Field of Science

Ctenidae

Male Ctenus amphora, copyright Thiago G. Carvalho.


Belongs within: Lycosoidea.

The Ctenidae, tropical wolf spiders, are a group of actively hunting spiders that can be distinguished from true wolf spiders by the differences in their eye arrangements.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to very large; eight eyes present in three rows, anterior lateral eyes between posterior median and posterior lateral eyes; legs with trochanters deeply notched, two tarsal claws; usually ecribellate (rarely cribellate); anterior spinnerets conical, not widely separated; entelegyne, male palp with dorsally concave median apophysis; epigyne with horns.

<==Ctenidae
    |--Acantheinae JD-S07
    |--Viridasiinae JD-S07
    |--Acanthocteninae [Calocteninae] SB01
    |    |--Acanthoctenus Keyserling 1877 SB01
    |    |--Viracucha andicola (Simon 1906) SB01
    |    |--Gephyroctenus SB01
    |    |--Enoploctenus cyclothorax SB01, AM07
    |    |--Caloctenus Keyserling 1877 SB01
    |    |--Tuticanus Simon 1896 SB01
    |    |--Horioctenus M54
    |    |--Anahita fauna Karsch 1879 M54, K01
    |    |--Apolania M54
    |    `--Horioctenoides Main 1954 M54
    |         `--*H. bidentatus Main 1954 M54
    `--Cteninae SB01
         |--Ctenopsis Schmidt 1954 SB01
         |--Itatiaya Mello-Leitão 1915 SB01
         |--Ohvida BB14
         |--Isoctenus Bertkau 1880 SB01
         |    `--I. coxalis (Pickard-Cambridge 1902) FM11
         |--Ciba Bloom, Binford et al. 2014 BB14
         |    |--*C. calzada (Alayón 1985) [=Ctenus calzada] BB14
         |    `--C. seibo Alayon & Agnarsson in Bloom, Binford et al. 2014 BB14
         `--Ctenus Walckenaer 1805 SB01
              |  i. s.: *C. dubius Walckenaer 1805 SB01
              |         ‘Phoneutria’ decora Gerstäcker 1873 SB01
              |         C. dreyeri Strand 1906 J98
              |         C. fasciatus AM07
              |         C. kingsleyi JD-S07
              |         C. palembangensis Strand 1906 J98
              |         C. peregrinus Pickard-Cambridge 1900 SB01
              |         C. pergulanus JD-S07
              |         C. punctulatus B06
              |         C. trabifer Thorell 1887 K92
              |         C. unilineatus Simon 1897 [=Phoneutria unilineata] SB01
              |         C. valvularis (Van Hass 1882) [=Leptoctenus valvularis] T94
              |         C. velox SB01
              |         C. vividus SB01
              |--C. maculisternis Strand 1910 SB01
              `--+--+--C. coxalis Pickard-Cambridge 1902 SB01
                 |  `--+--C. longipes Keyserling 1891 SB01
                 |     `--C. taeniatus Keyserling 1891 SB01
                 `--+--Centroctenus Mello-Leitã 1929 SB01
                    |    |--C. auberti (Caporiacco 1954) SB01
                    |    `--C. ocelliventer (Strand 1910) SB01
                    `--+--+--C. inaja Höfer, Brescovit & Gasnier 1994 SB01
                       |  `--+--C. amphora Mello-Leitão 1930 SB01
                       |     `--C. crulsi Mello-Leitão 1930 SB01
                       `--+--C. villasboasi Mello-Leitão 1949 SB01
                          `--+--Oligoctenus Simon 1887 SB01
                             |    `--O. ornatus (Keyserling 1877) SB01
                             `--Phoneutria Perty 1833 [Phoneutriinae] SB01
                                  |  i. s.: P. eickstedtae Martins & Bertani 2007 FM11
                                  |         P. ochracea Koch 1848 (n. d.) SB01
                                  |         P. rufibarbis Perty 1833 (n. d.) [=Ctenus rufibarbis] SB01
                                  |--+--P. boliviensis (Pickard-Cambridge 1897) (see below for synonymy) SB01
                                  |  `--P. nigriventer (Keyserling 1891) (see below for synonymy) SB01
                                  `--+--P. reidyi (Pickard-Cambridge 1897) (see below for synonymy) SB01
                                     `--+--*P. fera Perty 1833 (see below for synonymy) SB01
                                        `--P. bahiensis Simó & Brescovit 2001 SB01

Ctenidae incertae sedis:
  Nemoctenus aurens FF99
  Africactenus J98
    |--A. decorosus JD-S07
    |--A. monitor JD-S07
    `--A. tenuitarsis (Strand 1908) [=Caloctenus gracilitarsis Strand 1907 (preoc.), C. tenuitarsis] J98
  Microctenus Keyserling 1877 SB01
  Parabatinga brevipes (Keyserling 1891) FM11
  Janusia muiri (Gray 1973) BB14
  Amauropelma undarra (Raven et al. 2001) BB14
  Trujillina JD-S07
  Leptoctenus byrrhus JD-S07
  Petaloctenus bossema JD-S07

Phoneutria boliviensis (Pickard-Cambridge 1897) [=Ctenus boliviensis; incl. C. chilesicus Strand 1915, Phoneutria colombiana Schmidt 1954, C. depilatus Strand 1910, P. depilata, C. nigriventroides Strand 1907, P. nigriventroides, C. peregrinoides Strand 1910, C. signativenter Strand 1910, C. valdehirsutulus Strand 1910] SB01

*Phoneutria fera Perty 1833 [=Ctenus ferus, incl. C. sus Strand 1910, Phoneutria sus] SB01

Phoneutria nigriventer (Keyserling 1891) [=Ctenus nigriventer; incl. C. keyserlingi Pickard-Cambridge 1897, Phoneutria keyserlingi, C. luederwaldti Mello-Leitão 1927, P. luederwaldti, C. paca Mello-Leitão 1922, P. paca, C. pertyi Pickard-Cambridge 1897, P. pertyi, C. rufichelis Mello-Leitão 1917, P. rufichelis] SB01

Phoneutria reidyi (Pickard-Cambridge 1897) [=Ctenus reidyi; incl. C. andrewsi Pickard-Cambridge 1897, Phoneutria andrewsi, C. forcipatus Mello-Leitão 1922] SB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM07] Acosta, L. E., & G. Machado. 2007. Diet and foraging. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 309–338. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[BB14] Bloom, T., G. Binford, L. A. Esposito, G. A. Garcia, I. Peterson, A. Nishida, K. Loubet-Senear & I. Agnarsson. 2014. Discovery of two new species of eyeless spiders within a single Hispaniola cave. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 148–154.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[SB01] Simó, M., & A. D. Brescovit. 2001. Revision and cladistic analysis of the Neotropical spider genus Phoneutria Perty, 1833 (Araneae, Ctenidae), with notes on related Cteninae. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12 (2): 67–82.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

Lycosoidea

Cambridgea foliata, copyright Liam Grange.


Belongs within: Amaurobioidea.
Contains: Ctenidae, Zoridae, Miturgidae, Pisauridae, Lycosidae, Oxyopidae.

The Lycosoidea are a clade of mostly actively hunting spiders.

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Secondary eyes with grate-shaped tapetum; posterior eye row recurved.

Lycosoidea [Citigradae]
    |--Ctenoidea JD-S07
    |    |--Ctenidae GC99
    |    `--Zoropsidae [Zoropsoidea] GC99
    |         |--Akamasia Bosselaers 2002 JD-S07
    |         |--Huntia Gray & Thompson 2001 JD-S07
    |         |--Kilyana Raven & Stumkat 2005 JD-S07
    |         |--Megateg Raven & Stumkat 2005 JD-S07
    |         |--Takeoa Lehtinen 1967 JD-S07
    |         |--Uliodon Koch 1873 JD-S07
    |         |--Devendra Lehtinen 1967 JD-S07
    |         |--Griswoldia Dippenaar-Schoeman & Jocqué 1997 [Griswoldiinae] JD-S07
    |         |--Phanotea Simon 1896 JD-S07
    |         `--Zoropsis Simon 1878 [Zoropsinae] JD-S07
    |              |--Z. bilineata JD-S07
    |              |--Z. lutea (Thorell 1875) PO08
    |              `--Z. media JD-S07
    `--+--+--+--Zoridae JD-S07
       |  |  `--Miturgidae JD-S07
       |  `--Lycosaeformia JD-S07
       |       |--Pisauridae JD-S07
       |       `--+--Lycosidae JD-S07
       |          `--Trechaleidae JD-S07
       |               |--Syntrechalea brasilia Carico 2008 FM11
       |               |--Enna JD-S07
       |               `--Trechalea Thorell 1870 JD-S07
       |                    |--T. biocellata MC05
       |                    `--T. keyserlingi CM07
       `--+--Psechridae JD-S07
          |    |--Poaka graminicola FF99
          |    |--Fecenia Simon 1887 JD-S07
          |    |    `--F. oblonga Rainbow 1913 R13
          |    `--Psechrus Thorell 1878 [incl. Lancaria Karsch 1879] K92
          |         |--P. argentatus (Dol. 1857) [=Tegenaria argentata; incl. T. torva Cambr. 1870, Lancaria torva] K92
          |         `--P. singaporensis JD-S07
          `--+--+--Senoculus Taczanowski 1875 [Senoculidae] JD-S07
             |  `--Oxyopidae JD-S07
             `--Stiphidiidae [Stiphidiinae] JD-S07
                  |--Corasoides australis FF99
                  |--Nanocambridgea gracilipes FF99
                  |--Ischalea spinipes (Koch 1872) FF99, NS00 [incl. Tetragnatha tenella Urquhart 1893 NS00]
                  |--Baiami GC99
                  |--Tartarus JD-S07
                  |--Stiphidion Simon 1902 JD-S07
                  |    `--S. facetum (Simon 1902) B96 [incl. Amarara fera FF99]
                  `--Cambridgea Koch 1872 JD-S07, S02
                       |--C. antipodiana H09
                       |--C. arboricola FF99
                       `--C. foliata FF99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[GC99] Griswold, C. E., J. A. Coddington, N. I. Platnick & R. R. Forster. 1999. Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). Journal of Arachnology 27: 53–63.

[H09] Hogg, H. R. 1909. Some New Zealand and Tasmanian Arachnidae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 42: 273–283.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[MC05] Machado, G., P. C. Carrera, A. M. Pomini & A. J. Marsaioli. 2005. Chemical defense in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): do benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators? Journal of Chemical Ecology 31 (11): 2519–2539.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. Missing links between Argyroneta and Cybaeidae revealed by fossil spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 189–200.

Lycosidae

Female Xerolycosa nemoralis, from Spiders of the Netherlands.


Belongs within: Lycosoidea.
Contains: Evippa, Artoriinae, Arctosa, Lycosinae, Venatrix, Pardosa, Piratinae, Venonia.

The Lycosidae, wolf spiders, are a cosmopolitan group of mostly ground-hunting spiders (though some build sheet webs), characterised by having the anterior eyes smaller than the posterior eyes and forming a single row near the front margin of the carapace.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to very large; eight eyes present in three rows, with anterior row of four small eyes, second row with two large (posterior median) eyes and third row of two intermediate-sized eyes on anterolateral surface of carapace; legs with three tarsal claws; ecribellate; male palp usually without retrolateral tibial apophysis; entelegyne; female carries egg-sac attached to spinnerets.

<==Lycosidae [Hippaseae, Hippasinae, Lycoseae, Lycosoidae]
    |--+--‘Arctosa’ ebicha PY07
    |  `--‘Arctosa’ kwangreungensis PY07
    `--+--Xerolycosa Dahl 1908 PY07, MGK03
       |    |--X. albofasciata (Brullé 1832) K55
       |    |--X. miniata (Koch 1834) MGK03
       |    `--X. nemoralis (Westring 1861) MGK03
       `--+--+--+--‘Trochosa’ oraria (Koch 1876) PY07, VMP02
          |  |  `--+--Artoriinae PY07
          |  |     `--Arctosa PY07
          |  `--+--Lycosinae PY07
          |     `--+--Venatrix PY07
          |        `--+--Pardosa PY07
          |           `--‘Alopecosa’ cinnameopilosa PY07
          `--+--Piratinae PY07
             `--Venoniinae YF06
                  |  i. s.: *Satta cannibalorum Lehtinen & Hippa 1979 YF06
                  |         Agalenocosa Mello-Leitão 1944 FL13
                  |--‘Venonia’ spirocysta Chai 1991 YF06
                  `--+--Allotrochosina Roewer 1960 PY07, YF06
                     |    |--A. karri YF06
                     |    `--A. schauinslandi (Simon 1899) VMP02
                     `--+--Venonia YF06
                        `--Anomalosa Roewer 1960 YF06
                             |--A. kochi Simon 1898 YF06
                             `--A. oz Framenau 2006 YF06

Lycosidae incertae sedis:
  Tricca alpigena (Doleschall 1852) K02
  Brevilabus gillonorum Cornic 1980 J02
  Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck 1757) RKD02
  Evippa MGK03
  Wadicosa Zyuzin 1985 [Wadicosinae] MGK03
    |--W. fidelis (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) MGK03
    `--W. quadrifera (Gravely 1924) MG03
  Allohogna Roewer 1955 MGK03
    `--A. singoriensis (Laxmann 1770) [=Lycosa singoriensis] MGK03
  Mustelicosa Roewer 1960 MGK03
    `--M. dimidiata (Thorell 1875) [=Trochosa dimidiata] MGK03
  Tarentuloides Doleschall 1859 K92, D59
    `--*T. boiei (Doleschall 1859) [=Lycosa (Tarentuloides) boiei] D59
  Megarctosa leopardus (Sundevall 1832) K55
  Bradystichinae C90
  Sosippinae F07
    |--Sosippus Simon 1888 YF06
    |    `--S. nitidus (Mello-Leitão 1944) [=Hippasella nitida] C90
    `--Porrimosa C90
         |--P. callipoda (n. d.) C90
         |--P. castanea C90
         |--P. diversa (n. d.) C90
         |--P. glieschi (n. d.) C90
         |--P. harknessi C90
         |--P. lagotis C90
         `--P. securifera (n. d.) C90
  Schizocosa Chamberlin 1904 RU14
    |--S. crassipes PR01
    |--S. ocreata (Hentz 1844) RU14
    |--S. rovneri (Uetz & Dondale 1979) RU14
    |--S. stridulans Stratton 1984 RU14
    `--S. yurae (Strand 1908) [=Tarentula yurae, Avicosa yurae] J98
  Tarentula J98
    |--T. solivaga (Kulczyński 1901) [=Lycosa (Tarentula) solivaga] K01
    `--T. swakopmundensis Strand 1916 J98
  Zoicinae YF06
    |--Zoica Simon 1898 YF06
    |--Zantheres Thorell 1887 YF06
    |--Lysania Thorell 1890 YF06
    |--Shapna Hippa & Lehtinen 1983 YF06
    `--Margonia Hippa & Lehtinen 1983 YF06
         `--M. himalayensis (Gravely 1924) [=Venonia himalayensis] YF06
  Aglaoctenus Tullgren 1905 [incl. Porrima] YF06
    `--A. lagotis (Holmberg 1876) FM11
  Anomalomma Simon 1890 YF06
    `--*A. lycosinum Simon 1890 YF06
  Tricassinae F07
  Pavocosa FM11
  Passiena torbjoerni Lehtinen 2005 FY06
  Trabeops D90
  Piratula minuta (Emerton 1885) SB14
  Gladicosa SB14
    |--G. gulosa CM07
    `--G. pulchra (Keyserling 1877) SB14
  Rabidosa punctulata (Hentz 1844) SB14
  Donacosa merlini JD-S07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C90] Capocasale, R. M. 1990. Las especies de la subfamilia Hippasinae de America del Sur (Araneae, Lycosidae). Journal of Arachnology 18: 131–142.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[F07] Framenau, V. W. 2007. Revision of the new Australian genus Artoriopsis in a new subfamily of wolf spiders, Artoriinae (Araneae: Lycosidae). Zootaxa 1391: 1–34.

[FL13] Framenau, V. W., & A. E. Leung. 2013. Costacosa, a new genus of wolf spider (Araneae, Lycosidae) from coastal north-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 173–184.

[FY06] Framenau, V. W., & J.-S. Yoo. 2006. Systematics of the new Australian wolf spider genus Tuberculosa (Araneae: Lycosidae). Invertebrate Systematics 20: 185–202.

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J02] Jocqué, R. 2002. Genitalic polymorphism—a challenge for taxonomy. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 298–306.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[MGK03] Marusik, Yu. M., E. F. Guseinov & S. Koponen. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 2. Critical survey of wolf spiders (Lycosidae) found in the country with description of three new species and brief review of Palaearctic Evippa Simon, 1885. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 47–65.

[PY07] Park, Y. C., J.-S. Yoo, M. P. Schwarz, N. Murphy & J.-P. Kim. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of east Asian wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100 (1): 1–8.

[PR01] Punzo, F., & C. Reeves. 2001. Geographical variation in male courtship behaviour of the giant whipscorpion Mastigoproctus giganteus (Lucas) (Arachnida, Uropygi). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12 (2): 93–96.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[RU14] Rutledge, J. M., & G. W. Uetz. 2014. Juvenile experience and adult female mating preferences in two closely related Schizocosa species. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 170–177.

[SB14] Suter, R. B., & K. Benson. 2014. Nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular: activity assessments of Pisauridae and Lycosidae. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 178–191.

[VMP02] Vink, C. J., A. D. Mitchell & A. M. Paterson. 2002. A preliminary molecular analysis of phylogenetic relationships of Australasian wolf spider genera (Araneae, Lycosidae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 227–237.

[YF06] Yoo, J.-S., & V. W. Framenau. 2006. Systematics and biogeography of the sheet-web building wolf spider genus Venonia (Araneae: Lycosidae). Invertebrate Systematics 20: 675–712.

Oxyopidae

Male striped lynx spider Oxyopes salticus, from Kaldari.


Belongs within: Lycosoidea.

The Oxyopidae, lynx spiders, are actively hunting spiders found living on vegetation.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to large; eight eyes present forming a hexagon occupying a small area on edge of carapace, tapetum grate-like, secondary eyes without tapetum; clypeus wide; legs with prominent setae, trochanters notched, three tarsal claws; ecribellate; entelegyne.

<==Oxyopidae
    |--Hostus Simon 1898 JD-S07
    |--Megullia Thorell 1897 JD-S07
    |--Pseudohostus Rainbow 1915 JD-S07
    |--Schaenicoscelis Simon 1898 JD-S07
    |--Tapinillus Simon 1898 JD-S07
    |--Tapponia Simon 1885 JD-S07
    |--Hamataliwa Keyserling 1887 JD-S07
    |    `--H. grisea TF98
    |--Peucetia Thorell 1869 [Peucetieae] JD-S07
    |    |--P. flava Keyserling 1877 M-FR08
    |    |--P. formosensis Kishida 1930 TYM08
    |    |--P. lampei Strand 1906 J98
    |    |--P. longipes JD-S07
    |    |--P. madagascariensis JD-S07
    |    |--P. rubrigastra M-L31
    |    |--P. rubrolineata Keyserling 1877 M-FR08
    |    `--P. viridans Hentz 1832 M-FR08
    `--Oxyopes Latreille 1804 [Oxyopeae] K92
         |--O. aglossus (Chamberlin 1929) TF98
         |--O. camponis Strand 1915 J98
         |--O. ceylonicus Karsch 1892 K92
         |--O. gregarius FF99
         |--O. javanus Thorell 1887 T94
         |--O. macilentus K. 1878 R13
         |--O. salticus (Hentz 1845) TF98
         |--O. scalaris MC02
         |--O. shweta JD-S07
         `--O. variegatus H04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[M-L31] Mello-Leitão, C. F. de. 1931. Notas sobre arachnideos argentinos. Annaes da Academia Brasileira de Sciencias 3 (2): 83–97.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[M-FR08] Morais-Filho, J. C., & G. Q. Romero. 2008. Microhabitat use by Peucetia flava (Oxyopidae) on the glandular plant Rhyncanthera dichotoma (Melastomataceae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 374–378.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

[TF98] Townsend, V. R., Jr., & B. E. Felgenhauer. 1998. The cuticular scales of lynx spiders (Araneae, Oxyopidae). Journal of Morphology 236: 223–231.

Crataegus

Common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna, copyright Jean-Pol Grandmont.


Belongs within: Rosaceae.

Crataegus, the hawthorns, is a diverse genus of often thorny shrubs and small trees found in northern temperate regions.

Characters (from Flora of China): Shrubs, subshrubs, or small trees, deciduous, rarely evergreen, armed, rarely unarmed; buds ovoid or subglobose. Leaves simple, stipulate, venation craspedodromous, margin serrate and lobed or partite, rarely entire. Inflorescences corymbose, sometimes flowers solitary. Hypanthium campanulate. Sepals 5. Petals 5, white, rarely pinkish. Stamens 5–25; carpels 1–5, connate, but free apically. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, with 2 ovules per locule, but one rudimentary. Fruit a pome, with persistent sepals at apex; carpels bony when mature, each locule with 1 seed; seed erect, cotyledons plano-convex.

<==Crataegus
    |--C. coccinea Linnaeus 1753 [incl. C. pedicellata Sargent 1901] PCM03
    |--C. cordata [=Mespilus cordata] PCM03
    |--C. dodgei PCM03
    |--C. holmesiana PCM03
    |--C. intricata PCM03
    |--C. laciniata R-CT01
    |--C. laevigata TG88
    |--C. magniflora PCM03
    |--C. maximowiczii [incl. C. sanguinea] LO98
    |--C. mollis PCM03
    |--C. monogyna BH02
    |--C. nigra PCM03
    |--C. oxyacantha C55
    |--C. phaenopyrum PCM03
    `--C. pringlei PCM03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH02] Bell, J. R., A. J. Haughton, N. D. Boatman & A. Wilcox. 2002. Do incremental increases of the herbicide glyphosate have indirect consequences for spider communities? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 288–297.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[PCM03] Phipps, J. B., S. Cafferty & J. A. Macklin. 2003. Lectotypification of Crataegus coccinea L. and its conspecificity with C. pedicellata Sarg. (Rosaceae). Taxon 52: 337–338.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

Venonia

Venonia micarioides, copyright Angus Veitch.


Belongs within: Lycosidae.

Venonia is a genus of small, slender wolf spiders found in southeast Asia and Australasia that build small sheet-webs close to the ground (Yoo & Framenau 2006).

Characters (from Yoo & Framenau 2006): Coloration uniform, light brown to black, with posterodorsal white spot on abdomen; male pedipalp with strongly asymmetrical cymbium appearing apico-retrolaterally truncated, tegular apophysis membranous, embolic division reduced, pedipalp tibia rotated in relation to femur so that pedipalp bulbs are facing each other; epigyne with posterior central incision, lacking sclerotised plate.

<==Venonia Thorell 1894 YF06
    |--V. kokoda Lehtinen & Hippa 1979 YF06
    `--+--V. micarioides (Koch 1877) [=Aulonia micarioides, Artoria micarioides] YF06
       `--+--V. infundibulum Yoo & Framenau 2006 YF06
          |--V. kimjoopili Yoo & Framenau 2006 YF06
          |--V. nata Yoo & Framenau 2006 YF06
          |--V. sungahae Yoo & Framenau 2006 YF06
          |--V. vilkkii Lehtinen & Hippa 1979 YF06
          `--+--+--V. cinctipes (Simon 1898) [=Anomalomma cinctipes] YF06
             |  `--V. muju (Chrysanthus 1967) [=Anomalomma muju] YF06
             `--+--*V. coruscans Thorell 1894 YF06
                `--+--+--V. chaiwooi Yoo & Framenau 2006 YF06
                   |  `--V. joejim Yoo & Framenau 2006 YF06
                   `--+--V. micans (Simon 1898) [=Anomalomma micans; incl. V. gabrielae Barrion & Litsinger 1995] YF06
                      `--+--V. choiae Yoo & Framenau 2006 YF06
                         `--V. milla Lehtinen & Hippa 1979 YF06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[YF06] Yoo, J.-S., & V. W. Framenau. 2006. Systematics and biogeography of the sheet-web building wolf spider genus Venonia (Araneae: Lycosidae). Invertebrate Systematics 20: 675–712.

Evippa

Evippa sp., copyright A. Nadolny.


Belongs within: Lycosidae.

Evippa is a genus of wolf spiders found from southern China to northern Africa. Male pedipalps of this genus have an embolus forming a slender functional conductor that projects beyond the tegular apophysis.

<==Evippa Simon 1882 [Evippinae] MGK03
    |--*E. arenaria (Audouin 1827) [=Lycosa arenaria] MGK03
    |--E. apsheronica Marusik, Guseinov & Koponen 2003 MGK03
    |--E. badchysica Šternbergs 1979 MGK03
    |--E. benevola (Pickard-Cambridge 1885) MGK03
    |--E. caucasica Marusik, Guseinov & Koponen 2003 MGK03
    |--E. concolor (Kroneberg 1875) [=Lycosa concolor] MGK03
    |--E. eltonica Dunin 1994 MGK03
    |--E. fujianensis Peng, Yin & Kim 1996 MGK03
    |--E. helanshangensis Peng, Yin & Kim 1996 MGK03
    |--E. jocquei Alderweireldt 1991 MGK03
    |--E. kronebergi Roewer 1955 (see below for synonymy) MGK03
    |--E. onager Simon 1895 MGK03
    |--E. praelongipes (Pickard-Cambridge 1870) MGK03
    |--E. schenkeli Šternbergs 1979 MGK03
    |--E. sjostedti Schenkel 1936 [incl. Xerolycosa brunneopicta Loksa 1965, E. potanini Schenkel 1963] MGK03
    |--E. sibirica Marusik 1995 MGK03
    `--E. turkmenica Šternbergs 1979 MGK03

Nomen nudum: Evippa beshkentica Andreeva 1976

Evippa kronebergi Roewer 1955 [=Lycosa aculeata Kroneberg 1875 non (Clerck 1757), Acantholycosa aculeata, Evippa aculeata, Pardosa aculeata]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[MGK03] Marusik, Yu. M., E. F. Guseinov & S. Koponen. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 2. Critical survey of wolf spiders (Lycosidae) found in the country with description of three new species and brief review of Palaearctic Evippa Simon, 1885. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 47–65.