Vollenhovia

Vollenhovia emeryi colony, copyright Alex Wild.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Vollenhovia is an Indo-Australian genus of ants most commonly found in forest habitats in association with rotting wood and logs.

Characters (from Terayama 1999): Small to moderate-sized ants, total length of workers around 2–8 mm. Frontal carina and antennal scrobe absent. Clypeus more or less longitudinally bicarinate. Antenna with 12 segments, rarely 11 segments, the funicles ending in a 3-segmented club. Frontal lobe present. Maxillary palp with 1–3 segments, usually 2 segments. Eye present, relatively large. Ventral processes distinct on meso- and metasternum. Middle and hind legs without tibial spur. Petiole sessile or subsessile. Subpetiolar process present, often blade-like. Petiole not particularly more voluminous than postpetole in dorsal view.

<==Vollenhovia Mayr 1865 (see below for synonymy) Z01
    |--*V. punctatostriata Mayr 1865 T99
    |--V. amamiana T99
    |--V. benzai T99
    |--V. brachycera Emery 1914 [=V. brevicornis Emery 1897 non Monomorium brevicorne Emery 1893] E14
    |--V. brevicornis (Emery 1893) [=Monomorium brevicorne] E14
    |--V. denticulata Emery 1914 E14
    |--V. emeryi Wheeler 1906 Z01
    |--V. nipponica T99
    |--V. oblonga (Smith 1860) [=Myrmica oblonga] TB85
    |    |--V. o. oblonga E14
    |    |--V. o. alluaudi E14
    |    |--V. o. dispar E14
    |    |--V. o. laevithorax Emery 1889 E14, B03
    |    `--V. o. pedestris [incl. V. pedestris var. bandarensis] E14
    |--V. okinawana T99
    |--V. rufescens E14
    |--V. sakishimana T99
    `--V. yambaru Terayama 1999 T99

Vollenhovia Mayr 1865 [=Vollenhovenia Forel 1893; incl. Acalama Smith 1949, Dorothea Donisthorpe 1948, Dyomorium Donisthorpe 1947, Gauromyrmex Mennozzi 1933, Heteromyrmex Wheeler 1920, Propdomyrma Wheeler 1915, Solenomyrma Karavajew 1935] Z01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[T99] Terayama, M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, part 7. Supplement to the genus Vollenhovia Mayr. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 109–112.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Meranoplus

Meranoplus bicolor worker tending leafhopper, copyright Kalesh Sadasivan.


Belongs within: Meranoplini.

Meranoplus is a palaeotropical genus of ants characterised by nine-segmented antenna together with the dorsum of the anterior mesosoma being flattened and projecting to form a shield, often with regular protruding edges separated by translucent 'windows'.

<==Meranoplus Smith 1854 TB85
    |--*M. bicolor (Guérin-Meneville 1844) Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. aureolus Crawley 1921 TB85
    |    |--M. a. aureolus TB85
    |    |--M. a. doddi Santschi 1928 TB85
    |    `--M. a. linae Santschi 1928 TB85
    |--M. barretti Santschi 1928 TB85
    |--M. belli Forel 1902 B03
    |--M. dichrous Forel 1907 TB85
    |--M. dimidiatus Smith 1867 TB85
    |--M. diversus Smith 1867 TB85
    |    |--M. d. diversus TB85
    |    |--M. d. duyfkeni Forel 1915 TB85
    |    |--M. d. oxleyi Forel 1915 TB85
    |    `--M. d. unicolor Forel 1902 TB85
    |--M. excavatus Clark 1938 TB85
    |--M. fenestratus Smith 1867 TB85
    |--M. ferrugineus Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--M. froggatti Forel 1913 TB85
    |--M. hilli Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--M. hirsutus Mayr 1876 TB85
    |    |--M. h. hirsutus TB85
    |    |--M. h. minor Forel 1902 TB85
    |    `--M. h. rugosa Crawley 1922 TB85
    |--M. hospes Forel 1910 TB85
    |--M. laeviventris Emery 1889 B03
    |--M. leveillei Emery 1883 E14
    |--M. malaysianus N-ZLI11
    |--M. mars Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |--M. m. mars TB85
    |    `--M. m. ajax Forel 1915 TB85
    |--M. mcarthuri H09
    |--M. minimus Crawley 1922 (see below for synonymy) TB85
    |--M. mjobergi Forel 1915 TB85
    |--M. mucronatus Smith 1857 B03
    |--M. oceanicus Smith 1862 TB85
    |--M. pubescens (Smith 1854) [=Cryptocerus pubescens] TB85
    |--M. puryi Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |--M. p. puryi TB85
    |    `--M. p. curvispina Forel 1910 TB85
    |--M. radamae BS06
    |--M. rothneyi Forel 1902 B03
    |--M. rugosus H09
    |--M. similis Viehmeyer 1922 TB85
    `--M. testudineus McAreavey 1956 TB85

*Meranoplus bicolor (Guérin-Meneville 1844) Z01 [=Cryptocerus bicolor TB85; incl. Me. dimicans Walker 1859 B03, Myrmica tarda Jerdon 1851 Z01, Me. villosus Motsch. 1859 B03]

Meranoplus minimus Crawley 1922 [=M. crawleyi Viehmeyer 1925, M. minor Crawley 1918 non M. hirsutus minor Forel 1902] TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Cardiocondyla

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii, copyright April Nobile.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Cardiocondyla is a genus of small, mostly soil-dwelling ants found in warmer regions of the Old World.

Characters (from Terayama 1999): Total length of workers around 1.5–3.5 mm. Head rectangular with rounded posterior margin. Mandible triangular, usually with five teeth. Clypeus widely projecting anteriorly, covering base of mandible. Eye relatively well-developed. Antenna with twelve segments (eleven in some species), the apical three segments forming a club. Palpal formula 5,3. Dorsal outline of mesosoma almost straight in profile. Propodeal spine varying from absent to long. Petiole slender in most species, with peduncle and subpetiolar process. Postpetiole depressed in profile, broad in dorsal view, wider than long, wider than petiole. Dorsal areas of head and mesosoma lacking hairs. Legs short; middle and hind legs without tibial spurs.

<==Cardiocondyla Emery 1869 T99 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. elegans Emery 1869 T99 [incl. C. elegans var. ulianini Emery 1889 E89]
    |--C. atalanta Forel 1915 H09, TB85 [=C. nuda atalanta TB85]
    |--C. batesii S09
    |--C. bulgarica S09
    |--C. ectopia WW90
    |--C. emeryi T99
    |--C. insutura Zhou 2001 Z01
    |--C. kagutsuchi Terayama 1999 T99
    |--C. mauritanica Forel 1890 FT08
    |--C. monardi Z01
    |--C. nuda (Mayr 1866) [=Leptothorax nuda; incl. C. nuda var. minutior Forel 1899] Z01
    |    |--C. n. nuda TB85
    |    `--C. n. nereis Wheeler 1927 TB85
    |--C. obscurior S09
    |--C. parvinoda Forel 1902 B03
    |--C. tsukuyomi Terayama 1999 T99
    |--C. wroughtonii (Forel 1890) (see below for synonymy) Z01
    `--C. yamauchii Terayama 1999 T99

Cardiocondyla Emery 1869 T99 [incl. Dyclona Santschi 1930 Z01, Emeryia Forel 1890 Z01, Loncyda Santschi 1930 Z01, Prosopidris Wheeler 1935 Z01, Xenometra Emery 1917 Z01]

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii (Forel 1890) [=Emeryia wroughtonii; incl. C. bicolor Donisthorpe 1930, C. wroughtonii var. bimaculata Wheeler 1929, C. emeryi chlorotica Menozzi 1930, C. wroughtonii var. hawaiensis Forel 1899] Z01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Intorno ad alcune formiche della fauna palearctica. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 439–443.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[S09] Seifert, B. 2009. Cryptic species in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) revisited: we need a change in the alpha-taxonomic approach. Myrmecological News 12: 149–166.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[T99] Terayama, M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, part 6. Genus Cardiocondyla Emery. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 99–107.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Leptothorax

Leptothorax acervorum, copyright April Nobile.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Leptothorax is a Holarctic genus of small ants with monomorphic workers (Terayama & Onoyama 1999).

Characters (from Terayama & Onoyama 1999): Mandibles usually each with five teeth (six in some species); apical tooth largest; basal smallest. Palpal formula 5,3. Median area of clypeus broad, extending between frontal lobes. Anterior margin of clypeus varying in shape from weakly convex to strongly produced medially. Frontal carinae short. Antennae 11- or 12-segmented; apical three segments forming a club. Eyes medium to large in size, situated at mid length or slightly forwards on sides of head. Anterolateral corners of pronotum round to angulate in dorsal view. Metanotal groove varying from deeply impressed to obscure or absent. Propodeum with posterodorsal spines or teeth (rarely absent). Body hairs usually short, stout and erect, sometimes long or absent.

<==Leptothorax Mayr 1855 TO99 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*L. acervorum (Fabricius 1793) (see below for synonymy) TO99
    |--L. anira Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. antera Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. arimensis Azuma 1977 TO99
    |--L. australis Wheeler 1934 [=L. (Goniothorax) australis] TB85
    |--L. basara Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. bikara Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. carinatus WW90
    |--L. carvispinosus Mayr 1866 [=L. (*Myrafant) carvispinosus] TO99
    |--L. chamberlini [=Symmyrmica chamberlini] WW90
    |--L. clypeatus (Mayr 1853) [=Myrmica clypeata] TB85
    |--L. confucii TO99
    |--L. congruus Smith 1874 [=L. (Myrafant) congruus] TO99
    |--L. fultoni Forel 1902 B03
    |--L. haira Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. hispidus WW90
    |--L. indra Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. inermis Forel 1902 B03
    |--L. kinomurai Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. koreanus Teranishi 1940 [=L. (Nesomyrmex) koreanus] TO99
    |--L. kubira Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. kutteri S09
    |--L. makora Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. muscorum BS06
    |--L. nitens M93
    |--L. obliquicanthus WW90
    |--L. pacis S09
    |--L. rothneyi Forel 1902 B03
    |--L. santra Terayama & Onoyama 1999 TO99
    |--L. schurri Forel 1902 [=L. rothneyi schurri] B03
    |--L. spinosior Forel 1901 [=L. congruus var. spinosior, L. (Myrafant) congruus var. spinosior] TO99
    |--L. stenotyle WW90
    |--L. taylori Forel 1902 B03
    `--L. tuscaloosae WW90

Leptothorax Mayr 1855 TO99 [=Mychothorax Ruzsky 1904 TO99; incl. Antillaemyrmex Mann 1920 Z01, Caulomyrma Forel 1914 Z01, Croesomyrmex Mann 1920 Z01, Dichothorax Emery 1895 Z01, Goniothorax Emery 1896 Z01, Icothorax Hamann & Klemm 1967 Z01, Limnomyrmex Arnold 1948 Z01, Macromischa Roger 1863 Z01, Myrafant Smith 1950 TO99, Myrmammophilus Menozzi 1925 Z01]

*Leptothorax acervorum (Fabricius 1793) [=Formica acervorum, L. (*Mychothorax) acervorum; incl. L. acervorum kamtschaticum Rzusky 1920, Myrmica lacteipennis Zetterstedt 1838, Mychothorax acervorum orientalis Kuznetsov-Ugamsky 1928] TO99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[S09] Seifert, B. 2009. Cryptic species in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) revisited: we need a change in the alpha-taxonomic approach. Myrmecological News 12: 149–166.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[TO99] Terayama, M., & K. Onoyama. 1999. The ant genus Leptothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 71–97.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Orectognathus

Orectognathus antennatus, copyright April Nobile.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Orectognathus is an Australasian genus of ants with long and thin trap-jaw mandibles.

Characters (from Bolton 1983): Eyes laterally placed on head; antennal scrobes absent; antennae five-segmented, second funicular segment the longest except scape; palp formula 5,3.

<==Orectognathus Smith 1854 TB85 [incl. Arnoldidris B83; Orectognathiti]
    |--*O. antennatus Smith 1854 [incl. O. antennatus septentrionalis Forel 1910] TB85
    |--O. alligator Taylor 1980 TB85
    |--O. clarki Brown 1953 TB85
    |--O. coccinatus Taylor 1980 TB85
    |--O. darlingtoni Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. elegantulus Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. howensis Wheeler 1927 [=O. antennatus howensis] TB85
    |--O. kanangra Taylor 1980 TB85
    |--O. mjobergi Forel 1915 [incl. O. mjobergi unicolor Forel 1915] TB85
    |--O. nanus Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. nigriventris Mercovich 1958 TB85
    |--O. parvispinus Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. phyllobates Brown 1958 TB85
    |--O. robustus Taylor 1977 TB85
    |--O. rostratus Lowery 1967 TB85
    |--O. sarasini Emery 1914 E14
    |--O. satan Brown 1953 TB85
    |--O. sexspinosus Forel 1915 TB85
    `--O. versicolor Donisthorpe 1940 TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B83] Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (4): 267–416.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

Plagiolepis

Plagiolepis alluaudi, copyright Brian Heterick.


Belongs within: Plagiolepidini.

Plagiolepis is an Old World genus of minute predatory ants.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Antenna 11-segmented; palps long, palpal formula 6-4; propodeum smooth, unarmed; acidipore present.

Plagiolepis Mayr 1861 [incl. Anacantholepis Santschi 1914, Aporomyrmex Faber 1969, Paraplagiolepis Faber 1969] Z01
    |--*P. pygmaea (Latreille 1798) [=Formica pygmaea] TB85
    |--P. alluaudi Forel 1894 FT08
    |--P. custodiens A61
    |--P. dichroa Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. exigua Forel 1894 FT08
    |    |--P. e. exigua TB85
    |    `--P. exigua quadrimaculata Forel 1902 TB85
    |--P. jerdoni Forel 1894 B03
    |--P. lucidula Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |--P. moelleri Bingham 1903 B03
    |--P. pissina Roger 1863 B03
    |--P. rogeri Forel 1894 B03
    |--P. rothneyi Forel 1894 [=Acantholepis (Lepisiota) rothneyi] Z01
    |--P. squamosula Wheeler 1934 TB85 [incl. P. clarki Wheeler 1934 H09, TB85, P. nynganensis McAreavey 1949 H09, TB85]
    |    |--P. s. squamosula TB85
    |    `--P. ‘clarki’ impasta Wheeler 1934 TB85
    |--P. taurica ES12
    |--P. vindobonensis ES12
    |--P. watsoni Forel 1894 [=P. rothneyi watsoni] B03
    `--P. wroughtoni Forel 1902 [=P. rothneyi wroughtoni] B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[ES12] Espadaler, X., & S. Santamaria. 2012. Ecto- and endoparasitic fungi on ants from the Holarctic region. Psyche 2012: 168478.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Lasiini

Paraparatrechina glabra, copyright Erin Prado.


Belongs within: Formicinae.
Contains: Lasius, Nylanderia, Prenolepis.

The Lasiini are a clade of formicine ants united by molecular phylogenetic analysis, as well as the possession of a circular or subcircular propodeal spiracle and widely separated hind coxae.

<==Lasiini [Acanthomyopsini, Prenolepidii] WBF16
    |  i. s.: Glaphyromyrmex WBF16
    |--Cladomyrma petalae WBF16
    `--+--+--Lasius BS06
       |  `--Myrmecocystus Wesm. 1838 BS06, B03
       |       |--*M. melligera B03
       |       |--M. albicans G89
       |       |--M. cursor MS01
       |       |--M. flaviceps BS06
       |       |--M. mimicus ES12
       |       |--M. setipes Forel 1894 [=M. viaticus setipes] B03
       |       `--M. viaticus MS01
       `--+--+--Nylanderia WBF16
          |  `--+--Pseudolasius Emery 1887 [incl. Nesolasius Wheeler 1935] LBS10
          |     |    |--*P. familiaris (Smith 1861) [=Formica familiaris] Z01
          |     |    |--P. australis Forel 1915 TB85
          |     |    |--P. cibdelus Z01
          |     |    |--P. emeryi Forel 1911 Z01
          |     |    |--P. risii Forel 1894 Z01
          |     |    |--P. similus Zhou 2001 Z01
          |     |    `--P. typhlops [=P. (*Nesolasius) typhlops] LBS10
          |     `--+--Euprenolepis Emery 1906 [incl. Chapmanella Wheeler 1930] LBS10
          |        |    |--*E. procera [=Prenolepis (*Euprenolepis) procera] LBS10
          |        |    |--E. negrosensis LBS10
          |        |    |--E. varigata N-ZLI11
          |        |    `--E. wittei N-ZLI11
          |        `--Paratrechina Motschoulsky 1863 LBS10, T99
          |             |  i. s.: P. aseta (Forel 1902) [=Prenolepis aseta, Pa. (Nylanderia) aseta] Z01
          |             |         P. opisopthalmos Zhou & Zheng 1998 Z01
          |             |--P. longicornis (Latreille 1802) WBF16, FT08 (see below for synonymy)
          |             `--+--P. antsingy WBF16
          |                `--P. zanjensis WBF16
          `--+--+--Prenolepis WBF16
             |  `--Zatania albimaculata WBF16
             `--+--‘Prenolepis’ albimaculata LBS10
                `--Paraparatrechina Donisthorpe 1947 WBF16, LBS10
                     |  i. s.: *P. pallida (Donisthorpe 1947) T99 [=Paratrechina (*Paraparatrechina) pallida LBS10]
                     |         P. albipes [=Paratrechina albipes] LBS10
                     |         P. bufonus [=Pseudolasius bufonus] LBS10
                     |         P. butteli [=Paratrechina butteli] LBS10
                     |           |--P. b. butteli LBS10
                     |           |--P. b. bryanti [=Paratrechina butteli bryanti] LBS10
                     |           `--P. b. malaccana [=Paratrechina butteli malaccana] LBS10
                     |         P. caledonica [=Paratrechina caledonica] LBS10
                     |         P. dichroa [=Paratrechina dichroa] LBS10
                     |         P. emarginata [=Paratrechina emarginata] LBS10
                     |         P. foreli [=Paratrechina foreli] LBS10
                     |           |--P. f. foreli LBS10
                     |           `--P. f. nigriventris [=Paratrechina nigriventris] LBS10
                     |         P. iridescens [=Paratrechina iridescens] LBS10
                     |         P. koningsbergeri [=Paratrechina koningsbergeri] LBS10
                     |         P. lecamopteridis [=Paratrechina lecamopteridis] LBS10
                     |         P. minutula (Forel 1901) LBS10, FT08 (see below for synonymy)
                     |           |--P. m. minutula LBS10
                     |           `--P. m. buxtoni LBS10
                     |         P. nana (Santschi 1928) LBS10, TB85 [=Paratrechina (Nylanderia) nana LBS10, TB85]
                     |         P. nettae [=Paratrechina nettae] LBS10
                     |         P. opaca [=Paratrechina opaca] LBS10
                     |           |--P. o. opaca LBS10
                     |           `--P. o. metallescens [=Paratrechina opaca metallescens] LBS10
                     |         P. pusillima [=Paratrechina pusillima] LBS10
                     |         P. sauteri (Forel 1913) LBS10, Z01 (see below for synonymy)
                     |         P. subtilis [=Paratrechina subtilis] LBS10
                     |           |--P. s. subtilis LBS10
                     |           `--P. s. termitophila [=Paratrechina subtilis termitophila] LBS10
                     |         P. tapinomoides [=Paratrechina tapinomoides] LBS10
                     |--P. oceanica [=Paratrechina oceanica] LBS10
                     `--+--P. glabra [=Paratrechina glabra] LBS10
                        `--P. weissi [=Pseudolasius weissi] LBS10

Paraparatrechina minutula (Forel 1901) LBS10, FT08 [=Prenolepis minutula TB85, Paratrechina minutula LBS10, Pr. (Nylanderia) minutula E14]

Paraparatrechina sauteri (Forel 1913) LBS10, Z01 [=Prenolepis (Nylanderia) minutula r. sauteri Z01, Paratrechina (N.) sauteri LBS10, Z01]

Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille 1802) WBF16, FT08 [=Formica longicornis B03, Prenolepis (Nylanderia) longicornis E14; incl. *Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky 1863 T99, Formica gracilescens Nylander 1856 Z01, Paratrechina longicornis hagemanni (Forel 1901) LBS10, F. vagans Jerdon 1851 Z01]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[ES12] Espadaler, X., & S. Santamaria. 2012. Ecto- and endoparasitic fungi on ants from the Holarctic region. Psyche 2012: 168478.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[LBS10] LaPolla, J. S., S. G. Brady & S. O. Shattuck. 2010. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Prenolepis genus-group of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 35: 118–131.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[T99] Terayama, M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, part 5. Genus Paratrechina Motschulsky. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 49–64.

[WBF16] Ward, P. S., B. B. Blaimer & B. L. Fisher. 2016. A revised phylogenetic classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with resurrection of the genera Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex. Zootaxa 4072 (3): 343–357.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).