King protea Protea cynaroides, from here.

Belongs within: Proteales.
Contains: Hakea, Dryandra, Petrophile, Conosperminae, Banksia, Grevillea, Helicia.

The Proteaceae are a family of flowering plants found primarily in southern Africa, Australia and South America, as well as in Asia and various parts of the Pacific. Many species have red or yellow flowers, generally bird-pollinated. The Proteaceae are divided between a number of subfamilies, of which the largest are the primarily African Proteoideae and the mostly Australian Grevilleoideae. For the most part, Proteoideae are characterised by indehiscent fruits and single flowers, while Grevilleoideae have dehiscent fruits and flowers borne in pairs sharing a single bract. Persoonia is an Australasian genus of small trees and shrubs with small, solitary or racemed flowers and fruit a more or less succulent drupe (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Foreman 1995): Trees or shrubs. Stipules absent. Leaves spiral, rarely verticillate or opposite, simple or variously divided, often dimorphous; margin entire or toothed, sometimes spiny. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, ramiflorous or cauliflorous, with flowers in pairs, arranged in raceme- or cone-like inflorescences or in dense heads; peduncles present or absent. Bracts present, mostly small, often early caducous, sometimes large and woody. Flowers regular to very irregular, mostly bisexual, rarely unisexual. Tepals valvate, with expanded limb, often recurved, at first adhering to each other mostly becoming entirely free. Receptacle flat or oblique. Stamens 4, epipetalous; filaments usually relatively short; anthers erect, basifixed, mostly tetrasporangiate, dehiscing by longitudinal slits; connective prolonged or not. Disc mostly present, flat or oblique, annular or more or less horseshoe-shaped or with 4 free or variously fused hypogynous glands. Ovary superior, 1-locular, sessile or stipitate, often oblique. Style more or less expanded in upper part into pollen-presenter. Stigma mostly small, terminal or lateral. Ovules 1 or more, pendulous or laterally attached. Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent: follicle, drupe or small nut. Seeds winged or not; endosperm mostly absent; cotyledons thin or thick and fleshy.

    |--Bellendena [Bellendenoideae] T00
    |--Eidothea [Eidotheoideae] T00
    |--Sphalmium [Sphalmioideae] T00
    |--Protea DE06 [Proteoideae T00]
    |    `--P. cynaroides DE06
    |--Carnarvonia [Carnarvonioideae] T00
    |    `--C. araliaefolia H42
    |--Grevilleoideae F95
    |    |--Banksia F95
    |    |--Alloxylon brachycarpum (Sleum.) Weston & Crisp 1991 (see below for synonymy) F95
    |    |--Grevillea F95
    |    |--Helicia F95
    |    |--Bleasdalea F95
    |    |    |--B. bleasdalei [=Gevuina bleasdalei] F95
    |    |    `--B. papuana (Diels) Domin 1921 [=Euplassa papuana Diels 1916, Gevuina papuana (Muell.) Sleum. 1955] F95
    |    |--Finschia F95
    |    |    |--F. chloroxantha Diels 1916 (see below for synonymy) F95
    |    |    |--F. ferruginiflora White 1949 F95
    |    |    `--F. rufa Warb. 1891 (see below for synonymy) F95
    |    `--Stenocarpus (nom. cons.) F95
    |         |--S. acacioides LK14
    |         |--S. cunninghamii LK14
    |         |--S. moorei Muell. 1859 [=S. salignus var. moorei (Muell.) Benth. 1870; incl. S. papuanus Laut. 1916] F95
    |         |--S. salignus H42
    |         `--S. sinuatus Endl. 1847 F95
    `--Persoonia Smith 1798 A61 [incl. Pentadactylon Gärtner 1807 F09; Persoonioideae T00]
         |--P. acerosa F09
         |--P. angulata H08
         |--P. arborea F09
         |--P. brachystylis F09
         |--P. chamaepeuce [incl. P. cayleyi] F09
         |--P. chamaepitys F09
         |--P. confertiflora F09
         |--P. cornifolia C08
         |--P. dillwynoides F09
         |--P. elliptica F09
         |--P. falcata VT13
         |--P. ferruginea F09
         |--P. helix G04
         |--P. hirsuta F09
         |--P. laevis B14
         |--P. lanceolata M65
         |--P. linearis [incl. *Pentadactylon angustifolium Gärtner 1807] F09
         |--P. longifolia RL05
         |--P. mollis F09
         |--P. murrayi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |--P. myrtilloides B14
         |--P. nutans F09
         |--P. pinifolia F09
         |--P. quinquenervis OS04
         |--P. saccata RL05
         |--P. salicina F09
         |--P. saundersiana G04
         |--P. sericea C08
         |--P. striata G04
         |--P. tenuifolia C08
         |--P. teretifolia F09
         |--P. toru [=P. tora, P. toro] C06
         `--P. virgata M65

Proteaceae incertae sedis:
  Franklandia fucifolia GK00
  Brabeium YY22
  Xylomelum angustifolium YY22, S95
  Leucadendron YY22
  Dilobeia YY22
  Simsia YY22
  Knightiinae C79
    |--Eucarpha C79
    |--Darlingia C79
    `--Knightia Br. 1810 A61
         `--*K. excelsa Br. 1810 A61
  Hakea B06
  Adenanthos B06
    |--A. argyreus G04
    |--A. cygnorum OS04
    `--A. obovatus GK00
  Dryandra B06
  Petrophile B06
  Stirlingia OS04
    |--S. anethifolia GK00
    |--S. latifolia RL05
    |--S. seselifolia GK00
    |--S. simplex OS04
    `--S. tenuifolia GK00
  Isopogon B06
    |--I. anemonifolius F09
    |--I. attenuatus GK00
    |--I. dubius OS04
    |--I. gardneri G04
    |--I. polycephalus GK00
    |--I. scabriusculus G04
    |    |--I. s. ssp. scabriusculus G04
    |    `--I. s. ssp. stenophyllus G04
    `--I. teretifolius OS04
  Conosperminae B06
  Telopea speciosissima J00, H08
  Heliciopsis F95
  Embothrium D03 [Embothrieae T11]
    `--E. coccineum D03
  Lomatia M65
    |--L. brownii Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |--L. evansii Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |--L. ferruginea D03
    |--L. longifolia TW07
    |--L. myricoides NC91
    `--L. silaifolia M65
  Macadamia M99
    |--M. integrifolia M99
    `--M. tetraphylla M99
  Symphyonema paludosum H87
  Buckinghamia celsissima B00

Alloxylon brachycarpum (Sleum.) Weston & Crisp 1991 [=Embothrium brachycarpum Sleum. 1939, Oreocallis brachycarpa (Sleum.) Sleum. 1954] F95

Finschia chloroxantha Diels 1916 [incl. Grevillea densiflora White 1922, F. densiflora White ex Walker 1948, G. elaeocarpifolia Guill 1932, F. chloroxantha var. macrocarpa Sleum. 1955, Helicia micronesica Kan. 1933, F. micronesica (Kan.) Sleum. 1939, F. waterhousiana Burtt 1936] F95

Finschia rufa Warb. 1891 [=Grevillea rufa (Warb.) Sleum. 1939; incl. G. carrii Sleum. 1939, Fischia carrii (Sleum.) White 1949] F95

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 24 April 2018.

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