Odontophoridae

Northern bobwhite Colinus virginianus, copyright Tim.


Belongs within: Phasiani.

The Odontophoridae, New World quails, are a group of smaller gamebirds found in North and South America characterised by lacking spurs on the legs and possessing a single serration or tooth on the cutting edge of the upper bill.

<==Odontophoridae [Callipeplinae, Odontophorinae, Ortyginae] JT12
    |--Cyrtonyx JT12
    |    |--C. montezumae JT12
    |    |    |--C. m. montezumae L81
    |    |    |--C. m. mearnsi L81
    |    |    `--C. m. merriami USDI77
    |    `--C. ocellatus JT12
    `--+--Oreortyx pictus (Douglas 1829) JT12, CC10 [=Ortyx picta CC10, Oregon pictus CC10, Oreortyx picta CC10]
       |    |--O. p. pictus L81
       |    |--O. p. confinis RN72
       |    |--O. p. palmeri L81
       |    `--O. p. russelli RN72
       `--+--Callipepla Wagler 1832 JT12, B94 [incl. Lophortyx Bonaparte 1838 CC10]
          |    |--C. squamata BKB15 [incl. *C. strenua CC10]
          |    |    |--C. s. squamata L81
          |    |    |--C. s. castanogastris L81
          |    |    `--C. s. pallida L81
          |    `--+--C. douglasii BKB15 [=Lophortyx douglasii RN72]
          |       |    |--C. d. douglasii RN72
          |       |    `--‘Lophortyx’ d. bensoni RN72
          |       `--+--C. californica (Shaw in Shaw & Nodder 1798) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
          |          |    |--C. c. californica CC10
          |          |    |--C. c. brunnescens (Ridgway 1884) [=Lophortyx californica brunnescens] CC10
          |          |    |--‘Lophortyx’ c. catalinensis L81
          |          |    `--‘Lophortyx’ c. plumbeus L81
          |          `--C. gambelii BKB15 [=Lophortyx gambelii MW04]
          `--Colinus Goldfuss 1820 JT12, B94 [incl. Ortyx Stephens 1819 B94]
               |--C. cristatus JT12
               |    |--C. c. cristatus PP62
               |    |--C. c. parvicristatus (Gould 1843) [=Ortyx parvicristatus] PP62
               |    `--C. c. sonnini PP62
               |--C. leucopogon JT12
               |--C. nigrogularis JT12
               `--C. virginianus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Tetrao virginianus, Ortyx virginanus (l. c.), O. virginiana] CC10
                    |--C. v. virginianus CC10
                    |--C. v. cubanensis L81
                    |--C. v. floridanus L81
                    |--C. v. ridgwayi L81
                    |--C. v. taylori Lincoln 1915 CC10
                    `--C. v. texanus L81

Odontophoridae incertae sedis:
  Odontophorus Vieillot 1816 B94
    |--O. atrifrons JT12
    |--O. balliviani JT12
    |--O. capueira JT12
    |--O. columbianus JT12
    |--O. dialeucos JT12
    |--O. erythrops JT12
    |--O. gujanensis JT12
    |    |--O. g. gujanensis S18
    |    `--O. g. marmoratus S18
    |--O. guttatus JT12
    |--O. hyperythrus JT12
    |--O. leucolaemus JT12
    |--O. melanonotus JT12
    |--O. melanotis JT12
    |--O. speciosus JT12
    |--O. stellatus JT12
    `--O. strophium JT12
  Philortyx fasciatus JT12
  Rhynchortyx cinctus JT12
  Dendrortyx JT12
    |--D. barbatus JT12
    |--D. leucophrys JT12
    `--D. macroura JT12
  Dactylortyx thoracicus JT12
  Nanortyx inexpectatus Weigel 1963 M09

Callipepla californica (Shaw in Shaw & Nodder 1798) BKB15, CC10 [=Tetrao californicus CC10, *Lophortyx californica CC10, Ortyx californica CC10, O. californicus CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MW04] Mayr, G., & I. Weidig. 2004. The Early Eocene bird Gallinuloides wyomingensis—a stem group representative of Galliformes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 211–217.

[PP62] Phelps, W. H., & W. H. Phelps, Jr. 1962. Two new subspecies of birds from Venezuela, the rufous phase of Pauxi pauxi, and other notes. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 199–204.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. Blandford Press: London.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

Mergini

Male (facing left) and female red-breasted mergansers Mergus serrator, copyright Mykola Swarnyk.


Belongs within: Anatinae.

The Mergini are a group of ducks primarily found in marine habitats. Members of this group include the mergansers of the genus Mergus which have long, slender bills with a hooked tip and serrated edges, adapted for catching fish. The eiders of the genera Polysticta and Somateria, sometimes treated as a distinct tribe Somateriini, are found in boreal regions of the Holarctic, around the Arctic Ocean, and are known for the dense down (eiderdown) they use for lining their nests.

<==Mergini [Merganserinae, Mergidia, Merginae]
    |--+--Clangula Leach 1819 JT12, M02 [incl. Harelda Stephens 1824 B94; Clangulinae, Hareldinae]
    |  |    |--‘Harelda’ glacialis D56
    |  |    `--C. hyemalis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Anas hyemalis] CS77
    |  `--+--+--Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, I92 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |  `--Thambetochenini PJ02
    |     |       |--Chelychelynechen quassus SC99
    |     |       |--Ptaiochen pau SC99
    |     |       `--Thambetochen BKB15
    |     |            |--T. chauliodous SC99
    |     |            `--T. xanion SC99
    |     `--Somateriini [Somateriinae] A61
    |          |--Polysticta Eyton 1836 JT12, B94 [incl. Macropodus Nuttall 1834 B94]
    |          |    `--P. stelleri (Pallas 1769) [=Anas stelleri] CS77
    |          `--Somateria Leach 1819 JT12, M02
    |               |  i. s.: S. stelleri RN72
    |               |--S. fischeri (Brandt 1847) JT12, CS77 [=Fuligula fischeri CS77]
    |               `--+--S. mollissima (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |                  |    |--S. m. mollissima CS77
    |                  |    |--S. m. borealis (Brehm 1824) CS77
    |                  |    |--S. m. dresseri Sharpe 1871 CS77
    |                  |    |--S. m. faeroeensis Brehm 1831 CS77
    |                  |    |--S. m. sedentaria Snyder 1941 CS77
    |                  |    `--S. m. v-nigrum Bonaparte 1855 CS77
    |                  `--S. spectabilis (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CS77 [=Anas spectabilis CS77]
    `--+--Melanitta Boie 1822 JT12, M02 [incl. Oidemia Flemming 1822 B94; Melanittinae, Oidemiinae]
       |    |--M. nigra (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Anas nigra M02]
       |    |    |--M. n. nigra CS77
       |    |    `--M. n. americana (Swainson 1832) CS77
       |    `--+--M. fusca (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CS77 [=Anas fusca CS77]
       |       |    |--M. f. fusca CS77
       |       |    |--M. f. deglandi (Bonaparte 1850) CS77
       |       |    |--M. f. dixoni RN72
       |       |    `--M. f. stejnegeri (Ridgway 1887) CS77
       |       `--M. perspicillata (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CS77 [=Anas perspicillata CS77]
       `--+--Bucephala Baird 1858 JT12, M02 [incl. Glaucionetta Stejneger 1885 B94; Glaucionettinae]
          |    |  i. s.: B. cereti Boeuf & Mourer-Chauviré 1992 M02
          |    |         B. ossivallis FP64
          |    |--B. albeola (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CS77 [=Anas albeola CS77]
          |    `--+--B. clangula (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |    |--B. c. clangula CS77
          |       |    `--B. c. americana (Bonaparte 1838) CS77
          |       `--B. islandica (Gmelin 1789) JT12, CS77 [=Anas islandica CS77]
          `--+--Mergellus Selby 1840 JT12, M02
             |    `--M. albellus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Mergus albellus] M02
             `--+--Lophodytes cucullatus JT12
                `--Mergus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                     |  i. s.: M. australis Hombron & Jacquinot 1841 [=Merganser australis, *Promergus australis] CC10
                     |         M. connectens Jánossy 1972 M02
                     |         M. cucullatus Linnaeus 1758 CS77
                     |         M. minutus Linnaeus 1758 L58
                     |         M. octosetaceus JT12
                     |--M. serrator Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                     `--+--M. merganser Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02
                        |    |--M. m. merganser CS77
                        |    |--M. m. americanus Cassin 1852 CS77
                        |    `--M. m. comatus (Salvadori 1895) CS77
                        `--M. squamatus Gould 1864 BKB15, I92

Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Anas clangula M02, Glaucionetta clangula D56; incl. B. angustipes Jánossy 1965 M02]

Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, I92 [=Anas histrionica M05; incl. H. histrionicus pacificus Brooks 1915 CS77]

Mergus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, CC10 [=Merganser Brisson 1760 CC10; incl. Promergus Mathews & Iredale 1913 CC10]

Mergus serrator Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 [incl. *Mergus castor CC10, *Merganser castor CC10, Mergus serrator schioleri CS77]

Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Anas mollissima M02; incl. S. gravipes Harrison 1979 M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M05] Möller, R. 2005. Zur Biographie des Ornithologen Karl Friedrich Bruch (1789–1857). Mauritiana 19 (2): 327–357.

[PJ02] Paxinos, E. E., H. F. James, S. L. Olson, M. D. Sorenson, J. Jackson & R. C. Fleischer. 2002. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99: 1399–1404.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. Blandford Press: London.

[SC99] Sorenson, M. D., A. Cooper, E. E. Paxinos, T. W. Quinn, H. F. James, S. L. Olson & R. C. Fleischer. 1999. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 266: 2187–2193.

Galliformes

Orange-footed scrubfowls Megapodius reinwardt, copyright Andrea Arbogast.


Belongs within: Galloanseres.
Contains: Cracidae, Phasiani.

The Galliformes, gamebirds, are a cosmopolitan group of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial birds with short, rounded wings adapted for rapid bursts of flight; walking is commonly the preferred means of locomotion. Members of the galliform crown group are united by possession of a shallow cotyla scapularis on the coracoid (Mayr & Weidig 2004).

Galliformes [Craci, Cracoidea, Galli]
    |--Sylviornis [Sylviornithes, Sylviornithidae] WD17
    |    `--S. neocaledoniae Poplin 1980 WD17
    `--+--Megavitiornis Worthy 2000 WD17, W00
       |    `--*M. altirostris Worthy 2000 W00
       `--+--+--Cracidae MW04
          |  `--Phasiani MW04
          `--Megapodiidae MW04
               |  i. s.: Chosornis praeteritus FP64
               |         Progura gallinacea De Vis 1889 W00, U93 [incl. P. naracoortensis van Tets 1974 W00]
               |         Ngawupodius minya Boles & Ivison 1999 M09
               |         Mwalau WD17
               |--+--Talegalla Lesson 1828 WD17, B94 [Talegallidae]
               |  |    |--T. cuvieri JT12
               |  |    |--T. fuscirostris W00
               |  |    `--T. jobiensis W00
               |  `--+--Leipoa Gould 1840 WD17, B94 [Leipoidae]
               |     |    `--L. ocellata Gould 1840 WS48
               |     `--+--Aepypodius BKB15
               |        |    |--A. arfakianus W00
               |        |    `--A. bruijnii JT12
               |        `--Alectura Latham 1824 WD17, B94 (see below for synonymy)
               |             `--A. lathami Gray 1831 [=Catheturus lathami, Tallegallus lathami] CC10
               |                  |--A. l. lathami PT03
               |                  `--A. l. purpureicollis PT03
               `--+--Macrocephalon Müller 1846 WD17, B94 [Macrocephalidae]
                  |    `--M. maleo W00
                  `--+--Eulipoa wallacei WD17
                     `--Megapodius Gaimard 1823 WD17, B94
                          |  i. s.: M. alimentum Steadman 1989 W00
                          |         M. amissus Worthy 2000 W00
                          |         M. bernsteinii JT12
                          |         M. geelvinkianus JT12
                          |         M. laperouse W00
                          |           |--M. l. laperouse FP64
                          |           `--M. l. senex FP64
                          |         M. molistructor W00
                          |         M. nicobariensis JT12
                          |--M. wallacei BKB15
                          `--+--+--M. cumingii JT12
                             |  |    |--M. c. cumingii R02
                             |  |    `--M. c. sanghirensis R02
                             |  `--M. tenimberensis JT12
                             `--+--+--M. layardi JT12
                                |  `--M. pritchardii JT12
                                `--+--+--M. eremita BKB15
                                   |  `--M. reinwardt BKB15
                                   `--+--M. affinis BKB15
                                      `--+--M. forstenii BKB15
                                         `--M. freycinet Gaimard 1823 BKB15, C04
                                              |--M. f. freycinet WS48
                                              `--M. f. tumulus Gould 1842 WS48

Alectura Latham 1824 WD17, B94 [incl. Catheturus Swainson 1837 B94; Alecturidae, Catheturidae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1–179.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[MW04] Mayr, G., & I. Weidig. 2004. The Early Eocene bird Gallinuloides wyomingensis—a stem group representative of Galliformes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 211–217.

[PT03] Prum, R. O., & R. Torres. 2003. Structural colouration of avian skin: Convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays. Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 2409–2429.

[R02] Riley, J. 2002. Population sizes and the status of endemic and restricted-range bird species on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 12: 53–78.

[U93] Unwin, D. M. 1993. Aves. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 717–737. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

[W00] Worthy, T. H. 2000. The fossil megapodes (Aves: Megapodiidae) of Fiji with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 30 (4): 337–364.

[WD17] Worthy, T. H., F. J. Degrange, W. D. Handley & M. S. Y. Lee. 2017. The evolution of giant flightless birds and novel phylogenetic relationships for extinct fowl (Aves, Galloanseres). Royal Society Open Science 4: 170975.

Meleagridinae

Female common turkey Meleagris gallopavo with chicks, copyright Kevin Cole.


Belongs within: Phasianidae.

The Meleagridinae, turkeys, are a small group of North American gamebirds with featherless heads and necks and a metallic gloss over much of the plumage. The common turkey Meleagris gallopavo is widely farmed as a source of meat.

<==Meleagridinae [Galloparinae, Gallopavoninae, Meleagrididae, Meleagridoidea] CC10
    |--Agriocharis ocellata L81
    |--Parapavo californicus FP64
    `--Meleagris Linnaeus 1758 CC10 [=Galloparus Chenu & des Murs 1854 B94, Gallopavo Brisson 1760 B94]
         |--*M. gallopavo Linnaeus 1758 CC10
         |    |--M. g. gallopavo L81
         |    |--M. g. intermedia L81
         |    |--M. g. merriami L81
         |    |--M. g. mexicana L81
         |    |--M. g. onusta RN72
         |    |--M. g. osceola RN72
         |    `--M. g. silvestris L81
         |--M. cristata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--M. leopoldi FP64
         |--M. ocellata ZJM03
         `--M. satyra Linnaeus 1758 L58

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461–484.

Lagopus

Willow grouse Lagopus lagopus, from the US Fish and Wildlife Service.


Belongs within: Tetraoninae.

Lagopus, the ptarmigans, is a genus of grouse found in boreal regions of Eurasia and North America, species of which change colour between grey or brown plumage in summer and largely white plumage in winter.

<==Lagopus Brisson 1760 [Lagopodinae] M02
    |  i. s.: L. atavus Janossy 1974 P04 [=L. lagopus atavus M02]
    |         L. scoticus (Latham 1789) CC10 [=Tetrao scoticus CC10, L. lagopus scoticus L81]
    |--L. leucura JT12
    `--+--L. lagopus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--L. l. lagopus L81
       |    `--L. l. rossicus L81
       `--L. muta (Montin 1781) JT12, M02 [=Tetrao mutus M02; incl. L. mutus correzensis Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02]
            |--L. m. muta WH02
            |--L. m. helveticus WH02
            `--L. m. japonicus Clark 1907 I92

Lagopus lagopus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Tetrao lagopus M02; incl. L. medius Woldřich 1893 M02, L. lagopus noaillensis Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica, 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Mentha

Spear mint Mentha spicata, copyright Burschik.


Belongs within: Lamiaceae.

Mentha, the mints, is a primarily Holarctic genus of aromatic herbs, a number of which are cultivated for culinary use.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Perennial from rhizomes, glabrous to hairy. Stems generally ascending to erect, generally branched. Leaf petioled to sessile, elliptic, ovate, or lanceolate, toothed to lobed. Inflorescences axillary, each head-like and subtended by leaves, or collectively spike- or panicle-like and by bracts. Flower with calyx more or less radial, generally ten-veined, lobes equal or unequal; corolla more or less two-lipped, lips generally equal, upper lip notched, lower lip three-lobed; stamens 4, more or less equal, generally exserted; style lobes unequal.

<==Mentha Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |--M. aquatica BR65
    |--M. arvensis [incl. M. arvensis var. villosa] H93
    |--M. australis BR65
    |--M. canadensis C55b
    |--M. cunninghamii Benth. in DC. 1848 [=Micromeria cunninghamii Benth. 1832; incl. Me. consimilis Colenso 1886] A61
    |--M. gracilis [incl. M. serpyllifolia] BR65
    |--M. × piperita [M. aquatica × M. spicata] BR65
    |--M. pulegium BR65
    |--M. rotundifolia [=M. spicata var. rotundifolia; incl. M. citrata] H93
    |--M. saturejoides BR65
    |--M. spicata HE80 [incl. M. viridis Linnaeus 1763 BR65]
    |    |--M. s. var. spicata H93
    |    |--M. s. var. longifolia H93
    |    `--M. ‘longifolia’ ssp. typhoides AGF98
    |--M. suaveolens H93
    `--M. sylvestris C55a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

Lophura

Swinhoe's pheasant Lophura swinhoii, copyright Nick Athanas.


Belongs within: Phasianidae.

Lophura is a genus of pheasants found in eastern Asia, males of which are strikingly coloured with long tails and extensive patches of bright, bare skin around the eyes.

<==Lophura
    |  i. s.: L. hoogerwerfi JT12
    |         L. imperialis USDI77
    |--+--L. erythrophthalma BKB15
    |  |    |--L. e. erythrophthalma RN72
    |  |    `--L. e. pyronota RN72
    |  `--+--L. diardi BKB15
    |     `--L. ignita BKB15
    |          |--L. i. ignita RN72
    |          |--L. i. macartneyisumatrana RN72
    |          |--L. i. nobilis RN72
    |          `--L. i. rufa RN72
    `--+--L. inornata BKB15
       `--+--L. bulweri BKB15 [=Lobiophasis bulweri RN72]
          `--+--+--L. leucomelanos JT12
             |  |    |--L. l. leucomelanos L81
             |  |    |--L. l. hamiltonii L81
             |  |    |--L. l. lathami RN72
             |  |    |--L. l. lineata RN72
             |  |    `--L. l. melanota RN72
             |  `--L. nycthemera (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |       |--L. n. nycthemera RN72
             |       |--L. n. annamensis RN72
             |       |--L. n. beaulieui RN72
             |       |--L. n. beli RN72
             |       |--L. n. berliozi RN72
             |       |--L. n. engelbachi RN72
             |       |--L. n. fokiensis RN72
             |       |--L. n. jonesi RN72
             |       |--L. n. lewisi RN72
             |       |--L. n. ripponi RN72
             |       |--L. n. rufipes RN72
             |       `--L. n. whiteheadi RN72
             `--+--L. swinhoii JT12
                `--+--L. edwardsi JT12
                   `--L. hatinhensis JT12

Lophura nycthemera (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 [=Phasianus nycthemerus CC10, Gallophasis nycthemerus CC10, Gennaeus nycthemerus CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.