Field of Science

Micrasterina

Red heart urchin Meoma ventricosa, copyright John Miller.


Belongs within: Atelostomata.
Contains: Spatangidae, Loveniidae, Eupatagus.

The Micrasterina is a lineage of heart urchins known from the Cretaceous to the present (Fischer 1966).

Characters (from Fischer 1966): Petaloid spatangoids with subanal fasciole (absent in some members of Loveniidae), which may be combined with peripetalous or internal fasciole. Primary spines developed except in Micrasteridae.

<==Micrasterina [Prymnodesmia] F66
    |--+--Spatangidae F66
    |  `--Loveniidae F66
    |--Micrasteridae [Micrasterinae] F66
    |    |--Brissopneustes Cotteau 1887 F66
    |    |    `--*B. villanovae Cotteau 1887 F66
    |    |--Isopneustes Pomel 1883 F66
    |    |    |--*I. bourgeoisi (Cotteau 1869) [=Cyclaster bourgeoisi] F66
    |    |    `--I. subquadratus F66
    |    |--Ovulaster Cotteau 1884 F66
    |    |    |--*O. gauthieri Cotteau 1884 F66
    |    |    `--O. auberti F66
    |    `--Micraster Agassiz 1836 [=Pycnaster Pomel 1883] F66
    |         |  i. s.: M. cortestudinarium K79
    |         |--*M. (Micraster) coranguinum (Leske 1778) [=Spatangus coranguinum, *Pycnaster coranguinum] F66
    |         `--M. (Gibbaster Gauthier 1887) F66
    |              `--M. (*G.) fastigatus Gauthier 1887 F66
    `--Brissidae [Brissina, Cyclasteridae, Unifasciidae] F66
         |--Eupatagus F66
         |--Aguayoaster Sánchez Roig 1952 F66
         |    `--*A. aguayoi Sánchez Roig 1952 F66
         |--Anabrissus Mortensen 1950 F66
         |    `--*A. damesi (Agassiz 1881) [=Brissus damesi] F66
         |--Arcaechinus Kier 1957 F66
         |    `--*A. auraduensis Kier 1957 F66
         |--Brissopatagus Cotteau 1863 [=Brissospatagus Agassiz 1874, Brissospatangus Cotteau 1866] F66
         |    `--*B. caumonti Cotteau 1863 [=*Brissospatangus caumonti] F66
         |--Cionobrissus Agassiz 1879 [=Cionobryssus Meissner 1903] F66
         |    `--*C. revinctus Agassiz 1879 [=*Cionobryssus revinctus] F66
         |--Fernandezaster Sánchez Roig 1952 F66
         |    `--*F. mortenseni Sánchez Roig 1952 F66
         |--Fourtaunia Lambert 1902 F66
         |    `--*F. santamariae (Gauthier in Fourtau 1900) [=Hypsospatangus santamariae] F66
         |--Gillechinus Fell 1964 F66
         |    `--*G. cudmorei Fell 1964 F66
         |--Herreraster Sánchez Roig 1951 F66
         |    `--*H. herrerae Sánchez Roig 1951 F66
         |--Hikelaster Lambert & Thiéry 1920 [=Troschelia Duncan & Sladen 1883] F66
         |    `--*H. tuberculatus (Duncan & Sladen 1883) [=*Troschelia tuberculata] F66
         |--Idiobryssus Clark 1939 F66
         |    `--*I. coelus Clark 1939 F66
         |--Lajanaster Sánchez Roig 1926 F66
         |    `--*L. jacksoni Sánchez Roig 1926 F66
         |--Lissospatangus Mortensen 1950 F66
         |    `--*L. hirsutus Mortensen 1950 F66
         |--Mariania Airaghi 1901 [=Airaghia Lambert 1910] F66
         |    `--*M. marmorae (Agassiz 1847) [=Macropneustes marmorae, *Airaghia marmorae] F66
         |--Mauritianaster Lambert 1920 F66
         |    `--*M. gentili Lambert 1920 F66
         |--Megapneustes Gauthier 1898 F66
         |    `--*M. grandis Gauthier 1898 F66
         |--Migliorinia Checchia-Rispoli 1942 F66
         |    `--*M. migiurtina Checchia-Rispoli 1942 F66
         |--Neopneustes Duncan 1889 F66
         |    `--*N. micrasteroides (Agassiz 1878) [=Rhynobrissus micrasteroides] F66
         |--Plesiaster Pomel 1883 F66
         |    `--*P. peini (Coquand 1862) [=Micraster peini] F66
         |--Plesiopatagus Pomel 1883 [=Plesiospatangus Cotteau 1886] F66
         |    `--*P. cotteaui (de Loriol 1880) [=Eupatagus cotteaui, *Plesiospatangus cotteaui] F66
         |--Radiobrissus Fourtau 1913 F66
         |    `--*R. gneffensis Fourtau 1913 F66
         |--Rhynobrissus Agassiz 1872 [=Rhinobrissus Quenstedt 1874, Rhinobryssus Meissner 1903] F66
         |    `--*R. pyramidalis Agassiz 1872 [=*Rhinobrissus pyramidalis, *Rhinobryssus pyramidalis] F66
         |--Rojasia Sánchez Roig 1951 F66
         |    `--*R. rojasi Sánchez Roig 1951 F66
         |--Spatagobrissus Clark 1923 F66
         |    `--*S. mirabilis Clark 1923 F66
         |--Spatangomorpha Boehm 1882 F66
         |    `--*S. eximia Boehm 1882 F66
         |--Stomaporus Cotteau 1888 F66
         |    `--*S. hispanicus Cotteau 1888 F66
         |--Trachypatagus Pomel 1869 [incl. Leiopatagus Pomel 1869 (n. n.), Liopatagus (l. c.)] F66
         |    `--*T. oranensis Pomel 1869 F66
         |--Unifascia Cooke 1959 F66
         |    `--*U. carolinensis (Clark 1915) [=Macropneustes carolinensis] F66
         |--Anametalia Mortensen 1950 F66
         |    |--*A. sternaloides (Bolau 1874) [=Brissus sternaloides] F66
         |    `--A. regularis (Clark 1925) MG-H11
         |--Cyclaster Cotteau 1856 F66
         |    |--*C. declivus Cotteau 1856 F66
         |    `--C. recens F66
         |--Diplodetus Schlüter 1900 F66
         |    |--*D. (Diplodetus) brevistella Schlüter 1900 F66
         |    `--D. (Protobrissus Lambert 1907) F66
         |         `--D. (*P.) mortenseni (Lambert 1907) [=*Protobrissus mortenseni] F66
         |--Pharaonaster Lambert 1920 F66
         |    |--*P. (P.) ammon (Agassiz 1847) [=Macropneustes ammon] F66
         |    `--P. (Thebaster Checchia-Rispoli 1941) F66
         |         `--P. (*T.) fischeri (de Loriol 1881) [=Macropneustes fischeri] F66
         |--Brissus Gray 1825 (nom. cons.) (see below for synonymy) F66
         |    |--*B. unicolor (Leske 1778) [=Spatangus brissus unicolor, *Bryssus unicolor] F66
         |    |--B. agassizii Döderlein 1885 MG-H11 [=B. (*Allobrissus) agassizii F66]
         |    |--*Sandiegoaster’ durhami Sánchez Roig 1952 F66
         |    `--B. latecarinatus (Leske 1778) BM09
         |--Macropneustes Agassiz 1847 [incl. Plagiopneustes Fourtau 1905] F66
         |    |  i. s.: M. crassus [=*Plagiopneustes crassus] F66
         |    |--*M. (Macropneustes) deshayesi Agassiz 1847 F66
         |    `--M. (Deakia Pavay 1875) F66
         |         `--M. (*D.) rotundata (Pavay 1875) [=*Deakia rotundata] F66
         |--Plagiobrissus Pomel 1883 (see below for synonymy) F66
         |    |--*P. (Plagiobrissus) grandis (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy) F66
         |    `--P. (Rhabdobrissus Cotteau 1889) [=Rhabdobryssus Meissner 1903; incl. Mortensaster Lambert 1922] F66
         |         |--P. (*R.) jullieni (Cotteau 1889) [=*Rhabdobrissus jullieni, *Rhabdobryssus jullieni] F66
         |         `--‘Metalia’ costae Gasco 1876 [=*Mortensaster costae] F66
         |--Gualtieria Agassiz 1847 [=Gaultieria (l. c.), Gualteria (l. c.), Gualtiera (l. c.)] F66
         |    |--*G. (Gualtieria) orbignyana Agassiz 1847 F66
         |    |--G. (Blaviaster Lambert 1920) [=Temnaster Lambert 1912 non Verrill 1894] F66
         |    |    `--G. (*B.) grossouvrei (Lambert 1912) [=Temnaster grossouvrei] F66
         |    `---G. (Granobrissoides Lambert 1920) F66
         |          `--G. (*G.) australiae Cotteau 1889 F66
         |--Brissopsis Agassiz in Agassiz & Desor 1847 (see below for synonymy) F66
         |    |--*B. lyrifera (Forbes 1841) [=Brissus lyrifer, *Bryssopsis lyrifera] F66
         |    |--B. cluciei Wright 1855 [=*Brissoma cluciei] F66
         |    |--B. elegans Agassiz 1847 [=*Toxobrissus elegans, *Toxobryssus elegans] F66
         |    |--B. elongata MD66
         |    |--B. lamberti Gauthier 1900 [=*Zeugaster lamberti] F66
         |    |--B. luzonicus (Gray 1851) MG-H11 [=*Kleinia luzonica F66]
         |    `--B. pacifica F66
         |--Metalia Gray 1855 (see below for synonymy) F66
         |    |--*M. sternalis (Lamarck 1816) [=Spatangus sternalis] F66
         |    |--M. dicrana Clark 1917 BM09
         |    |--*Xanthobrissus’ garreti Agassiz 1863 F66
         |    |--‘Echinus’ maculosus Gmelin 1788 [=*Metalopsis maculosus] F66
         |    |--‘Brissus’ robillardi de Loriol 1876 [=*Prometalia robillardi] F66
         |    |--M. spatagus (Linnaeus 1758) BM09
         |    `--*Eobrissus’ townsendi Bell 1904 F66
         `--Meoma Gray 1851 F66
              |--M. (Meoma) [incl. Hemibrissus Pomel 1869, Rhyssobrissus Agassiz 1863] F66
              |    |--*M. (M.) grandis Gray 1851 F66
              |    `--M. (M.) ventricosa (Lamarck 1816) [=Spatangus ventricosus, *Hemibrissus ventricosus] F66
              |--M. (Plethotaenia Clark 1917) F66
              |    `--M. (*P.) spatangoides (Agassiz 1883) [=Macropneustes spatangoides] F66
              `--M. (Schizobrissus Pomel 1869) [incl. Peripneustes Cotteau 1875] F66
                   |--M. (*S.) cruciata (Agassiz 1847) [=Brissus cruciatus] F66
                   `--M. (S.) antillarum (Cotteau 1875) [=*Peripneustes antillarum] F66

Brissopsis Agassiz in Agassiz & Desor 1847 [=Bryssopsis Meissner 1903; incl. Brissoma Pomel 1888, Kleinia Gray 1851, Toxobrissus Desor 1858, Toxobryssus Meissner 1903, Zeugaster Lambert 1907] F66

Brissus Gray 1825 (nom. cons.) [=Bryssus Martens 1869; incl. Allobrissus Mortensen 1950, Sandiegoaster Sánchez Roig 1952] F66

Metalia Gray 1855 [incl. Eobrissus Bell 1904, Metaliopsis Fourtau 1913, Prometalia Pomel 1883, Xanthobrissus Agassiz 1863] F66

Plagiobrissus Pomel 1883 [=Plagionotus Agassiz & Desor 1847 non Mulsant 1842, Plagiostomus d’Orbigny 1854 non Hermansen 1847] F66

*Plagiobrissus (Plagiobrissus) grandis (Gmelin 1788) [=Echinus grandis, *Plagionotus grandis, *Plagiostomus grandis] F66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM09] Bryce, C. & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[F66] Fischer, A. G. 1966. Spatangoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U543–U628. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MD66] Melville, R. V., & J. W. Durham. 1966. Echinoids—skeletal morphology. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U220–U251. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

Schizaster

Lateral view (anterior to right) of Schizaster studeri, from the Natural History Museum.


Belongs within: Hemiasterina.

Schizaster is a genus of high-tested heart urchins known from the Eocene to the present (Fischer 1966).

Characters (from Fischer 1966): Test high, sloping anteriorly from posterior vertex, beaked over periproct; ambulacra sunken, frontal one deeply depressed; posterior petals 0.3 to 0.5 as long as anterior pair; apical system ethmolytic with two to four gonopores.

Schizaster Agassiz 1836 [incl. Aplospatangus Lambert 1907, Brachybrissus Pomel 1883] F66
    |  i. s.: S. africanus G92
    |         ‘Spatangus’ ambulacrum Deshayes 1831 [=*Brachybrissus ambulacrum] F66
    |         S. eurynotus Agassiz 1836 [=*Aplospatangus eurynotus] F66
    |         S. fragilis D66
    |--*S. (Schizaster) studeri Agassiz 1836 F66
    |--S. (Hypselaster Clark 1917) F66
    |    `--S. (*H.) limicola Agassiz 1878 [=S. (Periaster) limicola] F66
    |--S. (Ova Gray 1825) F66 [=Ovum de Blainville 1830 A66; incl. Nina Gray 1855 F66]
    |    `--S. (*O.) canaliferus (Lamarck 1816) [=Spatangus canaliferus] F66
    |--S. (Paraster Pomel 1869) [incl. Prymnaster Koehler 1914, Rotundaster Lambert & Thiéry 1925] F66
    |    |--S. (*P.) gibberulus Agassiz 1847 F66
    |    |--*Prymnaster’ angulatus Koehler 1914 F66
    |    `--S. (P.) foveatus Agassiz 1889 [=*Rotundaster foveatus] F66
    `--S. (Tripylaster Mortensen 1907) F66
         `--S. (*T.) philippii (Gray 1851) [=Tripylus philippii] F66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A66] Anon. 1966. Doubtful nominal genera of echinoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U633. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[D66] Durham, J. W. 1966. Echinoids—ecology and paleoecology. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U257–U265. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[F66] Fischer, A. G. 1966. Spatangoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U543–U628. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[G92] Gingerich, P. D. 1992. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 30: i–ix, 1–84.

Trentepohliales

Colony of Trentepohlia aurea on limestone wall, copyright Malcolm Storey.


Belongs within: Tetraphytae.

The Trentepohliales are a group of algae found in terrestrial habitats, such as among soil or rocks, in association with fungi to form lichens, or as epiphytes or parasites on plants.

Characters (from López-Bautista, Waters & Chapman 2002): Thallus usually developing a filamentous structure forming either uniseriated, branched, erect tufts or laterally coherent, prostrate discs; sometimes highly reduced, producing short vegetative filament a few cells in length. Cells uni- or multinucleate, with several parietal chloroplasts that can be discoid or band-shaped, sometimes appearing reticulate; pyrenoids absent; ß-carotene and haematochrome (astaxanthin) present, coloring thallus yellow, orange, or red; cell walls transverse with plasmodesmata. Reproduction by asexual quadriflagellate zoospores or sexual biflagellate gametes; flagellate cells strongly compressed dorsiventrally. Flagellar apparatus with pair of columnar structures resembling multilayered structures (MLS) of Charales; four microtubular roots present, appressed to basal bodies; each flagellum bearing bilateral wing-like structures.

Trentepohliales
    |--Phycopeltis L-BC03
    `--Trentepohlia [Trentepohliaceae] L-BC03
         |  i. s.: T. iolithus L-BWC03
         |         T. odorata L-BC03
         |--T. dialepta L-BC03
         `--+--Cephaleuros L-BC03
            |    |--C. parasiticus L-BC03
            |    `--C. virescens L-BC03
            `--+--T. aurea L-BC03
               `--+--T. arborum L-BC03
                  `--Physolinum monile L-BC03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099–2106.

[L-BWC03] López-Bautista, J. M., D. A. Waters & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phragmoplastin, green algae and the evolution of cytokinesis. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1715–1718.

Loveniidae

Lovenia elongata, copyright Ria Tan.


Belongs within: Micrasterina.

The Loveniidae are a group of heart urchins known from the Eocene to the present, most of which are distinguished from other urchins by the presence of an internal fasciole around the apical system (Fischer 1966).

Characters (from Fischer 1966): Internal fasciole usually present, surrounding apical system and parts of anterior ambulacrum (absent in Homolampas). Subanal fasciole generally present, peripetalous fasciole slso present in Breynia and Homolampas; apical system ethmolytic, with three or four gonopores; paired ambulacra petaloid, with anterior pair commonly fused into transverse crescent; anterior ambulacrum apetaloid. Primary spines sometimes recessed in camellae. Plastron ultramphisternous.

<==Loveniidae F66
    |--Chuniola Gagel 1903 F66
    |    `--*C. carolinae Gagel 1903 F66
    |--Homolampas Agassiz 1874 [=Lissonotus Agassiz 1869 nec Gistl 1848 nec Blyth 1853] F66
    |    `--*H. fragilis (Agassiz 1869) [=*Lissonotus fragilis] F66
    |--Pseudolovenia Agassiz & Clark 1907 F66
    |    `--*P. hirsuta Agassiz & Clark 1907 F66
    |--Verbeekia Fritsch 1877 [=Verbeckia Pomel 1883] F66
    |    `--*V. dubia Fritsch 1877 [=*Verbeckia dubia] F66
    |--Echinocardium Gray 1825 B01 [=Amphidetus Agassiz 1836 F66]
    |    |--*E. cordatum (Pennant 1777) [=Echinus cordatus, *Amphidetus cordatus] F66
    |    |--E. australe P61
    |    |--E. flavescens [incl. Amphidetus ovatus] BK77
    |    `--E. pennatifidum BK77
    `--Lovenia Desor 1847 B01
         |  i. s.: L. forbesi [incl. Hemipatagus woodsii Etheridge 1875, L. forbesi var. woodsi] F71
         |         L. gregalis Alcock 1893 MG-H11
         |--*L. (Lovenia) elongata (Gray 1845) [=Spatangus elongatus] F66
         `--L. (Vasconaster Lambert 1915 [=Sarsella Pomel 1883 non Haeckel 1879] F66
              `--L. (*V.) sulcatus (Haime 1853) [=Breynia sulcata, *Sarsella sulcata] F66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[F66] Fischer, A. G. 1966. Spatangoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U543–U628. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

Spatangidae

Spatangus purpureus, copyright Roberto Pillon.


Belongs within: Micrasterina.

The Spatangidae are a family of heart urchins with petaloid ambulacra known from the Eocene to the present (Fischer 1966).

Characters (from Fischer 1966): Heart urchins having subanal fasciole only; apical system ethmolytic; three or four gonopores; anterior ambulacrum with only small pores arranged in single series; paired ambulacra petaloid, with petals nearly flush or flush; primary spines differentiated, in some forms recessed into camellae. Plastron holamphisternous to ultramphisternous.

<==Spatangidae [Maretiidae, Prospatangidae] F66
    |--Hemimaretia Mortensen 1950 F66
    |    `--*H. elevata (Döderlein 1907) [=Maretia elevata] F66
    |--Laevipatagus Noetling 1885 [incl. Leiospatangus Mayer 1861 (n. n.)] F66
    |    `--*L. bigibbus (von Beyrich 1848) [=Spatangus (Micraster) bigibbus] F66
    |--Paramaretia Mortensen 1950 F66
    |    `--*P. multituberculata Mortensen 1950 F66
    |--Semipetalion Szörényi 1963 F66
    |    `--*S. anomon (Szörényi 1963) [=Atelospatangus (*Semipetalion) anomon] F66
    |--Atelospatangus Koch 1885 (see below for synonymy) F66
    |    |--*A. transilvanicus Koch 1885 F66
    |    `--A. giardinalei (Oppenheim 1899) [=*Lambertia giardinalei, *Oppenheimia giardinalei] F66
    |--Maretia Gray 1855 (see below for synonymy) F66
    |    |--*M. planulata (Lamarck 1816) [=Spatangus planulatus] F66
    |    |--M. hoffmanni (Goldfuss 1826) [=Spatangus hoffmanni, *Hemipatagus hoffmanni] F66
    |    |--*Tuberaster’ tuberculatus Peron & Gauthier 1885 F66
    |    `--M. variegata (Gray 1866) [=Spatangus (Maretia) variegatus] G66
    |--Nacospatangus Agassiz 1873 [=Nacopatagus Agassiz 1881] F66
    |    |--*N. (Nacospatangus) gracilis Agassiz 1873 [=*Nacopatagus gracilis] F66
    |    `--N. (Pseudomaretia Koehler 1914) (see below for synonymy) F66
    |         |--N. (*P.) alta (Agassiz 1863) [=Maretia alta] F66
    |         |--*Lonchophorus’ interruptus Studer 1880 F66
    |         `--*Gonimaretia’ tylota Clark 1917 F66
    `--Spatangus Gray 1825 [incl. Prospatangus Lambert 1902] F66
         |  i. s.: S. multispinus BK77
         |         S. raschi BK77
         |         S. thor BK77
         |--*S. (Spatangus) purpureus (Müller 1776) F66 (see below for synonymy)
         |--S. (Granopatagus Lambert 1914) (see below for synonymy) F66
         |    `--S. (*G.) lonchophorus Meneghini in Desor 1858 F66
         |--S. (Phymapatagus Lambert 1910) F66
         |    `--S. (*P.) britannus F66
         `--S. (Platyspatus Pomel 1883) F66
              `--S. (*P.) chitinosus Sismonda 1841 F66

Atelospatangus Koch 1885 [incl. Lambertia Oppenheim 1899 nec Desvoidy 1863 nec Sowerby 1869 nec Perugia 1894, Oppenheimia Cossmann 1900] F66

Maretia Gray 1855 [incl. Hemipatagus Desor 1858, Plagiopatagus Lütken in Fischer 1966 (n. n.), Thrichoproctus Agassiz 1872 (n. n.), Tuberaster Peron & Gauthier 1885] F66

Nacospatangus
(Pseudomaretia Koehler 1914) [incl. Gonimaretia Clark 1917, Lonchophorus Studer 1880 nec Germar 1824 nec Eschscholtz 1825 nec Schoenherr 1838 nec Lund 1839] F66

Spatangus (Granopatagus Lambert 1914) [incl. Concophorus Laube 1869, Conchophorus (l. c.), Lonchophorus Pomel 1883 nec Germar 1824 nec Eschscholtz 1825 nec Schoenherr 1838 nec Lund 1839 nec Studer 1880] F66

*Spatangus (Spatangus) purpureus (Müller 1776) F66 [=Spatagus purpureus F66; incl. S. meridionalis BK77, S. spinosissimus BK77]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[F66] Fischer, A. G. 1966. Spatangoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U543–U628. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[G66] Gray, J. E. 1866. Notice of a new species of Spatangus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 170–171.

Eupatagus

Eupatagus antillarum, copyright Harry Pristis.


Belongs within: Micrasterina.

Eupatagus is a cosmopolitan genus of ovoid urchins known from the Eocene to the present (Fischer 1966).

Characters (from Fischer 1966): Test ovoid in outline, low, oral side flat; apical system anterior, ethmolytic, with four gonopores; paired ambulacra with closed petals; frontal ambulacrum nonpetaloid, pores in single series, phyllodes weak; primary tubercles on aboral side only within peripetalous fasciole.

<==Eupatagus Agassiz 1847 (see below for synonymy) F66
    |  i. s.: *Pseudopatagus’ cruciatus Pomel 1885 F66
    |         *Megapatagus’ franciscanus Sánchez Roig 1953 F66
    |         *Zanolettiaster’ herrerae Sánchez Roig 1952 F66
    |         ‘Macropneustes’ lefebvrei DeLoriol 1881 [=*Heterospatangus lefebvrei] F66
    |         ‘Euspatangus’ libycus de Loriol 1881 [=*Perispatangus libycus] F66
    |         ‘Metalia’ melitensis Gregory 1891 [=*Melitia melitensis] F66
    |--*E. (Eupatagus) valenciennesi Agassiz 1847 [=*Euspatangus valenciennesi, *Koilospatangus valenciennesi] F66
    `--E. (Gymnopatagus Döderlein 1901) F66
         |--E. (*G.) valdiviae (Döderlein 1901) [=*Gymnopatagus valdiviae] F66
         `--E. (G.) antillarum F66

Eupatagus Agassiz 1847 [=Euspatangus Cotteau 1869, Koilospatangus Lambert 1906; incl. Heterospatangus Fourtau 1905, Megapatagus Sánchez Roig 1953, Melitia Fourtau 1913, Perispatangus Fourtau 1905, Pseudospatagus Pomel 1885, Zanolettiaster Sánchez Roig 1952] F66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F66] Fischer, A. G. 1966. Spatangoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U543–U628. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

Priscopedatidae

Priscopedatus sp., from the Smithsonian Institution, Department of Paleobiology.


Belongs within: Holothuroidea.

The Priscopedatidae are a form family of holothuroid sclerites known from the Jurassic to the Pleistocene (Frizzell & Exline 1966).

Characters (from Frizzell & Exline 1966): Tables with perforate disc and central spire or stirrup or both; holes not denticulate.

<==Priscopedatidae [Turriformidae]
    |--Staurocumites Deflandre-Rigaud 1952 FE66
    |    `--*S. bartensteini Deflandre-Rigaud 1952 FE66
    |--Dictyothurites Deflandre-Rigaud 1959 FE66
    |    |--*D. corbisema Deflandre-Rigaud 1961 FE66
    |    `--D. spatuliger FE66
    |--Prisculatrites Deflandre-Rigaud 1961 FE66
    |    |--*P. schlumbergeri (Deflandre-Rigaud 1946) [=Priscopedatus schlumbergeri] FE66
    |    |--P. deflandreae FE66
    |    |--P. triceratium FE66
    |    `--P. tricostatus FE66
    `--Priscopedatus Schlumberger 1890 FE66
         |--*P. pyramidalis Schlumbert 1890 FE66
         |--P. aegyptiacus FE66
         |--P. affinis FE66
         |--P. anceps FE66
         |--P. apertus FE66
         |--P. aspergillum FE66
         |--P. asymmetricus FE66
         |--P. conspicuus FE66
         |--P. corolla FE66
         |--P. crassus FE66
         |--P. cribellum FE66
         |--P. crux FE66
         |--P. echinatus FE66
         |--P. eiffeli FE66
         |--P. exlineae FE66
         |--P. frizzelli FE66
         |--P. guyaderi FE66
         |--P. heteroporus FE66
         |--P. hystrix FE66
         |--P. multiforis FE66
         |--P. normani FE66
         |--P. normannus FE66
         |--P. plenus FE66
         |--P. propinquus FE66
         |--P. pseudaffinis FE66
         |--P. spectabilis FE66
         `--P. spinifer FE66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.