Mutillidae

Pseudophotopsis komarovii, copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.


Belongs within: Pompiloidea.
Contains: Kudakrumiini, Myrmosini, Ticoplinae, Rhopalomutillinae, Sphaeropthalminae, Dasylabrinae, Myrmillinae, Mutillinae.

The Mutillidae, velvet ants, are hairy wasps that usually show significant dimorphism with females being wingless and have the sclerites of the mesosoma fused whereas males are mostly winged with articulated mesosomal plates (Brothers & Lelej 2017).

Synapomorphies (from Brothers & Lelej 2017): Tergum II and sternum I in both sexes, tergum II overlying lateral extremities of sternum I; scape in female with flangelike expansion above radicle, angled; wings absent in female; metacoxal cavities closed in female; tergum II with stridulitrum in both sexes (lost in some subgroups); sternum I in both sexes depressed posteriorly, constricted and abutting sternum II; hind wing in male with jugal lobe reduced; penis valve (gonapophysis IX) with apex dorsally produced, ventral tooth about midway (further modified in most subgroups).

Mutillidae [Cretavidae, Sphaeropthalmina]
    |  i. s.: Smicromutilla Mickel 1964 LB08
    |           `-*S. powelli Mickel 1964 LB08
    |         Cretavus Sharov 1957 LB08
    |           `--*C. sibiricus Sharov 1957 LB08
    |         Scaptopoda Lynch Arribálzaga 1878 (n. d.) LB08
    |           `--*S. pusilla Lynch Arribálzaga 1878 LB08
    |--Myrmosinae [Kudakrumiinae, Myrmosidae] BL17
    |    |--Kudakrumiini BL17
    |    `--Myrmosini BL17
    `--+--Pseudophotopsis André 1896 BL17, LB08 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--*P. komarovii (Radoszkowski 1885) [=Agama komarovii] LB08
       |    |--P. asiatica Suárez 1965 [=Ephutomma asiatica] LB08
       |    |--P. binghami Bischoff 1920 BL17
       |    |--P. continua (Fabricius 1804) BL17 [=Mutilla continua LB08, *Sphinctomutilla continua LB08]
       |    |--P. irana (Skorikov 1935) BL17
       |    |--‘Agama’ kokpetica Radoszkowski 1885 [=Agama kotepetica (l. c.), *Alloneurion kokpeticum] LB08
       |    `--P. schachruda (Skorikov 1935) BL17
       `--+--Ticoplinae BL17
          `--+--Rhopalomutillinae BL17
             `--+--Sphaeropthalminae BL17
                `--+--Dasylabrinae BL17
                   `--+--Myrmillinae BL17
                      `--Mutillinae BL17

Pseudophotopsis André 1896 BL17, LB08 [incl. Alloneurion Ashmead 1899 LB08, Sphinctomutilla André 1899 LB08; Pseudophotopsidinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BL17] Brothers, D. J., & A. S. Lelej. 2017. Phylogeny and higher classification of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) based on morphological reanalyses. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 60: 1–97.

[LB08] Lelej, A. S., & D. J. Brothers. 2008. The genus-group names of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) and their type species, with a new genus, new name, new synonymies, new combinations and lectotypifications. Zootaxa 1889: 1–79.

Psocathropetae

Psyllipsocus ramburii, copyright Chris Lann.


Belongs within: Psocodea.

The Psocathropetae are a group of barklice with a long head and long hind legs.

Characters (from New & Lienhard 2007): Head long, vertical. Antennae sometimes with secondary annulations on flagellar segments. Second segment of maxillary palp without conical sensillum on inner side. Fore wing with nodulus; brachypterous individuals with some venation discernible. Scales not present on body or wings. Combined length of hind tibia and tarsus greater than abdomen. Female with gonapophyses reduced but external valve present as broad setose lobe.

<==Psocathropetae [Psocatropetae, Psyllipsocetae, Psylliposciformia] NL07
    |--Prionoglarididae [Prionoglaretae, Prionoglaridae, Prionoglaroidea] NL07
    |    |  i. s.: *Sensitibilla strinatii NL07
    |    |--Speleketor Gurney 1943 M93 [Speleketoridae, Speleketorinae NL07, Speleketoroidea]
    |    |    |--*S. flocki Gurney 1943 M93
    |    |    |--S. irwini Mockford 1984 M93
    |    |    `--S. pictus Mockford 1984 M93
    |    `--Prionoglaridinae [Prionoglarinae] NL07
    |         |--*Siamoglaris zebrina Lienhard 2004 NL07
    |         `--Prionoglaris Enderlein 1909 [incl. Scoliopsyllopsis Enderlein 1912] G74
    |              |--*P. stygia Enderlein 1909 [incl. Scoliopsyllopsis latreillei Enderlein 1912] G74
    |              |--P. dactyloides Lienhard 1988 L98
    |              `--P. lindbergi Badonnel 1962 L98
    `--Psyllipsocidae [Psyllipsocinae, Psyllipsocoidea] NL07
         |--Pseudorypteryx García Aldrete 1984 M93
         |    `--*P. mexicana García Aldrete 1984 M93
         |--Pseudopsyllipsocus Li 2002 [=Pseudopsyllipsous] L03
         |    `--*P. gangliigerus Li 2002 [=P. gangliigera] L03
         |--Dorypteryx Aaron 1883 [incl. Dolopteryx Smithers 1958] M93
         |    |--*D. pallida Aaron 1883 [incl. D. albicans Ribaga 1907] M93
         |    |--D. domestica (Smithers 1958) [=*Dolopteryx domestica] LL09
         |    |--D. longipennis Smithers 1991 LL09
         |    `--D. yunnanica Li & Liu 2009 LL09
         |--Psocathropos Ribaga 1899 L02 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*P. lachlani Ribaga 1899 NL07 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--P. cameriferus Li 2002 L02
         |    |--P. cuttackae [=*Granthakita cuttackae] NL07
         |    |--P. domesticus Li 2002 L03
         |    |--P. dyadoclemus Li 2002 L03
         |    |--P. pilipennis M93 [=*Gambrella pilipennis NL07]
         |    |--P. pleurotaenus Li 2002 L02
         |    |--P. purpuripsarous Li 2002 L02
         |    |--P. sinensis Li 1994 L02
         |    |--P. termitorum (n. d.) M93 [=*Vulturops termitorum NL07]
         |    `--P. tridymus Li 2002 L02
         `--Psyllipsocus Selys-Longchamps 1872 L02 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*P. ramburii Selys-Longchamps 1872 M93 (see below for synonymy)
              |--P. batuensis Thornton 1962 NL07
              |--P. hirsutus Thornton 1962 NL07
              |--P. maculatus Li 2002 L02
              |--P. metamicropterus (Enderlein 1963) L02
              |--P. oculatus Gurney 1943 M93
              |--P. sanxiaensis Li 1997 L02
              |--P. sauteri (Enderlein 1908) L02 [=*Parempheria sauteri NL07]
              |--P. sinicus Li & Yang 1988 L02
              |--P. spinosus Badonnel 1955 B55
              |--P. variabilis Badonnel 1986 B86
              |--P. yongi New & Lee 1992 NL07
              `--P. yucatan B50

Psocathropos Ribaga 1899 L02 [=Psocatropos NL07, Psocothropos (l. c.) L03; incl. Axinopsocus Enderlein 1903 M93, Gambrella Enderlein 1931 M93, Granthakita Behura & Dash 1968 L98, Psocinella Banks 1900 M93, Vulturops Townsend 1912 M93; Psocatropidae]

*Psocathropos lachlani Ribaga 1899 NL07 [incl. Vulturops floridensis Corbett & Hargreaves 1915 L98, V. floridanus (l. c.) L98, Psocatropos lesnei Badonnel 1931 M93, *Axinopsocus microps Enderlein 1903 NL07, L02, Psocathropos microps NL07, Psoquilla microps M93, *Psocinella slossonae Banks 1900 NL07, M93]

Psyllipsocus Selys-Longchamps 1872 L02 [incl. Fabrella Lacroix 1915 M93, Fita Navás 1913 M93, Nymphopsocus Enderlein 1903 M93, Ocellataria Weber 1907 M93, Ocelloria Weber 1906 M93, Parempheria Enderlein 1906 L98]

*Psyllipsocus ramburii Selys-Longchamps 1872 M93 [incl. Nymphopsocus troglodyta var. algericus Enderlein 1909 M93, Psy. ramburii brachypterus Badonnel 1943 M93, *Fabrella convexa Lacroix 1915 NL07, M93, *Nymphopsocus destructor Enderlein 1903 NL07, G74, *Ocelloria gravonymphia Weber 1906 NL07, L98, *Ocellatoria gravinympha NL07, Dorypteryx hageni Banks 1897 M93, Psocus pedicularius Rambur 1942 nec Hemerobius pedicularius Linnaeus 1758 nec P. pedicularius Burmeister 1839 M93, Nymphopsocus troglodyta Enderlein 1909 M93, Psyllipsocus (Nymphopsocus) troglodytes M93, Psy. ramburii troglodytes M93, *Fita vestigator Navás 1913 NL07, M93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179–223.

[B50] Broadhead, E. 1950. A revision of the genus Liposcelis Motschulsky with notes on the position of this genus in the order Corrodentia and on the variability of ten Liposcelis species. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 101 (10): 335–388, pls 1–3.

[G74] Günther, K. K. 1974. Staubläuse, Psocoptera. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 61: 1–315.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[LL09] Li, F. ,& X. Liu. 2009. Discovery in China of Dorypteryx Aaron (Psocoptera: Trogiomorpha: Psyllipsocidae), with one new species. Zootaxa 1983: 63–65.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

Lepidopsocidae

Fore (above) and hind wing of Nepticulomima orientalis, from New (1975).


Belongs within: Psocodea.
Contains: Echmepteryx.

The Lepidopsocidae are a group of barklice associated primarily with leaf litter and dead foliage (New & Lienhard 2007).

Characters (from New & Lienhard 2007): Body length usually ca 2 mm, fore wing length 2–2.5 mm. Lacinial apex divided with few teeth. Maxillary palpi with conical sensillum on inner side of second segment; labial palpi two-segmented. Antennae with numerous segments (more than 20, occasionally up to 50), not annulated. Tarsi three-segmented, claws curved, usually with one subapical tooth but sometimes with more or none. Fore wing often acuminate, usually (together with body and legs) with covering of flattened scales; pterostigma not thickened; vein Sc often well developed; R–Rs crossvein usually present; Rs and M commonly fused for a length; areola postica long; veins Cu2 and 1A ending separately on wing margin. Hind wing vein R1 long; vein M with two branches, these arising separately; hind wing sometimes absent. Paraproct with strong spine, trichobothrial field not defined. Female with gonapophyses reduced, ventral valve absent; dorsal valve small and often weakly sclerotised, sometimes absent; external valve large, setose. Male with phallosome with parameres divergent anteriorly; aedeagus often complex.

<==Lepidopsocidae [Perientometae, Perientomoidea]
    |--Parasoa [Parasoinae] NL07
    |    `--*P. haploneura Thornton 1962 NL07
    |--Lepolepis Enderlein 1906 L98 [Lepolepidinae NL07]
    |    |--*L. ceylonica Enderlein 1906 L98
    |    |--L. bicolor Broadhead 1955 L98
    |    `--L. columbiensis Badonnel 1986 B86
    |--Thylacellinae [Thylacellidae, Thylacelloidea, Udamolepinae] NL07
    |    |--Illepidopsocus Li 1994 L02
    |    |    `--*I. yunnanicus Li 1994 L02
    |    |--Pseudothylacus Li 2002 L02
    |    |    `--*P. acisopterus Li 2002 L02
    |    `--Thylacella Enderlein 1911 [incl. Udamolepis Enderlein 1912] M93
    |         |--*T. eversiana M93
    |         |--T. congolensis [=Udamolepis congolensis] B55
    |         |--T. cubana (Banks 1941) [=Echmepteryx cubana] M93
    |         |--T. fasciata Badonnel 1955 M93
    |         `--T. immaculata Badonnel 1955 B55
    |--Echinopsocinae NL07
    |    |--Scolopama NL07
    |    |--Pteroxanium Enderlein 1922 [incl. Lepidilla Ribaga 1905 non Matthew 1886, Tasmanopsocus Hickman 1934] M93
    |    |    `--*P. kelloggi (Ribaga 1905) (see below for synonymy) M93
    |    |--Echinopsocus NL07
    |    |    |--*E. erinaceus Enderlein 1903 NL07
    |    |    `--E. grayi NL07
    |    `--Neolepolepis Mockford 1993 M93
    |         |--*N. occidentalis (Mockford 1955) [=Lepolepis occidentalis] M93
    |         |--N. caribensis (Turner 1875) [=Lepolepsis (l. c.) caribensis] M93
    |         `--N. xerica [=Echmepteryx xerica] M93
    |--Lepidopsocinae NL07
    |    |--Echmepteryx NL07
    |    |--Cyptophania Banks 1931 NL07, MW13 [incl. Ptenocorium Enderlein 1931 MW13, Pteroxaniella Karny 1932 MW13]
    |    |    |--*C. hirsuta Banks 1931 MW13
    |    |    |--C. alutacea (Enderlein 1931) MW13 [=*Ptenocorium alutaceum NL07]
    |    |    |--C. australica Mockford & Wynne 2013 MW13
    |    |    |--C. bifurcata MW13 [=*Pteroxaniella bifurcata NL07]
    |    |    |--C. costalis Mockford & Wynne 2013 MW13
    |    |    |--C. marginata Thornton, Lee & Chui 1972 NL07
    |    |    `--C. pakaratii Mockford & Wynne 2013 MW13
    |    `--Lepidopsocus MW13
    |         |--*L. nepticulides Enderlein 1903 NL07
    |         |--L. cinctus MW13
    |         |--L. maculatus MW13
    |         |--L. magnus MW13
    |         |--L. marmoratus (Banks 1931) [=Echmepteryx marmorata] NL07
    |         |--L. pretiosus (Banks 1942) [=Echmepteryx pretiosus] NL07
    |         |--L. pseudomaculatus Thornton 1981 NL07
    |         `--L. sudarmani Vaughan, Thornton & New 1989 NL07
    `--Perientominae [Perientomidae] NL07
         |--*Papuapsocus caudatus Mockford 2005 NL07
         |--Proentomum Badonnel 1949 M93
         |    `--*P. personatum Badonnel 1949 M93
         |--Lepium Enderlein 1906 L02
         |    `--L. enderleini Banks 1937 L02
         |--Neolepipsocus Li 1992 L02
         |    `--*N. chinensis Li 1992 L02
         |--Perientomum NL07
         |    |--*P. trichopteryx [=Amphientomum trichopteryx] NL07
         |    `--P. corticola Vaughan, Thornton & New 1989 NL07
         |--Soa Enderlein 1904 M93
         |    |--*S. dahliana Enderlein 1904 NL07
         |    |--S. angolana Badonnel 1955 B55
         |    |--S. flaviterminata Enderlein 1906 NL07
         |    `--S. violacea M93
         `--Nepticulomima Enderlein 1906 M93
              |--*N. sakuntala Enderlein 1906 NL07
              |--N. biroiana (Enderlein 1903) NL07
              |--N. bothriata Thornton, Lee & Chui 1972 N75
              |--N. essigkeana Enderlein 1906 N75
              |--N. hoesemanni (Enderlein 1903) NL07 [=Perientomum hoesemanni S95]
              |--N. jacobsoni Enderlein 1926 NL07
              |--N. latisquama Enderlein 1926 NL07
              |--N. lusiae Thornton 1981 NL07
              |--N. orientalis New 1975 N75
              |--N. penicillata Enderlein 1926 NL07
              |--N. sumatrensis Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991 NL07
              `--N. uniformis Vaughan, Thornton & New 1989 NL07

*Pteroxanium kelloggi (Ribaga 1905) [=Lepidilla kelloggi; incl. Hyperetes brittanicus Harrison 1916, Tasmanopsocus litoralis Hickman 1934, Pteroxanium squamosum Enderlein 1922] M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[B86] Badonnel, A. 1986. Psocoptères de Colombie (Insecta, Psocoptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 179–223.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 1. Science Press: Beijing.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[MW13] Mockford, E. L., & J. J. Wynne. 2013. Genus Cyptophania Banks (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lepidopsocidae): unique features, augmented description of the generotype, and descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 3702 (5): 437–449.

[N75] New, T. R. 1975. Lepidopsocidae and Amphientomidae (Psocoptera) from Malaysia and Singapore. Oriental Insects 9 (2): 177–194.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529–561.

Echmepteryx

Echmepteryx hageni, copyright Katja Schulz.


Belongs within: Lepidopsocidae.

Echmepteryx is a cosmopolitan genus of scaly barklice.

Characters (from Mockford 1993): Antenna with fewer than forty segments. Fore wing with vein R1 generally joined to Rs stem by crossvein; anterior wing catch relatively short and thick.

<==Echmepteryx Aaron 1886 M93
    |  i. s.: E. anomala S95
    |         E. frontalis Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991 NL07
    |         E. lacinipennis Enderlein 1926 NL07
    |         E. lawrencei Smithers 1995 NL07
    |         E. lineata Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991 NL07
    |         E. malayensis New 1975 NL07
    |         E. pletschi S95
    |         E. similis Badonnel 1955 B55
    |--E. (Echmepteryx) NL07
    |    |--*E. (E.) hageni (Packard 1870) M93 [=Amphientomum hageni NL07; incl. E. agilis Aaron 1886 M93]
    |    |--E. (E.) barba M93
    |    |--E. (E.) intermedia Mockford 1974 M93
    |    |--E. (E.) lealae M93
    |    |--E. (E.) submontana M93
    |    |--E. (E.) vara M93
    |    `--E. (E.) youngi Mockford 1974 M93
    |--E. (*Loxopholia) pinnula NL07
    |--E. (*Oxypsocus) hamiltoni NL07
    |--E. (*Thylacomorpha) symmetrolepis NL07
    `--E. (Thylacopsis Enderlein 1911) M93
         |--E. (*T.) mihira [=Thylax mihira] NL07
         |--E. (T.) falco (Badonnel 1949) M93 [=Thylacopsis falco B49]
         |--E. (T.) lunulata Thornton, Lee & Chui 1972 NL07
         |--E. (T.) madagascariensis (Kolbe 1885) NL07 (see below for synonymy)
         `--E. (T.) pallida Smithers 1965 S95

Echmepteryx (Thylacopsis) madagascariensis (Kolbe 1885) NL07 [=Thylax madagascariensis M93; incl. Thylacopsis albidus Badonnel 1949 M93, Echmepteryx albidus M93, E. costalis Banks 1931 M93, Lepidopsocus costalis M93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B49] Badonnel, A. 1949. Psocoptères de la Cote d'Ivoire. Mission Paulian-Delamare (1945). Revue Française d'Entomologie 16: 20–46.

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529–561.

Lichenomiminae

Lichenomima sp., copyright Katja Schulz.


Belongs within: Psocetae.

The Lichenomiminae are a group of barklice of the Myopsocidae in which the hind wing has veins Rs and M joined by a crossvein (Li 2002).

<==Lichenomiminae L02
    |--Lophomyini L02
    |    |--Lophomyus Li 2002 L02
    |    |    |--*L. bidigitatus Li 2002 L02
    |    |    `--L. petersi (Smithers 1971) [=Lophopterygella petersi] L02
    |    `--Lophopterygella Enderlein 1907 [incl. Festona Navas 1922] L02
    |         |--*L. camelina Enderlein 1907 NL07
    |         |--L. bellula Li 2002 L02
    |         |--*Festona’ lunata NL07
    |         |--L. ridderi Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991 NL07
    |         |--L. spilota Smithers & Thornton 1979 NL07
    |         `--L. triangularis Lienhard 2004 NL07
    `--Lichenomimini L02
         |--Gyromyus Li 2002 L02
         |    |--*G. gyrus Li 2002 L02
         |    `--G. sanguensis (New 1973) [=Myopsocus sanguensis, Lichenomima sanguensis] L02
         `--Lichenomima Enderlein 1910 L02 [=Lachenomima (l. c.) L03, Licnenomima (l. c.) L03]
              |--*L. conspersa NL07
              |--L. ampla (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
              |--L. camelina Enderlein 1907 L02
              |--L. chelata (Thornton & Woo 1973) L02
              |--L. clypeofasciata (Mockford 1974) L02
              |--L. coloradensis (Banks 1907) [=Myopsocus coloradensis] M93
              |--L. corniculata Li 1995 L02
              |--L. cubitalis Lienhard 2004 NL07
              |--L. cylindra Li 2002 L03
              |--L. elongata (Thornton 1960) [=Myopsocus elongatus] L02
              |--L. excavata Li 2002 L03
              |--L. fasciata Badonnel 1946 L02
              |--L. fenestrata Enderlein 1926 NL07
              |--L. gibbulosa Li 2002 L02
              |--L. guineensis Enderlein 1914 B49
              |--L. hamata Li 1995 L02
              |--L. hangzhouensis Li 2002 L02
              |--L. harpeodes Li 2002 L02
              |--L. intermedia Pearman 1934 L02 [=L. cameruna var. intermedia B55]
              |--L. leucospila Li 2002 L02
              |--L. lugens (Hagen 1861) (see below for synonymy) M93
              |--L. machadoi (Badonnel 1977) L02
              |--L. maxima (Smithers 1957) L02
              |--L. merapi Thorton in Thornton & Browning 1992 NL07
              |--L. muscosa Y02
              |--L. orbiculata Li 2002 L03
              |--L. oxycera Li 2002 L02
              |--L. pauliani Badonnel 1949 B55
              |--L. sinuosa Lienhard 2004 NL07
              |--L. sparsa (Hagen 1861) M93 [=Psocus sparsus M93, Myopsocus sparsus M74]
              |--L. sumatrana (Enderlein 1906) NL07
              |--L. tridens Li 2002 L02
              `--L. unicornis Li 2002 L02

Lichenomima lugens (Hagen 1861) [=Psocus lugens, Myopsocus lugens; incl. P. virginianus Banks 1900, M. virginianus] M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B49] Badonnel, A. 1949. Psocoptères de la Cote d'Ivoire. Mission Paulian-Delamare (1945). Revue Française d'Entomologie 16: 20–46.

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103–215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[Y02] Yoshizawa, K. 2002. Phylogeny and higher classification of suborder Psocomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 371–400.

Myopsocinae

Myopsocus eatoni, copyright Katja Schulz.


Belongs within: Psocetae.

The Myopsocinae are a group of barklice of the Myopsocidae in which the hind wing has veins Rs and M fused for a length, and the outer edge of the fore wing is not curved (Li 2002).

<==Myopsocinae L02
    |--Smithersia Thornton in Thornton & Browning 1992 L03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*S. hermosa (Banks 1920) [=Psocus hermosus] NL07
    |    |--S. angusta (Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991) NL07
    |    |--S. hermosoides (Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991) NL07
    |    |--S. newi Thornton in Thornton & Browning 1992 NL07
    |    |--S. scapiformis (Li 2002) [=Polygonomyus scapiformis] L03
    |    |--S. sexangula (Li 2002) [=Polygonomyus sexangulus] L03
    |    `--S. sinica (Li 2002) [=*Polygonomyus sinicus] L03
    `--Myopsocus Hagen 1866 [incl. Phlotodes Enderlein 1910, Rhaptoneura Enderlein 1910] L02
         |--*M. unduosus (Hagen 1859) [=Psocus unduosus] NL07
         |--‘Rhaptoneura’ africana Badonnel 1955 B55
         |--‘Phlotodes’ angolensis Badonnel 1955 B55
         |--M. angulatus Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991 NL07
         |--M. angustus S95
         |--M. antillanus (Mockford 1974) [=Phlotodes antillanus] M93
         |--M. apicalis (Thornton 1984) NL07
         |--‘Phlotodes’ australis GE05
         |--M. bakeri Banks 1916 NL07
         |--M. bomasa (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. brunneigena (Smithers & Thornton 1979) NL07
         |--M. brunneipes Smithers 1995 NL07
         |--M. cameruna Enderlein 1903 M74, B55 [=Lichenomima cameruna B55]
         |--M. clypeofasciatus Mockford 1974 M74
         |--‘Phlotodes’ congolensis B55
         |--M. corticola Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991 NL07
         |--‘Phlotodes’ cubanus Mockford 1974 M74
         |--M. dentatus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--*Rhaptoneura’ dispar NL07
         |--M. eatoni McLachlan 1880 L98 [=Rhaptoneura eatoni M93; incl. M. eatoni var. europaeus Ribaga 1907 L98]
         |--M. enderleini Banks 1913 NL07
         |--M. fasciatus M74
         |--M. fenestratus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07 [=Phlotodes fenestratus S95]
         |--M. gressitti (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. griseipennis S70
         |--M. hermosoides S95
         |--M. horripilis Lienhard 2004 NL07
         |--M. intermedia M74
         |--M. javensis Vaughan, Thornton & New 1991 NL07
         |--M. kolbei Enderlein 1903 [=*Phlotodes kolbei] NL07
         |--M. lineatus (Smithers & Thornton 1979) NL07
         |--M. lombokensis (Thornton 1984) NL07
         |--M. longigena (Enderlein 1926) NL07
         |--M. loriai Ribaga 1908 NL07
         |--M. luteolus (Banks 1920) NL07
         |--M. maculatus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. marginatus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. minutus (Mockford 1974) [=Phlotodes minutus] M93
         |--M. mjoebergi (Karny 1925) NL07
         |--M. palauensis Thornton, Lee & Chui 1972 L02
         |--M. pauliani M74
         |--M. peltatus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. pilipes (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. platyvalvula (Smithers & Thornton 1979) NL07
         |--M. preclarus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07 [=Phlotodes preclarus S95]
         |--M. pulchellus (Banks 1920) NL07
         |--M. rimosus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. scabiosus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. schoutedeni M74
         |--M. spatulatus Thornton in Thornton & Browning 1992 NL07
         |--M. thecatus (New & Thornton 1976) NL07
         |--M. toxeres (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         |--M. venustus (Smithers & Thornton 1974) NL07
         `--M. yunnanicus Li 2002 L02

Smithersia Thornton in Thornton & Browning 1992 L03 [incl. Polygonomyus Li 2002 L02, Ploygonomyus L02, Polyonomyus L03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[M74] Mockford, E. L. 1974. Records and descriptions of Cuban Psocoptera. Entomologica Americana 48 (2): 103–215.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[S70] Smithers, C. N. 1970. Psocoptera (psocids, booklice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 367–375. Melbourne University Press.

[S95] Smithers, C. N. 1995. Psocoptera (Insecta) of Christmas Island. Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 529–561.

Psocidus

Psocidus bifurcatus, from Li (2002).


Belongs within: Psocinae.

Psocidus is a genus of barklice historically used as a 'holding genus' for species of Psocini that could not be attributed to the restricted genus Psocus, but since redefined to include a smaller assemblage of species found in Africa and southern Asia (New & Lienhard 2007).

Characters (from New & Lienhard 2007): Male with hypandrium bearing setose apical lobe; phallosome with long anterior lateral arms, lateral apophyses, and pair of long inner sclerites; paraprocts bearing two trichobothrial fields, corresponding to main field divided by sensilla-free zone.

<==Psocidus Pearman 1934 L02 [=Psocodus (l. c.) L03; incl. Clistopsocus Navas 1924 L02, Sigmatina Enderlein 1925 L02]
    |--*P. zanzibarensis Pearman 1934 L02
    |--P. albovarius (Banks 1920) NL07
    |--P. apertus Thornton 1984 NL07
    |--P. arenosus (Navás 1922) NL07
    |--P. bifurcatus Li 2002 [=P. bicruris Li 2002 non Li 1990] L03
    |--P. biguttatus B55
    |--P. borneensis (Banks 1920) NL07
    |--P. divisus (Navás 1922) NL07
    |--P. femoratus (MacLachlan 1866) L02
    |--P. filicornis Enderlein 1903 L02
    |--P. gloriosus (Banks 1920) NL07
    |--P. guilinensis Li 2002 L02
    |--P. guttulatus Pearman 1934 B55
    |--P. hainanensis Li 2002 L02
    |--P. jacobsoni (Enderlein 1907) NL07
    |--P. javanicus (Enderlein 1907) NL07
    |--P. lacroixi (Navás 1920) NL07
    |--P. lestagei (Navás 1922) NL07
    |--P. lobatus Endang & Thornton 1992 NL07
    |--P. longicaudis B55
    |--P. luotongshanicus Li 2002 L02
    |--P. masinus (Navás 1923) NL07
    |--P. murphyi New 1975 NL07
    |--P. oxyurus Badonnel 1955 B55
    |--P. peregrans Vaughan, Thornton & New 1989 NL07
    |--P. proctus Vaughan, Thornton & New 1989 NL07
    |--P. reidi Thornton 1984 NL07
    |--P. relativus (Banks 1920) NL07
    |--P. samchiensis New 1978 L02
    |--P. sauteri (Enderlein 1908) L02
    |--P. segmentatus Endang & Thornton 1992 NL07
    |--P. similaris (Banks 1920) NL07
    |--P. strictus Thornton 1960 L02
    |--P. tacaoensis (Enderlein 1908) L02
    |--P. tergatus Endang & Thornton 1992 NL07
    |--P. validus Thornton 1960 NL07
    |--P. viscayanus (Banks 1920) NL07
    `--P. vitalisi (Navás 1922) NL07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

Psocus

Psocus leidyi male, copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Psocinae.

Psocus is a genus historically used to cover a wide range of (if not all) barklice, now restricted to a more narrowly defined group found in the Holarctic realm and Africa.

Characters (from Mockford 1993): Adults of both sexes macropterous. Nine distal inner labral sensilla. Fore wing marking with pterostigma with brown spot, very variable in size, likewise stigmasaum; a brown mark associated with M-Cu1 branching point; a brown spot at nodules. Hypandrium lacking basal sclerites; with broad median strap bending upward distally and bearing basal tooth or lobe. Phallosome somewhat tapering and rounded anteriorly or with short anterior apodeme; distally variable. Male epiproct flat, not extending anteriorly over clunium; clunium extending at least slightly over epiproct in middle. Male paraproct with shoulder lateral to distal process. Subgenital plate with distal process relatively long and slender; pigmented arms directed posterolaterally, bearing a shallow to moderate trench and row of setae along their length; arms expanded distally. Ovipositor valvulae with apical process of v2 short; v3 large, rounded or quadrate, with median lobe short to moderate.

<==Psocus Latreille 1794 [=Psochus Latreille 1796] L02
    |--*P. bipunctatus (Linnaeus 1761) G74 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. alticolus Banks 1937 NL07
    |--P. annulipes Reuter 1899 (n. d.) [=Psocidus annulipes] L98
    |--P. capitatus Okamoto 1907 L02
    |--P. ciliatus Latreille 1795 L95
    |--P. crosbyi Chapman 1930 M93
    |--P. dolorosus Banks 1937 NL07
    |--P. formosanus Okamoto 1907 L02
    |--P. funerulus Costa 1885 (n. d.) [=Psocidus funerulus] L98
    |--P. grisescens Mc. Lachl. 1866 E07
    |--P. illotus Banks 1939 NL07
    |--P. incomptus Banks 1937 NL07
    |--P. jeanneli Badonnel 1945 L98
    |--P. kiboschoensis Enderlein 1907 E07
    |--P. kolbei (Enderlein 1906) L02
    |--P. lapidarius Badonnel 1936 L98
    |--P. leidyi Aaron 1886 [incl. P. bilobatus Banks 1918] M93
    |--P. mucronicaudatus Li 2002 L02
    |--P. omissus Banks 1939 NL07
    |--P. rizali Banks 1939 NL07
    |--P. sjoestedti Enderlein 1907 E07
    |--P. socialis Li 1997 L02
    |--P. striatulus L95
    `--P. vannivalvulus Li 1995 L02

*Psocus bipunctatus (Linnaeus 1761) G74 [=Hemerobius bipunctatus L02; incl. P. bipunctatus var. grisescens Tetens 1891 non Mc. Lachl. 1866 G74, P. bipunctatus var. spaengbergi Kolbe 1880 G74]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E07] Enderlein, G. 1907. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 15. Corrodentia pt 2. Copeognatha. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[G74] Günther, K. K. 1974. Staubläuse, Psocoptera. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 61: 1–315.

[L95] Latreille, P. A. 1795. Extrait d'un mémoire pour servir de suite à l'histoire des termès, ou fourmis blanches. Bulletin de la Société Philomatique, a ses Correspondans 41–42: 1–3.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

Clematoscenea

Clematoscenea sp., copyright David Ball.


Belongs within: Psocinae.

Clematoscenea is an Indo-Australian genus of barklice characterised by fore wings with veins R2+3 and R4+5 diverging basally at an angle of 90° or more so that cell M3 is much narrower than other median cells and veins M3 and the distal portion of Cu1a are almost parallel (New & Lienhard 2007).

<==Clematoscenea Enderlein 1907 L02 [=Clematocenea (l. c.) L03]
    |--*C. lemniscata (Enderlein 1903) [=Psocus lemniscatus] NL07
    |--C. apta Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    |--C. biloba Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    |--C. biroi (Enderlein 1903) [=Psocidus biroi] NL07
    |--C. dimorpha Smithers & Thornton 1990 NL07
    |--C. goilala Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    |--C. gressitti Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    |--C. longitarsus Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    |--C. macalpinei Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    |--C. mosomensis Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    |--C. newi Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    |--C. pulchra Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
    `--C. yunnanica Li 2002 L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

Psococerastis

Psococerastis gibbosa, copyright Christophe Quintin.


Belongs within: Psocinae.

Psococerastis is a widespread genus of relatively large barklice with fore wing veins Rs and M meeting at a point or linked by a short crossvein, and the first portion of vein Cu1a longer than the second portion; the fore wing veins are entirely glabrous, and veins R2+3 and R4+5 diverging basally at an angle of about 60° (New & Lienhard 2007).

<==Psococerastis Pearman 1932 L02
    |--Nervimacularis L02
    |    |--*P. gibbosa (Sulzer 1776) L02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. albimaculata Li & Yang 1988 L02
    |    |--P. ampullaris Li 1992 L02
    |    |--P. boseiensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. formosa Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. galeata Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. huangshanensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. linearis Li 1990 L02
    |    |--P. melanostigma Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. nigriventris Li 1997 L02
    |    |--P. sangzhiensis Li 1992 L02
    |    |--P. stulticaulis Li 1989 L02
    |    |--P. venigra Li & Yang 1992 L02
    |    `--P. venimaculis Li & Yang 1987 L02, L03 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Alimaculosa L02
    |    |--P. aurata Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. baishanzuica Li 1995 L02
    |    |--P. brachyneura Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. brachypoda Li 1990 L02
    |    |--P. capitulatis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. chebalingensis Li 1993 L02
    |    |--P. cuspidata Li 1992 L02
    |    |--P. deflecta Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. denticuligis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. dicoccis Li 1995 L02
    |    |--P. dissidens Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. duoipunctata Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. emeiensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. fenestralis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. fluctimarginalis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. gansuiensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. gracilescens Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. guangxiensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. hainanensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. huapingana Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. hunaniensis Li 1992 L02 [=P. hunanensis L03]
    |    |--P. macrotaenialis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. malleata Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |    |--P. microdonta Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. moganshanensis Li 1992 L02
    |    |--P. pandurata Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. parallelica Li 1992 L02
    |    |--P. pingtangensis Li 1990 L02
    |    |--P. pingxiangensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. platypis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. platytaenia Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. plicata Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. polygonalis Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |    |--P. psaronipunctata Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. quadrisecta Li 1993 L02
    |    |--P. quinidentata Li 1999 L02
    |    |--P. scissilis Li 1992 L02 [=P. sissilis (l. c.) L03]
    |    |--P. sexpunctata Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. shanxiensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. shennongjiana Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. tianmushanensis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. trichotoma Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |    |--P. turriformis Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. urceolaris Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. weijuni Li 2002 L02
    |    |--P. zayuensis Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |    `--P. zhaoi Li 1999 L02
    `--Hyalinoptera L02
         |--P. baihuashanensis Li 2002 L02
         |--P. betulisuga Li 2002 L02
         |--P. bomiensis Li & Yang 1987 L02
         |--P. curvivalvae Li 1990 L02
         |--P. exilis Li 2002 L02
         |--P. pellucidatis Li & Yang 1987 L02
         |--P. platynota Li 2002 L02
         |--P. platyraphis Li 1990 L02
         |--P. polystictis Li & Yang 1987 L02
         |--P. protractis Li 2002 L02
         |--P. punctulosa Li 2002 L02
         |--P. pyriformis Li 1995 L02
         |--P. spatiosis Li 2002 L02
         |--P. stipularis Li 1997 L02
         |--P. tibetensis Li & Yang 1987 L02
         |--P. trilobata Li & Yang 1987 L02
         `--P. yunnanensis Li 2002 L02

Psococerastis incertae sedis:
  P. annae Thornton 1984 NL07
  P. aspinosa Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  P. bakeri (Banks 1913) NL07
  P. bengalensis (Kolbe 1883) NL07 [=P. taprobanes var. bengalensis L02]
  P. bispinosa Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  P. callanganus L02
  P. collessi Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
  P. cosmoptera (McLachlan 1866) NL07
  P. discalis (Navás 1920) NL07
  P. fasciata Mockford 1981 L02
  P. flavistigma (Kolbe 1885) NL07
  P. fortunae Mockford 1981 L02
  P. fuelleborni (Enderlein 1902) [=Psocus fuelleborni] B55
  P. ghesquierei Badonnel 1949 B55
  P. golfita Mockford 1981 L02
  P. interrupta New 1972 L02
  P. joannisi (Navás 1934) NL07
  P. lifashengi Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  P. lombokensis (Navás 1927) NL07
  P. lutoris (Soehardjan & Hamann 1959) NL07
  P. luzonensis (Banks 1916) NL07
  P. murudensis (Karny 1925) NL07
  P. nirvanus (Banks 1914) L02
  P. nubila YS01
  P. paraguayana (Ribaga 1908) L02
  P. parasinensis New 1975 NL07
  P. ryukyuensis Tsutsumi 1964 L02
  P. sinensis Thornton 1960 L02
  P. taprobanes (Hagen 1858) NL07
  P. tokyoensis (Enderlein 1906) L02

*Psococerastis gibbosa (Sulzer 1776) L02 [=Phryganea gibbosa L02, Psocus gibbosus L02; incl. Psocus lineatus Latreille 1799 G74, Hemerobius longicornis Fabricius 1777 L02, Psocus longicornis L95, Phryganea saltatrix Linnaeus 1746 (pre-Linnean) G74]

Psococerastis venimaculis Li & Yang 1987 L02, L03 [=P. venimacula (l. c.) L03, P. venimaculatus (l. c.) L03, P. venimaculi L03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[G74] Günther, K. K. 1974. Staubläuse, Psocoptera. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 61: 1–315.

[L95] Latreille, P. A. 1795. Extrait d'un mémoire pour servir de suite à l'histoire des termès, ou fourmis blanches. Bulletin de la Société Philomatique, a ses Correspondans 41–42: 1–3.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Sigmatoneura

Female Sigmatoneura baiyunica, from Li (2002).


Belongs within: Psocinae.

Sigmatoneura is an Old World genus of barklice exhibiting strong sexual dimorphism with males having hyaline fore wings whereas females have the fore wing strongly patterned in dark brown (New & Lienhard 2007).

Characters (from New & Lienhard 2007): Fore wing with vein Sc meeting costa; R4+5 strongly sinuate; Rs and M connected by crossvein; areola postica an isosceles triangle, basal and distal portions of vein Cu1a converging strongly towards M; wing colour sexually dimorphic, female fore wing dark brownish black with veins R2+3, R4+5 and first section of Cu1a white.

<==Sigmatoneura Enderlein 1908 L02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. (Sigmatoneura) L03
    |    |--*S. (S.) subcostalis [=Cerastipsocus subcostalis] NL07
    |    |--S. (S.) antenniflava Li 2002 [=S. antennflava] L03
    |    |--S. (S.) baiyunica Li 2002 L03
    |    |--S. (S.) brachyura Li 2002 L02
    |    |--S. (S.) clara Li & Yang 1988 L02
    |    |--S. (S.) coronata Li 2002 [=S. coronatus] L03
    |    |--S. (S.) flaviventris Li 2002 L02
    |    |--S. (S.) singularis Okamoto 1907 L02
    |    `--S. (S.) triaristata Li 2002 L02
    `--S. (Longifolia Li 2002) L02
         |--S. (*L.) octofasciata Li 2002 L02
         |--S. (L.) chinensis Li & Yang 1987 L02
         |--S. (L.) ellipsoidalis Li 2002 L02
         |--S. (L.) macroloba Li 2002 L02
         `--S. (L.) spicata Li 2002 L02

Sigmatoneura incertae sedis:
  *Dinopsocus’ atratus NL07
  S. basalis Endang & Thornton 1992 NL07
  S. formosa (Banks 1918) L02
  S. kakisayap Yoshizawa & Lienhard in Yoshizawa et al. 2005 NL07
  S. kolbei (Enderlein 1906) NL07
  S. lemahsayap Yoshizawa & Lienhard in Yoshizawa et al. 2005 NL07
  S. longicornis (Banks 1920) [=*Podopterocus longicornis] NL07
  S. orientalis (New 1975) NL07
  S. phaeotherus Smithers 1960 L02 [=*Scaphopsocus phaeotherus NL07]
  S. scitula Smithers & Thornton 1981 NL07
  S. semicolorata (Banks 1920) NL07
  S. subcostalis (Enderlein 1903) NL07

Sigmatoneura Enderlein 1908 L02 [=Sigmatoneuros (l. c.) L03; incl. Dinopsocus NL07, Podopterocus NL07, Scaphopsocus Smithers 1960 L02; Sigmatoneurinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

Metylophorus

Metylophorus novaescotiae, copyright Katja Schulz.


Belongs within: Psocinae.

Metylophorus is a subcosmopolitan genus of barklice (not known from Australasia) that usually have predominantly brown or grey fore wings and fumose hind wings (New & Lienhard 2007).

Characters (from New & Lienhard 2007): Fore wing Sc ending free in wing membrane; veins Rs and M fused for a short length or meeting at a point; areola postica trapezoidal, basal and distal portions of vein Cu1a not converging strongly towards M.

<==Metylophorus Pearman 1932 L02
    |--*M. nebulosus (Stephens 1836) L02b(see below for synonymy)
    |--M. barretti (Banks 1900) (see below for synonymy) M93
    |--M. bicornutus Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |--M. brevantenninus Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |--M. camptodontus Li & Yang 1992 L02
    |--M. cantaminatus Li & Yang 1987 L02
    |--M. cyclotus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. daedaleus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. diplodurus Li 1992 L02
    |--M. dongbeicus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. elongatus Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
    |--M. giganteus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. hengshanicus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. javensis Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
    |--M. jinciensis Li 2002 L02
    |--M. latespinosus Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
    |--M. lisae Thornton 1984 NL07
    |--M. lobatus Badonnel 1955 B55
    |--M. longicaudatus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. lushanensis Li 2002 L02
    |--M. marmoreus Li & Yang 1988 L02
    |--M. medicornutus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. megistus Li 1997 L02
    |--M. mendax Badonnel 1955 B55
    |--M. novaescotiae (Walker 1853) (see below for synonymy) M93
    |--M. plebius Li 1989 L02
    |--M. pleiotomus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. purus (Walsh 1862) [=Psocus purus; incl. P. genualis Banks 1903, P. lucidus Harris 1869] M93
    |--M. rotundatus Li 1992 L02
    |--M. tricornis Li 1993 L02
    |--M. trivalvis Li 1992 L02
    |--M. uncorneus Li 2002 L02
    |--M. wui Li 1995 L02
    |--M. wuyinicus Li & Yang 1987 L02
    `--M. xizangensis Li & Yang 1987 L02

Metylophorus barretti (Banks 1900) [=Psocus barretti, Psocidus barretti; incl. Psocus hoodi Chapman 1930, Metylophorus hoodi, Psocidus hoodi] M93

*Metylophorus nebulosus (Stephens 1836) L02 [=Psocus nebulosus NL07; incl. P. affinis Rambur 1842 G74, P. nebulososimilis var. amphigerontioides Kolbe 1880 G74, P. fuscipennis Zetterstedt 1840 G74, P. infuscatus Rambur 1842 G74, P. similis Stephens 1836 G74, P. nebulosus var. usambaranus Enderlein 1907 E07, P. variegatus Curtis 1837 non Latreille 1799 G74]

Metylophorus novaescotiae (Walker 1853) [=Psocus novaescotiae; incl. P. contaminatus Hagen 1861 non Stephens 1836, P. hageni Banks 1904, P. perplexus Walsh 1862] M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[E07] Enderlein, G. 1907. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 15. Corrodentia pt 2. Copeognatha. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[G74] Günther, K. K. 1974. Staubläuse, Psocoptera. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 61: 1–315.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

Trichadenotecnum

Trichadenotecnum alexanderae, copyright Alain Hogue.


Belongs within: Psocinae.

Trichadenotecnum is a cosmopolitan genus of barklice with heavily pigmented fore wings.

See also: Trichadenotecnum: six spots and spiny terminalia.

Characters (from New & Lienhard 2007, Yoshizawa & Lienhard 2015): Fore wing markings including spots in cell C; opposing spots near base of cell r; proximal band fron stigmasac passing through M+Cu fork to distal third of cell cu2; submarginal row of six spots. Male with clunial arms usually present; hypandrium usually with median tongue; apophyses present on posterior margin of hypandrium.

<==Trichadenotecnum Enderlein 1909 YL15 [incl. Cryptopsocus Li 2002 YL15, Trichadenopsocus Roesler 1943 NL07, L02]
    |--+--+--T. bos YL15
    |  |  `--T. tambopatense YL15
    |  `--+--T. gonzalezi YL15
    |     `--T. peruense YL15
    `--+--+--T. corniculum YL15
       |  `--T. germinatum YL15
       |--T. marginatum group YL15
       |    |--+--T. sabahense Yoshizawa & Lienhard 2015 YL15
       |    |  `--T. sharkeyi Yoshizawa & Lienhard 2015 YL15
       |    `--+--T. cynostigmus (Li 2002) [=*Cryptopsocus cynostigmus] YL15
       |       |--T. marginatum New & Thornton 1976 YL15
       |       `--T. tigrinum Yoshizawa & Lienhard 2015 YL15
       `--+--T. alexanderae complex M93
          |    |--T. alexanderae (Sommerman 1948) YL15, L02 [=Trichadenopsocus alexanderae L03]
          |    |--T. castum Betz 1983 YL15, M93
          |    |--T. innuptum Betz 1983 M93
          |    `--T. merum Betz 1983 M93
          |--T. spiniserrulum group YL15
          |    |  i. s.: T. spiniserrulum Datta 1969 L02 [=Trichadenopsocus spiniserrulus L03]
          |    |--T. ianobidens YL15
          |    `--+--T. falx Yoshizawa 2001 YL15, M03
          |       `--T. furcalingum YL15
          `--+--T. iani YL15
             |--+--T. nothoapertum YL15
             |  `--T. yamatomajus Yoshizawa 2001 YL15, M03
             `--+--+--+--T. album YL15
                |  |  `--T. incognitum Roesler 1939 YL15, G74
                |  `--+--T. mixtum YL15
                |     `--+--T. latebrachium YL15
                |        `--T. medium Thornton 1961 YL15, L02 [=Loensia media L03, Thichorntontecnum medium L02]
                `--+--+--T. desolatum (Chapman 1930) YL15, M93 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  `--T. tuitense YL15
                   `--+--+--T. aconcinnum YL15
                      |  `--+--+--T. decui YL15
                      |     |  `--T. obrienorum YL15
                      |     `--+--T. miffy YL15
                      |        `--T. slossonae (Banks 1903) YL15, M93 (see below for synonymy)
                      `--+--+--T. chiapense YL15
                         |  `--T. erwini YL15
                         `--+--+--T. brevicornum YL15
                            |  `--T. quaesitum (Chapman 1930) YL15, M93 [=Psocus quaesitus M93]
                            `--+--T. concinnum YL15
                               `--T. nicaraguense YL15

Trichadenotecnum incertae sedis:
  *T. sexpunctatum (Linnaeus 1758) YL15 [=Hemerobius sexpunctatus YL15, Psocus sexpunctatus L02]
  T. adika Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. aduncatum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus aduncatus] L03
  T. alinguum Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. alobum Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. alternatum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus alternatus] L03
  T. ampullaceum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus ampullaceus] L03
  T. angolensis Badonnel 1955 B55
  T. arciforme Thornton 1961 NL07
  T. baishanzuicum Li 1995 L02
  T. bicolor (Li 2001) [=Trichadenopsocus bicolor] L03
  T. bidens Thornton 1961 NL07 [=Loensia bidens L02]
  T. bidentatum Thornton 1984 NL07 [=Trichadenopsocus bidentatus L03]
  T. bitenatum (Li 1995) L03, L02 [=Trichadenopsocus biternatus (l. c.) L03]
  T. bromoense Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. bucciniforme Li 1993 L02 [=Trichadenopsocus bucciniformis L03]
  T. calycoideum Li 2002 L02
  T. cheahae Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. chinense Li 1997 L02
  T. cinnamonum Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. circulare (Hagen 1859) NL07
  T. circularoides Badonnel 1955 NL07
  T. cornutum Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. dactylinum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus dactylinus] L03
  T. digitatum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus digitatus] L03
  T. diplodurum Li 2002 L02
  T. emeishanense Li 2002 [=T. emeishanaense, T. emeishananse, T. emeishanse] L03
  T. felix Thornton 1961 L02 [=Trichadenopsocus felix L03]
  T. galihi Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. gallicum Lienhard 1986 L98
  T. germanicum Roesler 1939 G74
  T. godavarense New 1971 NL07
  T. gutianum Li 1995 L02
  T. hammani Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. himalayense Li & Yang 1987 L03, L02 [=Trichadenopsocus himalayaensis (l. c.) L03]
  T. imperatorium Li 1989 L02
  T. imrum New & Thornton 1976 NL07
  T. isocaulum Li 2002 L02
  T. jaculatorum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus jaculatorus] L03
  T. jambiense Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. jinxiuense (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus jinxiuensis] L03
  T. kalibiruense Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. kerinciense Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. krucilense Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. kunmingicum Li 2002 L02
  T. laticornutum Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. mamillatum Li 2002 L02
  T. maroccanum Baz 1989 L98
  T. mclachlani New 1973 NL07 [=Trichadenopsocus mclachlani L03]
  T. minisexmaculatum Li & Yang 1987 L03, L02 (see below for synonymy)
  T. minutum Enderlein 1926 NL07
  T. muaraense Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. multangulare (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus multangularis] L03
  T. multicuspidatum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus multicuspidatus] L03
  T. obsitum (Enderlein 1908) L02
  T. obsubulatum Li 2002 L02
  T. opiparipardale (Li 1995) L03, L02 [=Trichadenopsocus opiparipardalis L03]
  T. paradika Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. pardoides Badonnel 1955 B55
  T. pardus Badonnel 1955 NL07 (see below for synonymy)
  T. paululum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus paululus] L03
  T. percussum Li 2002 L02
  T. pergracilum Li 2002 L02
  T. periphericum (Li 2001) [=Trichadenopsocus periphericus] L03
  T. pokhariense New 1983 L02
  T. proctum Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. qingshuicum Li 2002 L02
  T. quadrispinosum Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. quadruplex (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus quadruplex] L03
  T. rachimi Endang & Thornton 1992 NL07
  T. resupinum (Li 1997) L03, L02 [=Trichadenopsocus resupinus L03]
  T. rhomboides Li 2002 L02
  T. santosai Endang & Thornton 1992 NL07
  T. scoparium (Li 1995) L03, L02 [=Trichadenopsocus scoparius L03]
  T. sibolangitense Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. soekarmanni Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. soenarti Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. spuristipiatum Li 1997 L02
  T. stipiatum Li 1992 L02
  T. stipulatum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus stipulatus] L03
  T. subrotundum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus subrotundus] L03
  T. subscalare (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus subscalaris] L03
  T. sufflatum Li 1993 L02 [=Trichadenopsocus sufflatus L03]
  T. sumatrense Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. tenuispinum Li 1995 L02
  T. thallodialum Li 2002 L02
  T. trichotomum (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus trichotomus] L03
  T. trigonophyllum Li 1993 L02
  T. uncorne (Li 1995) L03, L02 [=Trichadenopsocus uncornis L03]
  T. uniforme (Li 2002) [=Trichadenopsocus uniformis] L03
  T. univittatum Li 2002 L02
  T. vaughani Endang, Thornton & New 2002 NL07
  T. waykambasense Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. waykananense Endang & New 2005 NL07
  T. wuxiacum Li 1997 L02
  T. xizangicum Li 2002 L02
  T. majus group NL07
    |--T. apertum Thornton 1961 NL07, L02 [=Trichadenopsocus apertus L03]
    |--T. gombakense New & Lee 1992 NL07
    |--T. majus (Kolbe 1880) M93 (see below for synonymy)
    `--T. malayense New 1975 NL07 [=Trichadenopsocus malayaense (l. c.) L03]

Trichadenotecnum desolatum (Chapman 1930) YL15, M93 [=Psocus desolatus NL07, Trichadenotecnum (*Trichadenopsocus) desolatus M93, NL07]

Trichadenotecnum majus (Kolbe 1880) M93 [=Psocus sexpunctatus var. major L02, T. maijum (l. c.) L03, T. majum (l. c.) L03; incl. P. major var. ocellata Enderlein 1901 L02, P. major var. septentrionalis Enderlein 1910 L02]

Trichadenotecnum minisexmaculatum Li & Yang 1987 L03, L02 [=T. minsexmaculatum (l. c.) L03, T. minsexmaculatus (l. c.) L03]

Trichadenotecnum pardus Badonnel 1955 NL07 [=Trichadenopsocus pardus L03; incl. Trichadenotecnum pardidum Thornton 1961 L03, Trichadenopsocus pardidus L03]

Trichadenotecnum slossonae (Banks 1903) YL15, M93 [=Psocus slossonae M93; incl. T. unum Sommerman 1948 M93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B55] Badonnel, A. 1955. Psocoptères de l'Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 26: 11–267.

[G74] Günther, K. K. 1974. Staubläuse, Psocoptera. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 61: 1–315.

[L02] Li F. 2002. Psocoptera of China vol. 2. Science Press: Beijing.

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[M03] Mockford, E. L. 2003. New species and records of Psocoptera from the Kuril Islands. Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 50 (2): 191–230.

[NL07] New, T. R., & C. Lienhard. 2007. The Psocoptera of Tropical South-east Asia. Brill: Leiden.

[YL15] Yoshizawa, K., & C. Lienhard. 2015. Synonymy of Cryptopsocus Li with Trichadenotecnum Enderlein (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae) and description of three new species. Zootaxa 3957 (4): 480–488.