Field of Science

Paguroidea

Specimen of wood-dwelling hermit crab Xylopagurus rectus, together with its home, copyright IRD-Poupin.


Belongs within: Anomala.
Contains: Pagurus.

The Paguroidea is a group of marine crustaceans including the hermit crabs of the Paguridae, Parapaguridae and Pylojacquesia colemani, together with the stone crabs of the Lithodidae. Most paguroids have the third maxillipeds widely separated, though they are more closely approximated in Pylojacquesia.

<==Paguroidea
    |  i. s.: Pagurixus jerviensis McLaughlin & Haig 1984 ML01
    |         Discorsopagurus schmitti (Stevens 1925) L95
    |         Orthopagurus minimus (Homes 1900) L95
    |--Pylojacquesia McLaughlin & Lemaitre 2001 [Pylojacquesidae] ML01
    |    `--*P. colemani McLaughlin & Lemaitre 2001 ML01
    |--Lithodidae ML01
    |    |--Dermaturus mandtii Brandt 1850 ML01
    |    |--Hapalogaster dentata (de Haan 1844) ML01
    |    |--Paralomis ML01
    |    |    |--P. hirta B64
    |    |    |--P. histrix (de Haan 1846) ML01
    |    |    `--P. poorei Ahyong 2010 MG-H11
    |    `--Lithodes DAS03
    |         |--L. antarctica W81
    |         |--L. rachelae Ahyong 2010 MG-H11
    |         `--L. santolla (Molina 1782) DAS03
    |--Parapaguridae ML01
    |    |--Strobopagurus MG-H11
    |    |--Paragiopagurus ML01
    |    |    |--P. boletifer (de Saint Laurent 1972) MG-H11
    |    |    |--P. diogenes (Whitelegge 1900) MG-H11
    |    |    `--P. insolitus Lemaitre 1997 ML01
    |    |--Oncopagurus MG-H11
    |    |    |--O. indicus (Alcock 1905) MG-H11
    |    |    |--O. minutus (Henderson 1896) MG-H11
    |    |    `--O. monstrosus (Alcock 1894) MG-H11
    |    |--Parapagurus ML01
    |    |    |--P. alaminos Lemaître 1989 DAS03
    |    |    |--P. andreui L95
    |    |    |--P. latimanus Henderson 1888 MG-H11
    |    |    `--P. pilosimanus Smith 1879 ML01
    |    `--Sympagurus MG-H11
    |         |--S. brevipes (de Saint Laurent 1972) MG-H11
    |         |--S. dimorphus (Studer 1883) MG-H11
    |         |--S. planimanus (de Saint Laurent 1972) MG-H11
    |         `--S. villosus Lemaitre 1996 MG-H11
    `--Paguridae [Pagurinae] ML01
         |--Pylopagurus Milne-Edwards & Bouvier 1891 ML01
         |--Solitariopagurus Türkay 1986 ML01
         |--Alainopagurus McLaughlin 1997 ML01
         |--Phimochirus McLaughlin 1981 ML01
         |--Tomopagurus wassi L95
         |--Munidopagurus Milne Edwards & Bouvier 1893 L95
         |--Tomopaguroides Balss 1912 L95
         |--Tomopaguropsis Alcock 1905 L95
         |--Lithopagurus Provenzano 1968 L95
         |--Paguritta TSH09
         |--Anapagrides MG-H11
         |--Bathypaguropsis yaldwyni McLaughlin 1994 MG-H11
         |--Cestopagurus timidus (Roux 1830) MG-H11, KK03
         |--Hemipagurus MG-H11
         |--Michelopagurus MG-H11
         |--Nematopagurus MG-H11
         |--Propagurus haigae (McLaughlin 1997) MG-H11
         |--Spiropagurus fimbriatus Lewinsohn 1982 MG-H11
         |--Pagurus ML01
         |--Pylopaguropsis Alcock 1905 ML01
         |    `--P. zebra (Henderson 1893) MG-H11
         |--Catapagurus Milne-Edwards 1880 ML01
         |    `--C. sharreri L95
         |--Labidochirus Benedict 1892 ML01
         |    `--L. splendescens L95
         |--Porcellanopagurus Filhol 1885 ML01
         |    |--P. edwardsi B64
         |    `--P. filholi de Saint Laurent & McLaughlin 2000 MG-H11
         |--Turleana MG-H11
         |    |--T. albatrossae (McLaughlin & Haig 1996) MG-H11
         |    `--T. multispina McLaughlin 1997 MG-H11
         |--Lophopagurus MG-H11
         |    |--L. nanus (Henderson 1888) MG-H11
         |    `--L. triserratus (Ortmann 1892) [=Australeremus triserratus] ML01
         `--Xylopagurus Milne-Edwards 1880 ML01
              |--*X. rectus Milne Edwards 1880 L95
              |--X. anthonii Lemaitre 1995 L95
              |--X. cancellarius Walton 1950 ML01 [=Xilopagurus (l. c.) cancellarius L95]
              |--X. tayrona Lemaitre & Campos 1993 L95
              `--X. tenuis Lemaitre 1995 L95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B64] Bennett, E. W. 1964. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Crustacea Brachyura. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 153: 1–120.

[DAS03] Dixon, C. J., S. T. Ahyong & F. R. Schram. 2003. A new hypothesis of decapod phylogeny. Crustaceana 76: 935–975.

[KK03] Kocataş, A. & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[L95] Lemaitre, R. 1995. A review of the hermit crabs of the genus Xylopagurus A. Milne Edwards, 1880 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae), including descriptions of two new species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 570: 1–27.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[ML01] McLaughlin, P. A., & R. Lemaitre. 2001. A new family for a new genus and new species of hermit crab of the superfamily Paguroidea (Decapoda: Anomura) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (4): 1062–1076.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

Sphaeromatidae

Dynamene bidentata, copyright David Fenwick.


Belongs within: Sphaeromatidea.
Contains: Monolistrini.

The Sphaeromatidae are a group of marine isopods capable of rolling into a compact ball (Menzies & Kruczynski 1983).

Characters (from Menzies & Kruczynski 1983, as Sphaeromidae): First pleonite distinct; second to fifth fused, forming vault with pleotelson containing pleopods. Males with uropodal endopod fused to peduncle; exopod movable.

<==Sphaeromatidae [Sphaeromidae] MD01
    |--+--Sphaeroma Bosc 1802 [Sphaeromatinae] BP03
    |  |    |--*S. serratum (Fabricius 1787) MK83, BP03 [=Oniscus serratus MK83]
    |  |    |--S. quadridentata Say 1818 [=S. quadridentatum] MK83
    |  |    |--S. quoianum Milne Edwards 1840 BP03
    |  |    |--S. rugicauda D01
    |  |    |--S. terebrans Bate 1866 [incl. S. destructor Richardson 1897] MK83
    |  |    `--S. walkeri Stebbing 1904 MK83
    |  `--Dynamene Leach 1814 [Dynameninae] BP03
    |       |--D. bidentata B78
    |       |--D. curalii Holdich & Harrison 1980 BP03
    |       |--D. dilatata H47
    |       |--D. edwardsi BBB-S95
    |       |--D. glabra H47
    |       `--D. sheareri Hatch 1947 H47
    `--Cassidininae BP03
         |  i. s.: Cassidina Milne Edwards 1840 BP03
         |           `--C. typa Milne Edwards 1840 BP03
         |         Cassidinidea Hansen 1905 BP03
         |           |--C. korpie Bruce 1993 BP03
         |           |--C. lunifrons (Richardson 1900) MK83
         |           `--C. ovalis (Say 1818) MK83
         |         Paraleptosphaeroma Buss & Iverson 1981 BP03
         |           |--P. brucei Kussakin & Malyutina 1993 BP03
         |           `--P. indica Müller 1990 BP03
         `--Monolistrini S86

Sphaeromatidae incertae sedis:
  Thermosphaeroma thermophilum S86, F01
  Gnorimosphaeroma S86
  Exosphaeroma BP03
    |--E. alba Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    |--E. amplicauda (Stimpson 1857) BP03
    |--E. chilensis HS01
    |--E. crenulata (Richardson 1902) MK83
    |--E. diminuta Menzies & Frankenberg 1966 MK83
    |--E. gigas BP03
    |--E. obtusum (Dana 1853) FZA07
    |--E. oregonensis H47
    `--E. productatelson Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
  Cymodoce Leach 1814 MK83
    |--*C. truncata Leach 1814 MK83
    |--C. faxoni (Richardson 1905) (see below for synonymy) MK83
    `--C. japonica H47
  Paradynemene benjamensis Richardson 1905 MK83
  Geocerceis barbarae Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
  Cerceis carinata Glynn 1970 MK83
  Discerceis linguicauda (Richardson 1901) MK83
  Paracerceis Hansen 1905 MK83
    |--*P. caudata (Say 1818) (see below for synonymy) MK83
    |--P. edithae Boone 1930 MK83
    |--P. nuttingi (Boone 1921) MK83
    `--P. sculpta (Holmes 1904) HJ08
  Dynamenella MK83
    |--D. acutitelson Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    |--D. angulata (Richardson 1901) MK83
    |--D. barnardi Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    |--D. dianae (Menzies 1962) MK83
    |--D. perforata (Moore 1902) [incl. D. moorei Richardson 1905] MK83
    |--D. plicatura Glynn 1970 MK83
    |--D. quadripunctata Menzies & Glynn 1968 MK83
    `--D. tumidicauda Glynn 1970 MK83
  Dies barnardi Carvacho 1977 MK83
  Paradella dianae (Menzies 1962) HJ08
  Lekanesphaera teissieri (Bocquet & Lejuez 1967) BP03
  Zuzara venosa BP03

Cymodoce faxoni (Richardson 1905) [=Exosphaeroma faxoni; incl. E. antillense Richardson 1912, E. barrerae Boone 1918] MK83

*Paracerceis caudata (Say 1818) [=Naesa caudata, Ciliceae caudata, Cymodocea caudata; incl. Cy. bermudensis Ives 1892, Dynamene bermudensis, Paracerceis tomentosa Schultz & McCloskey 1967, Exosphaeroma yucatanum Richardson 1905] MK83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d'Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[B78] Brusca, R. C. 1978. Studies on the cymothoid fish symbionts of the eastern Pacific (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) II. Systematics and biology of Lironeca vulgaris Stimpson 1857. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation New Series 2: 1–19.

[D01] Dollfus, A. 1901. Isopodák [Isopodes]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 371–374. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F01] Fashing, N. J. 2001. Morphological adaptations associated with mate-guarding behaviour in the genus Hericia (Acari: Algophagidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 176–179. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[FZA07] Fiege, D., H. Zibrowius & P. M. Arnaud. 2007. New deep-water records of cocoons of undescribed species of Fecampiidae from Antarctica to the Bay of Biscay (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Rhabdocoela). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 1–6.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[S86] Sket, B. 1986. Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 423–427. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Sphaeromatidea

Male Serolis bromleyana, from Beddard (1884).


Belongs within: Scuticoxifera.
Contains: Sphaeromatidae.

The Sphaeromatidea are a clade of marine isopods with the underside of the pleotelson vaulted, defining a branchial chamber (Brandt & Poore 2003).

Characters (from Brandt & Poore 2003): Pleonites variously fused (rarely 1–5 free), pleonite 1 narrower than others (similar in Plakarthrium). Pleotelson underside vaulted, branchial chamber defined by ridges along mesial margin of lateral edge. Antenna 1 without scale. Mandibular lacinia mobilis present on left side, reduced and fused with spine row on right or absent. Mandibular molar a cylindrical process with triturative flat end. Maxillipedal endite reaching at least distal margin of palp article 2, usually distally truncate and setose. Pleopod 3 endopod roughly triangular or at least with inner angle sharper than outer. Dorsal coxal plate 7 similar to others (rarely shorter). Uropodal rami lateral to margin of pleotelson, articulating along longitudinal axis and folding down alongside branchial space.

<==Sphaeromatidea BP03
    |--Sphaeromatoidea BP03
    |    |--Paravireia Chilton 1925 BP03
    |    |    `--P. holdichi Brökeland, Wägele & Bruce 2001 BP03
    |    `--+--Sphaeromatidae BP03
    |       `--+--Tecticeps Richardson 1897 [Tecticipitidae] BP03
    |          |    |--T. alascensis H47
    |          |    |--T. convexus H47
    |          |    |--T. marginalis Gurjanova 1935 BP03
    |          |    `--T. pugettensis Hatch 1947 H47
    |          `--Ancinidae BP03
    |               |--Bathycopea Tattersall 1905 BP03
    |               |    `--B. typhlops Tattersall 1905 BP03
    |               `--Ancinus Milne Edwards 1840 BP03
    |                    |--A. belizensis Kensley & Schotte 1987 BP03
    |                    `--A. depressus (Say 1818) MK83
    `--Seroloidea BP03
         |--Plakarthrium Chilton 1883 [Plakarthriidae] BP03
         |    `--P. australiense Poore & Brandt 2001 BP03
         `--+--Schweglerella [Schweglerellidae] BP03
            |    `--S. strobli Polz 1998 BP03
            `--+--Bathynataliidae BP02
               |    |--Biremia Bruce 1985 BP03
               |    |    `--B. ambocerca Bruce 1985 BP03
               |    `--+--Naudea Kensley 1979 BP03
               |       |    `--N. louwae Kensley 1979 BP03
               |       `--Bathynatalia Kensley 1978 BP03
               |            `--B. gilchristi Barnard 1957 BP03
               `--+--Basserolis Poore 1985 [Basserolidae] BP03
                  |    `--B. kimblae Poore 1985 BP03
                  `--Serolidae BP03
                       |--Serolina holia Poore 1987 BP03
                       `--Serolis Leach 1818 BP03
                            |--*S. paradoxus (Fabricius 1775) [=Oniscus paradoxus; incl. S. fabricii Leach 1818] MK83
                            |--S. bouvieri Richardson 1909 BP03
                            |--S. bromleyana BH88
                            |--S. carinata Lockington 1877 MK83
                            `--S. mgrayi Menzies & Frankenberg 1966 MK83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH88] Boxshall, G. A., & K. Harrison. 1988. New nicothoid copepods (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) from an amphipod and from deep-sea isopods. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology series 54 (6): 285–299.

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

Leptocheliidae

Leptochelia sp., copyright Magdalena Błażewicz-Paszkowycz.


Belongs within: Tanaidacea.

The Leptocheliidae are a family of tanaidaceans characterised by a relatively high number of articles in the uropod endopod (Larsen & Wilson 2002).

Characters (from Larsen & Wilson 2002): Female with medium body calcification. No plates in carapace. Eyes present (except in Mesotanais). Pereonite 1 not reduced. Pleon with five free pleonites, as wide as pereon, no articulated setae on pleonites. Antennule with three to five articles. Antenna with six articles, article 3 with or without (Heterotanaoides) dorsal spiniform setae. Molar process broad. Labium with four lobes, medial spiniform setae absent. Maxilliped basis and endites not fused, endites narrower than basis and with two, or (frequently) three flat setae. Cheliped attachment via sclerite. Marsupium (where known) with four pairs of oostegites. Pereopod coxa present on P1–3 but absent on P4–6. P4–6 dactylus and terminal setae fused to a hook. Pleopods well developed. Uropod endopod with three to six articles, exopod with one or two articles. Male (where known) with body shorter than female. Eyes larger than females. Antennule with more than four articles and aesthetascs. Mouthparts reduced. Cheliped always significantly enlarged and elongated. Pleopods well developed.

<==Leptocheliidae
    |--Heterotanaidinae LW02
    |    |--Heterotanaoides Sieg 1976 LW02
    |    |    `--H. meridionalis Sieg 1986 LW02
    |    |--Mesotanais Dollfus 1897 LW02
    |    |    `--M. dubius Dollfus 1897 LW02
    |    `--Heterotanais Sars 1882 LW02
    |         |--H. melacephala H47
    |         `--H. oerstedii (Kroyer 1842) LW02
    `--Leptocheliinae LW02
         |--‘Hargeria’ Lang 1973 non Lucas 1903 LW02
         |    `--H. rapax (Harger 1879) LW02
         |--Intermedichelia Gutu 1996 LW02
         |    `--I. gracilis Gutu 1996 LW02
         |--Pseudoleptochelia Lang 1973 LW02
         |    `--P. antarctica (Lang 1953) LW02
         |--Pseudonototanais Lang 1973 LW02
         |    `--P. werthi (VanHoeffen 1914) LW02
         `--Leptochelia Dana 1852 LW02
              |--L. dubia (Kroyer 1842) LW02
              `--L. filum H47

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[LW02] Larsen, K., & G. D. F. Wilson. 2002. Tanaidacean phylogeny, the first step: the superfamily Paratanaidoidea. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40: 205–222.

Cymothoida

Parasitic isopod Anilocra physodes, copyright Txomin Rivera.


Belongs within: Scuticoxifera.
Contains: Cirolaninae, Eurydicinae, Gnathiidae, Anthuroidea, Corallanidae, Aegidae, Epicaridea, Lironeca, Nerocila, Cymothoa.

The Cymothoida is a diverse group of mostly marine isopods, including both free-living and parasitic forms.

Characters (from Brandt & Poore 2003): Pleonites 1–5 free, pleonite 1 similar to others (some pleonites fused in some species). Pleotelson underside flat, without ventrolateral ridges; pleopods not enclosed laterally. Antenna 1 without scale (except in Bathynomus). Mandibular lacinia mobilis absent (present in some Anthuroidea as part of lacinia mobilis). Mandibular molar flat blade-like or conical process (sometimes absent). Maxillipedal endite, if present, rarely longer than palp article 1, distally tapering and with few setae. Dorsal coxal plate 7 similar to others. Pleopods 3–5 endopods more or less oval or rectangular, rounded dorsally. Uropodal rami ventral to pleotelson, articulating from side to side along vertical axis inside branchial spine.

<==Cymothoida BP03
    |--Cirolanidae [Cirolanoidea] BP03
    |    |  i. s.: Ceratolana BBN86
    |    |         Kensleylana Bruce & Herrando-Pérez 2005 F05
    |    |           `--*K. briani Bruce & Herrando-Pérez 2005 F05
    |    |--Cirolaninae BBN86
    |    |--Eurydicinae BBN86
    |    `--+--Conilorpheus BBN86
    |       |--Orphelana BBN86
    |       |--Politolana concharum BBN86, M02
    |       |--Conilera Leach 1818 BBN86, T08
    |       |    |--C. cylindracea Montagu 1804 T08
    |       |    `--C. stygia Packard 1894 BBN86
    |       `--Natatolana Bruce 1986 BBN86, BP03
    |            |--N. albinota BP03
    |            |--N. caeca BBN86
    |            |--N. californiensis BBN86
    |            `--N. woodjonesi (Hale 1924) BP03
    `--Cymothooidea BP03
         |--Anuropus Beddard 1886 [Anuropidae] BP03
         |    |--A. kussakini Vasina 1998 BP03
         |    `--A. pacificus Lincoln & Jones 1973 BP03
         `--+--Protognathia Wägele & Brandt 1988 [Protognathiidae] BP03
            |    |--P. bathypelagica Wägele & Brandt 1988 BP03
            |    `--P. waegeli Kussakin & Rybakov 1995 BP03
            `--+--+--Gnathiidae BP03
               |  `--Anthuroidea BP03
               `--+--Corallanidae BP03
                  `--+--Tridentella Richardson 1905 [Tridentellidae] BP03
                     |    |--T. benguela Brandt & Poore 2001 BP03
                     |    `--T. namibia Brandt & Poore 2001 BP03
                     `--+--Aegidae BP03
                        `--+--Epicaridea BP03
                           `--Cymothoidae BP03
                                |--Lironeca B78
                                |--Aegathoa MK83
                                |--Olencira praegustator (Latrobe 1802) MK83
                                |--Agarna cumulus (Haller 1880) [incl. A. carinata Schiödte & Meinert 1883] MK83
                                |--Telotha henselii (von Martens 1869) MK83
                                |--Nerocila T08
                                |--Renocila ovata Bruce 1987 BP03
                                |--Ourozeuktes Milne Edwards 1840 T08
                                |    `--O. bopyroides (Lesueur 1814) [incl. O. owenii Milne Edwards 1840] T08
                                |--Cteatessa Schioedte & Meinert 1883 T08
                                |    `--C. retusa (Schioedte & Meinert 1878) T08
                                |--Cterissa Schioedte & Meinert 1884 T08
                                |    `--C. pterygota (Koelbel 1878) T08
                                |--Emetha Schioedte & Meinert 1883 T08
                                |    `--E. audouini (Milne Edwards 1840) T08
                                |--Glossobius Schioedte & Meinert 1883 T08
                                |    `--G. impressa (Say 1818) T08
                                |--Lobothorax Bleeker 1856 T08
                                |    `--L. typus Bleeker 1857 (see below for synonymy) T08
                                |--Norileca Bruce 1990 T08
                                |    `--N. indica (Milne Edwards 1840) [=Livoneca indica] T08
                                |--Meinertia MK83
                                |    |--M. deplanata (Bovallius 1885) MK83
                                |    `--M. transversa Richardson 1900 MK83
                                |--Elthusa Schioedte & Meinert 1884 T08
                                |    |--E. raynaudii (Milne Edwards 1840) T08
                                |    `--E. vulgaris (Stimpson 1857) [=Livoneca vulgaris] T08
                                |--Ichthyoxenus Herklots 1870 T08
                                |    |--I. fushanensis Tsai & Dai 1999 TD03
                                |    `--I. jellinghausi Herklots 1870 T08
                                |--Livoneca Leach 1818 T08
                                |    |--L. californica H47
                                |    |--L. redmanii Leach 1818 T08
                                |    `--L. sinuata Koelbel 1878 T08
                                |--Mothocya Costa 1851 T08
                                |    |--M. epimerica Costa 1851 T08
                                |    |--M. longicopa C02
                                |    |--M. nana (Schiödte & Meinert 1884) [=Irona nana] MK83
                                |    |--M. plagulophora (Haller 1880) [incl. Irona vatia Schioedte & Meinert 1884] T08
                                |    |--M. renardi (Bleeker 1857) T08
                                |    `--M. sajori Bruce 1986 T08
                                |--Ceratothoa Dana 1852 T08
                                |    |--C. carinata Bianconi 1869 T08
                                |    |--C. imbricata (Fabricius 1775) [=Codonophilus imbricatus] T08
                                |    |--C. impressa (Say 1818) MK83
                                |    |--C. italica Schioedte & Meinert 1883 T08
                                |    |--C. oestroides (Risso 1826) T08
                                |    |--C. oxyrrhynchaena Koelbel 1878 T08
                                |    `--C. parallela (Otto 1828) T08
                                |--Anilocra Leach 1818 T08
                                |    |--A. acuta Richardson 1910 MK83
                                |    |--A. capensis Leach 1818 T08
                                |    |--A. frontalis Milne Edwards 1840 T08
                                |    |--A. holocentri Williams & Williams 1981 T08
                                |    |--A. laticauda Milne Edwards 1840 MK83
                                |    |--A. leptosoma Bleeker 1857 T08
                                |    |--A. physodes (Linnaeus 1758) T08
                                |    |--A. plebia Schiödte & Meinert 1883 MK83
                                |    `--A. vittata Lucas 1846 E12
                                `--Cymothoa T08

Lobothorax typus Bleeker 1857 [incl. Saophra aurita Schioedte & Meinert 1883, L. aurita] T08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BBN86] Botosaneanu, L., N. Bruce & J. Notenboom. 1986. Isopoda: Cirolanidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 412–422. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[B78] Brusca, R. C. 1978. Studies on the cymothoid fish symbionts of the eastern Pacific (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) II. Systematics and biology of Lironeca vulgaris Stimpson 1857. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation New Series 2: 1–19.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Needlefishes. Family Belonidae. In: Collette, B. B. & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 287–289. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[M02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In: Collette, B. B. & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 83–88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[T08] Trilles, J.-P. 2008. Some marine isopods from the Senckenberg Research Institute (Frankfurt am Main, Germany) (Crustacea, Isopoda: Cymothoidae, Aegidae, Corallanidae, Cirolanidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 21–28.

[TD03] Tsai, M.-L., & C.-F. Dai. 2003. Cannibalism within mating pairs of the parasitic isopod, Ichthyoxenus fushanensis. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 662–668.

Limnoriidea

Gribbles Limnoria lignorum, from NOAA.


Belongs within: Scuticoxifera.

The Limnoriidea are a group of marine isopods united by the absence of a mandibular molar (Brandt & Poore 2003). The gribble Limnoria lignorum is a significant pest of marine timbers, gnawing into exposed wood (Hatch 1947).

Characters (from Brandt & Poore 2003): Pleonites 1–5 or 1–4 free, pleonite 1 similar to others or narrower. Pleotelson underside flat, without ventrolateral ridges (pleopods not enclosed laterally). Antenna 1 with or without scale. Mandibular lacinia mobilis present or absent. Mandibular molar absent. Maxillipedal enditre reaching at least distal margin of palp article 4, non-tapering, slender (except in Keuphylia). Dorsal coxal plate 7 similar to others. Pleopods 3–5 endopods more or less oval or rectangular, rounded distally. Uropodal rami ventral to pleotelson, articulating from side to side along vertical axis or distal.

<==Limnoriidea [Limnorioidea] BP03
    |--Keuphylia [Keuphyliidae] BP03
    |    `--K. nodosa Bruce 1980 BP03
    `--+--Hadromastax Bruce 1988 [Hadromastacidae] BP03
       |    `--H. polynesica Bruce & Müller 1991 BP03
       `--Limnoriidae BP03
            |--Paralimnoria andrewsi (Calman 1910) BP03
            |--Lynseia [Lynseiidae] BP03
            `--Limnoria BP03
                 |--L. lignorum H47
                 |--L. pfefferi Stebbing 1904 MK83
                 |--L. platycauda Menzies 1957 MK83
                 |--L. quadripunctata Holthuis 1949 BP03
                 |--L. saseboensis Menzies 1957 MK83
                 |--L. simulata Menzies 1957 MK83
                 |--L. stephenseni BP03
                 `--L. tripunctata Menzies 1951 MK83

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

Cirolaninae

Cirolana harfordi, copyright Peter J. Bryant.


Belongs within: Cymothoida.

The Cirolaninae are a group of mostly marine isopods with a secondary unguis present on the pereopodal dactyli (Kensley & Schotte 1989).

Characters (from Kensley & Schotte 1989): Frontal lamina short, flat. Clypeus flattened, not projecting. Antennal peduncular articles 4 and 5 subequal, longer than articles 1–3. Pereopods with secondary unguis on dactyli. Penes reduced or absent. Pleonite 5 always overlapped by pleonite 4. Pleopod 2 in male with copulatory stylet articulating basally.

<==Cirolaninae
    |--Parabathynomus BBN86
    |--Hansenolana sphaeromiformis (Hansen 1890) BBN86, MK83
    |--Neocirolana BBN86
    |--Cartetolana BBN86
    |--Gnatholana BBN86
    |--Oncilorpheus stebbingi Paul & Menzies 1971 BBN86, MK83
    |--Creaseriella Rioja 1953 BBN86
    |    `--C. anops (Creaser 1936) BBN86
    |--Saharolana Monod 1930 BBN86
    |    `--S. seurati Monod 1930 BBN86
    |--Antrolana Bowman 1964 BBN86
    |    `--A. lira Bowman 1964 BBN86
    |--Cirolanides Benedict 1896 BBN86
    |    `--C. texensis Benedict 1896
    |--Mexilana Bowman 1975 BBN86
    |    `--M. saluposi Bowman 1975 BBN86
    |--Faucheria Dollfus & Viré 1905 BBN86
    |    `--F. faucheri (Dollfus & Viré 1900) BBN86
    |--Bathynomus Milne Edwards 1879 BBN86, BP03
    |    |--B. giganteus Milne Edwards 1879 MK83
    |    `--B. immanis Bruce 1986 BP03
    |--Haptolana Bowman 1966 BBN86
    |    |--H. pholeta Bruce & Humphreys 1993 PH13
    |    |--H. somala Messana & Chelazzi 1984 BBN86
    |    `--H. trichostoma Bowman 1966 BBN86
    |--Bahalana Carpenter 1981 BBN86
    |    |--B. cardiopus Notenboom 1981 BBN86
    |    `--B. geracei Carpenter 1981 BBN86
    |--Turcolana Argano & Pesce 1980 BBN86
    |    |--T. cariae Argano & Pesce 1980 BBN86
    |    `--T. rhodica Botosaneanu, Boutin & Henry 1985 BBN86
    |--Skotobaena Ferrara & Monod 1972 BBN86
    |    |--S. monodi Ferrara & Lanza 1978 BBN86
    |    `--S. mortoni Monod 1972 BBN86
    |--Sphaerolana Cole & Minckley 1972 BBN86
    |    |--S. affinis Cole & Minckley 1970 BBN86
    |    `--S. interstitialis Cole & Minckley 1970 BBN86
    |--Anopsilana Paulian & Delamare Deboutteville 1956 (see below for synonymy) BBN86
    |    |--A. acanthura (Notenboom 1981) BBN86
    |    |--A. crenata Bowman & Franz 1982 BBN86
    |    |--A. cubensis (Hay 1903) BBN86
    |    |--A. poissoni Paulian & Delamare Deboutteville 1956 BBN86
    |    `--A. radicicola (Notenboom 1981) BBN86
    |--Speocirolana Bolivar y Pieltain 1950 BBN86
    |    |--S. bolivari (Rioja 1953) BBN86
    |    |--S. endeca Bowman 1981 BBN86
    |    |--S. guerrai Contreras-Balderas & Purata-Velarde 1982 BBN86
    |    |--S. pelaezi (Bolivar y Pieltain 1950) BBN86
    |    |--S. pubens Bowman 1981 BBN86
    |    `--S. thermydronis Cole & Minckley 1966 BBN86
    |--Sphaeromides Dollfus 1897 BBN86
    |    |--S. bureschi Strouhal 1963 BBN86
    |    |    |--S. b. bureschi BBN86
    |    |    `--S. b. serbica Pljakič 1968 BBN86
    |    |--S. polateni Angelov 1968 BBN86
    |    |--S. raymondi Dollfus 1897 BBN86
    |    `--S. virei (Brian 1923) [=Troglaega virei] BBN86
    |         |--S. v. virei BBN86
    |         |--S. v. mediodalmatina Sket 1964 BBN86
    |         `--S. v. montenigrina Sket 1957 BBN86
    |--Typhlocirolana Racovitza 1905 BBN86
    |    |--T. buxtoni Racovitza 1912 BBN86
    |    |--T. fontis (Gurney 1908) BBN86
    |    |--T. gurneyi Racovitza 1912 BBN86
    |    |--T. leptura Botosaneanu, Boutin & Henry 1985 BBN86
    |    |--T. lulli Pujiula 1911 BBN86
    |    |--T. moraguesi Racovitza 1905 BBN86
    |    |--T. reichi Por 1962 BBN86
    |    |--T. rifana Margalef 1958 BBN86
    |    `--T. steinitzi Strouhal 1960 BBN86
    `--Cirolana Leach 1818 MK83
         |--*C. cranchii Leach 1818 MK83
         |--C. borealis Lilljeborg 1851 [incl. C. spinipes Bate & Westwood 1868] MK83
         |--C. chiltoni H47
         |--C. gracilis Hansen 1890 MK83
         |--C. harfordi (Lockington 1877) HJ08
         |--C. kincaidi Hatch 1947 H47
         |--C. koepckei Bott 1954 B54
         |--C. lata BBN86
         |--C. leptanga Bruce 1994 BP03
         |--C. linguifrons B54
         |--C. minuta Hansen 1890 MK83
         |--C. obtruncata Richardson 1901 MK83
         |--C. parva Hansen 1890 [incl. C. albida Richardson 1901, C. diminuta Menzies 1962] MK83
         |--C. polita (Stimpson 1854) [=Aega polita, Conilera polita] MK83
         |--C. salvadorensis Schuster 1954 S54
         |--C. troglexuma FBI01
         `--C. vancouverensis [=C. chiltoni vancouverensis] H47

Anopsilana Paulian & Delamare Deboutteville 1956 [incl. Haitilana Notenboom 1981, Troglocirolana Rioja 1956] BBN86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BBN86] Botosaneanu, L., N. Bruce & J. Notenboom. 1986. Isopoda: Cirolanidae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 412–422. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[B54] Bott, R. 1954. Ein neuer litoraler Isopod aus Peru. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 107–108.

[BP03] Brandt, A. & G. C. B. Poore. 2003. Higher classification of the flabelliferan and related Isopoda based on a reappraisal of relationships. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 893–923.

[FBI01] Fosshagen, A., G. A. Boxshall & T. M. Iliffe. 2001. The Epacteriscidae, a cave-living family of calanoid copepods. Sarsia 86: 245–318.

[H47] Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. University of Washington Publications in Biology 10 (5): 155–274.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

Kensley, B., & M. Schotte. 1989. Guide to the Marine Isopod Crustaceans of the Caribbean. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington.

[MK83] Menzies, R. J., & W. L. Kruczynski. 1983. Isopod Crustacea (exclusive of Epicaridea). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 6 (1): 1–126.

[PH13] Poore, G. C. B. & W. F. Humphreys. 2013. Bunderanthura bundera gen. et sp. nov. from Western Australia, first anchialine Leptanthuridae (Isopoda) from the Southern Hemisphere. Records of the Western Australian Museum 28 (1): 21–29.

[S54] Schuster, O. 1954. Zwei neue Crustaceen von der pazifischen Küste Mittel-Amerikas (Amphipoda und Isopoda). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 103–105.