Field of Science

Colobognatha

Head of Siphonophora barberi, from Chamberlin (1922).


Belongs within: Helminthomorpha.

The Colobognatha are a clade of millipedes characterised by the presence of elongate, sucking mouthparts.

Synapomorphies (from Sierwald et al. 2003): Mouthparts elongate, with gnathochilarial palps absent; adult males with ninth leg modified into an accessory gonopod, tenth leg into a functional gonopod; adults curl protectively around eggs; first larval instar with four leg pairs.

Colobognatha [Typhlogena]
    |--Platydesmida SS03
    |    |--Platydesmus Lucas 1843 [Platydesmidae] K54b
    |    |    |--P. lankesteri Brölemann 1905 K54b
    |    |    `--P. marmoreus Pocock 1903 K54b
    |    `--Andrognathidae H90
    |         |--Andrognathus H90
    |         |--Ischnocybe H90
    |         |--Mitocybe H90
    |         |--Gosodesmus H90
    |         `--Brachycybe lecontii H90
    `--+--Polyzoniida [Ommatophora, Polyzoniidea] SS03
       |    |  i. s.: Petaserpes Cope 1870 W05
       |    |--Siphonotus [Siphonotidae] H90
       |    |    `--S. purpureus [=Rhinotus purpureus] H90
       |    |--Hirudisomatidae H90
       |    |    |--Euzonium H90
       |    |    |--Hypozonium H90
       |    |    `--Octoglena H90
       |    `--Polyzoniidae H90
       |         |--Bdellozonium H90
       |         |--Buzonium H90
       |         |--Calzonium H90
       |         |--Pizonium H90
       |         `--Polyzonium Brandt 1837 W05
       |              `--P. germanicum RS10
       `--Siphonophorida SS03
            |--Siphonorhinidae H90
            |    |--Illacme plenipes H90, GE05
            |    `--Siphonorhinus H90
            `--Siphonophoridae H90
                 |--Siphonacme H90
                 `--Siphonophora Newport 1845 K54a
                      |--S. andecola Kraus 1954 K54a
                      |--S. barberi K54b
                      |--S. gracilicornis K54a
                      |--S. lafloridae Kraus 1955 K55
                      |--S. porcullae Kraus 1954 K54a
                      |--S. progressor K54b
                      |--S. sabachana K54b
                      `--S. trifini Kraus 1954 K54b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K54a] Kraus, O. 1954a. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K54b] Kraus, O. 1954b. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[W05] Wilson, H. M. 2005. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

Spirostreptidae

Spirostreptus ibanda, copyright Gey-stern.


Belongs within: Eugnatha.

The Spirostreptidae is a family of often large millipedes.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Stipes of gnathochilarium widely separated by large central mentum, but lingual lamellae in contact, not separated by mentum or promentum; lateral ends of collum with several parallel engraved striations; sterna, pleura and terga coalesced into rigid cylindrical rings, with pleural sclerites completely coalesced with lower ends of terga, no suture line remaining; segment 3 without legs.

<==Spirostreptidae [Spirostreptidea]
    |  i. s.: Charactopygus frequens H02
    |         Orthoporus C90
    |           |--O. cobanus L62
    |           |--O. flavior C90
    |           |--O. kiemi Loomis 1962 L62
    |           |--O. luchicolens L62
    |           |--O. ornatus C90
    |           `--O. paxillicauda Loomis 1962 L62
    `--Spirostreptinae K55
         |--Spirostreptus ibanda H02
         |--Epistreptus K55
         |    |--E. (Epistreptus) K55
         |    |    |--*E. (E.) oscenus Silvestri 1897 K55
         |    |    `--E. (E.) silvestrii Kraus 1955 K55
         |    `--E. (Microtrullius) vagans (Chamberlin 1922) (see below for synonymy) K54
         `--Scaphiostreptus [incl. Andineptus Chamberlin 1941] K55
              |  i. s.: S. rugiceps K54
              `--S. (Scaphiostreptus) K55
                   |--S. (S.) absconsus (Chamberlin 1922) [=Orthoporus absconsus] K54
                   |--S. (S.) apheles (Chamberlin 1941) [=Andineptus apheles] K55
                   |--S. (S.) broelemanni (Verhoeff 1941) K55
                   |--S. (S.) delectus (Chamberlin 1941) [=Andineptus delectus] K55
                   |--S. (S.) huallagae Kraus 1955 K55
                   |--S. (S.) perditus (Chamberlin 1941) [=Andineptus perditus] K55
                   |--S. (S.) pongus (Chamberlin 1941) [=Andineptus pongus] K55
                   `--S. (S.) salvadoricus Kraus 1954 K54

Epistreptus (Microtrullius) vagans (Chamberlin 1922) [=Gymnostreptus vagans; incl. G. pacificus Chamberlin 1922, Epistreptus (Microtrullius) pacificus] K54

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835-860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[H02] Hunt, D. J. 2002. The African Rhigonematoidea (Nematoda: Rhigonematida). 1. Trachyglossus quintus gen. n., sp. n. (Xustrostomatidae fam. n.) with redescription of Rhigonema multipapillatum (Skrjabin, 1916) and designation of a neotype. Nematology 4: 671–686.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 173–200.

[L62] Loomis, H. F. 1962. Two unusual Central American spirostreptid milliped species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 47–52.

Eugnatha

Gathering of Epinannolene, copyright Karl Questel.


Belongs within: Helminthomorpha.
Contains: Chordeumatida, Polydesmida, Spirobolida, Julida, Spirostreptidae.

The Eugnatha are a clade within the millipedes characterised by modification of the eighth pair of legs in adult males into a pair of functional gonopods, and the fusion of the pleurites to the tergites (Sierwald et al. 2003).

Eugnatha
    |--Nematophora SS03
    |    |--Stemmiulida [Monocheta] WA04
    |    `--Coelocheta SS03
    |         |--Chordeumatida WA04
    |         `--Callipodida WA04
    |              |--Abacion magnum H00
    |              |--Delophon H90
    |              |--Tetracion H90
    |              |--Texophon H90
    |              |--Tynomma H90
    |              |--Diactis H90
    |              |--Heptium H90
    |              |--Colactis H90
    |              `--Apfelbeckia Verhoeff 1896 H00
    |                   `--A. hessei Verhoeff 1929 UO05
    `--+--Polydesmida WA04
       `--Juliformia [Juloidea] SS03
            |--+--Spirobolida SS03
            |  `--Julida SS03
            `--Spirostreptida SS03
                 |--Spirostreptidae K55
                 |--Epinannolenidea H90
                 |    |--Choctella [Choctellidae] H90
                 |    |    `--C. cummingsi H90
                 |    `--Epinannolene K55
                 |         |--E. alticola (Silvestri 1898) K55
                 |         |--E. bifasciata (Silvestri 1898) K54
                 |         |--E. cylidricaulis Kraus 1954 K54
                 |         `--E. flagellosa Kraus 1955 K55
                 `--Cambalidea H00
                      |  i. s.: Protosilvestria Handschin 1944 H00
                      |--Plusioglyphiulus SGS04 [Cambalopsidae H90]
                      `--Cambalidae [Leioderidae, Nannolenidae] H90
                           |--Cambala hubrichti H00
                           |--Agastrophus B13
                           |--Hypocambala B13
                           |--Nannolene H90
                           |--Paiteya H90
                           |--Titsona H90
                           |    |--*T. sima C62
                           |    `--T. tida Chamberlin 1962 C62
                           |--Buwatia H90
                           |--Platydere H90
                           |--Pharodere H90
                           |--Endere H90
                           |--Leiodere H90
                           |--Odachurus H90
                           |--Alakene H90
                           |--Doilene H90
                           |--Tigolene H90
                           |--Amastigogonus Brölemann 1913 B13
                           |    `--*A. tasmanianus Brölemann 1913 B13
                           `--Dimerogonus Attems 1903 B13
                                `--*D. orophilus B13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77–158, plates XIV–XVIII.

[C62] Chamberlin, R. V. 1962. Millipeds from the Nevada Test Area. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 53–56.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19–35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[SGS04] Schwendinger, P. J., G. Giribet & H. Steiner. 2004. A remarkable new cave-dwelling Stylocellus (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from peninsular Malaysia, with a discussion on taxonomic characters in the family Stylocellidae. Journal of Natural History 38: 1421–1435.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161–174.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

Scolopendromorpha

Cryptops hortensis, copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Myriapoda.

The Scolopendromorpha are a group of often large centipedes, bearing either 21 or 23 pairs of legs (Mundel 1990).

See also: Giant centipedes (that aren't all giants).

Scolopendromorpha
    |--Scolopendridae GEW01
    |    |  i. s.: Ethmostigmus GEW01
    |    |         Cormocephalus GEW01
    |    |           |--C. hartmeyeri MG06
    |    |           `--C. rubriceps DGH93
    |    |--Otostigminae [Otostigmidae] K54
    |    |    |--Rhysida nuda (Newport 1845) [=Branchiostoma nudum] K54
    |    |    `--Otostigma politum Karsch 1881 A01
    |    `--Scolopendra [Scolopendrinae] RS10
    |         |--S. cingulata GR98
    |         |--S. gigantea K55
    |         |    |--S. g. gigantea K55
    |         |    `--S. g. weyrauchi Bücherl 1950 K55
    |         |--S. heros MH96
    |         |--S. polymorpha RS10
    |         |--S. subspinipes Leach 1815 SB12
    |         |--S. viridicornis K55
    |         `--S. viridis Say 1821 K54
    `--Cryptopidae E06
         |--Otocryptops [Scolopocryptopinae] K54
         |    `--O. ferrugineus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Scolopendra ferruginea] K54
         |--Newportia [Dinocryptopinae] K55
         |    |--N. fuhrmanni Ribaut 1914 K55
         |    |--N. ignorata Kraus 1955 K55
         |    |--N. monticola Pocock 1890 K55
         |    |--N. simoni Brölemann 1898 K55
         |    `--N. stolli (Pocock 1896) [=Scolopendrides stolli] K54
         `--Cryptops Leach 1815 E06
              |  i. s.: C. anomalans Newport 1844 BFM03
              |         C. zelandicus M59
              |--*C. (Cryptops) hortensis (Donovan 1810) [=Scolopendra hortensis] E06
              `--C. (Trigonocryptops Verhoeff 1906) E06
                   |--C. (*T.) gigas Kraepelin 1903 E06
                   |--C. (T.) camoowealensis Edgecombe 2006 E06
                   |--C. (T.) loveridgei Lawrence 1953 [incl. C. bokumensis Kraus 1958] E06
                   |--C. (T.) roeplainsensis Edgecombe 2005 E06
                   |--C. (T.) spinipes Pocock 1891 E06
                   `--C. (T.) troglobius Matic et al. 1977 E06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A01] Attems, C. Graf. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 275-310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[BFM03] Bonato, L., D. Foddai & A. Minelli. 2003. Evolutionary trends and patterns in centipede segment number based on a cladistic analysis of Mecistocephalidae (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). Systematic Entomology 28: 539-579.

[DGH93] Daugherty, C. H., G. W. Gibbs & R. A. Hitchmough. 1993. Mega-island or micro-continent? New Zealand and its fauna. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (12): 437-442.

[E06] Edgecombe, G. D. 2006. A troglobitic cryptopid centipede (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) from western Queensland. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 193-198.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157-161.

[GR98] Giribet, G., & C. Ribera. 1998. The position of arthropods in the animal kingdom: A search for a reliable outgroup for internal arthropod phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 481-488.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293-349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 173-200.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772-794.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[M59] Morgan, F. D. 1959. The ecology and external morphology of Stolotermes ruficeps Brauer (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 155-195.

Mundel, P. 1990. Chilopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 819-833. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

[SB12] Smith, M. J., C. R. J. Boland, D. Maple & B. Tiernan. 2012. The Christmas Island blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae): a survey protocol and an assessment of factors that relate to occupancy and detection. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 40-44.

Neoatractosomatoidea

Gonopods of Fagina silvatica, from Mauriès (2003).


Belongs within: Chordeumatida.

The Neoatractosomatoidea is a group of chordeumatidan millipedes found mostly in souther Europe, characterised by the males having flagella on the anterior gonopods only, with no flagella on the posterior gonopods (Mauriès 2003).

See also: The importance of genitalia.

<==Neoatractosomatoidea
    |--Cyrnosoma Mauriès 1969 [Cyrnosomatidae] M03
    |    `--‘Neoatractosoma’ strandi Attems 1927 M03
    `--Neoatractosomatidae M03
         |--Trimerophorinae M03
         |    |--Osellasoma Mauriès 1985 [Osellasomatini] M03
         |    `--Trimerophorini M03
         |         |--Pseudocraspedosoma Silvestri 1898 (see below for synonymy) M03
         |         |--Mesotrimeron Verhoeff 1912 M03
         |         |--Trimerophorella Verhoeff 1902 M03
         |         |--Microbrachysoma Verhoeff 1897 [Microbrachysomatinae, Microbrachysomatini] M03
         |         |    `--*M. alpestre Verhoeff 1897 M03
         |         `--Epirosomella Strasser 1976 M03
         |              `--E. loebli Strasser 1976 M03
         `--Neoatractosomatinae M03
              |--Neoatractosoma Silvestri 1898 [Neoatractosomatini] M03
              `--Faginini [Faginidae] M03
                   |--Fagina Attems 1904 M03
                   |    `--*F. silvatica (Attems 1904) [=Heterolatzelia (Fagina) silvatica] M03
                   |--Paeonisoma Verhoeff 1932 M03
                   |    `--*P. faucium Verhoeff 1932 M03
                   `--Schizmohetera Mršić 1987 M03
                        |--*S. sketi Mršić 1987 M03
                        |--S. curcici Makarov 2001 M03
                        `--S. olympica Mauriès 2003 M03

Pseudocraspedosoma Silvestri 1898 [incl. Brentomeron Verhoeff 1934, Trimerophoron Rothenbühler 1900] M03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[M03] Mauriès, J.-P. 2003. Schizmohetera olympica sp. n. from Greece, with a reclassification of the superfamily Neoatractosomatoidea (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida). Arthropoda Selecta 12: 9-16.

Chordeumatida

Specimen belonging to the Australeuma mauriesi group, from Tasmanian Multipedes.


Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Neoatractosomatoidea, Cleidogonoidea, Metopidiotrichinae, Conotylidae.

The Chordeumatida are a group of relatively short, bristly millipedes.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Body with 26–30 segments in adults; ocelli usually present; gnathochilarium with short basal mentum and elongate lingual lamellae; ozopores absent; metaterga with well-defined median longitudinal suture; sterna not firmly attached to adjoining sternites but more or less flexibly articulated by connective tissue; males with coxal sacs in ninth and tenth pairs of legs only; gonopods composed of both pairs of legs of seventh segment.

<==Chordeumatida [Chordeumida]
    |--Chordeumatidea S03b
    |    |  i. s.: Chordeumella [Chordeumatidae] M03
    |    |           `--C. broelemanni (Verhoeff 1897) M03
    |    `--Cleidogonoidea H90
    |--Striariidea S03b
    |    |--Caseyidae [Caseyoidea] S03b
    |    |    |--Caseya H90
    |    |    |--Opiona H90
    |    |    |--Placerna H90
    |    |    |--Vasingtona H90
    |    |    |--Zantona H90
    |    |    `--Underwoodia H90
    |    `--Striarioidea S03b
    |         |--Apterourus Loomis 1966 [Apterouridae] S03b
    |         |    |--*A. horizontalis Loomis 1966 S03b
    |         |    `--A. serratus Shear 2003 S03b
    |         `--+--Rhiscosomides H90 [Rhiscosomididae S03b]
    |            `--Striariidae S03b
    |                 |--Vaferia H90
    |                 `--Speostriaria H90
    |--Brannerioidea [Craspedosmatidea] SL03
    |    |--Niponiosoma [Niponiosomatidae] SH98
    |    |--Trachygonidae SL03
    |    |--Heterolatzeliidae SL03
    |    |--Chaemosomatidae SL03
    |    |--Microlympia Shear & Leonard 2003 [Microlympiidae] SL03
    |    |    `--*M. echina Shear & Leonard 2003 SL03
    |    |--Branneria Bollman 1893 [Branneriidae] S03a
    |    |    |--*B. carinata (Bollman 1888) [=Craspedosoma carinata] S03a
    |    |    `--B. bonoculus Shear 2003 S03a
    |    |--Tingupidae SL03
    |    |    |--Tingupa Chamberlin 1910 SL03
    |    |    |    `--T. pallida SH98
    |    |    |--Buotus Chamberlin 1940 SL03
    |    |    |    `--B. carolinus SH98
    |    |    `--Blancosoma Shear & Hubbard 1998 SL03
    |    |         `--*B. scaturgo Shear & Hubbard 1998 SH98
    |    `--Kashmireumatidae S02b
    |         |--Kashmireuma S02b
    |         |    |--K. nepalensis S02b
    |         |    |--K. nielseni S02b
    |         |    `--K. schawallari S02b
    |         `--Vieteuma Golovatch 1984 S02b
    |              |--*V. topali S02b
    |              |--V. hubeiensis Mauriés & Nguyen-Duy Jaquemin 1997 S02b
    |              `--V. longi Shear 2002 S02b
    `--Heterochordeumatoidea [Heterochordeumatidea] S03b
         |--Heterochordeumatidae S02a
         |--Metopidiotrichidae [Metopidiothricidae] S02a
         |    |--Schedotrigona Silvestri 1903 [Schedotrigonidae, Schedotrigoninae] S02a
         |    |--Metopidiotrichinae S02a
         |    `--Neocambrisomatinae [Neocambrisomatidae] S02a
         |         |--Neocambrisoma Mauriès 1987 S02a
         |         |--Nesiothrix Shear & Mesibov 1997 S02a
         |         |--Nipponothrix Shear & Tanabe 1994 S02a
         |         `--Australeuma Golovatch 1987 S02a
         |              `--A. mauriesi Shear & Mesibov 1997 S02a
         |--Megalotylidae S02b
         |    |--Megalotyla S02b
         |    `--Nepalella Shear 1987 S02b
         |         |--N. birmanica S02b
         |         |--N. caeca Shear 1999 S02b
         |         |--N. griswoldi Shear 2002 S02b
         |         |--N. kavanaughi Shear 2002 S02b
         |         |--N. magna Shear 2002 S02b
         |         `--N. pianma Shear 2002 S02b
         |--Adrityla [Adritylidae] H90
         `--Conotylidae H90

Chordeumatida incertae sedis:
  Diplomaragna [Diplomaragnidae] S03a
  Neoatractosomatoidea M03
  Mastigophorophylloidea M03
    |--Mastigophorophyllidae M03
    |--Hoffmaneumatidae M03
    `--Altajellidae M03
  Anthroleucosomatidae [Antroleucosomatoidea] M03
    |--Krueperia nivale Verhoeff 1900 M03
    `--Anamastigona M03
         |--A. bilselii Verhoeff 1940 M03
         |--A. hauseri Strasser 1974 M03
         |--A. matsakisi Mauriès & Karamaouna 1984 M03
         |--A. mediterranea Curčić, Makarov & Lymberakis 2001 M03
         |--A. penicillata Attems 1902 M03
         `--A. pentelonica (Verhoeff 1925) M03
  Nanogona Cook 1895 H00
  Urochordeuma [Urochordeumatidae] H90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19-35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835-860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[M03] Mauriès, J.-P. 2003. Schizmohetera olympica sp. n. from Greece, with a reclassification of the superfamily Neoatractosomatoidea (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida). Arthropoda Selecta 12: 9-16.

[S02a] Shear, W. A. 2002a. The millipede genus Metopidiothrix Attems (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Metopidiotrichidae). Invertebrate Systematics 16: 849-892.

[S02b] Shear, W. A. 2002b. Five new chordeumatidan millipeds from China: New species of Vieteuma (Kashmireumatidae) and Nepalella (Megalotylidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 53 (6): 63-72..

[S03a] Shear, W. A. 2003a. Branneria bonoculus, n. sp., a second species in the North American milliped family Branneriidae (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Brannerioidea). Zootaxa 233: 1-7.

[S03b] Shear, W. A. 2003b. A second species of the rare milliped family Apterouridae (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Striarioidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 116 (2): 509-514.

[SH98] Shear, W. A. & D. A. Hubbard, Jr. 1998. Cave millipeds of the United States. IV. A new genus and species from a high altitude cave in Colorado (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Tingupidae). Myriapodologica 5 (8): 85-94.

[SL03] Shear, W. A., & W. P. Leonard. 2003. Microlympiidae, a new milliped family from North America, and Microlympia echina, new genus and species (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Brannerioidea). Zootaxa 243: 1-11.

Spirobolida

Spirobolus sp., from here.


Belongs within: Eugnatha.
Contains: Rhinocricidae, Dinematocricus.

The Spirobolida are a group of cylindrical millipedes with distinct pleural sclerites.

Characters (from Hoffman 1990): Body of adults with more than twenty segments; ocellaria basically rounded to round-oval, no transverse suture evident between them; gnathochilarium rectangular with triangular mentum and small distal lingual lamellae; sterna, pleura and terga coalesced into rigid cylindrical rings, but remain distinguished by presence of articular sutures; pair of legs present on segment 3; gonopods composed of both pairs of legs of seventh segment.

<==Spirobolida [Anocheta, Spirobolidea]
    |--Pachybolidae H02
    |--Rhinocricidae B13
    |--Floridobolus [Floridobolidae] H90
    |    `--F. penneri H90
    |--Xyloiulidae WA04
    |    |--Plagioscetus lateralis WA04
    |    `--Xyloiulus [incl. Xylobius] WA04
    |         `--X. moniliformis (Woodward 1905) H00
    |--Trigoniulidae K54
    |    |--Trigoniulus B13
    |    |    |--T. burnetticus Attems in Semon 1898 B13
    |    |    |--T. comma Attems in Semon 1898 B13
    |    |    `--T. targionii Silvestri 1897 B13
    |    `--Allopocockia Brölemann 1914 [incl. Arolus Chamberlin 1922] K54
    |         |--*A. tylopus (Pocock 1908) K54
    |         |--A. atricula K54
    |         |--A. purulana K54
    |         `--A. rotunda Kraus 1954 K54
    |--Atopetholidae H90
    |    |--Eurelus soleatus H90
    |    |--Atopetholus californicus H90
    |    |--Watichelus H90
    |    |--Arinolus H90
    |    |    |--A. citrinus C62
    |    |    |--A. michelbacheri C62
    |    |    |--A. nevadae Chamberlin 1962 C62
    |    |    `--A. sequens Chamberlin 1962 C62
    |    |--Piedolus H90
    |    |--Anelus H90
    |    |--Centrelus H90
    |    |--Comanchelus H90
    |    |--Toltecolus H90
    |    |--Uvaldia H90
    |    `--Orthichelus michelbacheri (Verhoeff 1938) (see below for synonymy) C62
    `--Spirobolidae K54
         |--*Epitrigoniulus cruentatus (Brölemann 1902) [=Spirobolellus cruentatus] B13
         |--Paraspirobolus Brölemann 1901 B13
         |--Dinematocricus B13
         |--Chicobolus H90
         |--Hiltonius H90
         |--Tylobolus H90
         |--Eucentrolobus Pocock 1903 B13
         |    |--*E. tumulus B13
         |    `--E. maindroni [=Acanthiulus maindroni] B13
         |--Pseudospirobolellus Carl 1912 B13
         |    `--*P. bulbiferus (Attems 1907) [=Spirobolellus bulbiferus] B13
         |--Acanthiulus Gervais 1844 [incl. Polybunolobus Pocock 1893] B13
         |    |--*A. blainvillei (Le Guillou 1841) (see below for synonymy) B13
         |    `--A. murrayi Pocock 1893 [=*Polybunolobus murrayi] B13
         |--Spirobolellus Pocock 1894 B13
         |    |--*S. chrysodirus Pocock 1894 B13
         |    `--S. rainbowi Brölemann 1913 B13
         |--Narceus H90
         |    |--N. americanus RS10
         |    `--N. annularus NS03
         |--Oxobolus Chamberlin 1922 K54
         |    |--O. distinctus Kraus 1954 K54
         |    |--O. mundus Chamberlin 1953 K54
         |    `--O. santanus Chamberlin 1953 K54
         |--Spirostrophus Saussure & Zehntner 1902 B13
         |    |--*S. naresi B13
         |    |--S. digitulus Brölemann 1913 B13
         |    `--S. rubripes B13
         `--Spirobolus B13
              |--S. adipatus B13
              |--S. caelatus B13
              |--S. coeruleolimbatus B13
              |--S. colubrinus B13
              |--S. costatus B13
              |--S. decoratus B13
              |--S. detornatus B13
              |--S. fenicheli Daday 1893 B13
              |--S. lugubris B13
              |--S. pictus B13
              |--S. signifer B13
              `--S. vogesi B13

*Acanthiulus blainvillei (Le Guillou 1841) [=Julus blainvillei, Crigoniulus blainvillei; incl. Spirobolus dentatus Daday 1893] B13

Orthichelus michelbacheri (Verhoeff 1938) [=Onychelus michelbacheri, Atopetholus michelbacheri; incl. On. phanus Chamberlin 1941, Orthichelus phanus] C62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77-158, plates XIV-XVIII.

[C62] Chamberlin, R. V. 1962. Millipeds from the Nevada Test Area. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 53-56.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19-35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835-860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[H02] Hunt, D. J. 2002. The African Rhigonematoidea (Nematoda: Rhigonematida). 1. Trachyglossus quintus gen. n., sp. n. (Xustrostomatidae fam. n.) with redescription of Rhigonema multipapillatum (Skrjabin, 1916) and designation of a neotype. Nematology 4: 671-686.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293-349.

[NS03] Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai & F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: Monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299: 1887-1889.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169-184.