Tilioideae

Small-leaved limes Tilia cordata, copyright Waugsberg.


Belongs within: Malvaceae.

The Tiliaceae or Tilioideae has been used by past authors in a broader sense than its current circumscription, but most recent authors would restrict this name to a group of trees and shrubs from northern temperate regions and Central America. Species of the genus Tilia, the limes or linden trees, are large, deciduous trees with heart-shaped leaves. Entelea arborescens, whau, is a small tree with dry, spinose fruit capsules endemic to New Zealand.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Stachyose, raffinose present; some species with siliceous leaves; petiole bundle annular, with medullary phloem strands and inverted bundles; leaves distichous, horizontally conduplicate; calyx free; androecium free, staminodia and stamens antepetalous, antesepalous sector empty; gynoecium opposite sepals; outer integument 3-4 cells across, inner integument 4-5 cells across, postament present; cotyledons folded; n = 41.

Tilioideae [Tiliaceae, Tiliales] BAN98
    |--Althoffia YY22
    |--Asterophorum YY22
    |--Carpodiptera YY22
    |--Vasivaea YY22
    |--Clappertonia ficifolia [=Honckenya ficifolia] P88
    |--Craigia yunnanensis BAN98
    |--Mollia Martius 1824 D24
    |--Trichospermum pleiostigma B00
    |--Entelea Br. 1814 A61
    |    `--E. arborescens Br. 1824 [incl. Apeiba australis Rich. 1832] A61
    `--Tilia H03
         |--T. americana H03
         |--T. cordata RB05
         |--T. europaea BAN98
         |--T. glabra Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. grandifolia C55
         |--T. heterophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. miqueliana LO98
         |--T. mycrophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. platyphyllos Ventenat 1800 V00
         |    |--T. p. var. platyphyllos V00
         |    `--T. p. var. corralina V00
         |--T. pubescens [incl. T. caroliniana] V00
         |    |--T. p. var. pubescens V00
         |    `--T. p. var. leptophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         `--T. rotundifolia Ventenat 1800 [incl. T. alba, T. argentea] V00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses, 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[H03] Healy, R. A. 2003. Mattirolomyces tiffanyae, a new truffle from Iowa, with ultrastructural evidence for its classification in the Pezizaceae. Mycologia 95 (4): 765–772.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RB05] Ruczyński, I., & W. Bogdanowicz. 2005. Roost cavity selection by Nyctalus noctula and N. leisleri (Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera) in Białowieża Primeval Forest, eastern Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 921–930.

[V00] Ventenat, C. 1800. Extrait d'une monographie du genre tilleul. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (35): 83–84.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Poales

Lesser bulrush Typha angustifolia, copyright Le Loup Gris.


Belongs within: Commelinidae.
Contains: Bromeliaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Restionaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae.

The Poales are a clade of monocotyledonous flowering plants united by molecular analyses, as well as by the presence of epidermal silica bodies (phytoliths).

Characters (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Web): Mycorrhizae absent; vessel elements in roots often with simple perforation plates, vessels also in stem and leaf, also with simple perforation plates; SiO2 epidermal; raphides absent; inflorescence indeterminate; style well developed, stigmas small, dry; micropyle bistomal, both integuments ca. 2 cells across; cotyledon hyperphyllar, haustorial; whole nuclear genome duplication [σ/sigma event]; mitochondrial sdh3 [succinate dehydrogenase 3] gene lost.

Poales [Glumiflorae, Juncales, Xyridaceae, Xyridales, Xyridineae]
    |  i. s.: Lyginia OS04 [Lyginiaceae DS04]
    |           |--L. barbata RL05
    |           `--L. imberbis OS04
    |         Hopkinsiaceae DS04
    |--Rapateaceae [Rapateoideae] DS04
    |    |--Rapatea xiphoides DS04
    |    `--+--+--Cephalostemon flavus DS04
    |       |  `--Spathanthus bicolor DS04
    |       `--+--Stegolepis DS04
    |          |    |--S. ligulata BS05
    |          |    `--S. parvipetala DS04
    |          `--Saxofridericioideae DS04
    |               |--Kunhardtia radiata DS04
    |               `--+--Epidryos allenii DS04
    |                  `--Schoenocephalium cucullatum DS04
    `--+--Typhaceae [Typhales] DS04
       |    |--Sparganium Linnaeus 1753 DS04, ME70 [Sparganiaceae]
       |    |    |--S. americanum DS04
       |    |    |--S. emersum L06
       |    |    |--S. erectum L06
       |    |    |--S. eurycarpum DS04
       |    |    |--S. pusilloides JD05
       |    |    |--S. simplex CS77
       |    |    `--S. subglobosum Morong 1888 [incl. S. antipodum Graebner 1900] ME70
       |    `--Typha Linnaeus 1753 SR07, ME70
       |         |--T. angustata PP07
       |         |--T. angustifolia Linnaeus 1753 BF89
       |         |    |--T. a. var. angustifolia C06
       |         |    `--T. a. var. brownii C06
       |         |--T. domingensis VB02
       |         |--T. elephantiana VB02
       |         |--T. latifolia Linnaeus 1753 CD07
       |         |    |--T. l. ssp. latifolia G01
       |         |    `--T. l. ssp. capensis G01
       |         |--T. minima GR98
       |         `--T. orientalis Presl 1852 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--Bromeliaceae SR07
          `--+--+--Eriocaulaceae DS04
             |  `--+--Abolboda [Abolbodoideae] DS04
             |     |    `--A. macrostachya DS04
             |     `--+--Aratitiyopea lopezii DS04
             |        `--Orectanthe sceptrum DS04
             `--+--+--Flagellariaceae DS04
                |  |    |--Flagellaria indica GPWG01
                |  |    `--Susum YY22
                |  `--+--Restionaceae SR07
                |     `--+--Joinvillea [Joinvilleaceae] DS04
                |        |    |--J. ascendens GPWG01
                |        |    `--J. plicata GPWG01
                |        `--+--Poaceae SR07
                |           `--Ecdeiocolea [Ecdeiocoleaceae] SR07
                |                `--E. monostachya DS04
                `--+--Mayaca [Mayacaceae] SR07
                   |    `--M. sellowiana DS04
                   `--+--+--+--Cyperaceae SR07
                      |  |  `--Juncaceae DS04
                      |  `--+--Prionium [Prioniaceae] DS04
                      |     |    `--P. serratum DS04
                      |     `--Thurnia [Thurniaceae] DS04
                      |          |--T. jenmani DS04
                      |          `--T. polycephala DS04
                      `--Xyridoideae DS04
                           |--Achlyphila DS04
                           `--Xyris SR07
                                |--X. bicephala DS04
                                |--X. cheumatophila LK14
                                |--X. complanata LK14
                                |--X. indica LK14
                                |--X. jupicai DS04
                                |--X. laxifolia C55
                                |--X. oligantha LK14
                                |--X. pauciflora LK14
                                `--X. pusilla LK14

Typha orientalis Presl 1852 ME70 [incl. T. muelleri Rohrb. 1869 ME70, T. angustifolia var. muelleri C06]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS05] Barfuss, M. H. J., R. Samuel, W. Till & T. F. Stuessy. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions. American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 337–351.

[BF89] Burnham, B. H., & P. E. Fell. 1989. Distribution of Melampus bidentatus (Say) and Succinea wilsoni (Lea) within a tidal marsh in eastern Connecticut. Nautilus 103 (3): 109–112.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[G01] Grout, T. G. 2001. Advances in understanding the ecology of Euseius (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) species on citrus in southern Africa. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 464–469. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[L06] Lewin, I. 2006. The gastropod communities in the lowland rivers of agricultural areas—their biodiversity and bioindicative value in the Ciechanowska Upland, central Poland. Malacologia 49 (1): 7–23.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

Restionaceae

Scale-rush Lepyrodia scariosa, copyright John Tann.


Belongs within: Poales.

The Restionaceae are a group of rush-like plants found in southern parts of the world, particularly Africa, Australasia and southeast Asia. Leaves are reduced to sheaths around the photosynthetic stems.

<==Restionaceae [Anarthriaceae, Centrolepidaceae, Farinosae, Restionineae] APG16
    |--Anarthria DS04
    |    |--A. gracilis GK00
    |    |--A. laevis GK00
    |    |--A. polyphylla DS04
    |    |--A. prolifera DS04
    |    `--A. scabra GK00
    `--+--Baloskion tetraphyllum DS04
       `--+--+--Thamnochortus cinereus DS04
          |  `--Elegia DS04
          |       |--E. capensis GPWG01
          |       |--E. fenestrata DS04
          |       `--E. stipularis GPWG01
          `--Lepyrodia DS04
               |--L. caudata D95
               |--L. drummondiana GK00
               |--L. glauca DS04
               |--L. gracilis D95
               |--L. interrupta D95
               |--L. macra GK00
               |--L. muirii GK00
               `--L. scariosa DS04

Restionaceae incertae sedis:
  Leptocarpus Br. 1810 (nom. cons.) ME70
    |--*L. aristatus ME70
    |--L. similis Edgar 1969 [incl. L. simplex var. fasciculatus Hooker 1853] ME70
    |--L. simplex [=Restio simplex] C06
    `--L. tenax GK00
  Phyllocomos YY22
  Askidiosperma YY22
  Cannomois YY22
  Chaetanthus YY22
  Dielsia YY22
  Dovea YY22
  Harperia lateriflora OS04
  Hypodiscus YY22
  Hypolaena OS04
    |--H. exsulca OS04
    `--H. lateriflora A27
  Lepidobolus preissianus OS04
  Onychos YY22
  Restio complanatus BR65
  Staberona YY22
  Willdenowia YY22
  Loxocarya RL05
  Empodisma gracillimum HE80, P05
  Alexgeorgia nitens RL05
  Desmocladus RL05
    |--D. asper OS04
    |--D. fasciculata RL05
    `--D. flexuosa RL05
  Chondropetalum GPWG01
  Apodasmia ceramophila GK00, GKL04
  Meeboldina denmarkica GK00
  Sporadanthus Muell. 1874 ME70
    `--*S. traversii (Muell.) Muell. ex Kirk 1878 [=Lepyrodia traversii Muell. 1873] ME70
  Calorophus Labill. 1806 ME70
    |--*C. elongata ME70
    `--C. minor Hook. f. 1853 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
  Brizula drummondii GK00
  Aphelia SR07
    |--A. brizula SR07
    `--A. cyperoides GK00
  Gaimardia Gaud. 1825 ME70
    |--*G. australis ME70
    `--G. setacea Hook. f. 1853 ME70
  Centrolepis Labill. 1804 [incl. Alepyrum Brown 1810, Pseudalepyrum Dandy 1932] ME70
    |--*C. fascicularis ME70
    |--C. alepyroides GK00
    |--C. aristata GK00
    |--C. banksii LK14
    |--C. cephaloformis G04
    |--C. ciliata (Hooker) Druce 1917 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. curta LK14
    |--C. drummondiana GK00
    |--C. exserta LK14
    |--C. glabra GK00
    |--C. humillima GK00
    |--C. minima Kirk 1891 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. monogyna SR07
    |--C. mutica GK00
    |--C. pallida (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. pilosa GK00
    |--C. polygyna GK00
    `--C. strigosa (Brown) Roemer & Schultes 1817 HE80 [=Desvauxia strigosa Brown 1810 ME70]

Nomina nuda: Chaetanthus aristatus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Chordifex laxus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Hypolaena humilis Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina cana Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina coangustata Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina kraussii Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina roycei Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina scariosa Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina tephrina Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Sporadanthus strictus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00 GK00

Calorophus minor Hook. f. 1853 ME70 [=C. elongatus var. minor Hook. f. 1858 ME70, Empodisma minor HE80, Hypolaena lateriflora var. minor (Hook. f.) Cheeseman 1906 ME70]

Centrolepis ciliata (Hooker) Druce 1917 HE80 [=Gaimardia ciliata Hooker 1844 ME70, Alepyrum ciliatum (Hooker) Hieron. 1888 ME70, Pseudalepyrum ciliatum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70; incl. Centrolepis viridis var. ligulata Kirk 1891 ME70, Gaimardia ciliata var. ligulata (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 ME70, Pseudalepyrum ciliatum var. ligulatum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70, Alepyrum viride Kirk 1882 (n. n.) ME70, Centrolepis viridis Kirk 1891 ME70]

Centrolepis minima Kirk 1891 HE80 [=Gaimardia minima (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 non Col. 1890 ME70, Pseudalepyrum minimum (Kirk) Dandy 1932 ME70]

Centrolepis pallida (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 HE80 [=Gaimardia pallida Hooker 1844 ME70, Alepyrum pallidum (Hooker) Hooker 1853 ME70, Pseudalepyrum pallidum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BM65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[GKL04] Gibson, N., G. J. Keighery & J. A. K. Lane. 2004. Five years monitoring of the Lake Muir-Unicup wetland system, south-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 29–33.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P05] Pinder, A. M. 2005. A review of biodiversity in wetlands with organic sediments on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia, with an emphasis on aquatic invertebrates. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (3): 129–132.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Bromelioideae

Horticultural variant of Amazonian zebra plant Aechmea chantinii, copyright BotBIn.


Belongs within: Bromeliaceae.

The Bromelioideae are a group of herbaceous, often epiphytic, plants that grow with leaves arranged in water-collecting rosettes.

<==Bromelioideae
    |--Greigia SHZ05
    |    |--G. mulfordii Smith 1949 SHZ05
    |    `--G. sphacelata (Ruiz & Pavon) Regel 1865 SHZ05
    `--+--Bromelia SHZ05
       |    |--B. ananas C55
       |    |--B. balansae OMM08
       |    |--B. keratas BS05
       |    |--B. pinguin B10
       |    |--B. plumieri (Morren) Smith 1967 SHZ05
       |    `--B. serra Grisebach 1879 SHZ05
       |--+--Deinacanthon urbanianum (Mez) Mez 1896 SHZ05
       |  `--Ochagavia SHZ05
       |       |  i. s.: O carnea SHZ05
       |       |--O. elegans Philippi 1856 SHZ05
       |       `--+--O. litoralis (Philippi) Zizka, Trumpler & Zoellner 2002 SHZ05
       |          `--Fascicularia bicolor (Ruiz & Pavon) Mez 1896 SHZ05
       |               |--F. b. ssp. bicolor SHZ05
       |               `--F. b. ssp. canaliculata SHZ05
       `--+--Fernseea itatiaiae (Wawra) Baker 1889 SHZ05
          `--+--Orthophytum supthutii Gross & Barthlott 1900 SHZ05
             |--Cryptanthus SHZ05
             |    |--C. glaziovii Mez 1891 SHZ05
             |    `--+--C. bahianus Smith 1943 SHZ05
             |       `--Acanthostachys strobilacea (Schultes) Klotzsch 1840 SHZ05
             |--+--Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda da Camara) Mez 1894 SHZ05
             |  `--Ananas SHZ05
             |       |--A. comosus (Linnaeus) Merrill 1917 SHZ05
             |       |--A. nanus (Smith) Smith 1962 SHZ05
             |       `--A. sativus FS-K03
             `--+--+--Ronnbergia petersii Smith 1973 SHZ05
                |  `--‘Aechmea’ subg. Pothuava SHZ05
                |       |--A. drakeana André 1888 SHZ05
                |       `--A. squarrosa L03
                `--+--+--‘Quesnelia’ lateralis Wawra 1880 SHZ05
                   |  `--+--Billbergia SHZ05
                   |     |    |--B. decora Poeppig & Endlicher 1838 SHZ05
                   |     |    `--B. nutans Wendland ex Regel 1869 SHZ05
                   |     `--+--Edmundoa lindenii (Regel) Leme 1997 SHZ05
                   |        |--‘Aechmea (subg. Platyaechmea)’ fasciata (Lindley) Baker 1879 SHZ05
                   |        |--+--‘Aechmea (subg. Pothuava)’ nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach 1864 SHZ05
                   |        |  `--‘Quesnelia’ liboniana (de Johnge) Mez 1922 SHZ05
                   |        |--+--‘Aechmea (subg. Platyaechmea)’ distichantha Lemaire 1853 SHZ05
                   |        |  `--‘Aechmea’ subg. Ortgiesia SHZ05
                   |        |       |--A. gracilis Lindman 1891 SHZ05
                   |        |       `--+--A. calyculata (Morren) Baker 1879 SHZ05
                   |        |          |--A. kertesziae Reitz 1952 SHZ05
                   |        |          `--‘A. (subg. Lamprococcus)’ racinae Smith 1941 SHZ05
                   |        `--+--Nidularium procerum Lindman 1891 SHZ05
                   |           |--Wittrockia superba Lindman 1891 SHZ05
                   |           `--Neoregelia SHZ05
                   |                |--N. binotii (Antoine) Smith 1936 SHZ05
                   |                `--+--N. laevis (Mez) Smith 1934 SHZ05
                   |                   `--‘Aechmea (subg. Ortgiesia)’ pimenti-velosoi Reitz 1952 SHZ05
                   `--+--Lymania alvimii (Smith & Read) Read 1984 SHZ05
                      |--Streptocalyx poeppigii Beer 1856 SHZ05
                      |--Hohenbergia stellata Schultes 1830 SHZ05
                      |--Chevaliera SHZ05
                      |    |--‘Aechmea’ comata L03
                      |    `--C. sphaerocephala Baker 1879 SHZ05
                      |--Araeococcus SHZ05
                      |    |--A. flagellifolius Harms 1929 SHZ05
                      |    `--A. goeldianus Smith 1955 SHZ05
                      |--+--‘Quesnelia’ edmundoi Smith 1955 SHZ05
                      |  `--Canistrum fosterianum Smith 1952 SHZ05
                      |--Portea SHZ05
                      |    |--P. leptantha Harms 1929 SHZ05
                      |    `--+--P. petropolitana (Wawra) Mez 1892 SHZ05
                      |       `--‘Aechmea’ (subg. Macrochordion) lamarchei Mez 1892 SHZ05
                      |--+--Hohenbergiopsis guatemalensis (Smith) Smith & Read 1976 SHZ05
                      |  |--Ursulaea tuitensis (Magana & Lott) Read & Baensch 1994 SHZ05
                      |  `--+--Androlepis skinneri (Koch) Brongniart ex Houllet 1870 SHZ05
                      |     `--‘Aechmea’ subg. Podaechmea SHZ05
                      |          |--A. lueddemanniana (Koch) Mez 1934 SHZ05
                      |          `--A. mexicana Baker 1879 SHZ05
                      `--Aechmea SHZ05
                           |  i. s.: A. bracteata C-MM-R07
                           |         A. bromeliifolia SHZ05
                           |--A. subg. Aechmea SHZ05
                           |    |--A. filicaulis (Grisebach) Mez 1894 SHZ05
                           |    `--A. mertensii (Meyer) Schultes 1809 SHZ05
                           |--A. subg. Lamprococcus SHZ05
                           |    |--A. farinosa (Regel) Smith 1966 SHZ05
                           |    |--A. fulgens Brongniart 1841 SHZ05
                           |    `--A. warasii Pereira 1972 SHZ05
                           `--A. (subg. Platyaechmea) chantinii (Carrière) Baker 1889 SHZ05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS05] Barfuss, M. H. J., R. Samuel, W. Till & T. F. Stuessy. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions. American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 337–351.

[B10] Boucher, S. 2010. Agromyzidae (leaf-mining flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1057–1071. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C-MM-R07] Castaño-Meneses, G., & B. E. Mejía-Recamier. 2007. Community structure of mites in Tillandsia violacea (Bromeliaceae) from a temperate forest of central Mexico. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 657–664. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[FS-K03] Foissner, W., M. Strüder-Kypke, G. W. M. van der Staay, S. Y. Moon-van der Staay & J. H. P. Hackstein. 2003. Endemic ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae): a combined morphological, molecular, and ecological study. European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 365–372.

[L03] Leme, E. M. C. 2003. Nominal extinction and the taxonomist’s responsibility: the example of Bromeliaceae in Brazil. Taxon 52: 299–302.

[OMM08] Osses, F., E. G. Martins & G. Machado. 2008. Oviposition site selection by the bromeliad-dweller harvestman Bourguyia hamata (Arachnida: Opiliones). Journal of Ethology 26 (2): 233–241.

[SHZ05] Schulte, K., R. Horres & G. Zizka. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Bromelioideae and its implications on biogeography and the evolution of CAM in the family (Poales, Bromeliaceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 113–125.

Deschampsia

Wavy hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa, photographed by Botaurus.


Belongs within: Pooideae.

Deschampsia is a genus of grasses found in cold and temperate regions of the world.

Characters (from Cheeseman 1906): Perennial grasses. Leaves narrow, flat or convolute. Spikelets rather small, 2-flowered, arranged in lax or contracted panicles; rhachilla disarticulating above the 2 outer glumes, produced between the flowering glumes and above the upper flower as a naked or hairy bristle, rarely ending in an imperfect flower. Glumes 4; 2 outer slightly unequal, persistent, empty, keeled, acute, membranous, shining ; 3rd and 4th (or flowering glumes) membranous or almost hyaline, toothed at the apex ; dorsal awn slender, twisted at the base, sometimes very small or wanting. Palea narrow, 2-nerved. Lodicules 2, ovate. Stamens 3. Styles distinct; stigmas plumose. Grain oblong, enclosed within the unaltered flowering glume and palea.

<==Deschampsia C06
    |--D. aciphylla D03
    |--D. andina Phil. 1873 [=Deyeuxia andina] S06
    |--D. caespitosa [=Aira caespitosa; incl. Aira australis, Agrostis aucklandica, Aira kingii] C06
    |--D. chapmani Petrie 1891 C06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--D. flexuosa D03
    |--D. gracillima Kirk 1891 C06
    |--D. kingii D03
    |--D. klossii C78
    |--D. novae-zealandiae Petrie 1891 [incl. D. hookeri Kirk 1891] C06
    |--D. penicillata Kirk 1895 C06
    |--D. pusilla Petrie 1891 C06
    `--D. tenella Petrie 1891 C06

Deschampsia chapmani Petrie 1891 C06 [incl. Catabrosa antarctica C06, D. antarctica S03, Triodia antarctica Benth. 1881 C06]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 143–164.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Segunda contribución al conocimiento de las gramináceas Argentinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 408–555.

Austrostipa

Soft speargrass Austrostipa mollis, from here.


Belongs within: Poaceae.

Austrostipa, speargrass, is a genus of grasses endemic to Australasia.

Characters (from New South Wales Flora Online): Perennials (rarely annuals) of various habit. Auricles often present, sometimes one-sided, grading into an usually membranous ligule. Blade rolled or folded in bud, convolute, terete or flat, usually scabrous or hairy. Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle, axis persistent or falling as a whole. Spikelets borne singly, pedicellate, disarticulating above the glumes; 1 bisexual floret. Glumes equal or unequal. 1–5-nerved, longer than the floret; a long or short bearded callus below each floret. Lemma terete, hardened, with convolute or involute margins enclosing the palea, usually 5-nerved, with or without 1–2 minute lobes, awned from the tip or between the lobes; awn with once or twice geniculate twisted column and a straight or curved bristle. Palea membranous. 0–2-nerved, longer or shorter than the lemma. Lodicles 3 or 2.

<==Austrostipa
    |--A. acrociliata G04b
    |--A. compressa RL05
    |--A. crinita KM08
    |--A. elegantissima KM08
    |--A. eremophila B00
    |--A. flavescens SM06
    |--A. hemipogon OS04
    |--A. juncifolia GK00
    |--A. mollis OS04
    |--A. nitida KM08
    |--A. platychaeta G04b
    |--A. pycnostachya GK00
    |--A. scabra B00
    |--A. semibarbata B00
    |--A. tenuifolia OS04
    |--A. trichophylla G04a
    `--A. variabilis OS04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27–43.

Deyeuxia

Reed bent-grass Deyeuxia quadriseta, from here.


Belongs within: Pooideae.

Deyeuxia is a genus of grasses found in temperate habitats.

Characters (from Cheeseman 1906): Annual or perennial grasses. Leaves flat or involute ; ligules membranous. Spikelets small, 1-flowered, arranged in effuse or contracted or spike-like panicles with capillary whorled branches; rhachilla disarticulating above the 2 outer glumes, produced beyond the flower into a silky bristle. Glumes 3; 2 outer equal or subequal, persistent, empty, keeled, acute, not awned, usually 1-nerved; 3rd or flowering glume shorter than the empty glumes or equalling them, thin and hyaline or rigidly membranous or almost coriaceous, 5-nerved, entire or 2-4-dentate, callus at the base silky; awn generally present, straight or twisted, inserted above or below the middle of the glume. Palea more than half as long as the flowering glume or almost equalling it, thin, 2-nerved or 2-keeled. Stamens 3. Styles distinct, short; stigmas plumose. Grain oblong or obovoid, enclosed within the flowering glume and palea.

<==Deyeuxia
    |--D. aucklandica W91
    |--D. avenoides [=Agrostis avenoides] C06
    |    |--D. a. var. avenoides C06
    |    `--D. a. var. brachyantha Hack. in Cheeseman 1906 C06
    |--D. billardieri [=Agrostis billardieri] C06
    |    |--D. b. var. billardieri C06
    |    `--D. b. var. tenuis Petrie in Cheeseman 1906 C06
    |--D. filiformis A27
    |--D. forsteri [=Agrostis forsteri; incl. Ag. aemula, Avena filiformis, Ag. solandri] C06
    |    |--D. f. var. forsteri C06
    |    |--D. f. var. humilior Hack. in Cheeseman 1906 [incl. Agrostis striata Col. 1889] C06
    |    |--D. f. var. littoralis Hack. in Cheeseman 1906 C06
    |    |--D. f. var. lyallii Hack. in Cheeseman 1906 [=Agrostis lyallii] C06
    |    |--D. f. var. micrathera Hack. in Cheeseman 1906 C06
    |    |--D. f. var. pilosa Cheeseman 1906 [=Agrostis pilosa] C06
    |    `--D. f. var. semiglabra Hack. in Cheeseman 1906 C06
    |--D. holciformis O88
    |--‘Agrostis’ leptostachya C06
    |--‘Calamagrostis’ lilloi Hackel in Stuckert 1906 S06
    |--‘Calamagrostis’ malamalensis Hackel in Stuckert 1906 S06
    |--D. nepalensis O88
    |--D. nivicola O88
    |--D. pulchella O88
    |--D. quadriseta [=Agrostis quadriseta, Avena quadriseta] C06
    |--D. scabra [=Agrostis scabra] C06
    |--D. scabrescens O88
    |--D. setifolia [=Agrostis setifolia] A27
    |--‘Calamagrostis’ spiciformis Hackel in Stuckert 1906 S06
    `--D. youngii [=Agrostis youngii] C06
         |--D. y. var. youngii C06
         `--D. y. var. petriei [=Calamagrostis petriei Hack. 1903] C06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Segunda contribución al conocimiento de las gramináceas Argentinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 408–555.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.