Male Zelotes subterraneus, copyright Jørgen Lissner.

Belongs within: Gnaphosoidea.
Contains: Haplodrassus.

The Gnaphosidae, flat-bellied ground spiders, are a diverse group of mostly ground-running spiders that are characterised by the presence of enlarged spigots on the lateral spinnerets. They produce egg sacs that are usually papery and attached to a firm surface (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007). Among the major subgroups of the Gnaphosidae, the Micariinae are ant-like spiders that often have iridescent scales on the carapace and abdomen. The Hemicloeinae are very flat, thin spiders with a sclerotised ring on the posterior lateral spinnerets. Zelotinae are characterised by the presence of a preening comb on metatarsi III and/or IV.

See also: The zealot spiders.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to medium-sized; eight eyes present, with posterior median eyes flattened; endites obliquely depressed; legs with two tarsal claws; ecribellate; anterior spinnerets parallel, large, cylindrical and usually well separated, without distal ring; their piriform gland spigots greatly enlarged, with flattened base and shaft, and slit-like opening; entelegyne.

    |--Echemus Simon 1878 ZO11 [Echeminae JD-S07]
    |--Herpyllus E95 [Herpylleae, Herpyllinae TYM08]
    |    `--H. blackwalli E95
    |--Hemicloea Thorell 1870 PVD10 [Hemicloeae, Hemicloeinae JD-S07]
    |    |--H. rogenhoferi Koch 1875 PVD10 [incl. H. alacris de Dalmas 1917 FF99, H. celerrima de Dalmas 1917 FF99]
    |    `--H. sundevalli Thorell 1870 PVD10
    |--Gnaphosa Latreille 1804 [Gnaphosinae] JD-S07
    |    |--G. gracilior Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |    |--G. lapponum (Koch 1866) K02
    |    |--G. maerens S95
    |    |--G. microps Holm 1939 K02
    |    |--G. mongolica Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--G. nigerrima RKD02
    |    |--G. potanini Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--G. punctata Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |    `--G. stoliczkae S95
    |--Anagraphidinae M54
    |    |--Lygromma gertschi (Platnick & Shadab 1976) M54, BB14
    |    |--Anagraphis pallens Simon 1893 M54, PO08
    |    |--Theumella M54
    |    |--Theuma [Theuminae] M54
    |    |    `--T. intermedia Strand 1915 J98
    |    `--Encoptarthria Main 1954 M54
    |         |--E. echemophthalma (Simon 1908) ZO11 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. grisea (Koch 1873) [=Echemus griseus] ZO11
    |         |--E. penicillata (Simon 1908) [=Megamyrmaekion penicillatum] ZO11
    |         |--E. perpusilla (Simon 1908) [=Megamyrmaekion perpusillum] ZO11
    |         `--E. vestigator (Simon 1908) [=Megamyrmaekion vestigator] ZO11
    |--Drassodes ZO11 [Drassodinae JD-S07]
    |    |--D. arapensis Strand 1908 J98
    |    |--D. cupreus (Blackwall 1834) BBM02
    |    |--D. hispanus S95
    |    |--D. hypocrita S95
    |    |--D. infletus S95
    |    |--D. lapidicola K01
    |    |--D. lapidosus (Walckenaer 1802) ZO11
    |    |--D. lutescens (Koch 1839) K55
    |    |--D. nigrosegmentatus Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--D. pubescens (Thorell 1856) K02
    |    |--D. sollers Simon 1895 S95
    |    `--D. troglodytes K01
    |--Micaria D90 [Micariinae JD-S07]
    |    |--M. aciculata Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--M. corvina Simon 1878 PO08
    |    |--M. dives (Lucas 1846) BBM02
    |    |--M. formicaria K01
    |    |--M. ignea (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    |    |--M. movens Simon 1878 [incl. M. funerea Simon 1878] K55
    |    |--M. pallipes (Lucas 1846) PO08
    |    |--M. pulicaria (Sundevall 1831) K55
    |    |--M. pygmaea S95
    |    |--M. quinquenotata Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--M. rossica SS02
    |    `--M. scenica S95
    `--Zelotes Gistel 1848 ZO11 [Zelotinae JD-S07]
         |--Z. apricorum (Koch 1876) VPB11
         |--Z. aurantiacus SS02
         |--Z. carmeli (Cambridge 1872) K55
         |--Z. caucasicus SS02
         |--Z. clivicola RKD02
         |--Z. electus BV00
         |--Z. erebeus SS02
         |--Z. femellus (Koch 1866) K55
         |--Z. flavens (Koch 1873) [=Prothesima flavens] PO95
         |--Z. fratris JVHN90
         |--Z. fuligineus (Purcell 1907) HD-S02
         |--Z. latreillei (Simon 1878) K02 [=Prosthesima latreillii V09]
         |--Z. longipes (Koch 1866) BBM02
         |--Z. mandlaensis Tikader & Gajbe 1976 PO95
         |--Z. mundus (Kulczynski 1897) SS02
         |--Z. pedestris (Koch 1837) VPB11
         |--Z. rusticus JD-S07
         |--Z. sarawakensis (Thorell 1890) (see below for synonymy) PO95
         |--Z. shantae Tikader 1982 PO95
         `--Z. subterraneus (Koch 1833) VPB11

Gnaphosidae incertae sedis:
  Trachyzelotes Lohmander 1944 ZO11
    |--T. jaxartensis (Kroneberg 1875) PO08
    `--T. pedestris (Koch 1837) BBM02
  Nauhea Forster 1979 PVD10
    `--*N. tapa Forster 1979 PVD10
  Hypodrassodes de Dalmas 1919 PVD10
    |--*H. maoricus (de Dalmas 1917) PVD10
    |--H. apicus Forster 1979 PVD10
    |--H. courti Forster 1979 PVD10
    |--H. crassus Forster 1979 PVD10
    |--H. dalmasi Forster 1979 PVD10
    |--H. insulanus Forster 1979 PVD10
    `--H. isopus Forster 1979 PVD10
  Scotophaeus Simon 1893 PVD10
    |--S. bersebaensis Strand 1915 J98
    |--S. blackwalli (Thorell 1871) PVD10 [=Drassus blackwalli V09]
    |--S. lamperti Strand 1906 J98
    |--S. pretiosus (Koch 1873) PVD10
    `--S. validus (Lucas 1846) K55
  Notiodrassus Bryant 1935 PVD10
    |--*N. distinctus Bryant 1935 PVD10
    `--N. fiordensis Forster 1979 PVD10
  Rebilus [Rebileae] B96
  Pterotricha Kulczyński 1903 MG03
    |--P. conspersa (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    `--P. lesserti Dalmas 1921 MG03
  Anzacia de Dalmas 1919 PVD10
    |--A. gemmea (Dalmas 1919) ZO11
    `--A. pretiosa M83
  Drassyllus Chamberlin 1922 ZO11
    |--D. crimeaensis Kovblyuk 2003 K03
    |--D. lutetianus RKD02
    |--D. praeficus (Koch 1866) [=Zelotes praeficus] K03
    |--D. pumilus (Koch 1839) K03
    |--D. pusillus (Koch 1833) [=Zelotes pusillus] K03
    `--D. villicus (Thorell 1875) K03
  Haplodrassus D90
  Nomisia K55
    |--N. aussereri (Koch 1872) K55
    `--N. exornata (Koch 1839) K55
  Orodrassus canadensis Platnick & Shadab 1975 PS08
  Odontodrassus mundulus (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
  Talanites PO08
  Minosia spinosissima (Simon 1878) PO08
  Callilepis W77
    |--C. concolor Simon 1914 W77
    |--C. cretica (Roewer 1928) [=Minosia cretica, Crosbyellum creticum; incl. C. wiehlei Bristowe 1935] W77
    `--C. nocturna K01
  Apopyllus silvestrii (Simon 1905) L-M-HM11, FM11
  Camillina FM11
  Eilica FM11
    |--E. modesta Keyserling 1891 FM11
    `--E. rufithorax (Simon 1893) FM11
  Zimiromus L-M-HM11
  Intruda Forster 1979 PVD10
    `--*I. signata (Hogg 1900) PVD10
  Zelanda Özdikmen 2009 [=Taieria Forster 1979 (preoc.)] PVD10
    |--*Z. erebus (Koch 1873) PVD10
    |--Z. elongata (Forster 1979) PVD10
    |--Z. kaituna (Forster 1979) PVD10
    |--Z. miranda (Forster 1979) PVD10
    |--Z. obtusa (Forster 1979) PVD10
    `--Z. titirangia (Ovtsharenko, Fedoryak & Zakharov 2006) PVD10
  Megamyrmaekion Reuss 1834 ZO11
  Afratheuma Kishida 1932 [Afratheumeae] TYM08
  Cesonia D90
  Sergiolus D90
  Setaphis arcus JD-S07
  Xerophaeus JD-S07
  Kaitawa Forster 1979 PVD10
    `--*K. insulare (Marples 1956) PVD10
  Matua Forster 1979 PVD10
    |--*M. valida Forster 1979 PVD10
    `--M. festiva Forster 1979 NS00

Encoptarthria echemophthalma (Simon 1908) ZO11 [=Megamyrmaekion echemophthalmum ZO11; incl. *E. serventyi Main 1954 M54, ZO11]

Zelotes sarawakensis (Thorell 1890) [=Prothesima sarawakensis; incl. P. iusta Kulczyński 1911, Zelotes iustus, Z. justus] PO95

*Type species of generic name indicated


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Last updated: 29 November 2017.

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