Lactobacillales

Leuconostoc mesenteroides, copyright Fred Breidt.


Belongs within: Bacilli.
Contains: Streptococcus, Lactobacillus.

The Lactobacillales are a group of acid-tolerant, low-G+C bacteria, commonly found in decomposing plants and milk products, that obtain energy through the fermentation of carbohydrates to produce lactic acid.

Lactobacillales
    |  i. s.: Aerococcaceae GH01
    |           |--Aerococcus GH01
    |           |--Abiotrophia GH01
    |           |--Dolosicoccus GH01
    |           |--Eremococcus GH01
    |           |--Facklamia GH01
    |           |--Globicatella GH01
    |           `--Ignavigranum GH01
    |--+--Streptococcaceae GH01
    |  |    |--Streptococcus PHK96
    |  |    `--Lactococcus lactis GH01, PHK96 [=Streptococcus lactis PHK96]
    |  |         |--L. l. ssp. lactis BD03
    |  |         |--L. l. ssp. cremoris BD03
    |  |         `--L. l. ssp. diacetilactis PHK96
    |  `--Enterococcaceae GH01
    |       |--Melissococcus GH01
    |       |--Tetragenococcus GH01
    |       |--Vagococcus salmoninarum GH01, MP95
    |       `--Enterococcus PHK96
    |            |--E. faecalis GV03
    |            |--E. faecium ALS95
    |            |--E. hirae PF99
    |            `--E. villorum Vancanneyt et al. 2001 JC08
    `--+--Carnobacteriaceae GH01
       |    |--Carnobacterium piscicola PHK96
       |    |--Agitococcus GH01
       |    |--Alloiococcus GH01
       |    |--Desemzia GH01
       |    |--Dolosigranulum GH01
       |    |--Lactosphaera GH01
       |    `--Trichococcus GH01
       `--+--Lactobacillaceae GH01
          |    |--Lactobacillus PHK96
          |    `--Pediococcus GH01
          |         |--P. cerevisiae PHK96
          |         `--P. pentosetaceus PHK96
          `--Leuconostocaceae GH01
               |--Oenococcus GH01
               |--Weissella GH01
               `--Leuconostoc PHK96
                    |  i. s.: L. cremoris PHK96
                    |         L. gasicomitatum Björkroth et al. 2001 JC08
                    |--+--L. mesenteroides PHK96
                    |  `--L. oenos PHK96
                    `--+--L. paramesenteroides PHK96
                       `--‘Lactobacillus’ viridescens PHK96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ALS95] Amann, R. I., W. Ludwig & K.-H. Schleifer. 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiological Reviews 59 (1): 143–169.

[BD03] Baele, M., L. A. Devriese, M. Vancanneyt, M., Vaneechoutte, C. Snauwaert, J. Swings & F. Haesebrouck. 2003. Emended description of Streptococcus ferus isolated from pigs and rats. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 143–146.

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[GV03] Goyache, J., A. I. Vela, M. D. Collins, C. Ballesteros, V. Briones, J. Moreno, P. Yorio, L. Domínguez, R. Hutson & J. F. Fernández-Garayzábal. 2003. Corynebacterium spheniscorum sp. nov., isolated from the cloacae of wild penguins. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 43–46.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[MP95] Maher, M., R. Palmer, F. Gannon & T. Smith. 1995. Relationship of a novel bacterial fish pathogen to Streptobacillus moniliformis and the fusobacteria group, based on 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 18: 79–84.

[PF99] Philippe, H., & P. Forterre. 1999. The rooting of the universal tree of life is not reliable. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49: 509–523.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

Lactobacillus

Lactobacillus casei, copyright AJC1.


Belongs within: Lactobacillales.

Lactobacillus is a genus of rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria found in association with animal guts and other tissues. They obtain energy through the conversion of sugars to lactic acid.

<==Lactobacillus
    |--+--+--L. iners MA03
    |  |  `--+--L. johnsonii NS03
    |  |     `--+--L. parabuchneri BV03
    |  |        `--+--L. farciminis BV03
    |  |           `--L. gasseri NS03
    |  `--+--+--L. fornicalis MA03
    |     |  `--L. jensenii MA03
    |     `--+--L. acetotolerans MA03
    |        `--+--L. delbrueckii NS03
    |           |    |--L. d. ssp. delbrueckii NS03
    |           |    |--L. d. ssp. bulgaricus NS03
    |           |    `--L. d. ssp. lactis NS03
    |           `--+--+--L. hamsteri MA03
    |              |  `--+--L. amylolyticus MA03
    |              |     `--L. intestinalis MA03
    |              `--+--+--L. acidophilus NS03
    |                 |  `--+--L. gallinarum NS03
    |                 |     `--L. helveticus MA03
    |                 `--+--L. crispatus NS03
    |                    `--+--L. amylovorus NS03
    |                       `--L. kitasatonis Mukai, Arihara et al. 2003 MA03
    `--+--L. hilgardii BV03
       `--+--L. bifermentans BV03
          `--+--+--+--L. mucosae NS03
             |  |  `--+--L. ingluviei Baele, Vancanneyt et al. 2003 BV03
             |  |     |--L. thermotolerans Niamsup, Sujaya et al. 2003 NS03
             |  |     `--L. fermentum NS03
             |  |          |--L. f. ssp. fermentum NS03
             |  |          `--L. f. ssp. cellobiosus NS03
             |  `--+--+--L. amylophilus BV03
             |     |  `--L. reuteri NS03
             |     `--+--+--L. oris NS03
             |        |  `--L. panis BV03
             |        `--+--L. pontis NS03
             |           `--+--L. frumenti BV03
             |              `--L. vaginalis NS03
             `--+--+--+--L. pentosus NS03
                |  |  `--L. plantarum NS03
                |  `--+--L. sharpeae BV03
                |     `--+--L. rhamnosus BV03 [=L. casei ssp. rhamnosus S01]
                |        |--+--L. casei BV03
                |        |  `--L. fructivorans BV03
                |        `--+--L. curvatus BV03
                |           `--+--L. graminis BV03
                |              `--L. sakei NS03
                `--+--+--L. buchneri NS03
                   |  `--L. collinoides BV03
                   `--+--L. mali NS03
                      `--+--+--L. ruminis NS03
                         |  `--+--L. alimentarius BV03
                         |     `--+--L. animalis NS03
                         |        `--L. murinus NS03
                         `--+--+--L. agilis NS03
                            |  `--+--L. brevis BV03
                            |     `--L. paracasei BV03
                            `--+--L. aviarius NS03
                               |    |--L. a. ssp. aviarius NS03
                               |    `--L. a. ssp. araffinosus NS03
                               `--L. salivarius NS03
                                    |--L. s. ssp. salivarius NS03
                                    `--L. s. ssp. salicinius NS03

Lactobacillus incertae sedis:
  L. ferintoshensis Simpson et al. 2002 JC08
  L. kandleri MP95
  L. kimchii EMV03
  L. leichmannii PHK96
  L. lindneri EMV03
  L. malefermentans EMV03
  L. mindensis Ehrmann, Müller & Vogel 2003 EMV03
  L. paralimentarius EMV03
  L. sanfranciscensis EMV03
  L. zeae A-FP-M03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-FP-M03] Acedo-Félix, E., & G. Pérez-Martínez. 2003. Significant differences between Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393T and a commonly used plasmid-cured derivative revealed by a polyphasic study. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 67–75.

[BV03] Baele, M., M. Vancanneyt, L. A. Devriese, K. Lefebvre, J. Swings & F. Haesebrouck. 2003. Lactobacillus ingluviei sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of pigeons. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 133–136.

[EMV03] Ehrmann, M. A., M. R. A. Müller & R. F. Vogel. 2003. Molecular analysis of sourdough reveals Lactobacillus mindensis sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 7–13.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[MP95] Maher, M., R. Palmer, F. Gannon & T. Smith. 1995. Relationship of a novel bacterial fish pathogen to Streptobacillus moniliformis and the fusobacteria group, based on 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 18: 79–84.

[MA03] Mukai, T., K. Arihara, A. Ikeda, K. Nomura, F. Suzuki & H. Ohori. 2003. Lactobacillus kitasatonis sp. nov., from chicken intestine. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2055–2059.

[NS03] Niamsup, P., I N. Sujaya, M. Tanaka, T. Sone, S. Hanada, Y. Kamagata, S. Lumyong, A. Assavanig, K. Asano, F. Tomita & A. Yokota. 2003. Lactobacillus thermotolerans sp. nov., a novel thermotolerant species isolated from chicken faeces. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 263–268.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[S01] Sneath, P. H. A. 2001. Bacterial nomenclature. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 83–88. Springer.

Staphylococcus

False-colour electron micrograph of Staphylococcus aureus, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Belongs within: Bacilli.

Staphylococcus is a genus of coccoid, facultatively anaerobic bacteria found in a variety of habitats including the skin and other membranes of animals, and in soils. They are characterised by the production of catalase, and of grape-like clusters when in culture.

Staphylococcus
    |  i. s.: S. condimenti KC03
    |         S. fleurettii KC03
    |         S. nepalensis Spergser, Wieser et al. 2003 SW03
    |--+--S. sciuri KC03
    |  `--+--S. lentus KC03
    |     `--+--S. pulvereri KC03
    |        `--S. vitulinus KC03
    `--+--+--S. felis KC03
       |  `--+--+--S. lutrae KC03
       |     |  `--+--S. delphini KC03
       |     |     `--S. intermedius KC03
       |     `--+--+--S. chromogenes KC03
       |        |  `--S. hyicus KC03
       |        `--S. schleiferi KC03
       |             |--S. s. ssp. schleiferi KC03
       |             `--S. s. ssp. coagulans KC03
       `--+--S. auricularis KC03
          `--+--+--S. gallinarum KC03
             |  `--+--+--S. arlettae KC03
             |     |  `--S. cohnii KC03
             |     |       |--S. c. ssp. cohnii SW03
             |     |       `--S. c. ssp. urealyticus SW03
             |     `--+--S. saprophyticus KC03
             |        |    |--S. s. ssp. saprophyticus SW03
             |        |    `--S. s. ssp. bovis SW03
             |        `--+--S. xylosus KC03
             |           `--+--S. equorum KC03
             |              `--S. succinus KC03
             |                   |--S. s. ssp. succinus IJSEM03
             |                   `--S. s. ssp. casei Place, Hiestand et al. 2003VP IJSEM03
             `--+--S. kloosii KC03
                `--+--S. aureus KC03
                   |    |--S. a. ssp. aureus KC03
                   |    `--S. a. ssp. anaerobius KC03
                   |--+--S. lugdunensis KC03
                   |  `--S. warneri KC03
                   |--+--+--S. simulans KC03
                   |  |  `--+--S. carnosus KC03
                   |  |     `--S. piscifermentans KC03
                   |  `--+--S. haemolyticus KC03
                   |     `--S. hominis KC03
                   |          |--S. h. ssp. hominis KC03
                   |          `--S. h. ssp. novobiosepticus KC03
                   `--+--+--S. caprae KC03
                      |  `--S. pasteuri KC03
                      `--+--S. capitis KC03
                         |    |--S. c. ssp. capitis KC03
                         |    `--S. c. ssp. urealyticus KC03
                         `--+--S. muscae KC03
                            `--+--S. epidermidis KC03
                               `--S. saccharolyticus KC03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

IJSEM. 2003. Validation list no. 89. Validation of publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1–2.

Kwok, A. Y. C., & A. W. Chow. 2003. Phylogenetic study of Staphylococcus and Macrococcus species based on partial hsp60 gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 87–92.

Spergser, J., M. Wieser, M. Täubel, R. A. Rosselló-Mora, R. Rosengarten & H.-J. Busse. 2003. Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov., isolated from goats of the Himalayan region. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2007–2011.

Syntrophomonadaceae

Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovorans, from Chovatia et al. (2009).


Belongs within: Clostridium.

The Syntrophomonadaceae are a group of anaerobic bacteria that commonly grow in association with methanogens. They obtain energy through the oxidation of carboxylic acids, normally producing hydrogen or formate as a waste product which is then utilised by their methanogenic symbiotes.

Syntrophomonadaceae
    |--Syntrophomonas wolfei GH01a, MP95
    |--Acetogenium GH01a
    |--Aminobacterium GH01a
    |--Aminomonas paucivorans GH01a, GH01b
    |--Anaerobaculum thermoterrenum GH01a, GH01b
    |--Anaerobranca gottschalkii Prowe & Antranikian 2001 GH01a, JC08
    |--Caldicellulosiruptor GH01a
    |--Syntrophospora GH01a
    |--Thermaerobacter GH01a
    |--Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovorans GH01a, GH01b
    |--Thermohydrogenium GH01a
    |--Thermosyntropha GH01a
    `--Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans GH01a, GH01b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GH01a] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001a. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[GH01b] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001b. Phylum BIX. Deferribacteres phy. nov. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 465–471. Springer.

[JG08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[MP95] Maher, M., R. Palmer, F. Gannon & T. Smith. 1995. Relationship of a novel bacterial fish pathogen to Streptobacillus moniliformis and the fusobacteria group, based on 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 18: 79–84.

Peptococcaceae

Vegetative cells of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, from Spring et al. (2009).


Belongs within: Clostridium.

The Peptococcaceae are a group of obligately anaerobic bacteria found in a variety of habitats such as in association with human or animal tissue, or in soils.

Peptococcaceae
    |--Peptococcus niger GH01a, PF99
    |--Anaeroarcus GH01a
    |--Anaerosinus GH01a
    |--Anaerovibrio GH01a
    |--Carboxydothermus GH01a
    |--Dehalobacter GH01a
    |--Dendrosporobacter GH01a
    |--Desulfonispora GH01a
    |--Desulfosporosinus orientis GH01a, MK03
    |--Succinispira GH01a
    |--Syntrophobotulus GH01a
    |--Thermoterrabacterium GH01a
    |--Desulfitobacterium GH01a
    |    |--D. chlororespirans Sanford et al. 2001 JC08
    |    |--D. dehalogenans MK03
    |    `--D. metallireducens Finneran et al. 2002 JC08
    `--Desulfotomaculum GH01a
         |  i. s.: D. auripigmentum GH01c
         |         D. guttoideum PK03
         |         D. thermoacidovorans GH01b
         |--+--D. acetoxidans MK03
         |  `--+--D. putei MK03
         |     `--D. ruminis MK03
         `--+--D. geothermicum MK03
            `--D. thermobenzoicum MK03
                 |--D. t. ssp. thermobenzoicum JC08
                 `--D. t. ssp. thermosyntrophicum Plugge et al. 2002 JC08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GH01a] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001a. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[GH01b] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001b. Phylum BIII. Thermodesulfobacteria phy. nov. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 389–393. Springer.

[GH01c] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001c. Phylum BV. Chrysiogenetes phy. nov. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 421–425. Springer.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[MK03] Mori, K., H. Kim, T. Kakegawa & S. Hanada. 2003. A novel lineage of sulfate-reducing microorganisms: Thermodesulfobiaceae fam. nov., Thermodesulfobium narugense, gen. nov., sp. nov., a new thermophilic isolate from a hot spring. Extremophiles 7: 283–290.

[PK03] Parshina, S. N., R. Kleerebezem, J. L. Sanz, G. Lettinga, A. N. Nozhevnikova, N. A. Kostrikina, A. M. Lysenko & A. J. M. Stams. 2003. Soehningia saccharolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Clostridium amygdalinum sp. nov., two novel anaerobic, benzaldehyde-converting bacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1791–1799.

[PF99] Philippe, H., & P. Forterre. 1999. The rooting of the universal tree of life is not reliable. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49: 509–523.

Lachnospiraceae

Colony of Ruminococcus gnavus, from the Institute of Food Research.


Belongs within: Clostridium.

The Lachnospiraceae are a group of anaerobic bacteria found mostly in the gut of mammals, united on molecular phylogenetic grounds.

Lachnospiraceae
    |--Acetitomaculum GH01
    |--Anaerofilum GH01
    |--Coprococcus eutactus GH01, BS02
    |--Johnsonella GH01
    |--Roseburia cecicola GH01, KZ03
    |--Sporobacterium GH01
    |--Lachnospira pectinoschiza GH01, BS02
    |--Pseudobutyrivibrio GH01
    |    |--P. ruminis KZ03
    |    `--P. xylanivorans Kopečný, Zorec et al. 2003 KZ03
    |--Butyrivibrio GH01
    |    |--B. crossotus KZ03
    |    `--+--B. fibrisolvens KZ03
    |       `--+--B. hungatei Kopečný, Zorec et al. 2003 KZ03
    |          `--‘Clostridium’ proteoclasticum KZ03
    `--Ruminococcus GH01
         |--R. gnavus BS02
         |--R. hansenii BS02
         |--R. lactaris BS02
         |--R. obeum BS02
         |--R. productus [=Peptostreptococcus productus] PK03
         `--R. torques BS02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS02] Bonnet, R., A. Suau, J. Doré, G. R. Gibson & M. D. Collins. 2002. Differences in rDNA libraries of faecal bacteria derived from 10- and 25-cycle PCRs. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 757–763.

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[KZ03] Kopečný, J., M. Zorec, J. Mrázek, Y. Kobayashi & R. Marinšek-Logar. 2003. Butyrivibrio hungatei sp. nov. and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans sp. nov., butyrate-producing bacteria from the rumen. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 201–209.

[PK03] Parshina, S. N., R. Kleerebezem, J. L. Sanz, G. Lettinga, A. N. Nozhevnikova, N. A. Kostrikina, A. M. Lysenko & A. J. M. Stams. 2003. Soehningia saccharolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Clostridium amygdalinum sp. nov., two novel anaerobic, benzaldehyde-converting bacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1791–1799.

Camarotoechiidae

Various views of Leiorhynchus specimen, from the Peabody Museum of Natural History.


Belongs within: Rhynchonellida.

The Camarotoechiidae are a group of medium-sized to large brachiopods known from the Silurian to the Permian (Ager et al. 1965).

Characters (from Ager et al. 1965): Medium-sized to large, round or elliptical in outline, sides and front never truncated; costae generally rounded. Brachial valve with high median septum or ridge; hinge plate entire, or divided only in its most anterior portion, or divided by small shallow open septalium; cardinal process usually absent.

<==Camarotoechiidae AG65
    |--Septalariinae [Pseudopugnaxinae, Septalariidae] AG65
    |    |--Septalaria Leidhold 1928 AG65
    |    |    `--S. subtetragona (Schnur 1851) (see below for synonymy) AG65
    |    |--Amissopecten Havlíček 1960 AG65
    |    |    `--*A. velox (Barrande 1847) [=Terebratula velox] AG65
    |    |--Pseudocamarophoria Wedekind 1925 AG65
    |    |    `--*P. microrhyncha (Roemer 1844) [=Terebratula microrhyncha] AG65
    |    `--Pseudopugnax Likharev 1956 AG65
    |         `--*P. planissimus Likharev 1956 AG65
    `--Camarotoechiinae [Leiorhynchinae, Nudirostrinae] MM02
         |--Astutorhyncha Havlíček 1961 AG65
         |    `--*A. proserpina (Barrande 1847) [=Rhynchonella proserpina] AG65
         |--Calvinaria Stainbrook 1945 AG65
         |    `--*C. ambigua (Calvin 1878) [=Rhynchonella ambigua] AG65
         |--Felinotoechia Havlíček 1961 AG65
         |    `--*F. felina (Barrande 1879) [=Atrypa astuta var. felina] AG65
         |--Fenestrirostra Cooper 1955 AG65
         |    `--*F. glacialis (Billings 1862) [=Rhynchonella glacialis] AG65
         |--Hyborhynchella Cooper 1955 AG65
         |    `--*H. bransoni Cooper 1955 AG65
         |--Paranorella Cloud 1944 AG65
         |    `--*P. imperialis Cloud 1944 AG65
         |--Sanjuania Amos 1958 AG65
         |    `--*S. dorsisulcata Amos 1958 AG65
         |--Rhynchotretina Khalfin 1939 AG65
         |    `--*R. aequivalvis Khalfin 1939 AG65
         |--Rugaltarostrum Sartenaer 1961 AG65
         |    `--*R. madisonense (Haynes 1916) [=Leiorhynchus madisonense] AG65
         |--Camarotoechia Hall & Clarke 1893 AG65
         |    |--*C. congregata (Conrad 1841) [=Atrypa congregata] AG65
         |    `--C. allegania N79
         |--Caryorhynchus Crickmay 1952 AG65
         |    |--*C. carya (Crickmay 1952) [=Leiorhynchus carya] N79
         |    `--C. globiliforme N79
         |--Leiorhynchoidea Cloud 1944 AG65
         |    |--*L. schucherti Cloud 1944 AG65
         |    `--L. carboniferum (Girty 1911) [=Leiorhynchus carboniferum] AG65
         |--Paurorhyncha Cooper 1942 AG65
         |    |--*P. endlichi (Meek 1875) [=Rhynchonella endlichi] AG65
         |    `--P. cooperi AG65
         |--Plagiorhyncha McLearn 1918 MM02
         |    |--P. depressa (Sowerby 1839) (see below for synonymy) MM02
         |    |--P. niobe (Barrande 1847) MM02
         |    `--P. thisbe (Barrande 1847) MM02
         |--Hircinisca Havlíček 1960 AG65
         |    |--*H. sapho (Barrande 1879) [=Atrypa hircina var. sapho] AG65
         |    |--H. hebes AG65
         |    `--H. hircina AG65
         `--Leiorhynchus Hall 1860 (see below for synonymy) AG65
              |--*L. quadracostatus (Vanuxem 1842) [=Orthis quadracostata, *Nudirostra quadracostata] AG65
              |--L. castanea N79
              |--L. hippocastanea N79
              |--L. mesacostale N79
              |--L. miram N79
              |    |--L. m. miram N79
              |    `--L. m. alpha N79
              |--L. sinuatum N79
              `--L. (Zigania) ursus H79

Leiorhynchus Hall 1860 [=Liorhynchus Oehlert 1887 non Rudolphi 1801, Nudirostra Cooper & Muir-Wood 1951] AG65

Plagiorhyncha depressa (Sowerby 1839) [=Atrypa depressa; incl. A. analoga Wenjukow 1899, Plagiorhyncha analoga, Spirigerina cordata Lindström 1861, P. cordata, Rhynchonella glassii Davidson 1883, *P. glassii, Septatrypa subanaloga Rybnikova 1967, P. subanaloga] MM02

Septalaria subtetragona (Schnur 1851) [=Terebratula subtetragona; incl. T. ascendens Steininger 1853, *Septalaria ascendens] AG65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AG65] Ager, D. V., R. E. Grant, D. J. McLaren & H. Schmidt. 1965. Rhynchonellida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2 pp. H552–H632. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H79] House, M. R. 1979. Devonian in the Eastern Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A183–A217. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MM02] Musteikis, P., & T. L. Modzalevskaya. 2002. Some Silurian brachiopods from Lithuania and their palaeobiogeographical significance. Palaeontology 45 (3): 595–626.

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).