Proteaceae

King protea Protea cynaroides, from here.


Belongs within: Proteales.
Contains: Hakea, Dryandra, Petrophile, Conosperminae, Banksia, Grevillea, Helicia.

The Proteaceae are a family of flowering plants found primarily in southern Africa, Australia and South America, as well as in Asia and various parts of the Pacific. Many species have red or yellow flowers, generally bird-pollinated. The Proteaceae are divided between a number of subfamilies, of which the largest are the primarily African Proteoideae and the mostly Australian Grevilleoideae. For the most part, Proteoideae are characterised by indehiscent fruits and single flowers, while Grevilleoideae have dehiscent fruits and flowers borne in pairs sharing a single bract. Persoonia is an Australasian genus of small trees and shrubs with small, solitary or racemed flowers and fruit a more or less succulent drupe (Allan 1961).

Characters (from Foreman 1995): Trees or shrubs. Stipules absent. Leaves spiral, rarely verticillate or opposite, simple or variously divided, often dimorphous; margin entire or toothed, sometimes spiny. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, ramiflorous or cauliflorous, with flowers in pairs, arranged in raceme- or cone-like inflorescences or in dense heads; peduncles present or absent. Bracts present, mostly small, often early caducous, sometimes large and woody. Flowers regular to very irregular, mostly bisexual, rarely unisexual. Tepals valvate, with expanded limb, often recurved, at first adhering to each other mostly becoming entirely free. Receptacle flat or oblique. Stamens 4, epipetalous; filaments usually relatively short; anthers erect, basifixed, mostly tetrasporangiate, dehiscing by longitudinal slits; connective prolonged or not. Disc mostly present, flat or oblique, annular or more or less horseshoe-shaped or with 4 free or variously fused hypogynous glands. Ovary superior, 1-locular, sessile or stipitate, often oblique. Style more or less expanded in upper part into pollen-presenter. Stigma mostly small, terminal or lateral. Ovules 1 or more, pendulous or laterally attached. Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent: follicle, drupe or small nut. Seeds winged or not; endosperm mostly absent; cotyledons thin or thick and fleshy.

Proteaceae
    |--Bellendena [Bellendenoideae] T00
    |--Eidothea [Eidotheoideae] T00
    |--Sphalmium [Sphalmioideae] T00
    |--Protea DE06 [Proteoideae T00]
    |    `--P. cynaroides DE06
    |--Carnarvonia [Carnarvonioideae] T00
    |    `--C. araliaefolia H42
    |--Grevilleoideae F95
    |    |--Banksia F95
    |    |--Alloxylon brachycarpum (Sleum.) Weston & Crisp 1991 (see below for synonymy) F95
    |    |--Grevillea F95
    |    |--Helicia F95
    |    |--Bleasdalea F95
    |    |    |--B. bleasdalei [=Gevuina bleasdalei] F95
    |    |    `--B. papuana (Diels) Domin 1921 [=Euplassa papuana Diels 1916, Gevuina papuana (Muell.) Sleum. 1955] F95
    |    |--Finschia F95
    |    |    |--F. chloroxantha Diels 1916 (see below for synonymy) F95
    |    |    |--F. ferruginiflora White 1949 F95
    |    |    `--F. rufa Warb. 1891 (see below for synonymy) F95
    |    `--Stenocarpus (nom. cons.) F95
    |         |--S. acacioides LK14
    |         |--S. cunninghamii LK14
    |         |--S. moorei Muell. 1859 [=S. salignus var. moorei (Muell.) Benth. 1870; incl. S. papuanus Laut. 1916] F95
    |         |--S. salignus H42
    |         `--S. sinuatus Endl. 1847 F95
    `--Persoonia Smith 1798 A61 [incl. Pentadactylon Gärtner 1807 F09; Persoonioideae T00]
         |--P. acerosa F09
         |--P. angulata H08
         |--P. arborea F09
         |--P. brachystylis F09
         |--P. chamaepeuce [incl. P. cayleyi] F09
         |--P. chamaepitys F09
         |--P. confertiflora F09
         |--P. cornifolia C08
         |--P. dillwynoides F09
         |--P. elliptica F09
         |--P. falcata VT13
         |--P. ferruginea F09
         |--P. helix G04
         |--P. hirsuta F09
         |--P. laevis B14
         |--P. lanceolata M65
         |--P. linearis [incl. *Pentadactylon angustifolium Gärtner 1807] F09
         |--P. longifolia RL05
         |--P. mollis F09
         |--P. murrayi Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |--P. myrtilloides B14
         |--P. nutans F09
         |--P. pinifolia F09
         |--P. quinquenervis OS04
         |--P. saccata RL05
         |--P. salicina F09
         |--P. saundersiana G04
         |--P. sericea C08
         |--P. striata G04
         |--P. tenuifolia C08
         |--P. teretifolia F09
         |--P. toru [=P. tora, P. toro] C06
         `--P. virgata M65

Proteaceae incertae sedis:
  Franklandia fucifolia GK00
  Brabeium YY22
  Xylomelum angustifolium YY22, S95
  Leucadendron YY22
  Dilobeia YY22
  Simsia YY22
  Knightiinae C79
    |--Eucarpha C79
    |--Darlingia C79
    `--Knightia Br. 1810 A61
         `--*K. excelsa Br. 1810 A61
  Hakea B06
  Adenanthos B06
    |--A. argyreus G04
    |--A. cygnorum OS04
    `--A. obovatus GK00
  Dryandra B06
  Petrophile B06
  Stirlingia OS04
    |--S. anethifolia GK00
    |--S. latifolia RL05
    |--S. seselifolia GK00
    |--S. simplex OS04
    `--S. tenuifolia GK00
  Isopogon B06
    |--I. anemonifolius F09
    |--I. attenuatus GK00
    |--I. dubius OS04
    |--I. gardneri G04
    |--I. polycephalus GK00
    |--I. scabriusculus G04
    |    |--I. s. ssp. scabriusculus G04
    |    `--I. s. ssp. stenophyllus G04
    `--I. teretifolius OS04
  Conosperminae B06
  Telopea speciosissima J00, H08
  Heliciopsis F95
  Embothrium D03 [Embothrieae T11]
    `--E. coccineum D03
  Lomatia M65
    |--L. brownii Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |--L. evansii Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |--L. ferruginea D03
    |--L. longifolia TW07
    |--L. myricoides NC91
    `--L. silaifolia M65
  Macadamia M99
    |--M. integrifolia M99
    `--M. tetraphylla M99
  Symphyonema paludosum H87
  Buckinghamia celsissima B00

Alloxylon brachycarpum (Sleum.) Weston & Crisp 1991 [=Embothrium brachycarpum Sleum. 1939, Oreocallis brachycarpa (Sleum.) Sleum. 1954] F95

Finschia chloroxantha Diels 1916 [incl. Grevillea densiflora White 1922, F. densiflora White ex Walker 1948, G. elaeocarpifolia Guill 1932, F. chloroxantha var. macrocarpa Sleum. 1955, Helicia micronesica Kan. 1933, F. micronesica (Kan.) Sleum. 1939, F. waterhousiana Burtt 1936] F95

Finschia rufa Warb. 1891 [=Grevillea rufa (Warb.) Sleum. 1939; incl. G. carrii Sleum. 1939, Fischia carrii (Sleum.) White 1949] F95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B06] Butcher, R. 2006. Synaphea xela (Proteaceae: Conosperminae), a new species from the Jurien-Eneabba area of south-west Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 123–127.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C79] Craw, R. C. 1979. Generalized tracks and dispersal in biogeography: a response to R. M. McDowall. Systematic Zoology 28 (1): 99–107.

[DE06] Duncan, G. D., & T. J. Edwards. 2006. Three new species of Lachenalia (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae) from Western and Northern Cape, South Africa. Bothalia 36 (2): 147–155.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F09] Fletcher, J. J. 1909. Illustrations of polycotyledony in the genus Persoonia, with some reference to Nuytsia. [N.OO. Proteaceae; Loranthaceae]. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 867–882, pls 34–35.

[F95] Foreman, D. B. 1995. Proteaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 221–270. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H08] Hamilton, A. A. 1908. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 286.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[J00] Johnston, P. R. 2000. Rhytismatales of Australia: The genus Coccomyces. Australian Systematic Botany 13 (2): 199–243.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[S95] Smith, G. T. 1995. Species richness, habitat and conservation of scorpions in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 55–66.

[T11] Taylor, C. K. 2011. Revision of the genus Megalopsalis (Arachnida: Opiliones: Phalangioidea) in Australia and New Zealand and implications for phalangioid classification. Zootaxa 2773: 1–65.

[TW07] Thongphak, D., & Q. Wang. 2007. Taxonomic revision of the longicorn beetle genus Uracanthus Hope 1833 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Uracanthini) from Australia. Zootaxa 1569: 1–139.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 24 April 2018.

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