Field of Science

Xanthophyceae

Filaments and stalked cells of Tribonema minus, copyright D. J. Patterson & Craig Bailey.


Belongs within: Marista.

The Xanthophyceae, yellow-green algae, are a group of algae found primarily in fresh water with smaller numbers of species in soil or marine habitats. The group includes both unicellular and filamentous forms.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Predominately coccoid or filamentous, rarely amoeboid, ciliated or capsoid; swimming cells with two cilia, one anteriorly directed and bearing tripartite tubular hairs and one posteriorly directed and lacking tripartite hairs; four microtubular kinetosomal roots and one large striated kinetosomal root or rhizoplast; ciliary transitional helix with six apparently double gyres located above the major transitional plate; no paraciliary rod; cell walls typical, probably of cellulose and either entire or H-shaped bisectional walls; chloroplast with girdle lamella; outer chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum membrane with direct membrane connection to outer nuclear envelope membrane; plastid DNA with ring-type genophore; eyespots present or absent; plastid pigments include chlorophylls a and c1,2, violaxanthin, heteroxanthin, and vaucherioxanthin.

Xanthophyceae [Heterochlorida, Heterokontae, Heteromonadea, Xanthophyta]
    |  i. s.: Ostreobium [Phyllosiphonaceae] S57
    |           |--O. quekettii Bornet & Flahault 1889 S57
    |           `--O. reineckei Bornet 1896 L27
    |         Chlorobotrydaceae A90
    |           |--Chlorellidium A90
    |           |--Chlorobotrys A90
    |           `--Gloeobotrys A90
    |--Vaucheriaceae [Vaucheriales] C-SC06
    |    |--Dichotomosiphon tuberosus SG05
    |    `--Vaucheria C-SC06
    |         |--V. bursata C-SC06
    |         |--V. conroyi Habeeb 1984 C91
    |         |--V. litoria Bang & Agardh in Agardh 1821 S57
    |         `--V. sessilis SG05
    `--Tribonematales [Botrydiales, Heterotrichales, Mischococcales] A90
         |  i. s.: Characiopsis AS12
         |         Chloromeson AS12
         |         Ophiocytium capitatum AS12, M70
         |           |--O. c. var. capitatum M70
         |           `--O. c. var. longispinum M70
         |         Sphaerosorus AS12
         |--Heterococcus C-SC06 [Heterodendraceae A90]
         |    `--H. caespitosus C-SC06
         `--+--Mischococcus sphaerocephalus KI02, C-SC06
            `--+--Pseudopleurochloris antarctica KI02, C-SC06
               `--+--Pleurochloridaceae A90
                  |    |--Pleurochloris meiringensis C-SC06
                  |    |--Botrydiopsis intercedens A90, C-SC06
                  |    |--Chlorocloster A90
                  |    |--Ellipsoidion A90
                  |    `--Nephrodiella A90
                  `--+--Heterothrix debilis C-SC06
                     `--+--Botrydium [Botrydiaceae] C-SC06
                        |    `--B. stoloniferum C-SC06
                        `--+--Xanthonema debile KI02
                           `--+--Bumilleriopsis KI02 [Chlorotheciaceae A90]
                              |    `--B. filiformis KI02
                              `--Tribonemataceae [Tribonemaceae] A90
                                   |--Bumilleria A90
                                   |--Heterotrichella A90
                                   `--Tribonema C-SC06
                                        |--T. aequale KI02
                                        |--T. bombycinum SG05
                                        |--T. gayanum G00
                                        |--T. intermixtum C-SC06
                                        `--T. minus HM88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429-493.

[A90] Archibald, P. A. 1990. Soil algae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 69-96. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C-SC06] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2006. Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). Journal of Molecular Evolution 62: 388-420.

[C91] Conroy, J. C. 1991. Acarology—a modern science. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 5-16. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G00] Gromov, B. V. 2000. Algal parasites of the genera Aphelidium, Amoeboaphelidium, and Pseudaphelidium from Cienkovski’s “Monadinea” group as representatives of a new class. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 79 (5): 517-525 (transl. Entomological Review 80 (Suppl. 1): S26-S34).

[HM88] Hoshaw, R. W., & R. M. McCourt. 1988. The Zygnemataceae (Chlorophyta): A twenty-year update of research. Phycologia 27 (4): 511-548.

[KI02] Kawachi, M., I. Inouye, D. Honda, C. J. O’Kelly, J. C. Bailey, R. R. Bidigare & R. A. Andersen. 2002. The Pinguiophyceae classis nova, a new class of photosynthetic stramenopiles whose members produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Phycological Research 50: 31-47.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126-185.

[M70] Meel, L. van. 1970. Etudes limnologiques en Belgique. VI.–Les méandres de la Durme à Hamme (Province de Flandre Orientale). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (13): 1-56.

[SG05] Sau, A. & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 63-86.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1-289.

Sporozoa

Illustration of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites emerging from oocysts, from here.


Belongs within: Alveolata.
Contains: Eugregarinorida, Eimeriorina, Aconoidasida.

The Sporozoa is a group of unicellular organisms parasitic on animals, characterised by the presence of an apical complex containing organelles (rhoptries and micronemes) that secrete enzymes used in piercing the membrane of host cells. This clade is also commonly referred to as the Apicomplexa, though Cavalier-Smith & Chao (2004) used the latter name to refer to a larger clade also including the related organisms Colpodella and Acrocoelus.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012, as Apicomplexa): At least one stage of the life cycle with flattened sub-pellicular vesicles and apical complex consisting of one or more polar rings, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid, and sub-pellicular microtubules; sexuality, where known, by syngamy followed by immediate meiosis to produce haploid progeny; asexual reproduction of haploid stages occurring by binary fission, endodyogeny, endopolyogeny, and/or schizogony; locomotion by gliding, body flexion, longitudinal ridges, and/or cilia; parasitic.

Sporozoa [Coccidea, Coccidiida, Coccidiomorpha, Coccidiomorphina, Conoidasida, Euspora, Polannulifera, Telosporidia]
    |--Gregarinasina [Gregarinae, Gregarinea, Gregarinia, Gregarinomorpha] AS12
    |    |  i. s.: Acuta AS12
    |    |         Cephalolobus AS12
    |    |         Levinea AS12
    |    |         Menospora AS12
    |    |         Nematocystis AS12
    |    |         Nematopsis AS12
    |    |         Steinina AS12
    |    |         Trichorhynchus AS12
    |    |         Zygocystis C79
    |    |--+--Agamococcidiorida AS12
    |    |  |    |--Rhytidocystis polygordiae SM10
    |    |  |    `--Gemmocystis AS12
    |    |  `--+--Monocystis agilis LCK03
    |    |     `--+--Neogregarinida AS12
    |    |        |    |--Ophriocystis eletroscirrha LCK03
    |    |        |    |--Mattesia geminata C-S04
    |    |        |    `--Schyzocystis AS12
    |    |        `--Eugregarinorida LCK03
    |    `--+--Archigregarinorida AS12
    |       |    |--Filipodium AS12
    |       |    |--Platyproteum AS12
    |       |    |--Selenidium SM10
    |       |    |    |--S. terebellae C-S04
    |       |    |    `--S. vivax C-S04
    |       |    `--Veloxidium AS12
    |       `--Cryptosporidium C-SC04
    |            |  i. s.: C. felis N00
    |            |         C. meleagridis MM03
    |            |--+--C. serpentis SM10
    |            |  `--C. muris SM10
    |            `--+--C. parvum SM10
    |               `--+--C. baileyi SM10
    |                  `--C. wrairi C-SC04
    `--+--Coccidia AS12
       |    |--Eimeriorina C-SC04
       |    `--Adeleorina [Adeliida] AS12
       |         |--Adelea AS12
       |         |--Adelina SM10
       |         |    |--A. bambarooniae SM10
       |         |    `--A. transita R00
       |         |--Hepatozoon C-SC04
       |         |    |--H. aegypti K92
       |         |    |--H. americanum C-SC04
       |         |    `--H. catesbianae C-SC04
       |         |--Dactylosoma AS12
       |         |--Haemolivia AS12
       |         |--Haemogregarina AS12
       |         |    |--H. aeglefini K-M02
       |         |    `--H. stepanovi K92
       |         |--Klossia AS12
       |         `--Klossiella AS12
       `--+--+--Cardiosporidium cionae SM10
          |  `--Nephromyces Giard 1888 [Nephromycida, Nephromycidae] SM10
          `--Aconoidasida C-SC04

Sporozoa incertae sedis:
  Aggregata eberthi K92
  Akiba cauleryi K92
  Babesiosoma stableri K92
  Protococcidiorida AS12
    |--Angeiocystis AS12
    |--Coelotropha AS12
    |--Grellia AS12
    |--Eleutheroschizon AS12
    |--Myriosporides AS12
    |--Myriospora AS12
    `--Sawayella AS12
  Trophosphaera planorbulinae LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429-493.

[C-SC04] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E. Chao. 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.) European Journal of Protistology 40: 185-212.

[C79] Curds, C. R. 1979. Group phenomena in the phylum Protozoa. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 29-37. Academic Press: London.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Cods. Family Gadidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 223-261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K92] Krylov, M. V. 1992. The origin of heteroxeny in Sporozoa. Parazitologiya 26 (5): 361-368.

[LCK03] Leander, B. S., R. E. Clopton & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Phylogeny of gregarines (Apicomplexa) as inferred from small-subunit rDNA and β-tubulin. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 345-354.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. C. Protista 2, vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[MM03] Mallon, M., A. MacLeod, J. Wastling, H. Smith, B. Reilly & A. Tait. 2003. Population structures and the role of genetic exchange in the zoonotic parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 407-417.

[N00] Nichols, G. L. 2000. Food-borne protozoa. British Medical Bulletin 56 (1): 209-235.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1-53, 1-36.

[SM10] Saffo, M. B., A. M. McCoy, C. Rieken & C. H. Slamovits. 2010. Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16190-16195.

Nematoda

Euchromadora sp., from Nematoda do Brasil.


Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.
Contains: Dorylaimia, Enoplia, Desmoscolecida, Monhysterida, Chromadorida, Desmodorida, Araeolaimida, Plectida, Secernentea.

The Nematoda, roundworms, are a hyperdiverse group of mostly minute, vermiform animals (though some parasitic forms may reach large sizes). Free-living nematodes have a characteristically eel-like mode of swimming, as the body wall contains longitudinal muscles only and movement is by dorsoventral flexure of these muscles against the outer cuticle and internal hydrostatic pressure. The dorsoventral plane of flexure also means that most nematodes are unusual among animals in characteristically lying on one side during movement (Lorenzen 1986).

Characters (from Eder 1986): Body usually unpigmented, long and thin (about twenty times as long as wide). Body wall with longitudinal muscles only. Usually blind; orientation performed by means of amphids, cephalic setae and bristles. Gas exchange conducted through cuticle, specialised respiratory organs absent.

Nematoda [Adenophorea, Aphasmidia, Ascaridatina, Nemata, Nemates]
    |--Enoplea [Penetrantia] LB02
    |    |--Dorylaimia LB02
    |    `--Enoplia LB02
    `--Chromadorea [Chromadoria, Torquentia] LB02
         |  i. s.: Desmoscolecida LB02
         |--Monhysterida LB02
         `--+--Chromadorida LB02
            `--+--Desmodorida LB02
               `--+--Araeolaimida LB02
                  `--+--Plectida LB02
                     `--Secernentea LB02

Nematoda incertae sedis:
  Cephalobellus WPT01
  Peloderma G01
  Caballeronema pseudoargumentosus Mus02
  Truttaedacnitis sphaerocephala Mus02
  Thynnascaris N02
    |--T. aduncum [=Contracaecum aduncum] N02
    `--T. habena [=Contracaecum habena] C02a
  Hysterothylacium K-M02
    |--H. aduncum K-M02
    `--H. pelagicum C02b
  Contracaecum osculatum Mun02
  Spinitectus cristatus K-M02
  Benthimermithidae [Benthimermithida] LB02
  Rhaptothyreidae [Rhaptothyreida] LB02
  Mazamastrongylus odocoilei LB02
  Placentonema gigantissimum Gubanov 1951 L86
  Strongyluris Gi02
  Histiocephalus bucorvi Gi02
  Tanqua tiara Gi02
  Cylicodontostomum purvisi Gi02
  Agriostomum Gi02
  Allodapa suctoria Gi02
  Stegophorus Gi02
  Striatofilaria Gi02
  Setaria digitata B02
  Cyathospirura seurati Gi02
  Ternidens deminutus Gi02
  Streptopharagus pigmentatus Gi02
  Gyalocephalus capitatus Gi02
  Bunostomum Railliet 1902 C92
    `--B. trigonocephalum MM02
  Hexametra Gi02
  Hyostrongylus rubidus Gi02
  Parostertagia heterospiculum Gi02
  Ashworthius pattoni Gi02
  Hoplodontophorus flagellum Gi02
  Paracooperia Gi02
  Rhabditolaimus L02a
  Ollulanus tricuspis L02a
  Probstmayria vivipara MM02
  Mesodiplogaster L02a
    |--M. biformis Ge02
    `--M. lheritieri L02a
  Labronema vulvapapillatum L02a
  Cephalenchus emarginatus L02b
  Metadasynemoides cristatus L02b
  Leptonemella L02b
  Euchromadora MM02
    |--E. gaulica MM02
    |--E. robusta L02b
    `--E. vulgaris L02b
  Acanthonchus duplicatus L02b
  Eubostrichus topiarus L02b
  Catanema L02b
  Laxus oneistus L02b
  Prooncholaimus L02b
  Chromadorina L02c
    |--C. bioculata L02b
    `--C. viridis L02c
  Oswaldocruzia leidyi L02b
  Paracanthonchus caecus L02b, MV04
  Halichoanolaimus sonorus L02b
  Aporcellaimellus L02b
  Contortylenchus grandicolli L02b
  Tachygonetria MM02
    |--T. robusta MM02
    `--T. stylosa MM02
  Halenchus fucicola MM02
  Brumptaemilius MM02
  Oxyspirura mansoni MM02
  Muellerius capillaris MM02
  Discolaimus MM02
  Dolichodorus MM02
  Gracilacus MM02
  Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus MM02
  Hexatylus viviparus MM02
  Europlus TG02
  Folyella dolichoptera L02c
  Trichonema L02c
  Mansonella Ge02
    |--M. ozzardi A71
    `--M. perstans Ge02
  Pseudorhabdolaimus Soos 1937 E86
    `--P. limnophilus Soos 1937 E86
  Zeldia punctata GR98
  Aduncospiculum halicti GR98
  Austronema Cobb 1914 BR05
  Longistrongylus curvispiculum KC07
  Spiroptera brevisubulata P89
  Controtylenchus brevicomi A-B91
  Stomachus marinus R59
  Ackertia marmotae Webster 1967 MW69
  Acarincola hirsutus Warren 1941 S69

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B02] Behm, C. A. 2002. Metabolism. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 261-290. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[C02a] Collette, B. B. 2002a. Toadfishes. Order Batrachoididae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 261-264. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02b] Collette, B. B. 2002b. Dolphinfishes. Family Coryphaenidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 409-411. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1-60.

[E86] Eder, R. 1986. Nematoda from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 125-132. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[Ge02] Gems, D. 2002. Ageing. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 413-455. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Gi02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 31-59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[GR98] Giribet, G., & C. Ribera. 1998. The position of arthropods in the animal kingdom: A search for a reliable outgroup for internal arthropod phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 481-488.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Cods. Family Gadidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 223-261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KC07] Krausman, P. R., & A. L. Casey. 2007. Addax nasomaculatus. Mammalian Species 807: 1-4.

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Life cycles. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 61-72. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 171-209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02c] Lee, D. L. 2002c. Behaviour. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 369-387. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 1-30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L86] Lorenzen, S. 1986. Nematoda: Interstitial nematodes from marine brackish and hypersaline environments. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 133-142. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[MV04] Manylov, O. G., N. S. Vladychenskaya, I. A. Milyutina, O. S. Kedrova, N. P. Korokhov, G. A. Dvoryanchikov, V. V. Aleshin & N. B. Petrov. 2004. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences suggests significant molecular differences between Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 850-854.

[MW69] Moss, W. W. & W. A. Webster. 1969. A numerical taxonomic study of a group of selected strongylates (Nematoda). Systematic Zoology 18 (4): 423-443.

[MM02] Munn, E. A., & P. D. Munn. 2002. Feeding and digestion. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 211-232. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Mun02] Munroe, T. A. 2002. Herrings. Family Clupeidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 111-160. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[Mus02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 83-88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[N02] Nizinski, M. S. 2002. Sand lances. Family Ammodytidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 496-505. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[P89] Parona, C. 1889. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 765-780.

[R59] Robinson, E. S. 1959. Records of cestodes from marine fishes of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 143-153.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339-342.

[TG02] Thompson, D. P., & T. G. Geary. 2002. Excretion/secretion, ionic and osmotic regulation. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 291-320. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[WPT01] Wharton, D. A., R. Poulin & C. L. Tyrell. 2001. Parasites of anostostomatid insects. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 259-267. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Entomophthorales

Conidia of Conidiobolus coronatus, from the University of Adelaide.

Belongs within: Fungi.

The Entomophthorales are a group of fungi that are mostly parasitic on insects and arachnids, though some species of Conidiobolus are known as pathogens on humans.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Filamentous, primarily without septa; sexual reproduction by thick-walled zygospore, strictly homothallic, where known; asexual reproduction by conidia formed by blastosporogenesis; conidia forcibly discharged and often form secondary conidia.

<==Entomophthorales [Entomophthoromycotina]
    |--Neozygites MM09 [incl. Triplosporium YM91]
    |--Conidiobolus JK06
    |    |--C. coronatus JK06
    |    |--C. incongruus SSW01
    |    |--C. lamprauges SSW01
    |    `--C. thromboides SSW01
    |--Entomophthora JK06
    |    |--E. muscae JK06
    |    `--E. schizophora SSW01
    |--Completoria AS12
    `--Meristacrum AS12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429-493.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[MM09] Mound, L. A. & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1-76.

[SSW01] Schüßler, A., D. Schwarzott & C. Walker. 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: Phylogeny and evolution. Mycological Research 105 (12): 1413-1421.

[YM91] Yaninek, J. S., & G. J. de Moraes. 1991. A synopsis of classical biological control of mites in agriculture. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 133-149. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Pleosporaceae

Conidia of Curvularia lunata, copyright J. Scott.


Belongs within: Pleosporales.

The Pleosporaceae are a family of fungi including both saprobic species and necrotrophic pathogens, some of which are economically significant.

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Ascomata perithecial, more or less globose, thick-walled, immersed or erumpent, black, opening by a well-developed lysigenous ostiole, sometimes hairy or setose; peridium usually thick, wi th several layers of large thick-walled pseudoparenchymatous cells. Interascal tissue of cellular pseudoparaphyses. Asci more or less cylindrical, fissitunicate, the inner wall often thickened in the apical region. Ascospores brown, septate, sometimes muriform, often with a gelatinous sheath. Anamorphs hyphomycetous.

Pleosporaceae EB03Outline
    |--Pyrenophora LK04
    |    |--P. phaeocomes JK06
    |    `--P. tritici-repentis LK04
    `--+--Curvularia LK04
       |    |--C. brachyspora ML04
       |    |--C. geniculata RH91
       |    |--C. inaequilis HS98
       |    `--C. lunata C-OE-PG-C91
       `--+--Setosphaeria monoceras LK04
          `--Cochliobolus LK04
               |--C. heterostrophus JK06
               `--C. sativus SL02

Pleosporaceae incertae sedis:
  Extrawettsteinina EB03Outline
  Falciformispora EB03Outline
  Kriegeriella EB03Outline
  Lewia EB03Outline
  Macrospora scirpicola EB03Outline, HH00 [=Pleospora scirpicola HH00]
  Macroventuria EB03Outline
  Monascostroma EB03Outline
  Platysporoides EB03Outline
  Pseudoyuconia EB03Outline
  Wettsteinina EB03Outline
  Zeuctomorpha EB03Outline
  Decorospora Inderbitzin, Kohlmeyer & Volkmann-Kohlmeyer 2002 EB03Notes
    `--*D. gaudefroi (Patouillard) Inderbitzin, Kohlmann & Volkmann-Kohlmeyer 2002 EB03Notes
  Valsaria [incl. Phaeocreopsis Saccardo & Sydow in Lindau 1900] RS99
    `--V. rubricosa (see below for synonymy) RS99
  Pleospora JK06
    |--P. herbarum JK06
    `--P. rudis IL01
  Leptosphaerulina EB03Outline
    |--L. chartarum E99
    `--L. crassiasca E99

Valsaria rubricosa [incl. Valsaria cinnamomi, Valsonectria cinnamomi, Hypocreopsis hypoxyloides Spegazzini 1899, *Phaeocreopsis hypoxyloides (Spegazzini) Saccardo & Sydow in Lindau 1900, Valsaria hypoxyloides, Valsonectria hypoxyloides, P. pezizaeformis, Hypocreopsis pezizaeformis, Valsonectria reticulata] RS99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[C-OE-PG-C91] Casasolas-Oliver, A., A. Estrada-Peña & J. Gonzalez-Cabo. 1991. Activity of Rhizopus thailandensis, Rhizopus arrhizus and Curvularia lunata on reproductive efficacy of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 633-637. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03Notes] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580-3623. Myconet 9: 91-103.

[EB03Outline] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[HS98] Hara, I., & T. Sakurai. 1998. Isolation and characterization of vanadium bromoperoxidase from a marine macroalga, Ecklonia stolonifera. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 72: 23-28.

[HH00] Ho, W. H. & K. D. Hyde. 2000. A new family of freshwater ascomycetes. Fungal Diversity 4: 21-36.

[IL01] Inderbitzin, P., S. Landvik, M. A. Abdel-Wahab & M. L. Berbee. 2001. Aliquandostipitaceae, a new family for two new tropical ascomycetes with unusually wide hyphae and dimorphic ascomata. American Journal of Botany 88 (1): 52-61.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446-1480.

[ML04] Miadlikowska, J., & F. Lutzoni. 2004. Phylogenetic classification of peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 449-464.

[RH91] Ramani, N., & M. A. Haq. 1991. Potential of Meristacarus degradatus and Xylobates rhomboides (Acari: Oribatei) in the degradation of higher plant materials. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 411-415. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[SL02] Schweigkofler, W., K. Lopandic, O. Molnár & H. Prillinger. 2002. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships among Ascomycota with yeast phases using ribosomal DNA sequences and cell wall sugars. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 2: 1-17.

Oxidae

Frontipoda sp., copyright Stephen Luk.


Belongs within: Neohydrachnidia.

The Oxidae are a group of water mites found in ponds and lakes; they are more or less compressed laterally and are usually strong swimmers (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adults with dorsal shield absent, dorsal integument soft and with or without scattered platelets; insertions of all pairs of legs near anterior end of idiosoma; median coxal suture line usually absent (occasionally present); genital field with movable flaps flanking gonopore. Larvae with cheliceral bases fused; dorsal plate bearing five pairs of setae including verticils, scapulars and setae c1 laterally; integument beneath posterior edge of dorsal plate intricately folded; coxal plates I elongate, extending posteriorly nearly to level of excretory pore plate; coxal plates III bearing two pairs of setae, setae 3a and setae 3b laterally; excretory pore plate bearing only setae ps1 and ps2; legs with five movable segments; leg tarsi bearing paired claws; tibiae I-III bearing eight setae, and two, two and one solenidia respectively; tarsi I-II bearing twelve setae and one solenidion, lacking Ta14.

<==Oxidae
    |--Oxus Kramer 1877 S86
    |    |--O. acutirostris Viets 1937 RFF05
    |    |--O. chilensis Cook 1988 RFF05
    |    |--O. crassipes (Lundblad 1936) RFF05
    |    |--O. elongatus WL09
    |    |--O. gracilipalpis (Lundblad 1941) RFF05
    |    |    |--O. g. gracilipalpis RFF05
    |    |    `--O. g. aequalipilis Viets 1954 RFF05
    |    |--O. halophilus Angelier 1947 S86
    |    |--O. meridianus G01
    |    |--O. orientalis G01
    |    |--O. pictus WL09
    |    |--O. schubarti Viets 1954 RFF05
    |    |--O. troma G01
    |    `--O. valdiviensis Besch 1964 RFF05
    `--Frontipoda Koenike 1891 RFF05
         |  i. s.: F. gredada G01
         |         F. musculus BK91
         |         F. neotasmanica G01
         |         F. setipalpis G01
         |         F. tasmanica G01
         |         F. zunova G01
         |--F. (Frontipoda) RFF05
         |    |--F. (F.) patagonica (Lundblad 1941) RFF05
         |    |--F. (F.) trispinosa Lundblad 1930 RFF05
         |    |--F. (F.) vicina Cook 1988 RFF05
         |    `--F. (F.) cirescens Lundblad 1936 RFF05
         `--F. (Flabellifrontipoda Lundblad 1947) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) allarka (Cook 1988) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) allasa (Cook 1988) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) alta (Cook 1980) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) aphanoraphtha (Besch 1964) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) ciliata Walter 1919 RFF05
              |--F. (F.) dolichopalpis (Cook 1988) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) neotropica (Lundblad 1953) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) parva (Cook 1980) RFF05
              |--‘Flabellifrontipoda’ pectinata G01
              |--F. (F.) penai (Cook 1988) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) polyplacophora (Cook 1980) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) sneiderni (Lundblad 1953) RFF05
              |--F. (F.) tranasa (Cook 1988) RFF05
              `--F. (F.) unoka (Cook 1988) RFF05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK91] Biesiadka, E., & W. Kowalik. 1991. Water mites (Hydracarina) as indicators of trophy and pollution in lakes. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 475-481. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G01] Growns, J. E. 2001. Aquatic mites as bioindicators, with an Australian example. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 136-142. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RFF05] Rosso de Ferradás, B. & H. R. Fernández. 2005. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia) de Sudamérica. Graellsia 61 (2): 181-224.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 652-696. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

Aturidae

Ljania sp., from here.


Belongs within: Neohydrachnidia.
Contains: Notoaturinae, Kongsbergia, Aturus, Neoaturus, Axonopsis, Axonopsella.

The Aturidae are a diverse group of well-sclerotised, usually dorsoventrally flattened water mites, many of which show strong sexual dimorphism (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adults with dorsal and ventral shields present. Larvae with cheliceral bases fused; coxal plates I separate from posterior coxal group on each side; one pair of urstigmata borne distally between coxal plates I and II; legs with five movable segments; leg tarsi bearing paired claws.

<==Aturidae
    |  i. s.: Japonaxonopsis Imamura 1984 [Japonaxonopsinae] S86
    |           `--J. nozakiensis Imamura 1984 S86
    |         Zelandopsis Imamura 1977 [Zelandopsinae] S86
    |           |--Z. aturoides Schwoerbel 1984 S86
    |           `--Z. morimotoi Imamura 1977 S86
    |--Albiinae WL09
    |    |--Parasitalbia sumatrensis WL09
    |    `--Albia Thor 1899 RFF05
    |         |  i. s.: A. australica G01
    |         |         A. neogaea WL09
    |         |         A. rectifrons G01
    |         |--A. (Anchistalbia Cook 1974) RFF05
    |         |    `--A. (A.) nobilis Lundblad 1936 RFF05
    |         `--A. (Dentalbia Cook 1967) S86
    |              |--A. (D.) dentipalpis Cook 1967 S86
    |              `--A. (D.) phreatica Cook 1967 S86
    |--+--Notoaturinae WL09
    |  `--Aturinae WL09
    |       |--Kongsbergia S86
    |       |--Aturus S86
    |       |--Neoaturus RFF05
    |       |--Subaturus WL09
    |       |--Subalbia WL09
    |       |--Aturides Lundblad 1937 RFF05
    |       |    `--A. dentatus (Lundblad 1936) RFF05
    |       |--Phreatobrachypoda Cook 1963 S86
    |       |    |--P. acuta Habeeb 1975 S86
    |       |    |--P. multipora Cook 1963 S86
    |       |    |--P. oregonensis WL09
    |       |    `--P. robusta Cook 1974 S86
    |       `--Bharatalbia Cook 1967 S86
    |            |  i. s.: B. cooki WL09
    |            |--B. (Bharatalbiella Cook 1967) S86
    |            |    `--B. (B.) talinapalpis Cook 1967 S86
    |            `--B. (Japonalbia Imamura 1977) S86
    |                 |--B. (J.) ibarakiensis Imamura 1977 S86
    |                 |--B. (J.) longipalpis Imamura 1984 S86
    |                 |--B. (J.) ohittaensis Imamura 1984 S86
    |                 |--B. (J.) rotunda Imamura 1984 S86
    |                 `--B. (J.) tsugaruensis Imamura 1984 S86
    `--Axonopsinae WL09
         |--Axonopsis S86
         |--Axonopsella S86
         |--Miraxona WL09
         |--Brachypoda versicolor (Müller 1776) WL09, PH91
         |--Woolastookia pilositarsa WL09
         |--Estellacarus unguitarsus WL09
         |--Neobrachypoda eckmani WL09
         |--Javalbia Viets 1935 S86
         |    `--J. (Javalbia) antama Cook 1967 S86
         |--Adelaxonopsella Cook 1974 S86
         |    `--A. pallida Cook 1974 S86
         |--Uenaxonopsis Imamura 1961 S86
         |    `--U. nazensis Imamura 1961 S86
         |--Stokaxonopsis Cook 1967 S86
         |    `--S. besselingi Cook 1967 [=Axonopsis (Stokaxonopsis) besselingi] S86
         |--Khedacarus Cook 1967 S86
         |    `--K. platypes Cook 1967 S86
         |--Neoaxonopsis Lundblad 1938 RFF05
         |    `--N. odontogaster Lundblad 1938 RFF05
         |--Barbaxonella Lundblad 1954 S86
         |    |--B. angulata (Viets 1955) [=Axonopsalbia (Hexaxonopsalbia) angulata] S86
         |    `--B. iberica Cook 1974 S86
         |--Neoaxonopsella Orghidan & Gruia 1981 S86
         |    |--N. caripense Orghidan & Gruia 1981 S86
         |    `--N. kurtovietsi Orghidan & Gruia 1981 S86
         |--Stygalbiella Cook 1974 S86
         |    |--S. affinis Cook 1974 S86
         |    |--S. arizonica Cook 1974 S86
         |    `--S. tucumanensis Cook 1980 S86
         |--Miraxonides Lundblad 1938 RFF05
         |    |--M. (Miraxonides) alatus Lundblad 1938 RFF05
         |    `--M. (Miraxonidella Cook 1980) RFF05
         |         `--M. (M.) karlvietsi Cook 1980 RFF05
         |--Polyaxonopsella Orghidan & Gruia 1981 RFF05
         |    |--P. bordoni (Orghidan & Gruia 1981) [=Axonopsella (Polyaxonopsella) bordoni] S86
         |    |--P. dentifera Lundblad 1943 RFF05
         |    `--P. polypora Lundblad 1953 RFF05
         |--Erebaxonopsis Motas & Tanasachi 1947 S86
         |    |--E. amamiensis Imamura 1961 S86
         |    |--E. brevipes Motas & Tanasachi 1947 S86
         |    |--E. morimotoi (Imamura 1958) [=Axonopsis morimotoi] S86
         |    `--E. nearctica Cook 1974 S86
         |--Neoalbia Lundblad 1936 RFF05
         |    |--N. (Neoalbia) violacea Lundblad 1936 RFF05
         |    `--N. (Neoalbiella Viets 1954) RFF05
         |         |--N. (N.) bidentata Viets 1959 RFF05
         |         `--N. (N.) octopora Viets 1954 RFF05
         |--Ljania Thor 1898 S86
         |    |--L. bipapillata Thor 1898 GS91
         |    |--L. japonica Imamura 1956 S86
         |    `--L. macilenta S86
         |         |--L. m. macilenta S86
         |         `--L. m. longissima Schwoerbel 1962 S86
         |--Neoaxona Lundblad 1936 RFF05
         |    |  i. s.: N. aculeata Besseling 1949 RFF05
         |    |         N. plaumanni Lundblad 1937 RFF05
         |    |--N. (Neoaxona) oblonga Lundblad 1936 RFF05
         |    `--N. (Lamellaxona Lundblad 1937) RFF05
         |         `--N. (L.) abnormipes Lundblad 1937 RFF05
         |--Submiraxona Lundblad 1937 RFF05
         |    |--S. (Submiraxona) RFF05
         |    |    |--S. (S.) crassipes Lundblad 1937 RFF05
         |    |    `--S. (S.) rutae Lundblad 1937 RFF05
         |    `--S. (Pentalbia Lundblad 1937) RFF05
         |         `--S. (P.) walteri (Lundblad 1937) RFF05
         `--Albaxona Szalay 1944 S86
              |  i. s.: A. gracilis Schwoerbel 1962 S86
              |         A. japonica Imamura 1970 S86
              |         A. minuta Szalay 1944 S86
              |         A. stoka Cook 1967 S86
              `--A. (Vietsaxona Motas & Tanasachi 1948) S86
                   |--A. (V.) elegans Walter 1947 S86
                   |--A. (V.) lundbladi Motas & Tanasachi 1948 S86
                   `--A. (V.) nearctica Cook 1974 S86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GS91] Gerecke, R., & J. Schwoerbel. 1991. Water quality and water mites (Acari, Actinedida) in the Upper Danube region, 1959-1984. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 483-491. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[G01] Growns, J. E. 2001. Aquatic mites as bioindicators, with an Australian example. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 136-142. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[PH91] Punčochár, P., & J. Hrbáček. 1991. Water mites in the plankton of Hubenov Reservoir and their relations to fish stock composition. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 449-457. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[RFF05] Rosso de Ferradás, B. & H. R. Fernández. 2005. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia) de Sudamérica. Graellsia 61 (2): 181-224.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 652-696. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.