Metereca

Dorsal view and pedipalp of Metereca papillata, from Roewer (1935).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

Metereca is a genus of assamiid harvestmen found in central Africa.

See also: Metereca: crossing the divide.

Characters (from Roewer 1935): Eyemound granulate; area I of scutum without median longitudinal furrow; areas I–V and free tergites I–III unarmed; coxa IV without a larger single lateral spine; legs with Tarsus I 5-segmented, tarsi II and IV each more than 6-segmented, tarsus III 6-segmented; distitarsus II 2-segmented; male with leg IV strongly thickened between coxa and tibia.

Metereca Roewer 1923 S92
    |--*M. abnormis (Roewer 1912) [=Ereca abnormis] S92
    |--M. aspersa Roewer 1935 S92
    |--M. concolor Roewer 1961 S92
    |--M. differens (Lawrence 1957) [=Ereca differens] S92
    |--M. katangana Kauri 1985 S92
    |--M. kivuana (Roewer 1961) [=Leleupereca kivuana] S92
    |--M. kivuna Roewer 1961 S92
    |--M. leleupae Kauri 1985 S92
    |--M. longipes Kauri 1985 S92
    |--M. minuta Roewer 1954 S92
    |--M. montana (Roewer 1912) [=Ereca montana] S92
    |--M. papillata Roewer 1935 S92
    |--M. paradoxa Kauri 1985 S92
    |--M. ripensis Kauri 1985 S92
    `--M. simplex (Roewer 1952) [=Erecula simplex] S92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

Selencinae

Dorsal view of Paraselenca marginata, from Roewer (1935).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

The Selencinae are a group of assamiid harvestmen found in Africa with distitarsus I two-segmented, metatarsus II undivided and pectinate claws on tarsi III and IV (Santos & Prieto 2010).

Selencinae [Eupodaucheniinae] SP10
    |--Selenca Sørensen 1896 SP10
    |    `--*S. maculata Sørensen 1896 S92
    |--Selencula Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*S. filipes (Roewer 1927) [=Selenca filipes] R35
    |--Selencasta Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*S. minuscula (Roewer 1927) [=Selenca minuscula] R35
    |--Jaundea Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*J. spinulata (Roewer 1912) [=Selenca spinulata, Euselenca spinulata] R35
    |--Metaselenca Roewer 1912 SP10
    |    `--*M. h-album (Loman 1910) [=Selenca h-album] S92
    |--Humbea Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*H. bimaculata Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Cassinia Roewer 1927 non Brown 1817 (ICBN) SP10
    |    `--*C. macrochelis Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Eupodauchenius Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--*E. luteocruciatus (Loman 1910) S92 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Bolama Roewer 1927 SP10
    |    `--*B. spinosa Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Umbonimba Roewer 1953 SP10
    |    `--*U. acanthops Roewer 1953 S92
    |--Seuthesplus Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    |--*S. nigeriensis Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--S. perarmatus Lawrence 1965 S92
    |--Sassandria Roewer 1912 SP10 [incl. Aburitius Roewer 1935 S92, Assiniana Roewer 1914 S92]
    |    |--*S. bicolor Roewer 1912 S92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--S. tenuipes Lawrence 1965 S92
    |--Euselenca Roewer 1923 SP10
    |    |--*E. gracilis (Sørensen 1896) [=Selenca gracilis] R35
    |    `--E. feae Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Seuthes Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    |--*S. simonis (Henriksen 1932) [=Paraselenca simonis] SP10
    |    `--S. inermis Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |--Binderia Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    |--*B. spinarmata Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--B. longipes Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |--Seuthessus Kauri 1985 SP10
    |    |--*S. pustulatus Kauri 1985 SP10
    |    `--S. coriscanus Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    `--Paraselenca Roewer 1923 R35
         |--*P. aculeata (Roewer 1912) [=Selenca aculeata] S92
         |--P. hispida (Roewer 1912) [=Selenca hispida] R35
         `--P. marginata Roewer 1935 R35

*Eupodauchenius luteocruciatus (Loman 1910) S92 [=Selenca luteocruciata R35; incl. E. marginatus Roewer 1912 S92]

*Sassandria bicolor Roewer 1912 S92 [incl. *Aburitius inermis Roewer 1935 R35, S92, Assiniana reticulata Roewer 1914 S92, Ab. yapo Roewer 1935 S92]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[R35] Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[SP10] Santos, R., & C. E. Prieto. 2010. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae) de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial), con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58 (1): 203–243.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

Stygnopsidae

Stygnopsis robusta, from here.


Belongs within: Grassatores.

The Stygnopsidae are a group of harvestmen found in Mexico and Central America characterised by male genitalia with an internal capsule forming a follis on the ventral side in dorsal view of the pars distalis, with a few distal espiniform projections and with several setae on the pars distalis (Cruz-López & Francke 2013).

Stygnopsidae [Isaeinae, Stygnopsinae]
    |--Karos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 SG11, K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*K. barbarikos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 K03
    |    |--K. brignolii Šilhavý 1974 K03
    |    |--K. depressus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03
    |    |--K. dybasi (Goodnight & Goodnight 1947) [=*Potosa dybasi] K03
    |    |--K. gratiosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03 K03
    |    |--K. parvus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03
    |    |--K. projectus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03
    |    |--K. rugosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03
    |    `--K. tuberculatus (Goodnight & Goodnight 1944) [=*Monterella tuberculata] K03
    `--+--Hoplobunus Banks 1900 SG11, K03 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--*H. barretti Banks 1900 [=H. baretti (l. c.)] K03
       |    |--H. apoalensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1973 K03
       |    |--H. boneti (Goodnight & Goodnight 1942) [=*Serrobunus boneti] K03
       |    |--H. mexicanus (Roewer 1915) [=*Haehnelia mexicana] K03
       |    |--H. neglectus Kury & Cokendolpher 2000 (see below for synonymy) K03
       |    |--H. oaxacensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1973 K03
       |    |--H. planus Goodnight & Goodnight 1973 K03
       |    |--H. queretarius Šilhavý 1974 K03
       |    |--H. spinooculorum Goodnight & Goodnight 1973 K03
       |    `--H. zullinii Šilhavý 1977 K03
       `--Stygnopsis Sørensen 1902 SG11, K03
            |--*S. valida (Sørensen 1884) [=Stygnus validus, Stygnopsis validus] K03
            `--S. robusta (Goodnight & Goodnight 1971) [=Hoplobunus robustus] K03

Stygnopsidae incertae sedis:
  Mexotroglinus Šilhavý 1977 K03
    `--*M. sbordonii Šilhavý 1977 K03
  Tampiconus Roewer 1949 K03
    `--*T. philippii Roewer 1949 K03
  Troglostygnopsis Šilhavý 1974 [Troglostygnopsinae] K03
    |--*T. anophthalma Šilhavý 1974 K03
    `--T. inops (Goodnight & Goodnight 1971) [=Hoplobunus inops] K03
  Sbordonia Šilhavý 1977 K03
    |--*S. armigera Šilhavý 1977 K03
    `--S. parvula (Goodnight & Goodnight 1953) [=Paramitraceras parvulus] K03
  Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge 1905 (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--*P. granulatum Pickard-Cambridge 1905 K03, KA-Z11, K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. femorale Goodnight & Goodnight 1953 KA-Z11, K03 [=P. femoralis K03]
    `--P. hispidulum Pickard-Cambridge 1905 KA-Z11, K03 [=*Panzosus hispidulus K03, Par. hispidulus K03]
  Chinquipellobunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 C04
    |--*C. osorioi Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 [=Hoplobunus osorioi] C04
    |--C. coahuilaensis Cokendolpher 2004 C04
    |--C. madlae (Goodnight & Goodnight 1967) [=Hoplobunus madlae] C04
    |--C. mexicanus (Goodnight & Goodnight 1971) [=Pellobunus mexicanus] C04
    `--C. russelli (Goodnight & Goodnight 1967) [=Hoplobunus russelli] C04
  Philora Goodnight & Goodnight 1954 C-LF13
    |--*P. tuxtlae Goodnight & Goodnight 1954 C-LF13
    `--P. quetzalzin Cruz-López & Francke 2013 C-LF13
  Chapulobunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1946 C-LF16
    |--*C. unispinosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1946 C-LF16 [=Karos unispinosus K03]
    |--C. asper Cruz-López & Francke 2016 C-LF16
    |--C. poblano C-LF16
    |--C. psilocybe Cruz-López & Francke 2016 C-LF16
    `--C. regiomontano Cruz-López & Francke 2016 C-LF16
  Montabunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 C-LF16
    `--*M. foliorum Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 [=Karos foliorum] K03

Hoplobunus Banks 1900 SG11, K03 [incl. Haehnelia Roewer 1915 K03, Isaeus Sørensen 1932 K03, Serrobunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03]

Hoplobunus neglectus Kury & Cokendolpher 2000 [incl. *Isaeus mexicanus Sørensen 1932, H. mexicanus non Haehnelia mexicana Roewer 1915] K03

Karos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 SG11, K03 [incl. Monterella Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 K03, Potosa Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03]

Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge 1905 [=Paramitroceras (l. c.); incl. Panzosus Roewer 1949, Solola Roewer 1949] K03

*Paramitraceras granulatum Pickard-Cambridge 1905 K03, KA-Z11, K03 [=P. granulatus K03; incl. P. chichivaca Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03, *Solola robusta Roewer 1949 K03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C04] Cokendolpher, J. C. 2004. Revalidation of the harvestman genus Chinquipellobunus (Opiliones: Stygnopsidae). Texas Memorial Museum, Speleological Monographs 6: 143–152.

[C-LF13] Cruz-López, J. A., & O. F. Francke. 2013. On the enigmatic genus Philora: familial assignment and taxonomic revision (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnopsidae). Journal of Arachnology 41: 291–305.

[C-LF16] Cruz-López, J. A., & O. F. Francke. 2016. Three new species of the Mexican harvestman genus Chapulobunus (Opiliones: Stygnopsidae). Journal of Arachnology 44: 65–75.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[SG11] Sharma, P. P., & G. Giribet. 2011. The evolutionary and biogeographic history of the armoured harvestmen—Laniatores phylogeny based on ten molecular markers, with the description of two new families of Opiliones (Arachnida). Invertebrate Systematics 25: 106–142.

Ereca

Significant features of Ereca maculata, from Lawrence (1962).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

Ereca is a genus of assamiid harvestmen found in central Africa.

Characters (from Lawrence 1962): Scute and free tergites unarmed; pedipalp femur with short ventral teeth; stigmata hidden beneath coxa IV; tarsal formula 4–5(2):7–8(2):5:5–6.

Ereca Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--*E. undulata Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. affinis Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. bengtsoni Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. calcanifera Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. fusca Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. imitatrix Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. itombwensis Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. kalimabengana Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. lata Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. lawrencei Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. loekenae Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. lyrifera Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. maculata Roewer 1913 [=E. undulata maculata] S92
    |    |--E. m. maculata S92
    |    `--E. m. aberdarensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1959 S92 [=E. undulata aberdarensis L62]
    |--E. modesta Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. mwengana Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. robusta Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. rufa Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. sangensis Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. silvatica Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. simulator Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. soerenseni Lawrence 1962 S92
    |--E. triareolata Roewer 1961 S92
    `--E. unicolor Roewer 1961 S92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L62] Lawrence, R. F. 1962. Resultats scientifiques des missions zoologiques de l'I.R.S.A.C. en Afrique orientale (P. Basilewsky et N. Leleup, 1957). LXXIV. Opiliones. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale: Sciences Zoologiques 110: 9–89.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

Avima

Avima matintaperera, copyright Gonzalo Giribet.


Belongs within: Agoristenidae.

Avima is a genus of agoristenid harvestmen lacking spines on the dorsal scutum (Pinto-da-Rocha 1996).

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha 1996, as Trinella): Area I without median groove, rarely vestigial. Areas I–IV with or without paramedian small tubercles. Free tergites with small tubercles or smooth. Chelicera with segment II enlarged in males, rarely similar in both sexes.

<==Avima Roewer 1949 VMK09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*A. leucobunus Roewer 1949 [=Trinella leucobuna, T. leucobunus] VMK09
    |--A. albidecorata (Šilhavý 1979) VMK09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. albimaculata (González-Sponga 1998) [=Vima albimaculata, Trinella albimaculata] VMK09
    |--A. albiornata (Goodnight & Goodnight 1947) [=Vima albiornata, Trinella albiornata, *Vimula albiornata] VMK09
    |--A. azulitai (Rambla 1978) [=Vima azulitai, Trinella azulitai] VMK09
    |--A. bicoloripes Roewer 1949 [=Trinella bicoloripes] VMK09
    |--A. bordoni (Muñoz-Cuevas 1975) [=*Phalangozea bordoni, Trinella bordoni] VMK09
    |--A. bubonica (González-Sponga 1987) [=Vima bubonica, Trinella bubonica] VMK09
    |--A. chapmani (Rambla 1978) [=Vima chapmani, Trinella chapmani] VMK09
    |--A. checkeleyi (Rambla 1978) [=Vima checkeleyi, Trinella checkeleyi] VMK09
    |--A. chiguaraensis (González-Sponga 1987) [=Vima chiguaraensis, Trinella chiguaraensis] VMK09
    |--A. falconensis (González-Sponga 1987) [=Vima falconensis, Trinella falconensis] VMK09
    |--A. flavomaculata (González-Sponga 1987) [=Vima flavomaculata, Trinella flavomaculata] VMK09
    |--A. glabrata (González-Sponga 1998) [=Vima glabrata, Trinella glabrata] VMK09
    |--A. granulata (González-Sponga 1998) [=Vima granulata, Trinella granulata] VMK09
    |--A. intermedia (Goodnight & Goodnight 1947) [=*Trinella intermedia] VMK09
    |--A. leiobuniformis (Šilhavý 1973) [=*Leiostenus leiobuniformis, Trinella leiobuniformis] VMK09
    |--A. matintaperera (Pinto-da-Rocha 1996) [=Trinella matintaperera] VMK09
    |--A. naranjoi (Soares & Avram 1981) [=Vimula naranjoi, Trinella naranjoi] VMK09
    |--A. nigromaculata (González-Sponga 1998) [=Vima nigromaculata, Trinella nigromaculata] VMK09
    |--A. octomaculata (Roewer 1963) [=Vimula octomaculata, Trinella octomaculata] VMK09
    |--A. olmosa Roewer 1956 [=Trinella olmosa] VMK09
    |--A. palpogranulosa (González-Sponga 1981) [=Vima palpogranulosa, Trinella palpogranulosa] VMK09
    |--A. plana (Goodnight & Goodnight 1949) VMK09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. quadrata (González-Sponga 1987) [=Vima quadrata, Trinella quadrata] VMK09
    |--A. quirozi (González-Sponga 1981) [=Vima quirozi, Trinella quirozi] VMK09
    |--A. scabra (Roewer 1963) [=Vimula scabra, Trinella scabra] VMK09
    |--A. severa (Soares & Avram 1981) [=Trinella severa] VMK09
    |--A. soaresorum (Pinto-da-Rocha 1996) [=Trinella soaresorum] VMK09
    |--A. subparamera (González-Sponga 1987) [=Vima subparamera, Trinella subparamera] VMK09
    |--A. troglobia (Pinto-da-Rocha 1996) [=Trinella troglobia] VMK09
    |--A. venezuelica Soares & Avram 1981 [=Trinella venezuelica, Vima venezuelica] VMK09
    `--A. vigirima (Villarreal-M. & Rodríguez-Manzanilla 2003) [=Trinella vigirima] VMK09

Avima Roewer 1949 VMK09 [incl. Leiostenus Šilhavý 1973 VMK09, Phalangozea Muñoz-Cuevas 1976  VMK09, KA-Z11, Trinella Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 nec Bory de Saint Vincent 1827 nec Gray 1870 VMK09, Vimula Roewer 1949 VMK09]

Avima albidecorata (Šilhavý 1979) VMK09 [=Leiostenus leiobuniformis albidecoratus VMK09, Trinella albidecorata VMK09; incl. Vimula albiornata caripensis Soares & Avram 1987 K03, Trinella caripensis K03, Vima albiornata caripensis K03]

Avima plana (Goodnight & Goodnight 1949) VMK09 [=Vima plana VMK09, Trinella plana VMK09; incl. Ayachuco (l. c. for Ayacucho) scabrifemur Caporiacco 1951 K03, Trinella scabriferum (l. c.) K03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

Pinto-da-Rocha, R. 1996. Notes on Vima insignis Hirst, 1912, revalidation of Trinella Goodnight & Goodnight, 1947 with descriptions of three new species (Arachnida, Opiliones, Agoristenidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 40 (2): 315–323.

[VMK09] Villarreal Manzanilla, O., & A. B. Kury. 2009. A new generic homonym in the Agoristenidae (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 2045: 65–68.

Agoristenidae

Paravima sp., copyright O. Villarreal M..


Belongs within: Grassatores.
Contains: Avima.

The Agoristenidae are a group of harvestmen found in northern South America and islands of the Caribbean (Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2007).

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2007): Body length around 2–5 mm. Ocularium close to anterior border; four areas on dorsal scutum, often effaced; I–IV and posterior margin with small tubercles; I divided; III–IV, posterior margin, and free tergites with or without a pair of spines. Coxae with transverse rows of granues, growing larger anteriorly; coxae I–III parallel to each other, IV a little more developed but not hypertelic; spiracles usually exposed. Legs usually straight, leg I short; tarsal formula 4–9(3):7–28(3–6):5–8:5–10; tarsal process usually absent; claws smooth and subparallel. Penis: truncus with apical ventral plate short, unarmed, divided; with strong setae bent to proximal side; stylus usually with dorsal soft longitudinal crest or keel.

Agoristenidae [Agoristeridae]
    |  i. s.: Globibunus Roewer 1912 K15
    |           `--*G. rubrofemoratus Roewer 1912 K03
    |--Zamorinae P-RK07
    |    |--Palcabius Roewer 1956 K03
    |    |    `--*P. palpalis Roewer 1956 K03
    |    |--Ramonus Roewer 1956 K03
    |    |    `--*R. conifrons Roewr 1956 K03
    |    `--Zamora Roewer 1928 K03, KA-Z11
    |         |--*Z. granulata Roewer 1928 K03, KA-Z11
    |         `--Z. vulcana Kury 1997 K03
    `--+--Leiosteninae P-RK07
       |    |--Avima P-RK07
       |    |--Barinas González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |    `--*B. flava González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |--Sabanilla Roewer 1913 K03
       |    |    `--*S. ornata Roewer 1913 K03
       |    |--Vima Hirst 1912 K03
       |    |    `--*V. insignis Hirst 1912 K03
       |    |--Vimina González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |    `--*V. virginis González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |--Andrescava Roewer 1957 K03
       |    |    |--*A. weyrauchi Roewer 1957 K03
       |    |    `--A. sturmi Roewer 1963 K03
       |    |--Ocoita Gonzáleza-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |    |--*O. mina González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |    |--O. servae González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |    `--O. tapipensis González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |--Barlovento González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |    |--*B. marmoratus (González-Sponga 1981) K03, KA-Z11 [=Vima marmorata K03, B. marmorata K03]
       |    |    |--B. albapatella González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |    |--B. littorei González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    |    `--B. salmeronensis González-Sponga 1987 K03
       |    `--Paravima Caporiacco 1951 [=Paraavima (l. c.)] K03
       |         |--*P. goodnightiorum Caporiacco 1951 V-MD05
       |         |--P. acanthoconus Villarreal-Manzanilla & DoNascimiento 2005 V-MD05
       |         |--P. flumencaurimarensis González-Sponga 1987 V-MD05
       |         |--P. locumida González-Sponga 1987 V-MD05
       |         |--P. morritomacairensis González-Sponga 1987 V-MD05
       |         `--P. propespelunca González-Sponga 1987 V-MD05
       `--Agoristeninae [Angelinae, Angelininae] P-RK07
            |--Agoristenus Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    |--*A. cubanus Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    `--A. haitensis Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |--Ahotta Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    `--*A. hispaniolica Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |--Calmotrinus Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    `-*C. turquinensis Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |--Dumitrescuella Avram 1977 K03
            |    `--*D. ornata Avram 1977 K03
            |--Haitimera Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    `--*H. paeninsularis Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |--Lichirtes Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    `--*L. hexapodoides Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |--Orghidanella Avram 1977 K03
            |    `--*O. granpiedrae Avram 1977 K03
            |--Piratrinus Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    `--*P. calcaratus Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |--Vampyrostenus Šilhavý 1976 K03
            |    `--*V. kratochvili Šilhavý 1976 K03
            |--Yunquenus Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    `--*Y. portoricanus Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |--Meriosfera Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    |--*M. gertschi Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |    `--M. lineata Šilhavý 1973 K03
            |--Torreana Avram 1977 K03
            |    |--*T. poeyi Avram 1977 K03
            |    `--T. spinata Avram 1977 K03
            `--Leptostygnus Mello-Leitão 1940 P-RK07, K03 (see below for synonymy)
                 |--*L. leptochirus Mello-Leitão 1940 K03
                 `--L. marchantiarum (González-Sponga 1987) [=*Angela marchantiarum] K03

Leptostygnus Mello-Leitão 1940 P-RK07, K03 [=Leptostygnu (l. c.) K03; incl. Angela González-Sponga 1987 non Lesson 1843 K03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[K15] Kury, A. B. 2015. Opiliones are no longer the same—on suprafamilial groups in harvestmen (Arthropoda: Arachnida). Zootaxa 3925 (3): 301–340.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[P-RK07] Pinto-da-Rocha, R., & A. B. Kury. 2007. Agoristenidae Šilhavý, 1973. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 171–173. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[V-MD05] Villarreal-Manzanilla, O., & C. DoNascimiento. 2005. Una nueva especie del género Paravima Caporiacco, 1951 (Opiliones, Laniatores, Agoristenidae) del tramo oriental de la cordillera de La Costa, Estado Miranda, Venezuela. Memoria de la Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales 161–162: 101–111.

Phareicranaus

Phareicranaus sp., copyright Pavel Kirillov.


Belongs within: Cranaidae.

Phareicranaus is a genus of large harvestmen found primarily in north-western South America from Ecuador to Panama (Kury 2003).

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2003): Penis with ventral plate deeply cleft in distal border; with four groups of setae. Glans with dorsal process. Stylus smooth, slightly curved, without stylar apophysis; apex bent in obtuse angle, forming a deeply depressed tongue-shaped lobe. Stigmatic area and coxa IV ventrally unarmed in both sexes. Pedipalpal femur with dorso-apical spine. Eye mound and scutal area III with a pair of high spines. Tarsal counts 7–8/15/8–9/10.

<==Phareicranaus Roewer 1913 P-RK03 [=Phareiicranaus (l. c.) K03]
    |--*P. calcariferus (Simon 1879) [=Goniosoma calcariferum] P-RK03
    |--P. albigranulatus Roewer 1913 P-RK03
    |--P. albigyratus Roewer 1932 P-RK03
    |--P. albimedialis (Goodnight & Goodnight 1943) [=Santinezia albimedialis; incl. P. bolivarius Roewer 1952] P-RK03
    |--P. camposi (Mello-Leitão 1942) P-RK03
    |--P. cingulatus Roewer 1932 P-RK03
    |--P. festae Roewer 1925 P-RK03
    |--P. giganteus Roewer 1932 P-RK03 [=Eucranaus holophaeus Mello-Leitão 1944 K03]
    |--P. ornatus Roewer 1932 [incl. Santinezia micheneri Goodnight & Goodnight 1947] P-RK03
    |--P. paralellus Roewer 1925 P-RK03
    `--P. x-albus Roewer 1932 P-RK03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[P-RK03] Pinto-da-Rocha, R., & A. B. Kury. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of Santinezia with description of five new species (Opiliones, Laniatores, Cranaidae). Journal of Arachnology 31: 173–208.

Cranaidae

Dorsal view and pedipalp of Neocranaus albiconspersus, from Roewer (1923).


Belongs within: Grassatores.
Contains: Phareicranaus, Santinezia, Holocranaus, Cranaus.

The Cranaidae are a group of harvestmen found primarily in northern South America, usually with a dense covering of dorsal tubercles on the pedipalps. Many genera in this family remain poorly defined and in need of revision.

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2007): Body length 6–16 mm, leg IV 21–95 mm long. Dorsum widest at area II or groove III; ocularium placed in miidle of prosoma, rounded and high, small-tuberculate or with two high spines; ozopores slitlike, one opening partially covered by tubercle of coxa II; area I divided, normally with one tubercle on each side; area II tuberculate; area III usually with two spines upward or backward; tergite I normally small-tuberculate, II small-tuberculate, III normally with two spines or small-tuberculate. Coxa IV small-tuberculate or with two tubercles or spines close to spiracular area; posterior margin of spiracular area sometimes with large unpaired apophyses. Segment I of chelicera with few tubercles or densely tuberculate. Pedipalps short and heavy or elongate and thin; usually dorsally coarsely tuberculate from trochanter to tibia; setal sockets of tibia longer than setae. Legs with few tubercles or spines; coxa IV tuberculate with short and straight external apophysis; femur IV straight or slightly S-curved; tarsal process strong, claws smooth or pectinate. Penis with stylus long and slender, straight with apex slightly swollen, ventral process of glans absent, dorsal process of glans rarely present; ventral plate oblique in relation to axis of truncus, usually rectangular and robust, sometimes guitar-shaped, apical border with V cleft or straight; with distal group of one to six setae on side, one to five median, usually no basal setae.

Cranaidae
    |--Heterocranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Riveticranaus Roewer 1919, Miradorius Roewer 1923; Heterocranainae] K03
    |    |--*H. margaritipalpis (Simon 1879) [=Cranaus margaritipalpis] K03
    |    `--H. lutescens (Roewer 1919) [=*Riveticranaus lutescens, *Miradorius lutescens] K03
    |--Prostygninae K03
    |    |--Prostygnidius Roewer 1915 K03
    |    |    `--*P. pustulatus Roewer 1915 K03
    |    |--Peladoius Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    `--*P. riveti Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |--Globitarsus Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |    `--*G. angustus Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |--Troya Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    `--*T. riveti Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |--Micropachylus Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |    `--*M. metatarsalis Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |--Prostygnus Roewer 1913 K03
    |    |    `--*P. vestitus Roewer 1913 [=Prostignidius (l. c.) vestitus] K03
    |    |--Binamballeus Roewer 1952 K03
    |    |    `--*B. metatarsalis Roewer 1952 K03
    |    |--Chiriboga Roewer 1959 K03
    |    |    `--*C. albituber Roewer 1959 K03
    |    |--Cutervolus Roewer 1957 K03
    |    |    `--*C. albopunctatus Roewer 1957 [incl. Isocranaus conveniens Roewer 1963] K03
    |    |--Lisarea Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |    `--*L. ferruginea Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |--Meridanatus Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |    `--*M. berlandi Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |--Sclerostygnellus Roewer 1943 K03
    |    |    `--*S. rotundus Roewer 1943 [=Sclerostignellus (l. c.) rotundus] K03
    |    |--Prostygnellus Roewer 1919 [incl. Minyssus Roewer 1943] K03
    |    |    |--*P. riveti Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    `--P. isabellinus (Roewer 1943) [=*Minyssus isabellinus] K03
    |    |--Yania Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    |--*Y. flavolimbata Roewer 1919 K03
    |    |    `--Y. metatarsalis Kury 1994 K03
    |    |--Ostracidium Perty 1833 R23
    |    |    |--*O. fuscum Perty 1833 K03
    |    |    |--O. decoratum Kollar in Koch 1839 K03
    |    |    `--O. succineum Perty 1833 K03
    |    `--Llaguenia Kury & Pérez-González 2015 KP-G15
    |         `--*L. peruviana (Roewer 1956) [=Zamora peruviana] KP-G15
    `--+--Stygnicranainae P-RK07
       |    |--Tryferos Roewer 1931 K03
       |    |    `--*T. elegans Roewer 1931 K03
       |    `--Stygnicranaus Roewer 1913 K03
       |         |--*S. abnormis Roewer 1913 K03
       |         `--S. concolor Kury 1995 K03
       `--Cranainae P-RK07
            |--Phareicranaus K03
            |--Santinezia K03
            |--Holocranaus K03
            |--Cranaus K03
            |--Carsevennia Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--*C. crassipalpis Roewer 1913 K03
            |--Metacranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--*M. tricalcaris Roewer 1913 K03
            |--Ventrivomer Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--*V. ancyrophorus (Butler 1873) [=Gonyleptes ancyrophorus] K03
            |--Ventrifurca Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--*V. albipustulata Roewer 1913 K03
            |--Ventripila Roewer 1917 K03
            |    `--*V. marginata Roewer 1917 K03
            |--Allocranaus Roewer 1915 K03
            |    `--*A. columbianus Roewer 1915 K03
            |--Bunicranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--*B. simoni Roewer 1913 K03
            |--Homocranaus Roewer 1915 K03
            |    `--*H. tetracalcar Roewer 1915 K03
            |--Acanthocranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--*A. calcariger Roewer 1913 [=Neocranaus calcariger] K03
            |--Paracranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--*P. crassipalpis Roewer 1913 [=Paracranus (l. c.) crassipalpis] K03
            |--Aguaytiella Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
            |    `--*A. maculata Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
            |--Alausius Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*A. mirus Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Angistrius Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*A. abnormis Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Aucayacuella Avram 1983 K03
            |    `--*A. bordoni Avram 1983 [=A. margaretae Avram & Soares 1983] K03
            |--Balzabamba Mello-Leitão 1945 K03
            |    `--*B. marmorata Mello-Leitão 1945 K03
            |--Baustomus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*B. macrospina Roewer 1932 [=B. macropina (l. c.)] K03
            |--Bucayana Mello-Leitão 1942 K03
            |    `--*B. bucayana Mello-Leitão 1942 K03
            |--Callcosma Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*C. gracilima Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Cayabeus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*C. perlatus Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Cenipa Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
            |    `--*C. nubila Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
            |--Chetronus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*C. spiniger Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Clinocippus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*C. albater Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Comboyus Roewer 1943 K03
            |    `--*C. albilineatus Roewer 1943 K03
            |--Cranaostygnus Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.) K03
            |    `--*C. marcuzzi Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.) K03
            |--Digalistes Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*D. signata Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Diptyonius Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*D. striatus Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Guayaquiliana Mello-Leitão 1935 K03
            |    `--*G. camposi Mello-Leitão 1935 K03
            |--Idomenta Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*I. luteipalpis Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Kendima Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*K. albiornata Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Ladantola Roewer 1932 [=Ladantolo (l. c.), Landantola (l. c.)] K03
            |    `--*L. aspersa Roewer 1932 [=Landantola (l. c.) aspersa] K03
            |--Mecritta Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*M. filipes Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Panalus Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03
            |    `--*P. robustus Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03
            |--Parkocranaus Mello-Leitão 1949 K03
            |    `--*P. bimaculatus Mello-Leitão 1949 K03
            |--Sibundoxia Roewer 1963 K03
            |    `--*S. scripta Roewer 1963 K03
            |--Spirunius Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*S. coxipunctus Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Stygnicranella Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.) K03
            |    `--*S. pizai Caporiacco 1951 (n. d.) K03
            |--Tetracranaus Roewer 1963 K03
            |    `--*T. zilchi Roewer 1963 K03
            |--Thaumatocranaus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*T. mirabilis Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Timotesa Roewer 1943 K03
            |    `--*T. octomaculata Roewer 1943 K03
            |--Tripilatus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--*T. elegans Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Ventrisudis Roewer 1963 K03
            |    `--*V. mira Roewer 1963 K03
            |--Quindina Roewer 1914 [=Quidina] K03
            |    |--*Q. bella Roewer 1914 K03
            |    `--Q. bimaculata Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Megacranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    |--*M. pygoplus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--M. areolatus Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Spinicranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    |--*S. diabolicus (Simon 1879) [=Cranaus diabolicus] K03
            |    `--S. camposi (Mello-Leitão 1942) [=Nieblia camposi] K03
            |--Microcranaus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    |--*M. pustulatus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    `--M. columbianus Roewer 1963 K03
            |--Angistrisoma Soares & Soares 1948 K03, KA-Z11
            |    |--*A. fuscum Roewer 1932 KA-Z11 [=A. fusca K03]
            |    `--A. atroluteum Roewer 1932 KA-Z11, K03 [=A. atrolutea K03]
            |--Deriacrus Roewer 1932 [=Deriaeus (l. c.)] K03
            |    |--*D. simoni Roewer 1932 [=Demades woodii Sørensen in Roewer 1943 (n. n.)] K03
            |    `--D. marginatus Roewer 1963 K03
            |--Licornus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    |--*L. perfectus Roewer 1932 K03
            |    `--L. atroluteus Roewer 1959 K03
            |--Peripa Roewer 1925 K03
            |    |--*P. clavipus Roewer 1925 K03
            |    `--P. simplex Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Phalangodus Gervais 1842 [incl. Iquitosa Roewer 1943] K03
            |    |--*P. anacosmetus Gervais 1842 [incl. Allocranaus giganteus Mello-Leitão 1940] K03
            |    `--P. poecilis (Roewer 1943) [=*Iquitosa poecilis] K03
            |--Puna Roewer 1925 K03
            |    |--*P. festae Roewer 1925 K03
            |    `--P. semicircularis Roewer 1932 K03
            |--Eucranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Ikossimus Roewer 1932, Ikossemus (l. c.)] K03
            |    |--*E. reticulatus Roewer 1913 K03
            |    |--E. fuscus (Roewer 1932) [=*Ikossimus fuscus] K03
            |    `--E. tenuipes (Roewer 1959) [=Ikossimus tenuipes] K03
            |--Isocranaus Roewer 1915 K03
            |    |--*I. obscurus Roewer 1915 K03
            |    |--I. gorgonae Hirst 1926 K03
            |    |--I. reticulatus Roewer 1959 K03
            |    `--I. umbraticus Roewer 1959 K03
            `--Neocranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Mitobatulina Mello-Leitão 1941] K03
                 |--*N. albiconspersus Roewer 1913 K03
                 |--N. armatissimus (Mello-Leitão 1941) [=*Mitobatulina armatissima] K03
                 |--N. dybasi (Goodnight & Goodnight 1947) [=Rhopalocranaus dybasi] K03
                 `--N. magnus (Roewer 1932) [=Nieblia magna, Phareicranaus magnus] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[KP-G15] Kury, A. B., & A. Pérez-González. 2015. A companion to part 2 of the world checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida): Laniatores—Samooidea, Zalmoxoidea and Grassatores incertae sedis. Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e6663.

[P-RK07] Pinto-da-Rocha, R., & A. B. Kury. 2007. Cranaidae Roewer, 1913. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 185–188. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

Holocranaus

Dorsal view and pedipalp of Holocranaus calcar, from Roewer (1923).


Belongs within: Cranaidae.

Holocranaus is a genus of harvestmen found in northern South America.

Characters (from Soares & Soares 1948): Eye mound with two spines. Areas I, III and IV of dorsal scutum with two spines or tubercles, area II unarmed. Free tergites with two spines or tubercles. Anal operculum unarmed. Femur of pedipalp without internal apical spine, but with robust dorsal apical spine. All tarsi with more than six segments.

<==Holocranaus Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--*H. calcar (Roewer 1912) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--H. albimarginis Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
    |--H. angulus Roewer 1932 K03
    |--H. bordoni (Avram & Soares 1979) [=Mendellinia (l. c.) bordoni] K03
    |--H. calus (Goodnight & Goodnight 1944) [=Rhopalocranaus calus, Cranaus calus] K03
    |--H. conspicuus Roewer 1932 K03
    |--H. laevifrons Roewer 1917 K03
    |--H. longipes Roewer 1913 K03
    |--H. luteimarginatus Roewer 1917 K03
    |--H. pectinitibialis (Roewer 1914) [=*Tolimaius pectinitibialis] K03
    |--H. rugosus Roewer 1932 K03
    `--H. simplex Roewer 1913 K03

Holocranaus Roewer 1913 [incl. Medellinia Mello-Leitão 1939, Mendellinia (l. c.), Nedellinia (l. c.), Tolimaius Roewer 1914, Tolimaiius (l. c.), Tolimalius (l. c.)] K03

*Holocranaus calcar (Roewer 1912) [=Cranaus calcar, Holocranus (l. c.) calcar; incl. *Medellinia niceforoi Mello-Leitão 1939, Mendellinia (l. c.) niceforoi] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

Soares, B. A. M., & H. E. M. Soares. 1948. Monografia dos gêneros de opiliões neotrópicos. Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 5 (9): 553–636.

Santinezia

Santinezia sp., copyright Graham Wise.


Belongs within: Cranaidae.

Santinezia is a genus of large, glossy harvestmen found in northern South America (Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2003).

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2003): Eye mound and area III with pair of high spines; free tergite I unarmed, II–III with pair of spines. Pedipalpal femur of male with dorso-apical spine; coxa IV of male with pair of spiniform ventral apophyses near stigmata and dorso-apical small spine. Stigmatic area unarmed. Glans without or with very small dorsal process. Stylus may bear spiniform stylar apophysis; ventral plate variable, never deeply incised distally. Tarsal counts 7–10/13–23/8–12/9–14.

<==Santinezia Roewer 1923 (see below for synonymy) P-RK03
    |--S. curvipes group P-RK03
    |    |  i. s.: S. simonbolivari Avram 1987 P-RK03
    |    |--S. magna Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 P-RK03
    |    `--+--+--S. furva Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2003 P-RK03
    |       |  `--S. spinulata Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 P-RK03
    |       `--+--+--S. calcartibialis (Roewer 1915) (see below for synonymy) P-RK03
    |          |  `--S. heliae Avram 1983 P-RK03
    |          `--+--S. circumlineata González-Sponga 1989 P-RK03
    |             |--+--S. calcarfemoralis (Roewer 1917) [=Inezia calcarfemoralis] P-RK03
    |             |  `--S. curvipes (Roewer 1916) (see below for synonymy) P-RK03
    |             `--+--S. duranti González-Sponga 1989 P-RK03
    |                `--S. serratotibialis Roewer 1932 [incl. S. biordi González-Sponga 1991] P-RK03
    `--+--S. festae group P-RK03
       |    |--S. arthrocentrica (Mello-Leitão 1943) [=*Macuchicola arthrocentrica] P-RK03
       |    `--S. festae (Roewer 1925) [=*Nieblia festae] P-RK03
       `--S. gigantea group P-RK03
            |--S. lucifer Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2003 P-RK03
            `--+--*S. gigantea (Roewer 1913) [=*Inezia gigantea] P-RK03
               `--+--S. manauara Pinto-da-Rocha 1994 P-RK03
                  `--+--S. onorei Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2003 P-RK03
                     `--+--S. hermosa Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2003 P-RK03
                        |--S. singularis (Soares 1970) [=*Carvalholeptes singularis] P-RK03
                        `--+--S. gracilis Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury 2003 P-RK03
                           `--+--S. angelica Roewer 1963 P-RK03
                              `--S. ortizi Roewer 1952 P-RK03

Santinezia Roewer 1923 [=Inezia Roewer 1913 non Cherrie 1909; incl. Carvalholeptes Soares 1970, Chondrocranaus Roewer 1932, Macuchicola Mello-Leitão 1943, Nieblia Roewer 1925] P-RK03

Santinezia calcartibialis (Roewer 1915) [=Inezia calcartibialis; incl. *Chondrocranaus scriptus Roewer 1932] P-RK03

Santinezia curvipes (Roewer 1916) [=Inezia curvipes; incl. S. albilineata Roewer 1932, S. benedictoi Soares & Avram 1981, S. decui Avram 1987, S. francourbani Avram 1987, S. orghidani Avram 1987, Goniosoma pavani Muñoz-Cuevas 1972] P-RK03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[P-RK03] Pinto-da-Rocha, R., & A. B. Kury. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of Santinezia with description of five new species (Opiliones, Laniatores, Cranaidae). Journal of Arachnology 31: 173–208.

Stygnidae

Eutimesius simoni, copyright Arthur Anker.


Belongs within: Grassatores.
Contains: Stygnoplus, Protimesius, Stygnus.

The Stygnidae are a group of harvestmen from South America with a divided eye mound and a rectangular or subrectangular dorsal scute (Pinto-da-Rocha 1997).

Characters (from Pinto-da-Rocha 1997): Anterior margin of dorsal scute slightly elevated medially, with one projection on each corner, one projection external and one internal side of each chelicera. Eye mound divided in two. Cephalothorax almost as wide as abdomen (dorsal scute rectangular or almost rectangular). Coxa IV usually reaches groove III. Male legs III–IV usually tuberculate. Metatarsi III–IV with two ventroapical setae. Distitarsi I–II with three segments. Male chelicera usually swollen; segment I condyle-like or straight (only in males of Nomoclastinae). Pedipalpus long and thin or short and thick. Penis glans with dorsal process, occasionally absent. Colour usually brownish or dark-brown.

Stygnidae [Stignidae]
    |  i. s.: Gaibulus Roewer 1943 K03
    |           `--*G. schubarti Roewer 1943 K03
    |--Nomoclastes Sørensen 1932 [Nomoclastinae] K03
    |    |--*N. taedifer Sørensen 1932 K03
    |    `--N. quasimodo Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
    |--Heterostygninae V-M04
    |    |--Stygnoplus K03
    |    |--Timesius Simon 1879 K03
    |    |    `--*T. vesicularis (Gervais 1844) [=Stygnus vesicularis] K03
    |    |--Innoxius Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
    |    |    `--*I. magnus (Caporiacco 1951) [=Stenostygnus magnus] K03
    |    |--Minax Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
    |    |    `--*M. tetraspinosus Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
    |    |--Yapacana Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
    |    |    `--*Y. tibialis Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
    |    |--Stenostygnellus Roewer 1913 K03 [incl. Bunistygnellus Roewer 1917 K03, Bunistygnus KA-Z11]
    |    |    |--*S. flavolimbatus Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
    |    |    `--S. macrochelis (Roewer 1917) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |    |--Stygnidius Simon 1879 V-M04 [incl. Heterostygnus Roewer 1913 K03]
    |    |    |--*S. inflatus (Guérin-Méneville 1843) (see below for synonymy) K03
    |    |    |--S. guerinii Sørensen 1932 V-M04
    |    |    `--S. yekwana Villarreal-M 2004 V-M04
    |    `--Eutimesius Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
    |         |--*E. simoni Roewer 1913 [incl. *Xanthostygnus fractus Mello-Leitão 1949, E. miles Sørensen 1932] K03
    |         |--E. albicinctus (Roewer 1915) [=*Hoplostygnus albicinctus, Holostygnus albienetus (l. c.)] K03
    |         |--E. ephippiatus (Roewer 1915) [=*Dichobunistygnus ephippiatus] K03
    |         `--E. ornatus (Roewer 1943) [=Bunistygnellus ornatus] K03
    `--Stygninae [Ideostygninae, Phareinae] K09
         |  i. s.: Protimesius K03
         |         Stenostygnoides Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
         |           `--*S. cosmetitarsus Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) K03
         |         Ortonia Wood 1869 K03
         |           `--*O. ferox Wood 1869 (n. d.) [=Phareus ferox] K03
         |         Actinostygnoides Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03
         |           `--*A. carus Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03
         |         Iguarassua Roewer 1943 K03
         |           `--*I. schubarti Roewer 1943 K03
         |         Kaapora Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
         |           `--*K. minutissimus (Roewer 1943) [=Nanophareus minutissimus] K03
         |         Niceforoiellus Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
         |           `--*N. assimilis Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
         |         Paraphareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
         |           `--*P. tatei Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
         |         Planophareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
         |           `--*P. pallidus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
         |         Verrucastygnus Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
         |           `--*V. caliginosus (Pinto-da-Rocha 1990) [=Stenostygnoides caliginosus] K03
         |         Metaphareus Roewer 1912 K03
         |           |--*M. albimanus Roewer 1912 [=M. albimanum] K03
         |           `--M. punctatus Roewer 1913 K03
         |         Auranus Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
         |           |--*A. parvus Mello-Leitão 1941 K03
         |           `--A. hoeferscovitorum Pinto-da-Rocha 1997 K03
         |--Ricstygnus Kury 2009 K09
         |    `--*R. quineti Kury 2009 K09
         |--Pickeliana Mello-Leitão 1932 K09, K03 [=Picheliana (l. c.) K03]
         |    |--*P. pickeli Mello-Leitão 1932 [=Protimesius pickeli] K03
         |    `--P. capito (Soares & Soares 1974) [=Protimesius capito] K03
         |--+--Stygnus K09
         |  `--Sickesia Soares 1979 K09
         |       |--*S. helmuti Soares 1979 K03
         |       `--S. usta (Mello-Leitão 1941) [=Diplostygnus ustus] K03
         `--+--Phareus Simon 1879 K09 (see below for synonymy)
            |    |--*P. raptator (Gervais 1844) (see below for synonymy) K03
            |    `--P. antrophilus Villarreal Manzanilla & Rodríguez 2006 VMR06
            `--Stenophareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 VMDR07
                 |--*S. roraimus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03
                 |--S. aonda Villarreal Manzanilla, DoNascimiento & Rodríguez 2007 VMDR07
                 `--S. guerreroi Villarreal Manzanilla, DoNascimiento & Rodríguez 2007 VMDR07

Eutimesius Roewer 1913 [incl. Dichobunistygnus Roewer 1915, Hoplostygnus Roewer 1915, Xanthostygnus Mello-Leitão 1949, Zmotus Simon in Sørensen 1932 (n. n.)] K03

Phareus Simon 1879 K09 [incl. Allophareus Roewer 1963 K03, Colomphareus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943 K03, Liophareus Mello-Leitão 1940 K03]

*Phareus raptator (Gervais 1844) [=Goniosoma raptator; incl. *Liophareus mamillatus Mello-Leitão 1940, *Allophareus robustus Roewer 1963, *Colomphareus rugosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943] K03

*Stenostygnellus flavolimbatus Roewer 1913 [incl. Bunistygnellus beebei Goodnight & Goodnight 1949, S. praetiosus Caporiacco 1951] K03

Stenostygnellus macrochelis (Roewer 1917) [=*Bunistygnellus macrochelis; incl. Stygnoplus marginalis Sørensen 1932] K03

Stenostygnoides Roewer 1913 [incl. Stenopharellus Roewer 1947, Stenophareus Roewer 1943 non Goodnight & Goodnight 1943] K03

*Stenostygnoides cosmetitarsus Roewer 1913 [incl. *Stenophareus gracilis Roewer 1943, *Stenopharellus gracilis, Stenostygnoides gracilis] K03

*Stygnidius inflatus (Guérin-Méneville 1843) [=Stygnus inflatus, Stignidius inflatus, Stygnoplus inflatus; incl. *Heterostygnus minutus Roewer 1913] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[K09] Kury, A. B. 2009. A new genus of Stygninae from a relictual rainforest in Ceará, northeastern Brazil (Opiliones, Laniatores, Stygnidae). Zootaxa 2057: 63–68.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[V-M04] Villarreal-M, O. 2004. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Stygnidius (Opiliones, Stygnidae) del Cerro Marahuaca, en al Amazonas venezolano. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 9: 15–18.

[VMDR07] Villarreal Manzanilla, O., C. DoNascimiento & C. J. Rodríguez. 2007. Two new species of the enigmatic genus Stenophareus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnidae) from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield. Zootaxa 1471: 43–51.

[V-MR06] Villarreal-Manzanilla, O., & C. Rodríguez. 2006. Nuevos registros del género Phareus Simon, 1879 en Colombia, con la descripción de una nueva especie (Opiliones, Stygnidae). Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 38: 103–105.

Cranaus

Dorsal view and pedipalp of Cranaus bilunatus, from Roewer (1923).


Belongs within: Cranaidae.

Cranaus is a genus of harvestmen found in northern South America.

Characters (from Soares & Soares 1948): Eye mound with two spines. Areas I and III with two tubercles or spines, III and IV unarmed. Free tergites with two tubercles or spines. Anal operculum unarmed. Femur of palp without internal apical spine. Tarsi I with five or six segments, the others with more than six.

<==Cranaus Simon 1879 [incl. Procranaus Roewer 1917] K03
    |--*C. praedo (Wood 1869) [=Gonyleptes praedo, Goniosoma praedo] K03
    |--C. albipustulatus Roewer 1943 K03
    |--C. bilunatus Roewer 1913 [incl. C. similis Roewer 1925] K03
    |--C. chlorogaster (Gervais 1844) [=Goniosoma chlorogaster] K03
    |--C. cinnamomeus (Gervais 1844) [=Goniosoma cinnamomeus] K03
    |--C. filipes (Roewer 1917) [=*Procranaus filipes] K03
    |--C. flaviaculeatus (Caporiacco 1951) [=Rhopalocranaus flaviaculeatus] K03
    |--C. hickmanni (Caporiacco 1951) [=Rhopalocranaus hickmanni] K03
    |--C. injucundus (Wood 1869) [=Gonyleptes injucundus, Goniosoma injucundum] K03
    `--C. spinipalpus (Wood 1869) [=Gonyleptes spinipalpus, C. spinipalpis (l. c.), Goniosoma spinipalpus] K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

Soares, B. A. M., & H. E. M. Soares. 1948. Monografia dos gêneros de opiliões neotrópicos. Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 5 (9): 553–636.