Gnaphosidae

Male Zelotes subterraneus, copyright Jørgen Lissner.


Belongs within: Gnaphosoidea.
Contains: Haplodrassus.

The Gnaphosidae, flat-bellied ground spiders, are a diverse group of mostly ground-running spiders that are characterised by the presence of enlarged spigots on the lateral spinnerets. They produce egg sacs that are usually papery that are attached to a firm surface (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

See also: The zealot spiders.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to medium-sized; eight eyes present, with posterior median eyes flattened; endites obliquely depressed; legs with two tarsal claws; ecribellate; anterior spinnerets parallel, large, cylindrical and usually well separated, without distal ring; their piriform gland spigots greatly enlarged, with flattened base and shaft, and slit-like opening; entelegyne.

Gnaphosidae
    |--Herpyllinae [Herpylleae] TYM08
    |--Echemus Simon 1878 ZO11 [Echeminae JD-S07]
    |--Hemicloea FF99 [Hemicloeae, Hemicloeinae JD-S07]
    |    `--H. rogenhoferi [incl. H. alacris de Dalmas 1917, H. celerrima de Dalmas 1917] FF99
    |--Gnaphosa Latreille 1804 [Gnaphosinae] JD-S07
    |    |--G. gracilior Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |    |--G. lapponum (Koch 1866) K02
    |    |--G. maerens S95
    |    |--G. microps Holm 1939 K02
    |    |--G. mongolica Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--G. nigerrima RKD02
    |    |--G. potanini Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--G. punctata Kulczyński 1901 K01
    |    `--G. stoliczkae S95
    |--Anagraphidinae M54
    |    |--Lygromma gertschi (Platnick & Shadab 1976) M54, BB14
    |    |--Anagraphis pallens Simon 1893 M54, PO08
    |    |--Theumella M54
    |    |--Theuma [Theuminae] M54
    |    |    `--T. intermedia Strand 1915 J98
    |    `--Encoptarthria Main 1954 M54
    |         |--E. echemophthalma (Simon 1908) ZO11 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--E. grisea (Koch 1873) [=Echemus griseus] ZO11
    |         |--E. penicillata (Simon 1908) [=Megamyrmaekion penicillatum] ZO11
    |         |--E. perpusilla (Simon 1908) [=Megamyrmaekion perpusillum] ZO11
    |         `--E. vestigator (Simon 1908) [=Megamyrmaekion vestigator] ZO11
    |--Drassodes J98 [Drassodinae JD-S07]
    |    |--D. arapensis Strand 1908 J98
    |    |--D. cupreus (Blackwall 1834) BBM02
    |    |--D. hispanus S95
    |    |--D. hypocrita S95
    |    |--D. infletus S95
    |    |--D. lapidicola K01
    |    |--D. lapidosus (Walckenaer 1802) K55
    |    |--D. lutescens (Koch 1839) K55
    |    |--D. nigrosegmentatus Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--D. pubescens (Thorell 1856) K02
    |    |--D. sollers Simon 1895 S95
    |    `--D. troglodytes S95
    |--Micaria K55 [Micariinae JD-S07]
    |    |--M. aciculata Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--M. corvina Simon 1878 PO08
    |    |--M. dives (Lucas 1846) BBM02
    |    |--M. formicaria K01
    |    |--M. ignea (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    |    |--M. movens Simon 1878 [incl. M. funerea Simon 1878] K55
    |    |--M. pallipes (Lucas 1846) PO08
    |    |--M. pulicaria (Sundevall 1831) K55
    |    |--M. pygmaea S95
    |    |--M. quinquenotata Simon 1895 S95
    |    |--M. rossica SS02
    |    `--M. scenica S95
    `--Zelotes Gistel 1848 ZO11 [Zelotinae JD-S07]
         |--Z. apricorum (Koch 1876) VPB11
         |--Z. aurantiacus SS02
         |--Z. carmeli (Cambridge 1872) K55
         |--Z. caucasicus SS02
         |--Z. clivicola RKD02
         |--Z. electus BV00
         |--Z. erebeus SS02
         |--Z. femellus (Koch 1866) K55
         |--Z. fratris JVHN90
         |--Z. fuligineus (Purcell 1907) HD-S02
         |--Z. latreillei (Simon 1878) K02 [=Prosthesima latreillii V09]
         |--Z. longipes (Koch 1866) BBM02
         |--Z. mundus (Kulczynski 1897) SS02
         |--Z. pedestris (Koch 1837) VPB11
         |--Z. rusticus JD-S07
         `--Z. subterraneus (Koch 1833) VPB11

Gnaphosidae incertae sedis:
  Trachyzelotes Lohmander 1944 ZO11
    |--T. jaxartensis (Kroneberg 1875) PO08
    `--T. pedestris (Koch 1837) BBM02
  Nauhea tapa M83
  Hypodrassodes FF99
  Scotophaeus J98
    |--S. bersebaensis Strand 1915 J98
    |--S. blackwalli [=Drassus blackwalli] V09
    |--S. lamperti Strand 1906 J98
    |--S. pretiosus FF99
    `--S. validus (Lucas 1846) K55
  Notiodrassus distinctus Bryant 1935 FF99, NS00
  Rebilus [Rebileae] B96
  Pterotricha Kulczyński 1903 MG03
    |--P. conspersa (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
    `--P. lesserti Dalmas 1921 MG03
  Anzacia FF99
    |--A. gemmea (Dalmas 1919) ZO11
    `--A. pretiosa M83
  Drassyllus Chamberlin 1922 K03
    |--D. crimeaensis Kovblyuk 2003 K03
    |--D. lutetianus RKD02
    |--D. praeficus (Koch 1866) [=Zelotes praeficus] K03
    |--D. pumilus (Koch 1839) K03
    |--D. pusillus (Koch 1833) [=Zelotes pusillus] K03
    `--D. villicus (Thorell 1875) K03
  Haplodrassus K55
  Nomisia K55
    |--N. aussereri (Koch 1872) K55
    `--N. exornata (Koch 1839) K55
  Orodrassus canadensis Platnick & Shadab 1975 PS08
  Odontodrassus mundulus (Pickard-Cambridge 1872) PO08
  Talanites PO08
  Minosia spinosissima (Simon 1878) PO08
  Callilepis W77
    |--C. concolor Simon 1914 W77
    |--C. cretica (Roewer 1928) [=Minosia cretica, Crosbyellum creticum; incl. C. wiehlei Bristowe 1935] W77
    `--C. nocturna K01
  Apopyllus silvestrii (Simon 1905) FM11
  Camillina FM11
  Eilica FM11
    |--E. modesta Keyserling 1891 FM11
    `--E. rufithorax (Simon 1893) FM11
  Zimiromus L-M-HM11
  Intruda signata (Hogg 1900) ZO11
  Zelanda erebus (Koch 1873) ZO11
  Megamyrmaekion Reuss 1834 ZO11
  Afratheuma Kishida 1932 [Afratheumeae] TYM08
  Cesonia D90
  Sergiolus D90
  Setaphis arcus JD-S07
  Xerophaeus JD-S07

Encoptarthria echemophthalma (Simon 1908) ZO11 [=Megamyrmaekion echemophthalmum ZO11; incl. *E. serventyi Main 1954 M54, ZO11]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[BB14] Bloom, T., G. Binford, L. A. Esposito, G. A. Garcia, I. Peterson, A. Nishida, K. Loubet-Senear & I. Agnarsson. 2014. Discovery of two new species of eyeless spiders within a single Hispaniola cave. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 148–154.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B. & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[HD-S02] Haddad, C. R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. The influence of mound structure on the diversity of spiders (Araneae) inhabiting the abandoned mounds of the snouted harvester termite Trinervitermes trinervoides. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 403–408.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[K03] Kovblyuk, N. M. 2003. The spider genus Drassyllus Chamberlin, 1922 in the Crimean fauna, with description of a new species (Aranei: Gnaphosidae). Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 23–28.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L-M-HM11] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., R. Marichal, D. F. Candiani, L. S. Carvalho, R. P. Indicatti, A. B. Bonaldo, D. H. R. Cobo, A. Feijoo M., S. Tselouiko, C. Praxedes, G. Brown, E. Velasquez, T. Decaëns, J. Oszwald, M. Martins & P. Lavelle. 2011. Impact of different land management on soil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in two Amazonian areas of Brazil and Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 296–302.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[SS02] Samu, F., & C. Szinetár. 2002. On the nature of agrobiont spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 389–402.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” (Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg), Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236–243.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[W77] Wunderlich, J. 1977. Zur Synonymie südeuropäischer Spinnen (Arachnida: Araneida: Theridiidae, Linyphiidae, Gnaphosidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (4–6): 289–293.

[ZO11] Zakharov, B. P. & V. I. Ovtcharenko. 2011. Morphological organization of the male palpal organ in Australian ground spiders of the genera Anzacia, Intruda, Zelanda, and Encoptarthria (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 327–336.

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