Dasypogoninae

Dasypogon diadema, copyright Fritz Geller-Grimm.


Belongs within: Asilidae.

The Dasypogoninae are a varied group of robber flies, many of which possess a stout spine-like apical bristle on the fore tibia (Wood 1981).

<==Dasypogoninae BT04
    |--Molobratia F09 [Molobratiini L02]
    |    |--*M. teutonus (Linnaeus 1776) [=Osilus teutonus] L02
    |    |--M. arkadii Lehr 2002 L02
    |    |--M. bokhai Lehr 2002 L02
    |    `--M. pekinensis L02
    |--Lastaurini BT04
    |    |--Lastaurus fallax F09
    |    `--Diogmites BT04
    |         |--D. basalis W81
    |         |--D. grossus BT04
    |         |--D. lindigii F09
    |         |--D. litoralis F09
    |         |--D. memnon F09
    |         `--D. nigripennis F09
    `--Dasypogonini BT04
         |--Saropogon BT04
         |    |--S. aurifrons J61
         |    |--S. combustus W81
         |    |--S. dispar W81
         |    |--S. fletcheri BT04
         |    |--S. luctuosus J61
         |    |--S. obscuripennis J61
         |    `--S. villosus Janssens 1961 J61
         `--Dasypogon F09
              |--D. apiformis Macquart 1849 E12
              |--D. aurifrons Macquart 1849 E12
              |--D. crassus Macquart 1849 E12
              |--D. diadema F09
              |--D. dorycus Boisduval 1835 B35
              |--D. maurus Macquart 1849 E12
              |--D. obscuripennis Macquart 1849 E12
              |--D. pusio Macquart 1849 E12
              |--D. pygmaeus Macquart 1849 E12
              |--D. rubigipennis Macquart 1849 E12
              `--D. rubriventris Macquart 1849 E12

Dasypogoninae incertae sedis:
  Cophura W81
    |--C. arizonensis F09
    |--C. brevicornis W81
    `--C. fur F09
  Ablautus W81
  Omniablautus W81
  Wilcoxia martinorum W81
  Stenocinclis W81
  Paleomolobra W81
  Nicocles W81
  Taracticus W81
    |--T. dimidiatus F09
    `--T. octopunctatus W81
  Microstylum galactodes W81
  Lestomyia W81
  Ceraturgopsis W81
  Aphamartania F09
    |--A. frauenfeldi [incl. A. panamensis] F09
    `--A. knutsoni F09
  Blepharepium F09
    |--B. annulatum F09
    `--B. secabile W81
  Comantella F09
  Bathypogon CM91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[BT04] Bybee, S. M., S. D. Taylor, C. R. Nelson & M. F. Whiting. 2004. A phylogeny of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) at the subfamilial level: molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 789–797.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[J61] Janssens, E. 1961. Sur quelques asilides mediterranees. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 29–36.

[L02] Lehr, P. A. 2002. Robber-flies (Diptera, Asilidae) of the subfamily Dioctriinae stat. n. (Diptera, Asilidae) of Asia: 2. Taxonomy and ecology. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 81 (2): 445–459.

[W81] Wood, G. C. 1981. Asilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 549–573. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Atomosini

Female Eumecosoma, copyright dguzman58.


Belongs within: Laphriinae.

The Atomosini are a group of small, sparsely haired robber flies.

Characters (from Wood 1981): Small rather bare species, less than 20 mm long, often with punctate mesonotum and abdomen. Antenna blunt apically; first flagellomere either with short bristle arising near middle of dorsal surface, or with stylus at apex. Palpus two-segmented. R2+3 joining R1 proximal to end of R1, cell r1 thus separated from wing margin; crossvein m-cu present, apex of cell bm closed by three veins. Postmetacoxal region with transverse heavily sclerotised bridge with posterodorsal margin V-shaped. Anatergite with bristly pile.

<==Atomosini BT04
    |--Adelodus BT04
    |--Atomosiella antennata W81
    |--Atractimosia filamentosa F09
    |--Bathropsis basalis [incl. B. delgadoi] F09
    |--Dissmeryngodes F09
    |--*Strombocodia elegans F09
    |--Atomosia F09
    |    |--A. puella W81
    |    `--A. tibialis F09
    |--Atoniomyia W81
    |    |--A. ancylocera F09
    |    `--A. duncani W81
    |--Aphestia F09
    |    |--A. annulipes F09
    |    `--A. nigra F09
    |--Aphractia F09
    |    |--A. comata [=Atractia comata] F09
    |    `--A. vivax [=Atractia vivax] F09
    |--Protichisma F09
    |    |--*P. longimana F09
    |    `--P. albibarbis F09
    |--Oidardis F09
    |    |--*O. gibbosa F09
    |    |--O. aenescens F09
    |    |--O. gibbum F09
    |    `--O. signaseta F09
    |--Cerotainia W81
    |    |--C. albipilosa W81
    |    |--C. feminea F09
    |    |--C. macrocera W81
    |    |--C. minima F09
    |    `--C. ornatipes F09
    |--Atractia F09
    |    |--A. (Atractia) [incl. Lophoceraea] F09
    |    |    |--*A. (A.) psilogaster F09
    |    |    |--A. (A.) dispar F09
    |    |    |--A. (A.) marginata F09
    |    |    `--A. (A.) pennata [=*Lophoceraea pennata] F09
    |    `--A. (*Hybozelodes) nigellus F09
    `--Eumecosoma F09
         |--+--*E. pleuriticum F09
         |  `--E. tarsalis F09
         `--+--E. calverti F09
            |--E. componens F09
            |--E. shropshirei F09
            `--E. staurophorum F09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BT04] Bybee, S. M., S. D. Taylor, C. R. Nelson & M. F. Whiting. 2004. A phylogeny of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) at the subfamilial level: molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 789–797.

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W81] Wood, G. C. 1981. Asilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 549–573. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Apocleinae

Promachus yesonicus, copyright Brian Adler.


Belongs within: Asilidae.

The Apocleinae are a group of robber flies characterised by a bare anatergite and bare antennal stylus.

Characters (from Wood 1981, as subgroup of Asilini): Apex of antenna with long, slender, bare bristle-like stylus. Palpus one-segmented. Postmetacoxal area membranous. R2+3 joining R1 proximal to end of R1, with cell r thus separated from wing margin. Anatergite bare.

<==Apocleinae [Apocleini] BT04
    |--Promachus Loew 1848 BT04, Z01
    |    |--P. anceps F09
    |    |--P. bastardii BT04
    |    |--P. bellardii F09
    |    |--P. fuscipennis F09
    |    `--P. yesonicus W81
    `--+--Efferia BT04 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--E. aestuans W81
       |    |--E. albibarbis F09
       |    |--E. nemoralis BT04
       |    `--E. quadrimaculata F09
       `--Proctacanthus BT04
            |--P. fulviventris F09
            |--P. milbertii W81
            |--P. nearno BT04
            `--P. occidentalis BM76

Apocleinae incertae sedis:
  Mallophora F09
    |--M. media W81
    |--M. minos F09
    |--M. orcina W81
    |--M. ruficauda W81
    `--M. tibialis F09
  Ctenodontina F09
    |--*C. pectinatipes F09
    |--C. complicata F09
    `--C. martini F09
  Eccritosia F09
    |--E. barbata F09
    `--E. zamon F09
  Eicherax F09
    |--E. bellardii F09
    |--E. disjunctus F09
    `--E. nigripes F09
  Eichoichemus lizbethae F09
  Glaphyropyga dryas F09
  Martintella Artigas 1996 [=Martinella Artigas & Papavero 1995 non Jousseaume 1887] F09
    `--*M. lestes [=Asilus lestes, *Martinella lestes, Wilcoxius lestes] F09
  Taurhynchus F09
    |--T. caudatus F09
    `--T. xanthopterus F09
  Triorla F09
    |--T. interrupta F09
    `--T. striola F09
  Wilcoxius Martin 1975 F09
    |--W. acutulus F09
    |--W. crenus F09
    `--W. truncus F09
  Erax F09

Efferia BT04 [incl. Albibarbefferia F09, Carinefferia F09, Diplosynapsis F09, Nerax F09, Pogonioefferia F09, Porasilus F09]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BT04] Bybee, S. M., S. D. Taylor, C. R. Nelson & M. F. Whiting. 2004. A phylogeny of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) at the subfamilial level: molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 789–797.

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 585–632. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W81] Wood, G. C. 1981. Asilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 549–573. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[Z01] Zompro, O. 2001. A review of Eurycanthinae: Eurycanthini, with a key to genera, notes on the subfamily and designation of type species. Phasmid Studies 10 (1): 19–23.

Mydidae

Diochlistus mitis, copyright Jean and Fred Hort.


Belongs within: Asiloidea.

The Mydidae, mydas flies, are a group of predatory flies with a characteristic clubbed second antennal flagellomere.

Characters (from Wilcox 1981): Medium to very large flies, 9-60 mm long, usually sparsely pilose, and without bristles except on legs. Second flagellomere of antenna clubbe. Abdomen long, cylindrical, and slightly tapered apically in male, but usually widest at segment 4 in female. Hindleg much longer and stronger than midleg and foreleg; hind femur usually swollen, with ventral spines; hind tibia with apical spur or bristles. Wing long, narrow to wide; most veins ending in upper margin before apex.

<==Mydidae
    |--Anomalomydas CM91 [Anomalomydinae W81]
    |--Apiophorinae W81
    |--Cacatuopyginae W81
    |--Rhopalinae W81
    |--Syllegomydas [Syllegomydinae] W81
    |    `--S. daltoni W81
    |--Leptomydinae W81
    |    |--Pseudonomoneura hirta W81
    |    `--Nemomydas W81
    |         |--N. melanopogon W81
    |         `--N. pantherinus W81
    |--Ectyphinae W81
    |    |--Ectyphus armipes W81
    |    |--Heteromydas bicolor W81
    |    `--Opomydas W81
    |         |--O. limbatus W81
    |         `--O. townsendi W81
    |--Diochlistus Gerstaecker 1868 P50 [Diochlistinae W81]
    |    |--D. analogus Paramonov 1950 P50
    |    |--D. apollinosus Paramonov 1950 P50
    |    |--D. auripennis Westwood 1835 [incl. Mydas fulvipennis Macq. 1849] P50
    |    |--D. gracilis Macq. 1847 (see below for synonymy) P50
    |    |--D. hackeri Paramonov 1950 P50
    |    |--D. melleipennis Westw. 1848 (see below for synonymy) P50
    |    |--D. mitis Gerst. 1868 P50
    |    |--D. neogracilis Hardy 1948 P50
    |    |--D. nicholsoni Mackerras 1928 P50
    |    `--D. tenebrosus Paramonov 1950 P50
    `--Mydinae W81
         |--Phyllomydas currani W81
         |--Messiasia W81
         |    |--M. decor W09
         |    |--M. perpolita W09
         |    `--M. pertenuis W81
         `--Mydas [incl. Gauromydas, Protomydas, Stratiomydas] W09
              |--M. bitaeniatus [=Stratiomydas bitaeniatus] W09
              |--M. clavatus W81
              |--M. heros W81
              |--M. illucens L02
              |--M. rubidapex [=Protomydas rubidapex] W09
              `--M. rufiventris [=Stratiomydas rufiventris] W09

Mydidae incertae sedis:
  Dolichogaster P53
  Triclonus P50
  Harmophana P50
  Mitrodetus W81
    |--M. dentitarsus W81
    `--M. microglossa W81
  Midacritus kuscheli W81
  Miltinus Gerst. 1868 P50
    |--M. atripes Paramonov 1950 P50
    |--M. australicus Paramonov 1950 P50
    |--M. cardinalis Gerst. 1868 P50
    |--M. commoni Paramonov 1950 P50
    |--M. dentipennis Mackerras 1928 P50
    |--M. mackerrasi Norr. 1937 P50
    |--M. maculipennis Westw. 1841 P50
    |--M. minutus Mackerras 1928 P50
    |--M. musgravei Mackerras 1928 [incl. M. concinnus Macq. 1846 (n. d.)] P50
    |--M. norrisi Paramonov 1950 P50
    |--M. parviduatus Paramonov 1950 P50
    |--M. rieki Paramonov 1950 P50
    |--M. sordidus Westw. 1848 [incl. M. limpidipennis Westw. 1848] P50
    |--M. stenogaster Westw. 1841 [incl. M. bicolor Westw. 1841, M. haemorrhous Gerst. 1868] P50
    |--M. tenuis Mackerras 1928 P50
    `--M. viduatus Westw. 1835 [incl. M. signatus Walk. 1857, M. varipes Macq. 1849] P50
  Rhaphiomidas Osten-Sacken 1874 W09, P53 (see below for synonymy)
    |--R. acton M90
    |--R. episcopus W09
    |--R. terminatus P81
    `--R. xanthos W09

Diochlistus gracilis Macq. 1847 [incl. D. bispinifer Westw. 1848, D. clavatus Macq. 1849, D. clavata, D. macquarti Schin. 1868] P50

Diochlistus melleipennis Westw. 1848 [incl. D. claviger Walk. 1848, D. effractus Walk. 1857, D. flavipes Thoms. 1868] P50

Rhaphiomidas Osten-Sacken 1874 W09, P53 [=Rhaphiomydas P53; incl. Apomidas Coquillett 1892 P53, Apomydas P53]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[P50] Paramonov, S. J. 1950. A review of the Australian Mydaidae (Diptera). CSIRO Bulletin 255: 1–32.

[P53] Paramonov, S. J. 1953. A review of Australian Apioceridae (Diptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 1 (3): 449–536.

[P81] Peterson, B. V. 1981. Apioceridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 541–548. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W81] Wilcox, J. 1981. Mydidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 533–540. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W09] Woodley, N. E. 2009. Mydidae (mydas flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 579–583. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Therevinae

Ozodiceromyia sp., possibly O. notata, copyright Yurika Alexander.


Belongs within: Therevidae.

The Therevinae are a group of stiletto flies found in the Americas and the Palaearctic region (Irwin & Lyneborg 1981).

Characters (from Winterton et al. 2001): Male genitalia with dorsal apodeme of parameral sheath free from gonocoxal apodeme; ventral apodeme of parameral sheath simple. Female genitalia with acanthophorites well developed; intersegmental membrane between sternite 8 and furca sclerotised; tergite 8 joined to tergite 9+10 by sclerotised bridge; two spermathecae; spermathecal sac present. Pupa with alar spine present. Larva with labial beard present; anterior maxillary palp large.

<==Therevinae WY01
    `--Cyclotelini GW09
         |--Anolinga longiventris GW09
         |--Breviperna placida GW09
         |--Coleiana GW09
         |--Crebraseta GW09
         |--Nesonana GW09
         |--Spiracolis GW09
         |--Cyclotelus GW09
         |    |--C. bellus GW09
         |    |--C. nigrifrons GW09
         |    |--C. pictipennis GW09
         |    |--C. rufiventris IL81
         |    `--C. sumichrasti GW09
         `--Ozodiceromyia GW09
              |--O. argentifera GW09
              |--O. costalis BT04
              |--O. mexicana GW09
              |--O. notata GW09
              `--O. signatipennis IL81

Therevinae incertae sedis:
  Anabarhynchus WY01
    |--A. calceatus CM91
    `--A. tristis WY01
  Irwiniella WY01
  Megathereva WY01
  Platycarenum WY01
  Brachylinga cinerea IL81
  Thereva Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*T. plebeja [=Bibio plebeja] L02
    |--T. bipunctata K01
    |--T. fucata IL81
    `--T. marginula K01
  Psilocephala WY01
    |--P. electrella GE05
    |--P. hypogaea IL81
    `--P. scudderi IL81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BT04] Bybee, S. M., S. D. Taylor, C. R. Nelson & M. F. Whiting. 2004. A phylogeny of robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) at the subfamilial level: molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 789–797.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GW09] Gaimari, S. D., & D. W. Webb. 2009. Therevidae (stiletto flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 633–647. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IL81] Irwin, M. E., & L. Lyneborg. 1981. Therevidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 513–523. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[WY01] Winterton, S. L., L. Yang, B. M. Wiegmann & D. K. Yeates. 2001. Phylogenetic revision of Agapophytinae subf. n. (Diptera: Therevidae) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Systematic Entomology 26: 173–211.

Stratiomyomorpha

Pantophthalmus bellardii, copyright Martin Hauser.


Belongs within: Orthorrhapha.
Contains: Stratiomyidae.

The Stratiomyomorpha are a group of flies including the soldier flies of the Stratiomyidae and their relatives, most of which have saprophagic larvae. Larvae of the families Pantophthalmidae and Xylomyidae are particularly associated with decaying wood.

&t;==Stratiomyomorpha [Stratiomyoidea] WT11
    |--Oligophryne WT11 [Oligophrynidae GE05]
    `--+--Cratomyia macrorrhyncha GE05
       |--Pantophthalmidae WT11
       |    |--Opetiops W09a
       |    `--Pantophthalmus W09a
       |         |--P. argyropastus BW09
       |         |--P. bellardii W09a
       |         |--P. heydeni NB-P09
       |         |--P. roseni W09a
       |         `--P. tabaninus W09a
       `--+--Stratiomyidae WT11
          `--Xylomyidae [Solvidae, Xylomyinae] WT11
               |--Archisolva cupressa GE05
               |--Arthropeina W09b
               |--Solva J81
               |    |--S. laeta CM91
               |    `--S. pallipes J81
               `--Xylomya J81
                    |--X. americana J81
                    |--X. parens WT11
                    |--X. shcherbakovi WT11
                    `--X. tenthredinoides M81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[J81] James, M. T. 1981. Xylomyidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 493–495. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[W09a] Woodley, N. E. 2009a. Pantophthalmidae (pantophthalmid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 509–512. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W09b] Woodley, N. E. 2009b. Xylomyidae (xylomyid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 517–519. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Oxycerini

Euparyphus mutabilis, copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.


Belongs within: Stratiomyidae.

The Oxycerini are a group of soldier flies with a six-segmented flagellum and a variegated body pattern (James 1981).

Characters (from James 1981): Antennal flagellum with six flagellomeres. Body variegated in background. Scutellum with pair of straight and moderately long spines. Four veins arising from cell dm; crossvein m-cu absent; branches of M often weakened. Abdomen with five visible tergites.

<==Oxycerini J81
    |--Oxycera albovittata J81
    |--Glariopsis decemmaculatus J81
    |--Caloparyphus major J81
    |--Glaris W09
    `--Euparyphus J81
         |--E. cinctus J81
         |--E. limbrocutris J81
         |--E. mutabilis J81
         |--E. ornatus J81
         `--E. (Nigriparyphus) patagius J81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[J81] James, M. T. 1981. Stratiomyidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 497–511. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W09] Woodley, N. E. 2009. Stratiomyidae (soldier flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 521–549. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

Acroceridae

Ogcodes sp., copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Orthorrhapha.

The Acroceridae, small-headed flies, are a group of flies that develop as endoparasitoids of spiders.

Characters (from Schlinger 1981): Small to large flies, 2.5-21 mm long. Head small to medium-sized, consisting mostly of large compound eyes. Abdomen globose, globose-elongate, or narrow and tapering or parallel-sided; color dull or shiny and often bright metallic green, blue, red, or purple, or sometimes brown, black, orange, yellow, or white with maculations on abdomen and with vittae on mesonotum. Some species bee-like, others wasp-like, and some even beetle-like, many appearing to be mimics. Family characterised by following combination of morphological structures: three-segmented antenna, small head, large calypter, pulvilliform empodia, simple unbranched R2, and body without bristles.

Acroceridae [Cyrtidae, Inflata] S09
    |--Acrocytinae S09
    |--Archocyrtus [Archocyrtinae] S81
    |    `--A. gibbosus S81
    |--Philopotinae S81
    |    |--Philopota truquii S81
    |    |--Prophilopota succinea S81
    |    |--Eulonchiella eocenica S81
    |    |--Megalybus S09
    |    `--Thyllis splendens S09, S81
    |--Panopinae S81
    |    |--Eulonchus halli S81
    |    |--Ocnaea smithi S81
    |    |--Pialea ecuadorensis S09, S81
    |    |--Apelleia S09
    |    |    |--A. grossa S09
    |    |    `--A. vittata S09
    |    |--Lasia S81
    |    |    |--L. colei S09
    |    |    |--L. purpurata S81
    |    |    `--L. rostrata S09
    |    |--Pterodontia S81
    |    |    |--P. flavipes A71
    |    |    |--P. misella S81
    |    |    |--P. vix S81
    |    |    `--P. westwoodi S09
    |    `--Rhysogaster S81
    `--Acrocerinae S81
         |--Villalites electrica S81
         |--Glaesoncodes completinervis S81
         |--Turbopsebius Schlinger 1972 S81
         |    |--*T. diligens [=Opsebius diligens] S81
         |    `--T. sulphuripes S81
         |--Acrocera S81
         |    |--A. bimaculata S81
         |    |--A. bulla S81
         |    |--A. convexa S81
         |    |--A. globulus A71
         |    |--A. hirsuta S81
         |    `--A. subfasciata S81
         `--Ogcodes Latreille 1802 [incl. Henops] L02
              |  i. s.: O. basalis WT11
              |--O. (Ogcodes) S09
              |    |--*O. (O.) gibbosus [=Syrphus gibbosus] L02
              |    |--O. (O.) adaptatus S81
              |    |--O. (O.) borealis S81
              |    |--O. (O.) colei S81
              |    |--O. (O.) dispar S09
              |    |--O. (O.) eugonatus S81
              |    `--O. (O.) pallidipennis S09
              `--O. (Neogcodes) albiventris S81

Acroceridae incertae sedis:
  Sabroskya S81
  Protogcodes S81
  Hadrogaster S81
  Nipponcyrtus S81
  Meruia S81
  Dimacrocolus pauliani S81
  Camposella S81
  Villalus S81
  Archipialea S81
  Arrhynchus S81
  Exetasis eickstedtae S81
  Psilodera S81
  Leucopsina odyneroides C91
  Terphis S81
  Astomella S81
  Panops CM91
  Panocalda CM91
  Mesophysa CM91
  Cyrtus Latreille 1802 L02
    `--*C. acephalus [=Empis acephala] L02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[S81] Schlinger, E. I. 1981. Acroceridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 575–584. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S09] Schlinger, E. I. 2009. Acroceridae (spider flies, small-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 551–556. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Rhagionidae

Downlooker snipe fly Rhagio mystaceus, copyright Bruce Marlin.


Belongs within: Tabanomorpha.

The Rhagionidae are a group of slender flies, mostly of poorly known habits though females of some are blood-suckers.

Characters (from James & Turner 1981): Slender flies, 4-15 mm long. Legs usually elongated. Abdomen elongated and conical. Body usually thinly clothed with stiff pile, but rarely with bristles. Color basically drab, but frequently with yellow or orange markings, rarely predominantly so. Head hemispherical, sometimes narrower than thorax. Vertex nearly flush with eyes. Facial area with prominent strongly convex clypeus extending almost to base of antennae and separated from parafacials by deep grooves. Eyes bare, holoptic or narrowly separated in male, widely separated in female; upper ommatidia in male usually enlarged. Antenna variable in form; scape and pedicel usually small, but scape sometimes lengthened, expanded, or densely haired; flagellum with eight tapering flagellomeres, or with an enlarged sometimes pendulous basal flagellomere bearing an apical usually unsegmented stylus or arista. Proboscis usually fleshy, sometimes equipped for sucking blood; palpus well-developed, two-segmented. Thorax of ordinary form; scutellum fairly large, unarmed. Legs simple, never dilated, at most with hind femur somewhat clubbed; hind coxa usually with small tubercle anteriorly; spurs present at apex of at least mid tibia though these are sometimes small, and one or two usually present on hind tibia; fore tarsus frequently with erect tactile hairs below; empodia pulvilliform. Calypter small. Wing always present, elongated; venation strong; C continued around wing as an ambient vein; cell d or dm situated near center of wing, rarely absent; M two- or three-branched; Rs arising far before base of cell d or dm; crossvein r-m usually well before, rarely at, middle of cell d or dm. Abdomen usually with seven segments and portions of terminalia visible, tapered posteriorly; seven pairs of spiracles present. Female terminalia with ovipositor telescopic; cercus two-segmented, with first segment usually expanded ventrolaterally; three round spermathecae. Male terminalia with hypandrium partially or completely distinguishable from bases of gonocoxi; gonostylus simple; parameres forming conical aedeagal sheath; epandrium together with a narrow tergite 10 and cerci not completely covering gonopods. Larva elongated, cylindrical, somewhat maggot-like, tapering anteriorly, more or less truncate and variously lobed posteriorly, consisting of a head and eleven distinct body segments that are never secondarily divided. Head capsule slender, widely open posteroventrally, mostly retracted within thorax; tentorial phragmata and tentorial arms present; no metacephalic rods; mandible slender, curved, blade-like, not provided with a poison canal, articulated to mandibular brush of posteriorly curved spines and to maxilla lying laterally. Body smooth or with hairs and bristles. Creeping welts present ventrally on abdominal segments 1-6 or 1-7. Respiratory system amphipneustic or apneustic; anterior spiracles probably not functional; posterior ones usually functional, located flush with body wall on posterior face of terminal segment. Terminal segment with lobes or tubercles of various form surrounding spiracles; no respiratory tube.

<==Rhagionidae
    |--Scelorhagio mecomastigus Zhang, Zhang & Li 1993 MR03
    |--Palaeoarthroteles mesozoicus BLM02
    |--Paleobrachyceron willmanni GE05
    |--Grimmyia baltica GE05
    |--Protobrachyeron GE05
    |--Ija problematica GE05
    |--Jurabrachyceron GE05
    |--Archirhagio GE05
    |--Paleobolbomyia GE05
    |--Mongolomyia latitarsis GE05
    |--Leborhagio GE05
    |--Mesobolbomyia GE05
    |--Paleochrysopilus GE05
    |--Atherinomorpha festuca GE05
    |--Jersambromyia borodini GE05
    |--Zarzia zherikhini GE05
    |--Pachybates St61
    |--Arthroceras leptis JT81
    |--Palaeohilarimorpha bifurcata W81
    |--*Neorhagio setosus [=Leptis setosa] K09
    |--Atherimorpha K09
    |--Austroleptis [Austroleptinae] K09
    |    `--A. rhyphoides CM91
    |--Simulidium Westwood 1854 MR03
    |    `--*S. priscum Westwood 1854 MR03
    |--Pseudosimulium Handlirsch 1906 MR03
    |    `--*P. humidum (Brodie 1845) [=Simulium humidum] MR03
    |--Ptiolinites GE05
    |    |--P. almuthae GE05
    |    |--P. cretaceous GE05
    |    `--P. oudatchinae GE05
    |--Spaniopsis White 1914 F15
    |    |--S. clelandi Ferguson 1915 F15
    |    |--S. longicornis Ferguson 1915 F15
    |    |--S. marginipennis Ferguson 1915 F15
    |    |--S. tabaniformis White 1914 F15
    |    `--S. vexans Ferguson 1915 F15
    `--Rhagio Fabricius 1775 [=Leptis Fabricius 1805] So61
         |--R. atratus L02
         |--R. holosericeus [=Styrex holosericeus] L02
         |--R. maculatus L02
         |--R. mystaceus JT81
         |--R. scolopaceus L02 [=Leptis scolopacea F15]
         |--‘Leptis’ strigosa F15
         |--R. tringarius L02
         `--R. vertebratus JT81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F15] Ferguson, E. W. 1915. Descriptions of new Australian blood-sucking flies belonging to the family Leptidae. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 69: 233–243.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[JT81] James, M. T., & W. J. Turner. 1981. Rhagionidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 483–488. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K09] Kerr, P. H. 2009. Rhagionidae (snipe flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 485–489. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MR03] Mostovski, M. B., A. J. Ross, R. Szadziewski & W. Krzeminski. 2003. Redescription of Simulidium priscum Westwood and Pseudosimulium humidum (Brodie) (Insecta: Diptera: Rhagionidae) from the Purbeck Limestone Group (Lower Cretaceous) of England. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1 (1): 59–64.

[So61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[St61] Stuckenberg, R. R. 1961. Diptera (Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 409–412. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[W81] Webb, D. W. 1981. Hilarimorphidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 603–605. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Diachlorini

Stenotabanus sp., copyright Jfdocampo.


Belongs within: Tabanidae.

The Diachlorini are a group of tabanine horse flies that usually have the basicosta of the wing bare of macrotrichia or nearly so (Pechuman & Teskey 1981).

Characters (from Pechuman & Teskey 1981): Scape barely longer than wide; basicosta (subepaulet) bare or nearly so; hind tibia without apical spurs; male gonostylus truncate; ends of spermathecal ducts in female with mushroom-like expansions.

<==Diachlorini PT81
    |--Diachlorus ferrugatus PT81
    |--Aegialomyia M54
    |--Microtabanus pygmaeus PT81
    |--Anacimas limbellatus PT81
    |--Leptapha M54
    |--Phaeotabanus M54
    |--Stypommisa M54
    |--Agelanius M54
    |--Scaptiodes M54
    |--Stypommia M54
    |--Dasybasis M54
    |--Chasmiella M54
    |--Leptotabanus transversus M54
    |--Aphopeas M54
    |--Thereviotabanus M54
    |--Protodasyommia M54
    |--Chlorotabanus crepuscularis PT81
    |--Cryptotylus M54
    |--Lepiselaga (Lepiselaga) crassipes B09
    |--Selasoma tibiale M54
    |--Lanemyia M54
    |--Amphichlorops M54
    |--Catachlorops (Psalidia) fulmineus M54, B09 [=Psalidia fulminea M54]
    |--Dasychela (Dasychela) badia M54, B09
    |--Udenocera brunnea M54
    |--Paracanthocera australis M54
    |--Neobolbodimyia M54
    |--Neotabanus ceylonicus M54
    |--Lissimas M54
    |--Leucotabanus annulatus PT81
    |--Holcopsis PT81
    |--Dicladocera nigrocaerulea B09
    |--Himantostylus intermedius B09
    |--Myiotabanus muscoideus B09
    |--Hemichrysops fascipennis B09
    |--Bolbodimyia B09
    |    |--B. atrata PT81
    |    `--B. galindoi B09
    |--Stibasoma B09
    |    |--S. (Stibasoma) chionostigma B09
    |    `--S. (Rhabdotylus) venenata B09
    |--Cydistomyia M54
    |    |--C. doddi S66
    |    `--C. postica M54
    |--Acanthocera M54
    |    |--A. apicalis M54
    |    |--A. (Nothocanthocera) costaricana B09
    |    `--A. (Polistimima) vespiformis B09
    |--Dichelacera M54
    |    |--D. (Dichelacera) B09
    |    |    |--D. (D.) fasciata B09
    |    |    `--D. (D.) regina BW09
    |    |--D. (Desmatochelacera) transposita B09
    |    `--D. (Idiochelacera) subcallosa B09
    |--Philipotabanus B09
    |    |--P. (Philipotabanus) B09
    |    |    |--P. (P.) nigrinubilus B09
    |    |    `--P. (P.) pallidetinctus B09
    |    |--P. (Melasmatabanus) criton BW09
    |    `--P. (Mimotabanus) inauratus B09
    `--Stenotabanus PT81
         |  i. s.: S. flavidus PT81
         |--S. (Stenotabanus) B09
         |    |--S. (S.) fulvistriatus B09
         |    `--S. (S.) incipiens B09
         `--S. (Brachytabanus) longipennis B09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[B09] Burger, J. F. 2009. Tabanidae (horse flies, deer flies, tabanos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 495–507. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M54] Mackerras, I. M. 1954. The classification and distribution of Tabanidae (Diptera). I. General review. Australian Journal of Zoology 2 (3): 431–454.

[PT81] Pechuman, L. L., & H. J. Teskey. 1981. Tabanidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 463–478. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S66] Southcott, R. V. 1966. Revision of the genus Charletonia Oudemans (Acarina: Erythraeidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 14: 687–819.

Scionini

Flower-feeding March fly Scaptia auriflua, copyright dhobern.


Belongs within: Tabanidae.

The Pangoniini are a group of horse flies characterised by the presence of apical spurs on the hind tibia, an undivided tergite 9, and male terminalia with a simple gonostylus (Pechuman & Teskey 1981).

<==Scionini PT81
    |--Goniops chrysocoma PT81
    |--Mycteromyia M54
    |--Melpia M54
    |--Pityocera festae M54, B09
    |--Listriosca M54
    |--Parosca M54
    |--Listrapha M54
    |--Osca M54
    |--Palimmecomyia M54
    |--Pseudoscione M54
    |--Scione B09
    |    |--S. costaricana B09
    |    `--S. maculipennis M54
    |--Fidena M54
    |    |--F. flavipennis B09
    |    |--F. nigrovitta B09
    |    `--F. sorbens M54
    `--Scaptia M54
         |--S. adrel M54
         |--S. aurata M54
         |--S. auriflua ZS10
         |--S. barbata M54
         |--S. maculiventris M54
         |--S. patula M54
         `--S. viridiventris M54

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B09] Burger, J. F. 2009. Tabanidae (horse flies, deer flies, tabanos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 495–507. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M54] Mackerras, I. M. 1954. The classification and distribution of Tabanidae (Diptera). I. General review. Australian Journal of Zoology 2 (3): 431–454.

[PT81] Pechuman, L. L., & H. J. Teskey. 1981. Tabanidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 463–478. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Pangoniini

Esenbeckia sp., from here.


Belongs within: Tabanidae.

The Pangoniini are a group of horse flies characterised by the presence of apical spurs on the hind tibia, an undivided tergite 9, and male terminalia with a bifid stylus (Pechuman & Teskey 1981).

<==Pangoniini PT81
    |--Stonemyia tranquilla PT81
    |--Brennania hera PT81
    |--Asaphomyia floridensis PT81
    |--Chaetopalpus coracinus M54
    |--Parasilvius fulvus M54
    |--Ectenopsis M54
    |--Caenoprosopon M54
    |--Protodasyapha M54
    |--Corizoneura chrysophilus M54
    |--Pilimas PT81
    |    |--P. californicus PT81
    |    `--P. ruficornis PT81
    |--Apatolestes comastes PT81
    |    |--A. c. comastes M54
    |    `--A. c. willistoni M54
    |--Pangonius Latreille 1802 L02
    |    |--P. mauretanus M54 [=Tabanus mauritanicus L02; incl. P. mauretanus var. aethiops M54]
    |    |--P. proboscideus [=Tabanus proboscideus] L02
    |    `--P. rostratus [=Tabanus rostratus] L02
    `--Esenbeckia PT81
         |--E. delta M90
         |--E. (Proboscoides) ecuadorensis B09
         |    |--E. e. ecuadorensis B09
         |    `--E. e. chagresensis B09
         `--E. (Esenbeckia) peruviana B09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B09] Burger, J. F. 2009. Tabanidae (horse flies, deer flies, tabanos). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 495–507. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[M54] Mackerras, I. M. 1954. The classification and distribution of Tabanidae (Diptera). I. General review. Australian Journal of Zoology 2 (3): 431–454.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[PT81] Pechuman, L. L., & H. J. Teskey. 1981. Tabanidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 463–478. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Psychodomorpha

Larva of Philorus sp., from the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.


Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Psychodoidea.

The Psychodomorpha is a clade of flies including the moth flies of the Psychodidae and their close relatives. In the circumscription given below, it is supported by molecular data (Wiegmann et al. 2011).

<==Psychodomorpha WT11
    |--+--Kuperwoodidae GE05
    |  |--Hennigmatidae GE05
    |  |--Grauvogelia [Grauvogeliidae] GE05
    |  |    `--G. arzvilleriana GE05
    |  `--+--Psychodoidea WT11
    |     `--Nadiptera [Nadipteridae] GE05
    |          `--N. kaluginae KK02
    `--Blephariceridae [Blepharicerimorpha] WT11
         |--Edwardsina [Edwardsininae] C09
         |    |--E. ferrugiana CM91
         |    `--E. gigantea WT11
         |--Apistomyiinae [Apistomyiini] CM70
         |    |--Apistomyia tonnoiri CM91
         |    |--Parapistomyia CM91
         |    |--Austrocurupira CM91
         |    `--Neocurupira CM70
         `--Blepharicerinae H81
              |  i. s.: Aposonalco amoyote C09
              |         Kelloggina C09
              |         Limonicola lichanos C09
              |--Paltostoma C09 [Paltostomini H81]
              |    |--P. argyrocincta C09
              |    |--P. exserta C09
              |    `--P. schineri C09
              `--Blepharicerini H81
                   |--Bibiocephala grandis H81
                   |--Blepharicera H81
                   |    |--B. ostensackeni H81
                   |    `--B. tenuipes H81
                   |--Dioptopsis H81
                   |    |--D. aylmeri H81
                   |    `--D. sequioarum H81
                   |--Agathon H81
                   |    |--A. comstocki H81
                   |    |--A. doanei H81
                   |    `--A. elegantulus H81
                   `--Philorus H81
                        |--P. californicus H81
                        |--P. jacinto H81
                        `--P. yosemite H81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C09] Courtney, G. W. 2009. Blephariceridae (net-winged midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 237–243. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H81] Hogue, C. L. 1981. Blephariceridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 191–197. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KK02] Krzemiński, W., & E. Krzemińska. 2002. Rhaetaniidae, a new family of the Diptera from the Upper Triassic of Great Britain (Diptera: Nematocera). Annales Zoologici 52 (2): 211–213.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Phlebotominae

Feeding Phlebotomus papatasi, photographed by Frank Collins.


Belongs within: Psychodoidea.

The Phlebotominae, sand flies, are a group of small flies with soil-dwelling larvae and blood-sucking adults. They are characterised by a four-branched Rs vein in the wing, and mouthparts much longer than the height of the head (Quate & Vockeroth 1981).

<==Phlebotominae GE05
    |--Phlebotomites GE05
    |--Libanophlebotomus lutfallahi GE05
    |--Chinius WI-B09
    |--Sergentomyia WI-B09
    |--Brumptomyia mesai WI-B09
    |--Warileya [incl. Hertigia] WI-B09
    |--Edentomyia WI-B09
    |--Lutzomyia QV81
    |    |--L. cruciata WI-B09
    |    |--L. longipalpis WT11
    |    `--L. vexator QV81
    `--Phlebotomus WT11
         |--P. argentipes A71
         |--P. ariasi A71
         |--P. capensis de Meillon 1955 S61
         |--P. duboscqui WT11
         |--P. longipalpis A71
         |--P. major A71
         |--P. orientalis A71
         |--P. papatasi NJ91
         |--P. parfiliewi A71
         |--P. perniciosus A71
         |--P. sergenti A71
         `--P. verrucarum A71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[NJ91] Nuttall, P. A., & L. D. Jones. 1991. Non-viraemic tick-borne virus transmission: mechanism and significance. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 3–6. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[QV81] Quate, L. W., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1981. Psychodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–300. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S61] Stuckenberg, R. R. 1961. Diptera (Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 409–412. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flis or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1 pp. 319–335. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Psychodoidea

Male Protoplasa fitchii, from Alexander (1981).


Belongs within: Psychodomorpha.
Contains: Phlebotominae, Psychodinae.

The Psychodoidea are a clade uniting the moth flies and sand flies of the Psychodidae with the primitive crane flies of the Tanyderidae.

Synapomorphies (from Blagoderov et al. 2002): Ocelli absent; sc-r terminal; M2 convex; male genitalia inverted.

<==Psychodoidea BLM02
    |--Tanyderidae [Tanyderoidea, Tanyderomorpha] BLM02
    |    |--Praemacrochile BLM02
    |    |--Peringueyomyina A81
    |    |--Protoplasa fitchii A81
    |    |--Nothoderus australiensis M81
    |    |--Protanyderus margarita A81
    |    |--Macrochile A81
    |    |--Radinoderus occidentalis CM91
    |    `--Eutanyderus CM91
    |         |--E. oreonympha CM91
    |         `--E. wilsoni CM91
    `--Psychodidae WI-B09
         |  i. s.: Eopericoma zherichini S02
         |         Tanypsycha GE05
         |         Liassopsychodina GE05
         |         Psychotanyderus GE05
         |         Bazarella WI-B09
         |--Nannotanyderus WT11
         `--+--Phlebotominae QV81
            |--Psychodinae QV81
            |--Sycoracinae WI-B09
            |    |--Sycorax QV81
            |    |--Aposycorax chilensis WI-B09
            |    `--Parasycorax WI-B09
            |--Trichomyia [Trichomyiinae] QV81
            |    |--T. nuda QV81
            |    `--T. urbica QV81
            |--Bruchomyiinae QV81
            |    |--Bruchomyia QV81
            |    `--Nemapalpus WI-B09
            |         |--N. nearcticus QV81
            |         `--N. youngi WI-B09
            `--Horaiella [Horaiellinae] WI-B09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A81] Alexander, C. P. 1981. Tanyderidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 149–151. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[QV81] Quate, L. W., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1981. Psychodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–300. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flis or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 319–335. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.