner 1903 S57
                          `--Prasinocladus lubricus Kuckuck 1984 S57

Chlorophyta incertae sedis:
  Pedinophyceae AS12
    |--Pedinomonas minor GLB04
    `--Marsupiomonas AS12
  Ouracoccus (Hassall) Lindley 1847 [=Haematococcus subg. Ouracoccus Hassall 1845, Urococcus] FT93
    `--*O. allmanii [=Haematococcus allmanii Hassall 1845] FT93
  Pandorina Bory 1824 M70b
    `--P. morum (Muller) Bory 1824 M70b
  Tetrastrum Chodat 1895 M70b
    |--T. multisetum M70b
    `--T. staurogeniaeforme (Schroder) Lemmermann 1895 M70b
  Sorastrum Kutzing 1845 M70b
    `--S. spinulosum Nageli 1849 M70b
  Richteriella Lemmermann 1898 M70b
    `--R. botryoides (Schmidle) Lemmermann 1898 M70b
  Lagerheimia (De Toni) Chodat 1895 M70b
    `--L. longiseta (Lemmermann) Printz 1914 [=Chodatella longiseta] M70b
  Errerella Conrad 1913 M70b
    `--E. bornhemiensis Conrad 1913 M70b
  Golenkinia Chodat 1894 M70b
    `--G. radiata (Chodat) Wille 1911 M70b
  Micractinium Fresenius 1858 M70a
    `--M. quadrisetum (Lemmermann) Smith 1916 M70a
  Calcipatera T97
  Pseudulvella Wille 1910 N10
    `--*P. americana (Snow) Wille 1910 N10
  Tetrasporales A90
    |--Tetrasporaceae A90
    |--Sphaerocystis [Hypnomonadaceae] A90
    |    `--S. schroeteri DH90
    `--Palmellaceae A90
         |--Gloeocystis A90
         |--Hormotila A90
         |--Hormotilopsis A90
         `--Palmella A90
  Tubulistroma Vologdin 1962 G79
    `--*T. scrofulosum Vologdin 1962 G79
  Pterosperma Pouchet 1893 OC09, FT93
    `--P. cristatum OC09
  Chlorosarcinaceae A90
  Crustomastix AS12
  Halosphaera viridis AS12, B26
  Prasinococcus AS12
  Paulschulzia L-BC03
  Pteromonas Seligo 1886 KM01, M70b
    `--P. rectangularis Lemmermann 1900 M70b
  Palmophyllales AS12
    |--Palmophyllum AS12
    |--Palmoclathrus AS12
    `--Verdigellas AS12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69–96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BS-L99] Burger, G., D. Saint-Louis, M. W. Gray & B. F. Lang. 1999. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the red alga Porphyra purpurea: cyanobacterial introns and shared ancestry of red and green algae. Plant Cell 11: 1675–1694.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

[C03] Chan, B. K. K. 2003. Studies on Tetraclita squamosa and Tetraclita japonica (Cirripedia: Thoracica) II: larval morphology and development. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 522–547.

[DH90] Duffy, J. E., & M. E. Hay. 1990. Seaweed adaptations to herbivory. BioScience 40 (5): 368–375.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[GLB04] Gray, M. W., B. F. Lang & G. Burger. 2004. Mitochondria of protists. Annual Review of Genetics 38: 477–524.

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[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[M70a] Meel, L. van. 1970a. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. V.—Le «Kragewiel» à Bornem. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (1): 1–14.

[M70b] Meel, L. van. 1970b. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.—Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1–56.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[OC09] Okamoto, N., C. Chantangsi, A. Horák, B. S. Leander & P. J. Keeling. 2009. Molecular phylogeny and description of the novel katablepharid Roombia truncata gen. et sp. nov., and establishment of the Hacrobia taxon nov. PLoS One 4 (9): e7080.

[OI05] Okamoto, N., & I. Inouye. 2005. The katablepharids are a distant sister group of the Cryptophyta: a proposal for Katablepharidophyta divisio nova/Kathablepharida phylum novum based on SSU rDNA and beta-tubulin phylogeny. Protist 156: 163–179.

[OS03] O’Kelly, C. J., M. E. Sieracki, E. C. Their & I. C. Hobson. 2003. A transient bloom of Ostreococcus (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae) in West Neck Bay, Long Island, New York. Journal of Phycology 39: 850–854.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[T97] Torres, A. M. 1997. Fossil algae were very different from xenophyophores. Lethaia 29: 287–288.

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Rhodophyceae

Erythrotrichia carnea, copyright Ignacio Bárbara.


Belongs within: Corticata.
Contains: Bangiales, Florideophycidae.

The Rhodophyceae include the red algae, a major group of aquatic photosynthetic organisms. Many red algae are multicellular (forming the clade Macrorhodophytina) but the taxon also includes a number of unicellular or filamentous lineages.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Without ciliated stages, and without centrioles, basal bodies, or other 9 + 2 microtubular structures; polar rings present instead; two-membraned simple chloroplasts, unstacked thylakoids with phycobilisomes, and chlorophyll a only, lacking external endoplasmic reticulum; cytoplasmic carbohydrate reserve floridean starch; chromosomal and interzonal microtubules not converging towards polar rings, so spindle poles very broad; telophase spindle and nuclear envelope persisting with closed mitosis surrounded by perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum; cell wall of cellulose; cells in filamentous forms linked by pit plugs, formed between cells after incomplete cell division; sexual reproduction typically oogamous; triphasic life history common.

<==Rhodophyceae [Bangiophycidae, Rhodophycophyta, Rhodophyta, Rhodoplantae] AS12
    |--Macrorhodophytina C-S98
    |    |--Bangiales C-S98
    |    `--Florideophycidae C-S98
    |--Cyanidiales [Cyanidiophyceae, Cyanidiophyta] AS12
    |    |--Cyanidioschyzon merolae NM03
    |    |--Cyanidium caldarium GP03
    |    `--Galdieria merolae AS12, C-SCL15
    |--Rhodellophyceae [Rhodellophytina] C-S98
    |    |--Dixoniella grisea AS12, MO08
    |    |--Glaucosphaera vacuolata AS12, LA03
    |    `--Rhodella JLG03
    |         |--R. maculata OI05
    |         `--R. violacea JLG03
    |--Porphyridiophyceae AS12
    |    |--Erythrolobus AS12
    |    |--Flintiella sanguinaria AS12, PB04
    |    `--Porphyridium [Porphyridiaceae, Porphyridiales] C-S98
    |         |--P. aerugineum HSA03
    |         `--P. purpureum C-SCL15
    |--Stylonematales [Stylonematophyceae] AS12
    |    |--Stylonema alsidii MO08
    |    |--Bangiopsis subsimplex AS12, MS02
    |    |--Chroodactylon ornatum AS12, MS02
    |    |--Purpureofilum AS12
    |    |--Rhodosorus marinus AS12, MO08
    |    |--Rhodospora AS12
    |    `--Rufusia AS12
    `--Compsopogonales [Compsopogonophyceae] AS12
         |--Rhodochaete [Rhodochaetales] AS12
         |    `--R. parvula PH03
         `--Erythrotrichiaceae SG05
              |--Compsopogon caeruleus MO08
              `--Erythrotrichia MS02
                   |--E. carnea MS02
                   |--E. ciliaris (Carmichael) Batters. 1900 [=Bangia ciliaris] L27
                   |--E. kylinii Gardner 1927 S57
                   `--E. parksii S57
                        |--E. p. var. parksii S57
                        `--E. p. var. minor Gardner 1927 S57

Rhodophyceae incertae sedis:
  Salpingoporella HS02
  Smithora naiadum HSA03
  Kappaphycus alvarezii JLG03
  Schottera nicaeensis W03
  Californiella Poncet 1987 VH01
  Gymnocodium [Gymnocodiaceae] VH01
    `--G. exile Mu 1981 VH01
  Goniotrichum [Goniotrichaceae, Goniotrichales] S57
    |--G. cornu-cervi (Reinsch) Hauck 1885 S57
    `--G. elegans (Chauvin) Zanardini 1847 S57
  ‘Diplocystis’ Agardh 1896 nec Trevisan 1848 nec Berkeley & Curtis 1869 FT93
  Cruoriella Crouan 1859 K98
    `--C. japonica (Segawa) Denizot 1968 [=Cruoriopsis japonica Segawa 1941] K98
  Cruoriopsis aestuarii K98
  Pustularia Vologdin 1955 nec Swainson 1840 (ICZN) nec Gray 1858 (ICZN) G79
    `--*P. taeniata Vologdin 1955 G79
  Rubellophyton Vologdin 1966 G79
    `--*R. rameus Vologdin 1966 G79
  Wurdemannia miniata N10
  Curdiea racovitzae N10
  Pyropia yezoensis C-SCL15

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203–266.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[GP03] Gupta, R. S., M. Pereira, C. Chandrasekara & V. Johari. 2003. Molecular signatures in protein sequences that are characteristic of cyanobacteria and plastid homologues. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1833–1842.

[HS02] Höfling, R., & R. W. Scott. 2002. Early and Mid-Cretaceous buildups. SEPM Special Publication 72: 521–548.

[HSA03] Huisman, J. M., A. R. Sherwood & I. A. Abbott. 2003. Morphology, reproduction, and the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), the so-called ‘monosporangial discs’ associated with members of the Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta), and proposal of the Pihiellales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology 39: 978–987.

[JLG03] Jacobsen, S., K. Lüning & F. Goulard. 2003. Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 888–896.

[K98] Kaehler, S. 1998. The non-coralline epilithic encrusting algae of Hong Kong II: additions and identification. Asian Marine Biology 15: 1–17.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[LA03] Longet, D., J. M. Archibald, P. J. Keeling & J. Pawlowski. 2003. Foraminifera and Cercozoa share a common origin according to RNA polymerase II phylogenies. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1735–1739.

[MO08] Moore, R. B., M. Oborník, J. Janouškovec, T. Chrudimský, M. Vancová, D. H. Green, S. W. Wright, N. W. Davies, C. J. S. Bolch, K. Heimann, J. Šlapeta, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. M. Logsdon, Jr. & D. A. Carter. 2008. A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Nature 451: 959–963.

[MS02] Müller, K. M., A. R. Sherwood, C. M. Pueschel, R. R. Gutell & R. G. Sheath. 2002. A proposal for a new red algal order, the Thoreales. Journal of Phycology 38: 807–820.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[NM03] Nozaki, H., M. Matsuzaki, M. Takahara, O. Misumi, H. Kuroiwa, M. Hasegawa, T. Shin-i, Y. Kohara, N. Ogasawara & T. Kuroiwa. 2003. The phylogenetic position of red algae revealed by multiple nuclear genes from mitochondria-containing eukaryotes and an alternative hypothesis on the origin of plastids. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 485–497.

[OI05] Okamoto, N., & I. Inouye. 2005. The katablepharids are a distant sister group of the Cryptophyta: a proposal for Katablepharidophyta divisio nova/Kathablepharida phylum novum based on SSU rDNA and beta-tubulin phylogeny. Protist 156: 163–179.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483–487.

[PB04] Polet, S., C. Berney, J. Fahrni & J. Pawlowski. 2004. Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Phaeodarea challenge the monophyly of Haeckel’s Radiolaria. Protist 155 (1): 53–63.

[SG05] Sau, A., & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 63–86.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[VH01] Vachard, D., M. Hauser, R. Martini, L. Zaninetti, A. Matter & T. Peters. 2001. New algae and problematica of algal affinity from the Permian of the Aseelah Unit of the Batain Plain (East Oman). Geobios 34 (4): 375–404.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.