Field of Science

Miliolida

External and sectional views of Miliammina earlandi, from Loeblich & Tappan (1964).


Belongs within: Foraminifera.
Contains: Nubeculariidae, Fischerinidae, Rzehakinidae, Miliolinellinae, Miliolinae, Tubinellinae, Quinqueloculininae.

The Miliolida are a group of Foraminifera with a test that is most commonly calcareous and porcelaneous in appearance, though a minority of genera have an agglutinated or siliceous test (Pawlowski et al. 2013).

Characters (from Pawlowski et al. 2013): Test bi- or multi-chambered, chambers tubular or elongate, some with complex internal structures adapted to host algal endosymbionts; wall generally imperforate, calcareous of high magnesium calcite with randomly oriented crystals refracting light in all directions and resulting in a porcelaneous appearance of the test; may be agglutinated or siliceous.

<==Miliolida (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Nubeculariidae C40
    |  `--Fischerinidae C40
    `--+--Rzehakinidae PHT13
       `--Miliolidae (see below for synonymy) C40
            |  i. s.: Praemurgella Luperto Sinni, Martín-Chivelet & Giménez 2000 LSM-CG00
            |           `--*P. valenciana Luperto Sinni, Martín-Chivelet & Giménez 2000 LSM-CG00
            |         Murgella Luperto Sinni 1965 LSM-CG00
            |           `--M. lata Luperto Sinni 1965 LSM-CG00
            |         Scandonea De Castro 1971 LSM-CG00
            |           |--S. mediterranea LSM-CG00
            |           `--S. samnitica LSM-CG00
            |         Miliammina Heron-Allen & Earland 1930 G86
            |           |--M. oblonga G86 (see below for synonymy)
            |           |--M. earlandi LT64
            |           |--M. echigoensis Asano & Inomata in Asano 1952 H03
            |           |--M. herzensteini LT64
            |           `--M. lata C40
            |--Miliolinellinae S-VC91
            |--Miliolinae LT64
            |--Tubinellinae LT64
            `--Quinqueloculininae S-VC91

Miliolida incertae sedis:
  Barkerinidae [Barkerininae] LT64
    |--Barkerina Frizzell & Schwartz 1950 LT64
    |    `--*B. barkerensis Frizzell & Schwartz 1950 LT64
    |--Coxites Smout 1956 LT64
    |    `--*C. zubairensis Smout 1956 LT64
    |--Rabanitina Smout 1956 LT64
    |    `--*R. basraensis Smout 1956 LT64
    `--Nezzazata Omara 1956 [incl. Begia Smout 1956] LT64
         |--*N. simplex Omara 1956 LT64
         `--N. gyra (Smout 1956) [=*Begia gyra] LT64
  Miliammellus [Silicoloculinida] PHT13

Miliammina oblonga G86 [incl. Miliolina oblonga var. arenacea Chapman 1900 G86, *Miliammmina oblonga var. arenacea LT64, Miliammina selon Birstein & Ljovoushkin 1965 G86]

Miliolida [Alveolinidea, Cornuspiridea, Cornuspiroidea, Flexostili, Imperforida, Miliolacea, Miliolidaceae, Miliolidea, Miliolina, Orbitolitacea, Porcellanea]

Miliolidae [Armiliolidia, Fabularina, Hauerinae, Hauerinidae, Hauerinina, Milioletta, Miliolidina, Miliolinidae, Miliolitidae, Multiloculidae, Plicatilia, Tubularina]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Foraminiferida. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 17–20. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene-Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293–340.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LSM-CG00] Luperto Sinni, E., J. Martín-Chivelet & R. Giménez. 2000. Praemurgella valenciana nov. gen. et sp. (Foraminifera) in the Sierra de Utiel Formation (Coniacian–Santonian) of the Prebetic domain (SE Spain). Geobios 32 (2): 145–151.

[PHT13] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann & J. Tyszka. 2013. New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: molecules meet morphology. Marine Micropalaeontology 100: 1–10.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195–224.

Spiroloculina

Spiroloculina excavata, copyright Bernard Remaud.


Belongs within: Nubeculariidae.

Spiroloculina is a genus of porcelaneous Foraminifera known from the Upper Cretaceous to the present that is planispiral throughout development (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test free, commonly with flattened sides and lanceolate or fusiform outline, earliest stage may consist of single chamber completely encircling proloculus, later chambers (or all chambers in megalospheric forms) being added two to whorl on alternate sides and in single plane; wall calcareous, porcelaneous; aperture at open end of final chamber, with simple or bifid tooth.

<==Spiroloculina d’Orbigny 1826 S-VC91 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*S. depressa d’Orbigny 1826 LT64
    |--S. antillarum C40
    |--S. communis S05
    |--S. corrugata S05
    |--S. excavata M62
    |--S. nitida H04
    |--S. parvula S05
    |--S. planulata (Lamarck 1805) S-VC91
    |--S. robusta Brady 1884 [=*Flintia robusta] LT64
    |--S. rostrata M62
    |--S. tenuissima JW99
    |--S. turkomanica Brodsky 1928 G86
    `--S. venusta S05

Spiroloculina d’Orbigny 1826 S-VC91 [=Spiroculina (l. c.) LT64, Spirolocunina (l. c.) LT64; incl. Flintia Schubert 1911 LT64]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Foraminiferida. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 17–20. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[JW99] Jian, Z.-M., L.-J. Wang, M. Kienast, M. Sarnthein, W. Kuhnt, H.-L. Lin & P.-X. Wang. 1999. Benthic foraminiferal paleoceanography of the South China Sea over the last 40,000 years. Marine Geology 156: 159–186.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195–224.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177–190.

Hemigordiopsidae

Hemigordius schlumbergeri, from Loeblich & Tappan (1964).


Belongs within: Fischerinidae.

The Hemigordiopsidae are a group of porcelaneous Foraminifera with a test that is streptospirally coiled in early stages.

<==Hemigordiopsidae
    |--Hemigordiopsis Reichel 1945 LT64
    |    `--*H. renzi Reichel 1945 LT64
    |--Shanita Brönnimann, Whittaker & Zaninetti 1978 YJ04
    |    |--*S. amosi YJ04
    |    |--S. bronnimanni YJ04
    |    |--S. chagouensis YJ04
    |    `--S. intercalaria YJ04
    `--Hemigordius Schubert 1908 YJ04 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*H. schlumbergeri (Howchin 1895) [=Cornuspira schlumbergeri] LT64
         |--H. biconcavus YJ04
         |--H. calcarea Cushman & Waters 1928 [=*Hemigordiella calcarea] LT64
         |--*Ondogordius’ campanula Marie 1961 LT64
         |--H. harltoni C40
         |--*Neoangulodiscus’ leischneri Kristan-Tollmann 1962 LT64
         |--H. plautus Wang 1976 W76
         |--H. renzi [incl. Gansudiscus irregularis, G. luquensis, G. orientalis] YJ04
         `--H. zaninettiae YJ04

Hemigordius Schubert 1908 YJ04 [incl. Hemigordiella Marie in Deleau & Marie 1961 LT64, Neoangulodiscus Kristan-Tollmann 1962 LT64, Ondogordius Marie in Deleau & Marie 1961 LT64]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[W76] Wang K. 1976. The foraminifera from the Changhsing Formation in western Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 15 (2): 187–195.

[YJ04] Yang X., Jin X., Ji Z., Wang Y., Yao J. & Yang H. 2004. New materials of the Shanita-Hemigordius assemblage (Permian foraminifers) from the Baoshan Block, western Yunnan. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78: 15–21.

Fischerinidae

Cornuspira involvens, from here.


Belongs within: Miliolida.
Contains: Hemigordiopsidae.

The Fischerinidae are a group of porcelaneous Foraminifera known from the Carboniferous to the present, in which the test is undivided after the proloculus (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test free or attached, proloculus followed by undivided tubular or spreading second chamber; wall calcareous, porcelaneous; aperture terminal, rounded or slitlike.

<==<==Fischerinidae [Cornuspirida, Cornuspiridae, Cornuspiridea, Cornuspirideae]
    |--Fischerininae [Planispirinellinae, Trisegmentininae] LT64
    |    |--Fischerinella Loeblich & Tappan 1962 LT64
    |    |    `--*F. helix (Heron-Allen & Earland 1915) [=Fischerina helix] LT64
    |    |--Nautiloculina Mohler 1938 LT64
    |    |    `--*N. oolithica Mohler 1938 LT64
    |    |--Planispirinella Wiesner 1931 LT64
    |    |    `--*P. exigua (Brady 1879) LT64 [=Hauerina exigua LT64, Planispirina exigua C40]
    |    `--Fischerina Terquem 1878 [incl. Planispirina Seguenza 1880, Trisegmentina Wiesner 1920] LT64
    |         |--*F. rhodiensis Terquem 1878 LT64
    |         |--F. communis (Seguenza 1880) [=*Planispirina communis] LT64
    |         `--F. compressa (Wiesner 1931) (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |--Calcivertellinae LT64
    |    |--Carixia Macfadyen 1941 LT64
    |    |    `--*C. langi Macfadyen 1941 LT64
    |    |--Planiinvoluta Leischner 1961 LT64
    |    |    `--*P. carinata Leischner 1961 LT64
    |    |--Plummerinella Cushman & Waters 1928 LT64
    |    |    `--*P. complexa Cushman & Waters 1928 LT64
    |    |--Calcivertella Cushman & Waters 1928 LT64
    |    |    `--*C. adherens Cushman & Waters 1928 LT64
    |    `--Calcitornella Cushman & Waters 1928 [incl. Apterrinella Cushman & Waters 1928] LT64
    |         |--*C. elongata Cushman & Waters 1928 LT64
    |         |--C. grahamensis (Harlton 1928) [=Tolypammina grahamensis, *Apterrinella grahamensis] LT64
    |         |--C. heathi C40
    |         `--C. stephensi [=Nubecularia stephensi] F71
    `--Cyclogyrinae [Arcornuspirinia, Cornuspirinae, Cornuspirininae] LT64
         |  i. s.: Flectospira Crespin & Belford 1957 LT64
         |           `--*F. prima Crespin & Belford 1957 LT64
         |         Meandrospira Loeblich & Tappan 1946 [incl. Streblospira Crespin & Belford 1957] LT64
         |           |--*M. washitensis Loeblich & Tappan 1946 LT64
         |           `--M. meandrina (Crespin & Belford 1957) [=*Streblospira meandrina] LT64
         |--Orthovertella Cushman & Waters 1928 C40
         |    `--*O. protea Cushman & Waters 1928 LT64
         |--Rectocornuspira Warthin 1930 C40
         |    `--*R. lituiformis Warthin 1930 LT64
         |--Vidalina Schlumberger 1900 C40, LT64 [=Arvidaloum Rhumbler 1913 LT64]
         |    `--*V. hispanica Schlumberger 1900 [=*Arvidaloum hispanicum] LT64
         |--+--Hemigordiopsidae C40
         |  `--Gordiospira Heron-Allen & Earland 1932 C40
         |       `--*G. fragilis Heron-Allen & Earland 1932 C40
         |--+--Cornuspirella Cushman 1928 C40
         |  |    `--*C. diffusa (Heron-Allen & Earland 1913) [=Cornuspira diffusa] LT64
         |  `--Cornuspiroides Cushman 1928 C40
         |       `--*C. striolata (Brady in Tizard & Murray 1882) [=Cornuspira striolata] LT64
         `--Cyclogyra Wood 1842 LT64 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*C. multiplex Wood 1842 LT64
              |--‘Orbis’ foliaceus Philippi 1844 [=*Arcornuspirum foliaceum, *Cornuspira foliacea] LT64
              |--‘Cornuspira’ acicularis S05
              |--*Cornicocornuspira’ conica Marie 1961 LT64
              |--‘Cornuspira’ involvens C40
              |--C. planorbis (Schultze 1854) [=Cornuspira planorbis] LT64
              `--‘Cornuspira’ thompsoni C40

Cyclogyra Wood 1842 LT64 [incl. Arcornuspirum Rhumbler 1913 LT64, Conicocornuspira Marie in Deleau & Marie 1961 LT64, Cornuspira Schultze 1854 C40]

Fischerina compressa (Wiesner 1931) [=*Trisegmentina compressa; incl. Hauerina compressa Sidebottom 1904 non d’Orbigny 1846, T. sidebottomi Cushman 1933] LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177–190.

Rhapydionininae

Rhapydionina deserta, from Loeblich & Tappan (1964).


Belongs within: Soritidae.

The Rhapydionininae are a group of more or less conical Foraminifera known from the Jurassic to the present, though so far as is known they are extremely rare in the modern fauna (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

See also: Porcelain fans.

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test elongate, conical; chambers in rectilinear series, subdivided into chamberlets; aperture terminal, cribrate.

Rhapydionininae LT64
    |--Craterites Heron-Allen & Earland 1924 LT64
    |    `--*C. rectus Heron-Allen & Earland 1924
    |--Praerhapydionina van Wessem 1943 LT64
    |    `--*P. cubana van Wessen 1943 LT64
    |--Rhipidionina Stache 1913 LT64
    |    `--*R. liburnica (Stache 1889) [=Pavonina liburnica] LT64
    |--Ripacubana Loeblich & Tappan 1964 [=Conulina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839] LT64
    |    `--*R. conica (d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839) [=*Conulina conica] LT64
    `--Rhapydionina Stache 1913 [=Rhapidionina van den Bold 1946; incl. Haurania Henson 1948] LT64
         |--*R. liburnica (Stache 1889) LT64 (see below for synonymy)
         |--R. deserta (Henson 1948) [=*Haurania deserta] LT64
         |--R. protocaenica C40
         `--R. urensis LT64

*Rhapydionina liburnica (Stache 1889) LT64 [=Peneroplis liburnica LT64, *Rhapidionina liburnica LT64; incl. R. liburnica var. laevigata C40, R. liburnica var. strangulata C40]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

Meandropsininae

Side (left) and apertural views of Fallotia colomi, from Loeblich & Tappan (1964).


Belongs within: Soritidae.

The Meandropsininae are a group of porcelaneous Foraminifera known from the Upper Cretaceous and Palaeocene (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Early stage planispirally coiled, later may be discoidal, operculiform, flabelliform, cylindrical or conical in shape; subepidermal chamberlets in marginal zone, with interseptal pillars; aperture commonly cribrate.

Meandropsininae [Broekininae]
    |--Meandropsina Munier-Chalmas in Schlumberger 1898 [incl. Cyclomeandropsina Henson 1950 (n. n.)] LT64
    |    `--*M. vidali Schlumberger 1898 LT64
    |--Edomia Henson 1948 LT64
    |    `--*E. reicheli Henson 1948 LT64
    |--Pseudedomia Henson 1948 LT64
    |    `--*P. multistriata Henson 1948 LT64
    |--Taberina Keijzer 1945 LT64
    |    `--*T. cubana Keijzer 1945 LT64
    |--Pseudorbitolina Douvillé 1910 LT64
    |    `--*P. marthae Douvillé 1910 LT64
    |--Broeckina Munier-Chalmas 1882 [=Broekina Marie 1958; incl. Praesorites Douvillé 1902] LT64
    |    |--*B. dufresnoyi (d’Archiac in d’Archiac & Haime 1854) [=Cyclolina dufresnoyi, *Broekina dufresnoyi] LT64
    |    `--B. moureti (Douvillé 1902) [=*Praesorites moureti] LT64
    |--Nummofallotia Barrier & Neumann 1959 LT64
    |    |--*N. cretacea (Schlumberger 1899) [=Nonionina cretacea; incl. Goupillaudina sanctipetri Marie 1957] LT64
    |    `--N. apula LSM-CG00
    `--Fallotia Douvillé 1902 [incl. Ayalaina Seiglie 1961, Fascispira Silvestri 1940] LT64
         |--*F. jacquoti Douvillé 1902 LT64
         |--F. colomi (Silvestri 1940) [=*Fascispira colomi] LT64
         `--‘Meandropsina’ rutteni Palmer 1934 [=*Ayalaina rutteni] LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LSM-CG00] Luperto Sinni, E., J. Martín-Chivelet & R. Giménez. 2000. Praemurgella valenciana nov. gen. et sp. (Foraminifera) in the Sierra de Utiel Formation (Coniacian–Santonian) of the Prebetic domain (SE Spain). Geobios 32 (2): 145–151.

Soritinae

Sorites orbiculus, copyright Jan Steger.


Belongs within: Soritidae.

The Soritinae are a group of porcellaneous Foraminifera known from the Eocene to the present, characterised by a distinct pattern of chamber addition (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Growth occurs by addition of numerous small chambers in arcuate or annular series, without intercommunications between those of single series, apertures connect adjacent chambers of successive series.

Soritinae [Orbitolitidinae, Orbitolitinae]
    |  i. s.: Orbitolites Lamarck 1801 (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |           `--*O. complanata Lamarck 1801 (see below for synonymy) LT64
    |         Opertorbitolites Nuttall 1925 LT64
    |           `--*O. douvillei Nuttall 1925 LT64
    |         Somalina Silvestri 1939 LT64
    |           `--*S. stefaninii Silvestri 1939 LT64
    |         Yaberinella Vaughan 1928 LT64
    |           `--*Y. jamaicensis Vaughan 1928 LT64
    |--+--Amphisorus Ehrenberg 1839 PHT13, LT64 [incl. Bradyella Munier-Chalmas 1902 LT64]
    |  |    `--*A. hemprichii Ehrenberg 1839 [incl. Orbitolites duplex Carpenter 1883, *Bradyella duplex] LT64
    |  `--Marginopora Quoy & Gaimard in de Blainville 1830 PHT13, LT64
    |       `--*M. vertebralis Quoy & Gaimard in de Blainville 1830 [incl. Orbitolites complanata laciniata] LT64
    `--Sorites Ehrenberg 1839 PHT13, LT64 [=Taramellina Munier-Chalmas 1902 LT64]
         |--S. marginalis (Lamarck 1816) (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |--S. duplex C40
         |--S. orbiculus C-SC03
         `--S. variabilis S05

Orbitolites Lamarck 1801 [=Discolithus Fortis 1802, Orbitolithes Oken 1815, Orbitulites Bronn in Bronn & Roemer 1854 nec Berthold 1827 nec Eichwald 1829 nec Griffith & Pidgeon 1834; incl. Discolites de Montfort 1808] LT64

*Orbitolites complanata Lamarck 1801 [=*Discolithus complanatus, *Orbitulites complanatus; incl. *Discolites concentricus de Montfort 1808] LT64

Sorites marginalis (Lamarck 1816) [=Orbulites marginalis, Orbitolites marginatis; incl. *S. dominicensis Ehrenberg 1839, *Taramellina dominicensis] LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa. Protist 154: 341–358.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[PHT13] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann & J. Tyszka. 2013. New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: molecules meet morphology. Marine Micropalaeontology 100: 1–10.

[S05] Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 177–190.