Banksia

Banksia montana, copyright E. Holland & E. Hickman.


Belongs within: Proteaceae.

Banksia is a genus of trees and shrubs found in Australia, with a single species, B. dentata, extending into New Guinea. The highest diversity of species is found in the south-west of Western Australia, with the majority of species found in sandy or gravelly soils. Banksia flowers are often borne in conical inflorescences. Dehiscent fruits embedded in the inflorescence can have a mouth-like appearance, inspiring the 'bad banksia men' of Australian children's author May Gibbs.

Characteristics (from Foreman 1995): Twigs pubescent or glabrous. Leaves whorled, scattered or spirally arranged, coriaceous, entire, dentate, lobed or pinnatisect. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, cylindrical or spherical. Flowers bisexual, sessile, in pairs subtended by one common bract and two floral bracts. Perianth linear, regular to slightly irregular; limb and upper portions of perianth claws separating at anthesis. Anthers all perfect, sessile in concave like segments; connective slightly prolonged. Hypogynous glands 4, alternate with tepals, small and membranous. Ovary sessile, very small, 1-locular; ovules 2, attached laterally; style straight, bowed to slightly curved below pollen presenter, often hard and wiry; pollen presenter erect, small, conical or turbinate; stigma mostly terminal or oblique. Infructescence woody, consisting of few to many woody follicles; bracts persistent, becoming woody. Seeds often 2, compressed, with terminal membranous wing.

<==Banksia
    `--B. ser. Plumosae GLM13
         |--B. montana GML13
         |--B. plumosa GLM13
         `--B. pseudoplumosa GLM13

Banksia incertae sedis:
  B. archaeocarpa McNamara & Scott 1983 DK10
  B. attenuata SM06
  B. audax Gi04
  B. australis TW07
  B. campbelli Ettingshausen 1886 F71
  B. collina C08
  B. cuneata SB04
  B. dentata Linnaeus 1781 F95
  B. elderiana CWB06
  B. ericifolia TW07
  B. grandis JK08
  B. heliantha GML13
  B. ilicifolia JK08
  B. integrifolia NC91
  B. laevigata Gi04
    |--B. l. ssp. laevigata Gi04
    `--B. l. ssp. fuscolutea Gi04
  B. latifolia M87
  B. lawsoni Ettingshausen 1886 F71
  B. littoralis JK08
  B. marginata SN08
  B. meisneri GK00
  B. menziesii SM06
  B. myricaefolia Ettingshausen 1886 F71
  B. oblongifolia B00
  B. paludosa C70
  B. prionotes Gr04
  B. quercifolia JK08
  B. serrata SN08
  B. sphaerocarpa Gi04
    |--B. s. var. sphaerocarpa Gi04
    `--B. s. var. dolichostyla Gi04
  B. violacea Gi04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[CWB06] Craig, M. D., P. C. Withers & S. D. Bradshaw. 2006. Patterns of diet and microhabitat use by four species of sympatric Ctenotus lizards: do they reveal foraging specialisation? Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 1–5.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F95] Foreman, D. B. 1995. Proteaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 221–270. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[Gi04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[Gr04] Groom, P. K. 2004. Seedling growth and physiological responses of two sandplain Banksia species differing in flood tolerance. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (3): 115–121.

[GML13] Gullan, P. J., M. L. Moir & M. C. Leng. 2013. A new species of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from critically endangered Banksia montana in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 28 (1): 13–20.

[JK08] Johnstone, R. E., & T. Kirkby. 2008. Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin's cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in south-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 107–118.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[SB04] Sage, L. W., P. A. Blankendaal, A. Moylett & K. Agar. 2004. The occurrence and impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the central-western Avon Wheatbelt bioregion of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 15–18.

[SN08] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2008. The Psocoptera (Insecta) of Tasmania, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 65: 71–152.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27–43.

[TW07] Thongphak, D., & Q. Wang. 2007. Taxonomic revision of the longicorn beetle genus Uracanthus Hope 1833 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Uracanthini) from Australia. Zootaxa 1569: 1–139.

Last updated: 2 August 2017.

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