Field of Science

Androsace

Androsace chamaejasme, copyright Denis Barthel.


Belongs within: Primulales.

Androsace is a mostly boreal and alpine genus of plants found in Eurasia and North America.

Characters (from Flora of North America): Herbs usually annual or perennial, rarely biennial, sometimes cushion- or mat-forming, rarely slightly succulent. Rhizomes absent; roots fibrous or a slender taproot. Stems ascending, simple. Leaves in single or multiple basal rosettes, simple; petiole absent or obscure, slightly winged; blade lanceolate to spatulate or cuneate, base attenuate, cuneate, or truncate, margins entire or moderately dentate, apex acute to obtuse (often dentate), surfaces usually hairy, hairs grayish white, simple or forked. Scapes 1-25. Inflorescences umbels, 2-20-flowered, involucrate; bracts 1-10. Pedicels absent or erect to arcuate, elongating with age. Flowers homostylous; sepals 5, green, calyx broadly campanulate to subglobose or hemispheric, ± 5-angled, not keeled, glabrous, pilose, or puberulent, lobes shorter than tube; petals 5, white, sometimes fading to pink in age [pink to shades of red], corolla campanulate to salverform, tube yellow, ± inflated, lobes shorter than tube, apex emarginate to entire; stamens included; filaments indistinct, very short; anthers not connivent. Capsules globose to subglobose, valvate, dehiscent nearly to base. Seeds usually 3-4 in perennial species, 20-50+ in annual species, brown, 4-angled to somewhat trigonous, reticulate to almost smooth. x = 10.

<==Androsace
    |--A. chamaejasme C55
    |--A. delavayi O88
    |--A. globifera O88
    |--A. hookeriana O88
    |--A. imbricata C55
    |--A. lactea C55
    |--A. lehmannii O88
    |--A. muscoidea O88
    |    |--A. m. f. muscoidea O88
    |    `--A. m. f. longiscapa O88
    |--A. nortonii O88
    |--A. obtusifolia C55
    |--A. sarmentosa O88
    |--A. strigillosa O88
    |--A. tapete O88
    |--A. villosa C55
    `--A. zambalensis O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

Tetraoninae

Lesser prairie chicken Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, copyright Greg Kramos.


Belongs within: Phasianidae.
Contains: Lagopus.

The Tetraonidae are the grouse, a group of gamebirds found primarily in colder parts of Eurasia and North America. Grouse are distinguished from other gamebirds by the presence of feathers on the lower leg. Males of the prairie chickens Tympanuchus and the sage grouse Centrocercus have large inflatable sacs on the neck that are used in mating displays.

Synapomorphies (from Dyke et al. 2003): Distal end of condylus ventralis of humerus greatly extended distally; ischium shallow and wide, relative to width of synsacrum; tarsus partially feathered.

<==Tetraoninae [Tetraonidae, Urogallinae]
    |  i. s.: Canachites canadensis FP64
    |         Lyrurus Swainson 1832 MMJ03, B94 [Lyrurinae]
    |         Tetrastes Keysserling & Blasius 1840 MMJ03, B94 [Tetrastinae]
    |--Bonasa Stephens 1810 JT12, M02
    |    |--B. bonasia (Linnaeus 1758) M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--B. sewerzowi JT12
    `--+--‘Bonasa’ umbellus JT12
       `--+--+--+--Falcipennis canadensis BKB15
          |  |  `--Dendragapus BKB15
          |  |       |--D. canadensis L81
          |  |       |--D. falcipennis JT12
          |  |       `--D. fuliginosus JT12
          |  `--Tetrao Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 [incl. Urogallus Scopoli 1777 B94]
          |       |  i. s.: T. urogalloides C01
          |       |--+--T. mlokosiewiczi JT12
          |       |  `--T. tetrix (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |       |--T. t. tetrix CC10
          |       |       `--‘Lyrurus’ t. britannicus Witherby & Lönnberg 1913 CC10
          |       `--+--T. parvirostris JT12
          |          `--T. urogallus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
          `--+--Lagopus BKB15
             `--+--Centrocercus BKB15
                |    |--C. minimus JT12
                |    `--C. urophasianus L81
                `--+--‘Dendragapus’ obscurus JT12
                   `--Tympanuchus JT12
                        |  i. s.: T. stirtoni FP64
                        |--T. cupido BKB15
                        |    |--T. c. cupido L81
                        |    |--T. c. americanus (Reichenbach 1853) L81, CC10 [=Cupidonia americana CC10]
                        |    |--T. c. attwateri USDI77
                        |    `--T. c. pinnatus (Brewster 1885) [=Cupidonia pinnata] CC10
                        `--+--T. pallidicinctus BKB15
                           `--T. phasianellus (Linnaeus 1758) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                                |--T. p. phasianellus CC10
                                `--T. p. columbianus (Ord in Guthrie 1815) (see below for synonymy) CC10

Bonasa bonasia (Linnaeus 1758) M02 [=Tetrao bonasia M02, Tetrastes bonasia T89; incl. Tetrastes praebonasia Jánossy 1974 M02, B. praebonasia M02, Lagopus voinstvenskii Ganea 1972 M02]

Tetrao tetrix (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Lyrurus tetrix FP64; incl. Lagopus balcanicus Boev 1995 M02, Lyrurus tetrix longipes Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02, Ly. partium Kretzoi 1962 M02, Tetrao partium M02]

Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 [incl. T. conjugens Jánossy 1974 M02, T. macropus Jánossy 1976 M02, T. praeurogallus Jánossy 1969 M02, T. rhodopensis Boev 1998 M02]

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus 1758) BKB15, CC10 [=Tetrao phasianellus CC10, Pedioecetes phasianellus CC10]

Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus (Ord in Guthrie 1815) [=Phasianus columbianus, Pedioecetes phasianellus columbianus, Podioecetus (l. c.) columbianus] CC10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica, 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Utivázlat [Reiseskizze]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. xii–xli. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

Dyke, G. J., B. E. Gulas & T. M. Crowe. 2003. Suprageneric relationships of galliform birds (Aves, Galliformes): a cladistic analysis of morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 137 (2): 227–244.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[MMJ03] Mayr, G., A. Manegold & U. S. Johansson. 2003. Monophyletic groups within ‘higher land birds’—comparison of morphological and molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 233–248.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

Francolinus

Grey francolin Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus, copyright Jugal Tiwari.


Belongs within: Phasianidae.

Francolinus, the francolins, is a diverse genus of quail- and partridge-like birds found in Africa and southern Asia. Members of the genus have streaked, barred or vermiculated plumage dorsally, and scutellate scalation on the rear of the tarsus (Dinesen et al. 1994). Recent phylogenetic studies indicate, however, that the genus as previously recognised is broadly polyphyletic.

<==Francolinus Stephens 1819 [Francolinini] B94
    |--F. francolinus BKB15
    |    |--F. f. francolinus L81
    |    `--F. f. asiae L81
    `--+--+--F. coqui BKB15
       |  `--F. lathami JT12
       |--+--F. sephaena BKB15
       |  `--+--F. gularis JT12
       |     `--F. pondicerianus JT12
       |          |--F. p. pondicerianus L81
       |          `--F. p. interpositus L81
       `--+--+--+--‘Gallus’ varius BKB15
          |  |  `--+--‘Gallus’ lafayetii BKB15
          |  |     `--‘Gallus’ sonneratii BKB15
          |  `--Bambusicola JT12
          |       |--B. fytchii JT12
          |       `--B. thoracica WBSJ82
          |            |--B. t. thoracica WBSJ82
          |            `--B. t. sonorivox WBSJ82
          `--+--F. levaillantii BKB15
             `--+--F. finschi BKB15
                `--+--F. shelleyi BKB15
                   `--+--F. africanus BKB15
                      `--F. levaillantoides BKB15
                           |--F. l. levaillantoides B93
                           `--F. l. jugularis (see below for synonymy) B93

Francolinus incertae sedis:
  F. ahantensis JT12
  F. albogularis DL94
  F. camerunensis JT12
  F. clappertoni Children 1826 [=Perdix clappertoni; incl. F. rueppellii Gray 1844] S05
    |--F. c. clappertoni S05
    |--F. c. koenigseggi Madarász 1914 S05
    |--F. c. nigrosquamatus Neumann 1902 S05
    `--F. c. sharpii Ogilvie-Grant 1892 S05
  F. harwoodi JT12
  F. icterorhynchus L81
  F. jacksoni JT12
  F. nobilis JT12
  F. pictus DL94
  F. pintadeanus JT12
  F. psilolaemus JT12
  F. rufopictus JT12
  F. schlegelii DL94
  F. streptophorus JT12

Francolinus levaillantoides jugularis [incl. Scleroptila jugularis cunenensis Roberts 1932, S. jugularis gilli Roberts ex Brooke 1993 (n. n.)] B93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[DL94] Dinesen, L., T. Lehmberg, J. O. Svendsen, L. A. Hansen & J. Fjeldså. 1994. A new genus and species of perdicine bird (Phasianidae, Perdicini) from Tanzania, a relict form with Indo-Malayan affinities. Ibis 136: 2–11.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

Tinamidae

Small-billed tinamou Crypturellus parvirostris, copyright Dario Sanches.


Belongs within: Aves.

The Tinamidae, tinamous, are superficially partridge-like birds found in South America. They are the only living flighted members of the palaeognath clade. Tinamous are small to medium-sized, plump terrestrial birds with short, strong legs and a rudimentary tail (Internet Bird Collection).

<==Tinamidae [Crypturi, Crypturidae, Dromaeomorphae, Pantinamidae, Tinami, Tinamiformes]
    |  i. s.: Nothocercus JT12
    |           |--N. bonapartei JT12
    |           |--N. julius JT12
    |           `--N. nigrocapillus JT12
    |         Taoniscus nanus JT12
    |         Crypturus soui S18
    |           |--C. s. soui S18
    |           `--C. s. modestus S18
    |--+--+--Eudromia Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1832 JT12, B94 [Eudromiidae]
    |  |  |    |--E. elegans HK08
    |  |  |    `--E. formosa JT12
    |  |  `--Tinamotis Vigors 1837 JT12, B94 [Tinamotidae, Tinamotididae]
    |  |       |--T. ingoufi JT12
    |  |       `--T. pentlandii JT12
    |  `--+--Nothura JT12
    |     |    |--N. boraquira M03
    |     |    |--N. chacoensis JT12
    |     |    |--N. darwinii C04
    |     |    |--N. maculosa ZJM03
    |     |    `--N. minor JT12
    |     `--Nothoprocta JT12
    |          |  i. s.: N. ornata JT12
    |          |         N. pentlandii JT12
    |          |         N. taczanowskii JT12
    |          |--+--N. cinerascens BKB15
    |          |  `--Rhynchotus Spix 1825 BKB15, B94 [Rhynchotidae]
    |          |       |--R. maculicollis JT12
    |          |       `--R. rufescens M03
    |          `--+--N. curvirostris O93
    |             |--N. perdicaria BKB15
    |             |    |--N. p. perdicaria L81
    |             |    `--N. p. sanborni L81
    |             `--‘Tinamus’ tao BKB15
    `--+--Tinamus Hermann 1783 JT12, B94 [incl. Cryptura Illiger 1811 B94]
       |    |--T. castaneiceps S18
       |    |--T. guttatus HK08
       |    |--T. major (Gmelin 1789) [=Tetrao major] C04
       |    |--T. osgoodi JT12
       |    |--T. robustus [=T. major robustus] T62
       |    `--T. solitarius M03
       `--Crypturellus JT12
            |  i. s.: C. atrocapillus JT12
            |         C. bartletti JT12
            |         C. berlepschi JT12
            |         C. boucardi ZJM03
            |         C. brevirostris JT12
            |         C. casiquiare JT12
            |         C. cinereus JT12
            |         C. cinnamomeus M03
            |         C. duidae JT12
            |         C. erythropus JT12
            |         C. kerriae JT12
            |         C. noctivagus C04
            |         C. ptaritepui JT12
            |         C. transfasciatus JT12
            |--C. soui BKB15
            `--+--+--C. strigulosus BKB15
               |  `--C. undulatus BKB15
               `--+--+--C. obsoletus BKB15
                  |  `--C. tataupa JT12
                  `--+--C. parvirostris BKB15
                     `--C. variegatus BKB15

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1–179.

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763–1768.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157–175.

[O93] O'Hara, R. J. 1993. Systematic generalization, historical fate, and the species problem. Systematic Biology 42 (3): 231–246.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461–484.

Monotropoideae

Umbellate wintergreen Chimaphila umbellata, copyright Christian Fischer.


Belongs within: Ericaceae.

The Monotropoideae are a Holarctic clade of herbaceous plants. Members of the tribes Pterosporeae and Monotropeae lack chlorophyll, acquiring nutrients through parasitism on soil fungi (Kron et al. 2002).

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Echlorophyllous mycotrophic herbs usually blackening on drying, stems annual, with spiral, entire, sessile, non-differentiated leaves convolute in bud. Pith homogeneous. Leaf epidermal cells not lignified, fibres not associated with midrib. Indumentum none, rarely with multicellular, obscurely glandular, hairs. Inflorescence terminal, racemose or flower single, terminal; bracts present, bracteoles none, basal or apical; calyx articulated with pedicel or not. Flowers (4-)5(-6)-merous, actinomorphic. Calyx lobes small, more or less persistent; corolla sympetalous or polypetalous, campanulate or tubular, or perianth uniseriate, more or less tubular, parts free, basally saccate, glabrous or with hairs adaxially. Stamens 10, the filaments not dilated basally, straight, glabrous or with short hairs; anther dehiscing by terminal pores or more or less elongated slits, inverting just before anthesis, appendages uncommon, small, smooth, paired, at anther-filament junction, or anthers hippocrepiform, dehiscing by slits, appendages none, surface usually smooth, endothecium at most poorly developed, pollen monadinous. Ovary (4-)5(-8)-locular, with axile to parietal placentation and many ovules per locule, superior; style usually impressed, little longer than ovary; stigma barely expanded, rarely lobed. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, berry or irregularly dehiscent; seeds with isodiametric cells moderately to massively thickened on inner surfaces, or tailed, with moderately elongated and unthickened cells; embryo minute, undifferentiated, with <30 cells; n = 8, 13, 26, 32 (x = 8, 13?).

<==Monotropoideae [Pyroloideae]
    |  i. s.: Andresia H03
    |--Pterosporeae KJ02
    |    |--Pterospora andromeda KJ02
    |    `--Sarcodes sanguinea KJ02
    |--Pyroleae [Pyrolaceae] KJ02
    |    |--Moneses uniflora KJ02
    |    |--Orthilia secunda KJ02
    |    |--Pyrola KJ02
    |    |    |--P. picta KJ02
    |    |    `--P. rotundifolia KJ02
    |    `--Chimaphila KJ02
    |         |--C. maculata KJ02
    |         |--C. menziesii KJ02
    |         `--C. umbellata KJ02
    `--Monotropeae [Monotropaceae] KJ02
         |--Allotropa virgata KJ02
         |--Hemitomes congestum KJ02
         |--Monotropsis odorata KJ02
         |--Pityopus californicus KJ02
         |--Pleuricospora fimbriolata KJ02
         |--Cheilotheca KJ02
         |--Hypopitys KJ02
         |--Monotropastrum KJ02
         `--Monotropa KJ02
              |--M. hypopithys KJ02
              `--M. uniflora KJ02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335–423.

Arbutoideae

Sonoma manzanita Arctostaphylos densiflora 'Howard McMinn', copyright Pete Veilleux.


Belongs within: Ericaceae.

The Arbutoideae are a Holarctic clade of shrubs and trees, including the strawberry trees and manzanitas, with fleshy, brightly coloured fruits.

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Trees or shrubs, usually evergreen. Leaves usually alternate, non-ericoid, entire or serrate, convolute in bud. Leaf epidermal cells not lignified. Indumentum of stalked glandular hairs and sometimes elongate, non-glandular hairs. Inflorescence terminal, racemose or paniculate; bracts present, bracteoles paired, more or less basal; calyx not articulated with pedicel. Flowers (4-)5-merous, actinomorphic. Calyx lobes small, persistent; corolla sympetalous, urceolate, with long unicellular hairs on the inside, the lobes small. Stamens (8-)10, included, the filaments more or less strongly dilated basally, more or less straight, unicellular-pubescent or smooth; anthers tetrasporangiate, inverting only just before anthesis, slightly roughened, with a pair of dorso-apical spurs, lacking a fibrous endothecium, lacking disintegration tissue, dehiscing by terminal pores or slit-like pores. Pollen in tetrads, without viscin threads. Ovary 4-10-locular, with axile placentation and only 1 to few ovules per locule, superior, sometimes with fleshy papillae; style continuous with the ovary; stigma truncate. Fruit more or less fleshy with bony or fibrous endocarp, a drupe or drupe-like berry; seeds with testa cells more or less elongated; embryo with 2 cotyledons.

<==Arbutoideae [Arbuteae]
    |--Comarostaphylis arbutoides KJ02
    |--Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia KJ02
    |--Arbutus KJ02
    |    |--A. andrachne DH98
    |    |--A. canariensis KJ02
    |    |--A. menziesii KJ02
    |    |--A. unedo KJ02
    |    `--A. xalapensis SZ03
    `--Arctostaphylos KJ02
         |--A. alpina KJ02
         |--A. densiflora KJ02
         |--A. mariposa D51
         |--A. patula D51
         |--A. pungens KJ02
         |--A. tomentosa KJ02
         `--A. uva-ursi KJ02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135–142.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335–423.

[SZ03] Sobek, E. A., & J. C. Zak. 2003. The Soil FungiLog procedure: method and analytical approaches toward understanding fungal functional diversity. Mycologia 95 (4): 590–602.

Plecotus

Brown long-eared bat Plecotus auritus, copyright Dragiša Savić.


Belongs within: Vespertilioninae.

Plecotus, the long-eared bats, is a Holarctic genus of bats with a narrow rostrum and ears much longer than wide (Miller 1907).

Characters (from Miller 1907): Dental formula i2/3, c1/1, pm2/3, m3/3, total 36. Upper incisors well devoloped, each with a distinct secondary cusp, the inner tooth much smaller than the outer, and separated from canine by a space about equal to its diameter; lower incisors subequal, trifid, the crowns increasing in size from first to third, and forming a continuous, strongly convex row between canines. Upper canines rather small and weak, but not peouliar in form; lower canine with cingulum produced into a distinct though small anterior basal cusp. Cheek teeth normal, though rather small; anterior upper premolar (pm2) in contact with canine, but separated from large premolar (pm4) by a narrow space; posterior premolar with distinct though small inner cusp; upper molars short on inner side, the spaces between the crowns unusually large; m1 and m2 with no trace of hypocone; m3 with crown area about half that of m2, its metacone and third commissure small but distinct; lower molars with all the cusps present and well developed, the protoconid noticeably higher than the hypoconid. Skull with large, elongate and rounded braincase, but with rostrum slender and reduced, its upper surface convex in lateral view; lachrymal ridges well developed (subgenus Plecotus) or lachrymal region smoothly rounded (Corynorhinus); audital bullae large, rounded, their greatest diameter equal to about three times the distance between them. Ears very large, much longer than head, joined across forehead; nostrils opening upward, their orifice continued backward by a slit-like prolongation.

<==Plecotus Geoffroy 1813 [incl. Macrotus Leach 1816 (n. n.) non Gray 1843] M07
    |  i. s.: P. austriacus IT07
    |         P. mexicanus (Allen 1916) MB86
    |         P. rafinesquei Lesson 1827 [=Corynorhinus rafinesquei] K92
    |         P. taivanus IT07
    |         P. teneriffae IT07
    |--*P. (Plecotus) auritus (Linnaeus 1758) M07, K92 [=Vespertilio auritus M07]
    `--P. (Corynorhinus Allen 1865) G69, M07 (see below for synonymy)
         |--P. (*C.) macrotis M07
         `--P. (C.) townsendii Cooper 1837 G69, K92
              |--P. t. townsendii MB86
              |--P. t. australis (Handley 1955) MB86
              |--P. t. ingens BP87
              `--P. t. virginianus BP87

Nomen nudum: Macrotus europaeus Leach 1816 M07

Plecotus (Corynorhinus Allen 1865) G69, M07 [=Corynorhynchus Peters 1865 M07; incl. Synotus Allen 1864 non Keyserling & Blasius 1839 M07]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[MB86] Matson, J. O., & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[M07] Miller, G. S., Jr. 1907. The families and genera of bats. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Bulletin 57: i–xvii, 1–282, pl. I–XIV.