Trichodectidae

Geomydoecus costaricensis, from the Field Museum.


Belongs within: Phthiraptera.

The Trichodectidae are a group of lice found on mammals, characterised by a broadly oval body in both sexes, and short, thick legs with distally broadened tibiae, a terminal process and single claw.

Trichodectidae [Bovicolidae]
    |--Lorisicola GE05
    |--Werneckiella equi CM91
    |--Felicola subrostratus CM91
    |--Stachiella RD77
    |--Thomomydoecus Price & Emerson 1972 GE05, BP04
    |    |--T. barbarae GE05
    |    |--T. minor GE05
    |    `--T. wardii HN90
    |--Bovicola R02
    |    |--B. bovis CM91
    |    |--B. caprae Gurlt 1843 CM91, T62 [=Damalinia caprae T62]
    |    |--B. crassipes R02
    |    `--B. ovis CM91
    |--Damalinia C70
    |    |--D. americana A71
    |    |--D. bovis H74
    |    |--D. equi C70
    |    |--D. limbata (Gervais 1844) [=Bovicola limbatus] T62
    |    `--D. ovis H74
    |--Trichodectes GE05
    |    |--T. canis CM91 [=Ricinus canis G20]
    |    |--T. colobi Kellogg 1908 K08
    |    |--T. inaequalis K08
    |    |--T. latus G20
    |    |--T. melis A71
    |    `--T. octomaculatus GE05
    `--Geomydoecus Ewing 1929 GE05, BP04
         |--+--G. perotensis GE05
         |  `--G. thomomyus GE05
         `--+--+--G. chapini GE05
            |  `--+--+--G. cherriei GE05
            |     |  `--G. costaricensis GE05
            |     `--+--G. panamensis GE05
            |        `--G. setzeri GE05
            `--+--+--G. nadleri GE05
               |  `--G. trichopi GE05
               `--+--G. expansus GE05
                  `--+--+--G. geomydis GE05
                     |  `--G. oklahomensis GE05
                     `--+--G. actuosi GE05
                        `--+--G. ewingi GE05
                           `--G. texanus GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BP04] Banks, J. C., & A. M. Paterson. 2004. A penguin-chewing louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera) phylogeny derived from morphology. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 89–100.

[C70] Calaby, J. H. 1970. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 376–386. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Calaby, J. H., & M. D. Murray. 1991. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 421–428. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HN90] Hafner, M. S. & S. A. Nadler. 1990. Cospeciation in host-parasite assemblages: comparative analysis of rates of evolution and timing of cospeciation events. Systematic Zoology 39 (3): 192–204.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 3 section 15. Corrodentia pt 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 125–133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

Philopteridae

Saemundssonia lari, from the Spencer Entomological Collection.


Belongs within: Phthiraptera.
Contains: Columbicola, Austrogoniodes.

The Philopteridae are a group of lice parasitic on birds, characterised by paired claws on the legs, a smoothly curved front margin on the clypeus, and a cylindrical last antennal segment (Richards & Davies 1977).

Philopteridae
    |--Saemundssonia Timmermann 1936 GE05, HPP80
    |    |--S. africana CM91
    |    |--S. calva A71
    |    |--S. celidoxa A71
    |    |--S. cephalus (Denny 1842) (see below for synonymy) P04
    |    |--S. desolata Timmermann 1959 HPP80
    |    |--S. fraterculae A71
    |    |--S. gaini (Neumann 1913) HPP80
    |    |--S. grylle A71
    |    |--S. lari (Fabricius 1780) HPP80
    |    |--S. lockleyi Clay 1949 HPP80
    |    |--S. merguli A71
    |    |--S. platygaster CM91
    |    |--S. stammeri Timmermann 1959 HPP80
    |    `--S. stresemanni Timmermann 1949 HPP80
    `--+--Austrogoniodes GE05
       `--+--Trabeculus Rudow 1866 GE05, HPP80
          |    |--T. flemingi GE05
          |    `--+--T. hexakon (Waterston 1914) GE05, HPP80
          |       `--T. schillingi Rudow 1866 GE05, HPP80
          `--+--Harrisoniella GE05
             |    |--H. densa RD77
             |    `--H. hopkinsi GE05
             `--Halipeurus Thompson 1936 GE05, HPP80
                  |--H. consimilis Timmermann 1960 GE05, HPP80
                  `--+--H. pelagicus GE05
                     `--+--H. falsus GE05
                        |    |--H. f. falsus HPP80
                        |    `--H. f. pacificus Edwards 1961 HPP80
                        `--+--H. diversus (Kellogg 1896) GE05, HPP80
                           `--H. spadix GE05

Philopteridae incertae sedis:
  Anatoecus CM91
    |--A. dentatus CM91
    `--A. pygaspis (Nitzsch in Giebel 1866) PJ02
  Megalipeurus von Kéler 1958 T62
    `--M. unicolor (Piaget 1880) (see below for synonymy) T62
  Anaticola Clay 1935 HPP80
    |--A. crassicornis (Scopoli 1763) HPP80
    |--A. ewingi (Qadri 1935) [=Columbicola ewingi] T62
    `--A. phoenicopteri (Coinde 1859) PJ02
  Turturicola Clay & Meinertzhagen 1937 T62
    |--*T. salimalii Clay & Meinertzhagen 1937 T62
    `--T. sudanicus (Mjöberg 1910) [=Lipeurus sudanicus, Columbicola sudanicus] T62
  Philopterus Nitzsch 1818 HPP80
    |--P. atratus A71
    |--P. communis [incl. Ricinus emberizae] G20
    |--P. corvi A71
    |--P. guttatus A71
    |--P. ocellatus A71
    `--P. turdi (Denny 1842) HPP80
  Nesiotinus Kellogg 1903 BP04
    `--N. demersus Kellogg 1903 BP04
  Columbicola T62
  Docophorus K08
    |--D. episcopi Kellogg 1908 K08
    |--D. icterodes K08
    |--D. indicus K08
    |--D. platystomus K08
    |--D. sphenophorus K08
    `--D. unifasciatus K08
  Nirmus K08
    |--N. furvus K08
    |--N. kilimandjarensis Kellogg 1908 K08
    |--N. opisthotomus Kellogg 1908 K08
    |--N. pileus K08
    `--N. signatus K08
  Lipeurus CM91
    |--L. afer Kellogg 1908 K08
    |--L. bifasciatus K08
    |--L. caponis CM91
    |--L. hebraeus K08
    |--L. heterographus RD77
    |--L. platalearum K08
    |--L. secretarius K08
    `--L. versicolor K08
  Brueelia Kéler 1936 HPP80
    |--B. cyclothorax (Burmeister 1838) HPP80
    `--B. merulensis (Denny 1842) HPP80
  Dahlemhornia CM91
  Cuclotogaster heterographus CM91
  Goniocotes Burmeister 1838 CM91, BP04
    |--G. bidentatus RD77
    `--G. gallinae CM91
  Degeeriella rufa RD77, T62
  Ardeicola Clay 1935 HPP80
    `--A. pilgrimi Tandan 1972 HPP80
  Docophoroides Giglioli 1864 HPP80
    |--D. brevis RD77
    |--D. harrisoni Waterston 1917 HPP80
    |--D. murphyi (Kellogg 1914) HPP80
    `--D. simplex (Waterston 1914) HPP80
  Haffneria Timmermann 1966 HPP80
    `--H. grandis (Piaget 1880) HPP80
  Naubates Bedford 1930 HPP80
    |--N. prioni (Enderlein 1908) HPP80
    `--N. pterodromi Bedford 1930 HPP80
  Paraclisis Timmermann 1965 HPP80
    |--P. diomedeae (Fabricius 1775) HPP80
    `--P. obscura (Rudow 1869) HPP80
  Pectinopygus Mjöberg 1910 HPP80
    |--P. dispar (Piaget 1880) HPP80
    `--P. gyricornis (Denny 1842) HPP80
  Pelmatocerandra Enderlein 1908 HPP80
    `--P. setosa (Giebel 1876) HPP80
  Perineus Harrison 1936 HPP80
    `--P. circumfasciatus Kéler 1957 HPP80
  Pseudonirmus Mjöberg 1910 HPP80
    `--P. gurli (Taschenberg 1882) HPP80
  Quadraceps Clay & Meinertzhagen 1939 HPP80
    |--Q. coenocoryphae Timmermann 1955 HPP80
    |--Q. punctatus (Burmeister 1838) HPP80
    `--Q. sellatus (Burmeister 1838) HPP80

Megalipeurus unicolor (Piaget 1880) [=Lipeurus unicolor, Oxylipeurus unicolor; incl. Lipeurus piageti Taschenberg 1882, Columbicola longiceps piageti] T62

Saemundssonia cephalus (Denny 1842) [incl. Docophorus atlanticus Kellogg 1914, Philopterus atlanticus, Saemundssonia atlantica] P04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BP04] Banks, J. C., & A. M. Paterson. 2004. A penguin-chewing louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera) phylogeny derived from morphology. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 89–100.

[CM91] Calaby, J. H., & M. D. Murray. 1991. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 421–428. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HPP80] Horning, D. S., R. L. Palma & R. L. C. Pilgrim. 1980. The lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from the Snares Islands, New Zealand. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 3: 1–17.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 3 section 15. Corrodentia pt 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[P04] Palma, R. L. 2004. Designation of a lectotype for Docophorus atlanticus Kellogg, 1914 (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae). Tuhinga 15: 13–16.

[PJ02] Palma, R. L., A. R. Johnson, F. Cezilly, F. Thomas & F. Renard. 2002. Diversity and distribution of feather lice on greater flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) in the Camargue, sothern France. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 87–89.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

Menoponidae

Colpocephalum fregili, copyright Natural History Museum, London.


Belongs within: Phthiraptera.

The Menoponidae are a diverse group of lice parasitic on birds.

Characters (from Richards & Davies 1977): Antennae four- or five-segmented, with 2 coeloconic sensilla on fourth or fourth and fifth segments; maxillary palps four-segmented; labial palps present, with five distal setae; pro-, meso- and metanota separate; mid and hind legs each with two tarsal claws; six pairs of spiracles on third to eighth abdominal segments; first abdominal tergum not fused with metanotum.

Menoponidae GE05
    |--Megamenopon rasnitsyni GE05
    |--Dennyus Neumann 1906 GE05, BP04
    |--Menacanthus Neumann 1912 HPP80
    |    |--M. eurysternus (Burmeister 1838) HPP80
    |    `--M. stramineus (Nitzsch 1818) [=Eomenacanthus stramineus] T62
    |--Kelerimenopon CM91
    |--Actornithophilus patellatus RD77, A71
    |--Austromenopon Bedford 1939 HPP80
    |    |--A. atrofulvum (Piaget 1880) HPP80
    |    |--A. bulleri Price & Clay 1972 HPP80
    |    |--A. elliotti Timmermann 1954 HPP80
    |    |--A. lutescens A71
    |    |--A. navigans (Kellogg 1896) HPP80
    |    |--A. paululum (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) HPP80
    |    |--A. pinguis (Kellogg 1896) HPP80
    |    `--A. stammeri Timmermann 1963 HPP80
    |--Myrsidea cucularis RD77
    |--Hohorstiella Eichler 1940 N91, T62
    |    `--H. lata N91
    |--Menopon CM91
    |    |--M. bucerotis Kellogg 1908 K08
    |    |--M. crocatum K08
    |    |--M. eulasius Kellogg 1908 K08
    |    |--M. forcipatum K08
    |    |--M. gallinae CM91
    |    |--M. pallidum RD77
    |    |--M. plegadis A71
    |    `--M. titan K08
    |--Ancistrona Westwood 1874 HPP80
    |--Longimenopon Thompson 1948 HPP80
    `--Colpocephalum CM91
         |--C. eucarenum K08
         |--C. extraneum K08
         |--C. falconii Carriker 1963 S69
         |--C. fregili CM91
         |--C. gracile K08
         |--C. grandiceps K08
         |--C. heterosoma Piaget 1880 PJ02
         |--C. miandrium Kellogg 1908 K08
         |--C. oreas Kellogg 1908 K08
         |--C. salimalii Clay 1951 PJ02
         |--C. semicinctum K08
         |--C. sjoestedti Kellogg 1908 K08
         |--C. subaequale K08
         |--C. trochioxum K08
         |--C. turbinatum CM91
         |--C. veratrum Kellogg 1908 K08
         `--C. xenicum Kellogg 1908 K08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BP04] Banks, J. C., & A. M. Paterson. 2004. A penguin-chewing louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera) phylogeny derived from morphology. Invertebrate Systematics 18: 89–100.

[CM91] Calaby, J. H., & M. D. Murray. 1991. Phthiraptera (lice). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 421–428. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HPP80] Horning, D. S., R. L. Palma & R. L. C. Pilgrim. 1980. The lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from the Snares Islands, New Zealand. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 3: 1–17.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 3 section 15. Corrodentia pt 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PJ02] Palma, R. L., A. R. Johnson, F. Cezilly, F. Thomas & F. Renard. 2002. Diversity and distribution of feather lice on greater flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) in the Camargue, sothern France. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 87–89.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7–460.

Hemiptera

Reconstruction of generalised Archescytinidae species, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).


Belongs within: Paraneoptera.
Contains: Heteropteroidea, Auchenorrhyncha, Protopsyllidiidae, Sternorrhyncha.

The Hemiptera, bugs, are a major group of insects in which the mouthparts have become modified into a tubular rostrum for sucking fluids. The mandibles and maxillae form two pairs of elongate stylets lying in a grooved labium (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Earlier authors divided the Hemiptera between the suborders Heteroptera, with forewings often divided between a leathery corium and distal membrane, and Homoptera, with undivided wings. The 'Homoptera' are now recognised as paraphyletic, and are instead divided between the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha and Coleorrhyncha with the latter two groups forming the Euhemiptera with the Heteroptera.

The earliest hemipterans, the Archescytinidae, are known from the early Permian to the Triassic; members of this group had a long, thin and coiled ovipositor held underneath the abdomen that may have been used to insert eggs into plants (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of more derived groups are known from the Late Permian, indicating that the major lineages of the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha and Heteropteroidea had diverged by that point (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002).

Characters (from Shcherbakov & Popov 2002): Head from hypognathous and nearly immobile to prognathous and freely movable. Antennae moderately long to short, usually of fewer than ten segments. Mouthparts transformed into a sucking proboscis, ensheathed with 1–4-segmented labium and consisting of stylet-like mandibles and maxillae (with bases invaginated into cranium) forming bundle and leaving food and salivary canals medially. Palps lost. Cibarial dilator muscles originating from enlarged postclypeus. Lateral ocelli plesiomorphically close to eyes. Wings homonomous and uncoupled in flight (in Archescytinidae) or heteronomous and coupled at flight by means of (sub)marginal devices, usually with both pairs well developed (sometime subdipterous, (sub)brachypterous with hind wings usually lost, or apterous). Accordingly, flight functionally four-winged, probably anteromotoric in Archescytinidae, functionally (sometimes even morphologically) two-winged, in-phase, anteromotoric in others. Fore wing usually more sclerotised than hind one and fixed on the thorax in repose, with at least its posterior margin inserted into lateral mesoscutellar groove. Hind wing either diminished or with anal area expanded. SC closely associated with or fused to R, its apical portion simulating a branch of the latter. Venation basically simple with two anal veins and two cross-veins, secondarily either prolific or reduced up to simple (SC+)R in fore wings of some coccid males. Hind leg often modified and armed for jumping, or similar to middle one. Tarsi 3–1-segmented. Ovipositor laciniate (with cutting blades), or variously modified, or reduced. Male genitalia variable, always including a penis and usually a pair of parameres. Cerci lost. 10th and 11th abdominal segments forming small anal tube, sometimes modified or reduced. Ovarioles telotrophic. Chromosomes holokinetic. Water-shunting filter chambers of various kinds and symbiotic bacteria in mycetomes often present. Nymphs dorsoventrally flattened, oval, cryptic, unable to jump, secondarily often more adult-like; last instar(s) occasionally transformed into non-feeding sedentary metamorphic (pupal) stage(s).

<==Hemiptera [Arthroidignatha, Cimicida, Homoptera, Rhynchota] GE05
    |--Euhemiptera [Hemelytrata] NR13
    |    |  i. s.: Aviorrhyncha Nel, Bourgoin et al. in Nel, Roques et al. 2013 [Aviorrhynchidae] NR13
    |    |           `--*A. magnifica Nel, Bourgoin et al. in Nel, Roques et al. 2013 NR13
    |    |--+--Heteropteroidea SP02
    |    |  `--Ingruidae SP02
    |    |       |--Kaltanospes SP02
    |    |       `--Scytoneurella major RJ93
    |    `--Auchenorrhyncha SP02
    |--+--Protopsyllidiidae GE05
    |  `--Sternorrhyncha GE05
    `--Archescytinidae [Archescytinina, Archescytinoidea, Palaeohemiptera, Paleorrhyncha] GE05
         |--Permothrips [Permothripidae] SP02
         |--Maueria SP02
         |--Permoscytina SP02
         |--Archescytina permiana SLN15, K-P91
         `--Protopincombea obscura Evans 1943 RJ93, F71

Hemiptera incertae sedis:
  Mesanthocoris ZBH03
  Pseudatomoscelis seriatus WS01
  Bagrada cruciferum G01
  Perignerus maidis G01
  Nasonovia ribisnigri A71
  Kikihia subalpina H05
  Heterotrephes admorsus Esaki & Miyamoto 1959 Iw92
  Suisha coreana (Matsumura 1927) Iw92
  Nipponosemia terminalis (Matsumura 1913) Iw92
  Asclepios shiranui (Esaki 1924) Iw92
  ‘Odius’ Stål 1867 non Lilljeborg 1866 C92
  Terioaphis trifolii C81
  Amphisalta zelandica H97
  Phera Stål 1864 K03
  Luederwaldtia Schmidt 1922 KO06
  Atopozelus pallens M07
  Poppea evelyna MG06
  Archiconiopteryx GE05
  Laodelphax striatellus R96
  Cephaloxys Signoret 1847 B83
  Anacornutipo lignosa S61
  Metastemma quinquemaculata Lucas 1847 E12
  Haematoloecha Stäl 1874 D56
  ‘Limonia’ Carvalho 1985 nec Meigen 1803 nec Agassiz 1846 KA-Z11
  Liops Fieber 1870 KA-Z11
  Umbronia spinosa Im92
  Sagotylus confluentus Im92
  Graphocephala BM76
    |--G. coccinea BM76
    `--G. versuta E66
  Proceiphilus tesselatus BM76
  Agrioaphis kuricola BM76
  Macropis viridis BM76
  Coenocorixa expleta WL09
  Laccogrypota grandis BMW13
  Prosapia bicincta BMW13
  Anacanthopus Montandon 1894 HW92
  Poekillopteridae K08
    |--Vanua vitiensis Kirkaldy 1907 K08
    |--Plestia marginata K08
    `--Euricania tristicula K08
  Amaurus Burmeister 1835 C96
  Naematopus albithorax Boisduval 1835 B35
  Archijassus [Archijassidae] RJ93
    `--A. plurinervis Zhang 1985 RJ93
  Chiliocyclidae RJ93
  Granulidae RJ93
  Magnacicadidae RJ93
  Prosbolecicada [Prosbolecicadidae] RJ93
    `--P. gondwanica Pinto 1987 RJ93
  Hotinus R13
    |--H. candelarius R13
    `--H. pyrorrhynchus R13
  Idiocorinae B50
    |--Paskia B50
    `--Idiocoris B50
  Plecophlebus Cockerell 1917 P92
    `--*P. nebulosus Cockerell 1917 P92
  Praecoris dominicana P92
  ‘Richteria’ Tode 1966 nec Jones 1874 nec Girault 1920 EH19
  Mevania Harold 1874 L90
  ‘Coryna’ Wolff 1811 non Bosc 1802 BP02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[BP02] Bologna, M. A., & J. D. Pinto. 2002. The Old World genera of Meloidae (Coleoptera): a key and synopsis. Journal of Natural History 36 (17): 2013–2102.

[B83] Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (4): 267–416.

[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[BMW13] Buckman, R. S., L. A. Mound & M. F. Whiting. 2013. Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 38: 123–133.

[C96] Calder, A. A. 1996. Click beetles: genera of the Australian Elateridae (Coleoptera). CSIRO Australia: Collingwood.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[EH19] Énay, R., & M. K. Howarth. 2019. Part L, revised, volume 3B, chapter 7: Systematic descriptions of the Perisphinctoidea. Treatise Online 120: 1–184.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H05] Harris, A. C. 2005. An unusual 11-celled nest of Sphictostethus nitidus (Fabricus) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae: Pepsinae). Weta 29: 24–26.

[H97] Hicks, B. J. 1997. Food webs in forest and pasture streams in the Waikato region, New Zealand: A study based on analyses of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and fish gut contents. New Zealand Journal of Freshwater and Marine Research 31: 651–664.

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. A new species of Pherania Strand, 1942 from southern Brazil (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae). Zootaxa 363: 1–8.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[KO06] Kury, A. B., & V. G. D. Orrico. 2006. A new species of Lacronia Strand, 1942 from the highlands of Rio de Janeiro (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 13: 147–153.

[L90] Lefèvre, É. 1890. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887–Avril 1888). 6e mémoire. Clytrides, lamprosomides et eumolpides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 329–336.

[M07] Machado, G. 2007. Maternal or paternal egg guarding? Revisiting parental care in triaenonychid harvestmen (Opiliones). Journal of Arachnology 35: 202–204.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[NR13] Nel, A., P. Roques, P. Nel, A. A. Prokin, T. Bourgoin, J. Prokop, J. Szwedo, D. Azar, L. Desutter-Grandcolas, T. Wappler, R. Garrouste, D. Coty, D. Huang, M. S. Engel & A. G. Kirejtshuk. 2013. The earliest known holometabolous insects. Nature 503: 257–261.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3–35.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WS01] Wilson, L. J., & V. O. Sadras. 2001. Host plant resistance in cotton to spider mites. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 314–327. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ZBH03] Zhou, Z., P. M. Barrett & J. Hilton. 2003. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 421: 807–814.

Orthotylinae

Orthotylus virescens, copyright B. Schoenmakers.


Belongs within: Miridae.

The Orthotylinae are a group of mirid bugs in which parempodia are lamellate, recurved and apically strongly convergent, pulvilli are present, and the pronotum usually lacks a collar (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Orthotylinae CGW91
    |  i. s.: Fronsetta MC13
    |         Opera MC13
    |         Rankiniella MC13
    |         Sophocoris MC13
    |         Macrotylus MC13
    |--Austromirini CGW91
    |    |--Austromiris CGW91
    |    |--Dasymiris schoutedeni CGW91, G75
    |    |--Porphyrodema CGW91
    |    `--Zanessa CGW91
    |--Halticini CGW91
    |    |--Myrmecoridea CGW91
    |    |--Myrmecoroides CGW91
    |    `--Halticus CGW91
    |         |--H. apterus H01
    |         |--H. minutus CGW91
    |         `--H. pusillus H01
    `--Orthotylini CGW91
         |--Melanotrichus CGW91
         |--Pseudoloxops CGW91
         |--Zanchius CGW91
         |--Cyrtorhinus CGW91
         |    |--C. lividipennis CGW91
         |    `--C. mundulus (Breddin 1896) [=Periscopus mundulus] K08
         |--Coridromius CGW91
         |    |--C. pilbarensis MC13
         |    `--C. variegatus CGW91
         `--Orthotylus F05
              |--O. adenocarpi A71
              |--O. concolor A71
              |--O. flavosparsus H01
              |--O. (Pinocaspus) gemmae Gessé & Goula 2004 F05
              |--O. schoberiae R13
              `--O. virescens A71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

Bryocorinae

Tomato bug Nesidiocoris tenuis, photographed by Johanna Bajonero.


Belongs within: Miridae.

The Bryocorinae are a group of mirid bugs that possess distally dilated tarsi with long guard setae or pseudopulvilli arising from the unguitractor plate (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Bryocorinae
    |  i. s.: Singhalesia MC13
    |--Bryocorini CGW91
    |--Bromeliaemiris [Eccritotarsini] CGW91
    |    `--B. puncticollis CGW91
    |--Monaloniini WEE70
    |    |--Eucerocoris WEE70
    |    |    |--E. suspectus G75
    |    |    `--E. thetis Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    `--Helopeltis WEE70
    |         |--H. australiae WEE70
    |         |--H. clavifer (Walker 1871) [=Dulichius clavifer] D01
    |         `--H. theivora RD77
    `--Dicyphini CGW91
         |--Setocoris bybliphilus CGW91, N70
         |--Engytatus nicotianae CGW91
         |--Nesidiocoris tenuis CGW91
         |--Pachypeltis CGW91
         |--Pachypeltopsis CGW91
         |--Ragwelellus CGW91
         |--Rayieria CGW91
         |--Felisacus glabratus CGW91
         |--Dicyphus minimus K08
         `--Cyrtopeltis WEE70
              |--C. droserae WEE70
              |--C. nicotianae Kirkaldy 1908 K08
              |--C. russelli WEE70
              `--C. tenuis WEE70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D01] Distant, W. L. 1901. Rhynchotal notes.—IX. Heteroptera: fam. Coreidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 416–432.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

Phylinae

Chlamydatus pullus, copyright AfroBrazilian.


Belongs within: Miridae.

The Phylinae are a group of usually small (2–3 mm) mirids that usually lack a pronotal collar. They possess setiform parempodia and pulvilli arising from the ventral surface of the claw (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Phylinae
    |  i. s.: Cephalocapsidea stali Girault 1937 Gi37
    |--Hallodapini CGW91
    |    |--Hallodapus CGW91
    |    `--Acrorrhinium CGW91
    |--Pilophorini CGW91
    |    |--Pilophorus CGW91
    |    |    |--P. cinnamopterus R13
    |    |    `--P. confusus H01
    |    |--Paramixia CGW91
    |    `--Anthropophagiotes Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |         `--*A. thanatopharus Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |--Leucophoropterini CGW91
    |    |--Leucophoroptera philippinensis MC94
    |    |--Tytthus mundulus CGW91
    |    `--Sejanus CGW91
    |         |--S. albisignatus MC13
    |         `--S. ecnomios MC94
    `--Phylini CGW91
         |--Campylomma livida CGW91
         |--Psallus CGW91
         |    |--P. betuleti H01
         |    `--P. seriatus Ga37
         |--Sthenarus CGW91
         |--Plagiognathus CGW91
         |    |--P. albipennis H01
         |    `--P. chrysanthemi H01
         `--Chlamydatus CGW91
              |--C. pulicarius H01
              |--C. pullus H01
              `--C. saltitans H01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[Ga37] Gahan, A. B. 1937. Two new chalcidoid egg parasites (Eulophidae and Mymaridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (9): 266–269.

[Gi37] Girault, A. A. 1937. New naturals, unorthodoxies and non-pollutions, viz. new hexapods. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 326–328).

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: an empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99–153.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

Icthyocrinidae

Clidochirus springeri, from the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.


Belongs within: Inadunata.

The Icthyocrinidae are a group of crinoids known from the early Silurian to the early Carboniferous in which the crown lacks a marked boundary between cup and arms (Moore 1978).

Characters (from Eckert & Brett 2001): Crown ovoid to pyriform without demarcation between cup and arms in lateral view. Infrabasals typically small, visible in side view or concealed. Radianal situated directly below C ray radial. Anal X, if present, occasionally succeeded by additional plates. Anal sac and interbrachials absent. Arms isotomous, proximal brachials sutured laterally.

Icthyocrinidae [Ichthyocrinacea, Ichthyocrinidae, Ichthyocrinites, Icthyocrinacea]
    |--Cleistocrinus Springer 1920 EB01
    |    `--*C. humilis (Angelin 1878) [=Calpiocrinus humilis] M78
    |--Synaptocrinus Springer 1920 EB01
    |    `--*S. nuntius (Hall 1862) [=Forbesiocrinus nuntius] M78
    |--Paraclidochirus Webster & Fox 1986 EB01
    |    |--‘Clidochirus’ gratiosus Strimple 1963 EB01
    |    `--‘Clidochirus’ keyserensis Stringer 1920 EB01
    |--Prolixocrinus Eckert & Brett 2001 EB01
    |    |--*P. nodocaudis Eckert & Brett 2001 EB01
    |    `--P. americanus (Springer 1920) [=Clidochirus americanus] EB01
    |--Metichthyocrinus Springer 1920 EB01
    |    |--*M. burlingtonensis (Hall 1858) [=Ichthyocrinus burlingtonensis] M78
    |    |--M. clarkensis M78
    |    `--M. tiaraeformis (Troost in Hall 1858) [=Ichthyocrinus tiaraeformis, Cyathocrinites tiaraeformis] M78
    |--Ichthyocrinus Conrad 1842 EB01 [=Icthyocrinus M78]
    |    |--*I. laevis Conrad 1842 [=Icthyocrinus laevis] M78
    |    |--I. clintonensis Hall 1852 EB01
    |    `--I. pyriformis M78
    `--Clidochirus Angelin 1878 EB01 [=Clidocrinus (l. c.) M78]
         |--*C. pyrum Angelin 1878 EB01
         |--C. serrulatus Brower 1973 EB01
         `--C. springeri Ausich 1984 EB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[EB01] Eckert, J. D., & C. E. Brett. 2001. Early Silurian (Llandovery) crinoids from the Lower Clinton Group, western New York State. Bulletins of American Paleontology 360: 1–88.

[M78] Moore, R. C. 1978. Flexibilia. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 2 pp. T759–T812. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Mirinae

Fine-streaked bugkin Miris striatus, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.


Belongs within: Miridae.
Contains: Lygus.

The Mirinae are a group of relatively large mirid bugs usually characterised by clearly visible, lamellate, apically divergent parempodia, and pulvilli present and attached to the ventral surface of claws (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Mirinae
    |  i. s.: Lygus WEE70
    |--Hyalopeplus ZS10 [Hyalopeplini CGW91]
    |--Stenodemini CGW91
    |    |--Megaloceroea WEE70
    |    `--Trigonotylus WEE70
    |         |--T. doddi CGW91
    |         `--T. ruficornis H01
    `--Mirini CGW91
         |--Austrocapsus CGW91
         |--Pseudopantilius australis CGW91, G75
         |--Niastama CGW91
         |--Sidnia kinbergi CGW91
         |--Creontiades dilutus [incl. Megacoelum modestum] CGW91
         |--Calocoris CGW91
         |    |--C. norvegicus CGW91
         |    `--C. striatellus A99
         `--Miris H01
              |--M. calcaratus H01
              |--M. campestris L02
              |--M. spissicornis L02
              |--M. striatus G20
              |--M. vagans G20 [=Nabis vagans L02]
              `--M. virens [incl. M. virens var. testaceus] H01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Coreidae

Homoeocerus unipunctatus, copyright Kenpei.


Belongs within: Coreoidea.
Contains: Leptoscelis, Colpura, Leptoglossus, Coreus.

The Coreidae, squash bugs, are a group of large plant-feeding bugs that typically produce strong repellent odours (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Stout, usually robust bugs with relatively thick legs; bucculae extending to, and usually behind, level of antennifers; head usually much less than half as wide as base of pronotum; ocelli present; metapleural scent gland openings with distinct peritremes; posterior margins of T4 and T5 produced posteriorly in mid line; membrane of fore wing with longitudinal accessory veins; corium without a large hyaline area.

<==Coreidae [Corizidae]
    |--Agriopocorinae CGW91
    |    |--Agriopocoris CGW91
    |    `--Tylocryptus egenus CGW91
    |--Cloresminae D01a
    |    |--Notobitus abdominalis Distant 1901 D01a
    |    `--Cloresmus D01a
    |         |--C. khasianus Distant 1901 D01a
    |         `--C. modestus Distant 1901 D01a
    |--Physomerinae D01b
    |    |--Rhyticoris spinipes [=Lygaeus spinipes; incl. Piezogaster patulus Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |--Physomerus D01b
    |    |    |--P. grossipes (Fabr. 1794) [=Lygaeus grossipes; incl. P. delineatus Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |    `--P. subargenteus Walker 1871 D01b
    |    `--Acanthocoris D01b
    |         |--A. anticus Walker 1871 D01b
    |         |--A. esau Distant 1901 D01b
    |         `--A. obscuricornis Dall. 1852 [incl. A. tarsalis Walker 1871] D01b
    |--Pseudophloeinae CGW91
    |    |--Gralliclava CGW91
    |    |--Clavigralloides CGW91
    |    `--Clavigralla D01b
    |         |--C. acantharis (Fabr. 1803) [=Lygaeus acantharis; incl. C. tuberculata Dall. 1852] D01b
    |         |--C. aliena (Walker 1871) [=Cletus alienus] D01b
    |         |--C. dispar Walker 1872 (n. d.) D01b
    |         |--C. gibbosa G01
    |         |--C. horrens D01b
    |         |--C. indecora (Walker 1871) [=Cletus indecorus] D01b
    |         `--C. spinigera Walker 1872 (n. d.) D01b
    |--Discogastrinae D01b
    |    |--Savius Stål 1862 [incl. Homoeoceroides Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |    `--‘Homoeocerus’ diversicornis [=*Homoeoceroides diversicornis] D01b
    |    |--Cnemomis D01b
    |    |    |--C. cognata Stål 1865 [incl. Hypselonotus signatus Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |    `--C. dubia (Dall. 1852) [=Paryphes dubius; incl. Hypselonotus mundus Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |--Scamurius D01b
    |    |    |--S. amabilis (Stål 1855) [=Paryphes amabilis; incl. Homoeoceroides incongruus Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |    `--S. scutellaris (Walker 1871) [=Hypselonotus scutellaris] D01b
    |    `--Discogaster Burmeister 1835 [incl. Leptornytus Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--D. drewseni D01b
    |         `--D. rufocornis (Walker 1871) [=Leptornytus rufocornis] D01b
    |--Spartocerinae D01b
    |    |--Sephina D01b
    |    |    |--S. humeralis Distant 1901 D01b
    |    |    |--S. limbata [incl. S. atra Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |    `--S. vinula [incl. Spartocera lampyroides Walker 1871] D01b
    |    `--Spartocera D01b
    |         |--S. batatas (Fabr. 1798) [=Lygaeus batatas] D01b
    |         |--S. brevicornis E66
    |         |--S. fusca (Thunb. 1783) [=Cimex fuscus; incl. Spartocerus diffusus] D01b
    |         |--S. gigantea D01b
    |         |--S. grandis Distant 1901 D01b
    |         |--S. pantomima (Dist. 1881) [=Sephina pantomima; incl. Sp. ortonedai Montand. 1897] D01b
    |         `--S. rubicunda Spin. in Gay 1852 [incl. S. chilensis Walker 1871] D01b
    |--Gonocerinae D01b
    |    |--Gonocerus L-SSY04
    |    |    |--G. annulipes Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |    `--G. juniperi Herrich-Schäffer 1839 L-SSY04
    |    |--Cletomorpha D01b
    |    |    |--C. kirbyi Distant 1901 [=C. denticulata Kirby 1891 (preoc.)] D01b
    |    |    |--C. raja Distant 1901 D01b
    |    |    `--C. walkeri Kirby 1891 [incl. C. benita Kirby 1891] D01b
    |    `--Plinacthus D01b
    |         |--P. acicularis (Fabr. 1803) [=Alydus acicularis; incl. Cletus conspicuus Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--P. dubius (Herr.-Schäff. 1842) [=Gonocerus dubius; incl. Cletus clarus Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--P. pungens (Thunb. 1783) [=Cimex pungens; incl. Gonocerus luridus Dall. 1852] D01b
    |         `--P. spinosus Stål 1859 [incl. Cletus mundus Walker 1871] D01b
    |--Acanthocephalinae D01a
    |    |--Acanthocephala D01a
    |    |    |--A. affinis (Walker 1871) [=Metapodius affinis] D01a
    |    |    |--A. angustipes (Westw. in Hope 1842) [=Metapodius angustipes; incl. M. constrictus Walk. 1871] D01a
    |    |    |--A. femorata L86
    |    |    |--A. latipes (Drury 1782) [=Cimex latipes; incl. Metapodius sericeicollis Walk. 1871] D01a
    |    |    `--A. unicolor (Westw. 1842) [=Metapodius unicolor; incl. M. distinctus Walk. 1871] D01a
    |    `--Laminiceps D01a
    |         |--L. cardinalis D01a
    |         |--L. ducalis D01a
    |         |--L. fasciatus D01a
    |         |--L. festivus Distant 1901 D01a
    |         |--L. megaera (Burm. 1835) [=Paryphes megaera] D01a
    |         `--L. sumptuosus Distant 1901 D01a
    |--Centroscelinae D01b
    |    |--Acidomeria strigata (Walker 1871) [=Gonocerus strigatus] D01b
    |    |--Namacus annulicornis Stål 1870 [incl. N. rufescens Walker 1872] D01b
    |    |--Margus D01b
    |    |    |--M. inornatus D01b
    |    |    `--M. obscurator (Fabr. 1803) [=Coreus obscurator] D01b
    |    |--Catorhintha D01b
    |    |    |--C. guttula (Fabr. 1794) [=Lygaeus guttula] D01b
    |    |    `--C. semialba (Walker 1872) [=Namacus semialbus] D01b
    |    |--Paryphes D01b
    |    |    |--P. festivus Costa 1863 [incl. P. gloriosus Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |    `--P. viridipes Walker 1871 (n. d.) D01b
    |    `--Hypselonotus D01b
    |         |--H. concinnus [incl. H. propinquus Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--H. interruptus Hahn 1831 [incl. Jadera subvittata Walker 1871] D01b
    |         `--H. lanceolatus Walker 1871 D01b
    |--Mictinae D01b
    |    |--Saguntus lobulatus Stål 1865 [incl. Hypselonotus crassifemur Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |--Quintius pallens (Walker 1871) [=Hirileus pallens; incl. H. pallidus Walker 1871 D01b
    |    |--Molchina Amyot & Serv. 1843 [incl. Euplatycoris Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |    `--M. granulata Stål 1870 [incl. Euplatycoris bellicornis Walker 1871] D01b
    |    |--Zoreva D01b
    |    |    |--Z. marginalis (Walker 1871) [=Hypselonotus marginalis] D01b
    |    |    `--Z. spinifera D01b
    |    |--Archimerus D01b
    |    |    |--A. alternatus E66
    |    |    |--A. calcarator E66
    |    |    `--A. pallens (Dall. 1852) [=Physomerus pallens, Piezogaster pallens] D01b
    |    `--Nematopus D01b
    |         |--N. fasciatus Westw. in Hope 1842 [incl. Hypselonotus fascicollis Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--N. indus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Cimex indus; incl. Hypselonotus pectoralis Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--N. lepidus Stål 1862 [incl. Hypselonotus armatus Walker 1871] D01b
    |         `--N. ruficrus (Perty 1830) [=Anisoscelis ruficrus; incl. Hypselonotus ventralis Walker 1871] D01b
    |--Leptoscelidini [Leptoscelinae] D01b
    |    |--Leptoscelis D01b
    |    |--Malvana minax (Walker 1871) [=Hypselonotus minax] D01b
    |    |--Amblyomia B96a
    |    |--Coribergia B96a
    |    |--Dalmatomammurius B96a
    |    |--Kalinckascelis B96a
    |    |--Malvanaioides B96a
    |    |--Plunentis B96a
    |    |--Sephinioides Brailovsky 1996 B96a
    |    |    `--*S. ugaldei Brailovsky 1996 B96a
    |    `--Phthia D01b
    |         |--P. affinis Distant 1901 D01b
    |         |--P. cantharidina D01b
    |         |--P. decorata D01b
    |         |--P. lunata [incl. P. concinna Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--P. picta D01b
    |         |--P. smaragdina (Walker 1871) [=Sphictyrtus smaragdinus] D01b
    |         `--P. ventralis D01b
    |--Corizinae D01b
    |    |--Corizus H01
    |    |    |--C. crassicornis [incl. C. crassicornis var. abutilon] H01
    |    |    |--C. maculatus H01
    |    |    |--C. parumpunctatus H01
    |    |    `--C. subrufus [incl. C. capitatus] H01
    |    |--Jadera D01b
    |    |    |--J. abdominalis Walker 1871 (n. d.) D01b
    |    |    |--J. aeola (Dallas 1852) [=Serinetha aeola; incl. Lygaeus conspersus Walker 1872] D01b
    |    |    |--J. antica (Walker 1872) [=Lygaeus anticus] D01b
    |    |    |--J. haematoloma [incl. Lygaeus marginalis Walker 1872] D01c
    |    |    `--J. sanguinolenta (Fabr. 1775) [=Cimex sanguinolentus; incl. Lygaeus rufoculis Kirby 1890] D01b
    |    `--Serinetha D01b
    |         |--S. abdominalis (Fabr. 1803) [=Lygaeus abdominalis; incl. S. taprobanensis Dallas 1852] D01b
    |         |--S. aethiops Dallas 1901 D01b
    |         |--S. fraterna D01b
    |         |--S. lurida Dallas 1852 D01b
    |         |--S. subrufescens (Kirby 1888) [=Lygaeus subrufescens] D01c
    |         `--S. vicina Dallas 1852 [incl. S. coxalis Kirby 1891, Astacops nigricornis Walker 1872] D01b
    |--Colpurinae D01a
    |    |  i. s.: Sciophyrus D01a
    |    |           |--S. anticus (Walker 1871) [=Cletus anticus] D01a
    |    |           `--S. crassus (Walker 1871) [=Cletus crassus] D01a
    |    |         Pachycephalus D01a
    |    |           |--P. opacus D01a
    |    |           `--P. touchei Distant 1901 D01a
    |    `--Colpurini B96b
    |         |--Colpura D01a
    |         |--Agathyrna B96b
    |         |--Acanthotyla fasciata (Walker 1871) B96b, D01a [=Cletus fasciatus D01a]
    |         |--Monasavuhygia Brailovsky 1996 B96b
    |         |    `--*M. cordata Brailovsky 1996 B96b
    |         |--Acarihygia Brailovsky 1993 B96b
    |         |    `--*A. fijiana Brailovsky 1993 B96b
    |         `--Brachylybas Stål 1870 B96b
    |              |--*B. variegata (Le Guillou 1841) [=Gonocerus variegatus, B. variegatus] B96b
    |              |--B. delgadoi Brailovksy 1996 B96b
    |              |--B. taveuni Brailovsky 1996 B96b
    |              `--B. vanua Brailovsky 1996 B96b
    |--Coreinae CGW91
    |    |--Mictis profana (Fabr. 1803) CGW91, D14 [=Lygaeus profana D14; incl. M. profanus var. crux K08]
    |    |--Amblypelta cocophaga CGW91, MHG04
    |    |--Aulacosternum nigrorubrum CGW91, C91
    |    |--Pompanotus CGW91
    |    |--Turrana CGW91
    |    |--Leptoglossus CGW91
    |    |--Coreus E12
    |    |--Amorbus CGW91
    |    |    |--A. alternatus CGW91
    |    |    `--A. rubiginosus G75
    |    `--Cletus CGW91
    |         |--C. apicifer Walker 1871 (n. d.) D01b
    |         |--C. bipunctatus (Westw. in Hope 1842) [=Coreus bipunctatus; incl. Cl. signatus Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--C. fuscescens Walker 1871 D01b
    |         |--C. inconspicuus Walker 1871 D01b
    |         |--C. punctiger (Dall. 1852) [=Gonocerus punctiger; incl. Homoeocerus minax Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--C. punctulatus (Westw. in Hope 1842) [=Coreus punctulatus; incl. Cl. femoralis Kirby 1891] D01b
    |         |--C. rubidiventris (Wastw. in Hope 1842) [=Coreus rubidiventris; incl. Cl. pallescens Walker 1871] D01b
    |         |--C. similis WEE70
    |         `--C. subnotatus Walker 1871 D01b
    `--Homoeocerus [Homoeocerinae] D01a
         |--H. abbreviatus (Fabr. 1794) [=Lygaeus abbreviatus; incl. H. umbratus Walker 1871] D01a
         |--H. abdominalis Distant 1901 D01a
         |--H. angulatus West. in Hope 1842 (see below for synonymy) D01a
         |--H. annulatus (Thunb. 1822) [=Alydus annulatus; incl. Ceratopachys subsparsus Walker 1871] D01a
         |--H. atkinsoni Distant 1901 D01a
         |--H. auriculatus D01a
         |--H. borneensis Distant 1901 D01a
         |--H. concisus Walker 1871 D01a
         |--H. graminis (Fabr. 1803) [=Lygaeus graminis; incl. H. turbidus Walker 1871] D01a
         |--H. lineatus Walker 1871 (n. d.) D01a
         |--H. lucidus Walker 1871 D01a
         |--H. magnicornis D01a
         |--H. malayensis Distant 1901 D01a
         |--H. montanus Distant 1901 D01a
         |--H. nigridorsum D01a
         |--H. prominulus (Dall 1852) [=Ceratopachys prominulus; incl. C. vicinus Sall 1852] D01a
         |--H. serrifer (Westw. in Hope 1842) (see below for synonymy) D01a
         |--H. signatus Walker 1871 [incl. H. biplagiatus Stål 1873] D01a
         |--H. simplex Walker 1871 D01a
         |--H. sinicus Walker 1871 D01a
         |--H. smecticus Distant 1901 D01a
         |--H. subjectus Walker 1871 D01a
         |--H. tinctus D01a
         |--H. trimaculatus Distant 1901 D01a
         |--H. unipunctatus (Thunb. 1783) [=Cimex unipunctatus; incl. H. chinensis Dall 1852] D01a
         |--H. variabilis (Dall 1852) [=Ceratopachys variabilis; incl. H. anticus Walker 1871] D01a
         |--H. walkerianus [incl. H. plagiatus Walker 1871 (preoc.)] D01a
         `--H. yerburyi Distant 1901 D01a

Coreidae incertae sedis:
  Paradasynus spinosus YS01
  Thasus gigas GE05, EN20
  Narnia inornata I92
  Aufeius impressicollis BM76
  Syromastes marginatus H01
  Therapha hyoscyami H01
  Enoplops H01
    |--E. scapha H01
    `--E. sibirica H01
  Chelonidea G75
    |--C. tabulata G75
    `--C. vittiger G75
  Anasa tristis CGW91, RD77
  Hebeicoris xinboensis Hong 1985 RJ93
  Uranocoris Walker 1871 D01b
    `--U. suavis Walker 1871 D01b
  Menenotus diminutus Walker 1871 D01b
  Derepteryx truncata Walker 1871 D01b
  Hyalymenus walkeri [incl. H. ichneumoniformis Walker 1871 (preoc.)] D01b
  Verlusia rhombea D01b
  Dulichius inflatus RD77
  Theraptus RD77
  Chariestrus antennator E66
  Pachylis Lepeletier & Serville 1825 E66, K18
    `--P. argentinus E66

Homoeocerus angulatus West. in Hope 1842 [incl. H. clarus Walker 1871, H. mundus Walker 1871, H. parallelus Walker 1871] D01a

Homoeocerus serrifer (Westw. in Hope 1842) [=Coreus serrifer; incl. H. parvulus Walker 1871, H. unipunctatus Dall 1852 non Cimex unipunctatus Thunb. 1783] D01a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B96a] Brailovsky, H. 1996a. A new genus and a new species of Leptoscelidini (Heteroptera: Coreidae) from Costa Rica. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 215–220.

[B66b] Brailovsky, H. 1996b. A revision of the tribe Colpurini (Heteroptera: Coreidae) from the Fiji islands. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 473–490.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D01a] Distant, W. L. 1901a. Rhynchotal notes.—VIII. Heteroptera: fam. Coreidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 6–22.

[D01b] Distant, W. L. 1901b. Rhynchotal notes.—IX. Heteroptera: fam. Coreidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 416–432.

[D01c] Distant, W. L. 1901c. Rhynchotal notes.—X. Heteroptera: fam. Lygaeidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 531–541.

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K18] Kury, A. B. 2018. Familial nomina in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Bionomina 13: 1–27.

[L86] Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): a morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 118 (S136): 1–517.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.