Hedwigiales

Hedwigia ciliata, copyright Michael Becker.


Belongs within: Bryidae.

The Hedwigiales are a group of acrocarpous mosses with procumbent stems that lack a peristome on the capsule.

<==Hedwigiales SK02
    |--Rhacocarpus Lindb. 1863 [Rhacocarpaceae] SK02
    |    |--R. purpurascens (Brid.) Paris 1900 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--R. rehmannianus (Müll.Hal.) Wijk & Margad. 1960 SK02
    |         |--R. r. var. rehmannianus SK02
    |         `--R. r. var. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Frahm 1996 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--Hedwigiaceae SK02
         |--Hedwigidium Bruch & Schimp. 1846 SK02
         |    `--H. integrifolium (Palisot de Beauvois) Dixon 1939 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
         `--Hedwigia Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
              `--H. ciliata (Hedw.) Palisot de Beauvois 1805 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                   |--H. c. var. ciliata D24
                   |--H. c. var. leucophaea D24
                   `--H. c. var. striata D24

Nomina nuda: Hedwigidium campbellii Müll.Hal. ex Weymouth 1894 [=Braunia campbellii Müll.Hal. ex Fleischer 1920] SK02
             Hedwigidium weymouthii Fleischer 1920 [=Braunia weymouthii Müll.Hal. ex Fleischer 1920] SK02
             Rhacocarpus patagonicus Dusén 1903 D03

Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) Palisot de Beauvois 1805 [=Anictangium ciliatum, Schistidium ciliatum; incl. Hedwigia albicans (nom. illeg.), H. juratzkae, Pilotrichum microcyatheum, Cryphaea microcyathea, Hedwigia microcyathea, H. novae-valesiae (nom. inv.), H. occidentalis (nom. inv.), Anictangium planifolium, H. albicans var. viridis (comb. inv.)] SK02

Hedwigidium integrifolium
(Palisot de Beauvois) Dixon 1939 SK02 [=Hedwigia integrifolia SK02; incl. Schistidium drummondii SK02, Hedwigia imberbis var. drummondii SK02, Hedwigidium drummondii SK02, Neckera drummondii SK02, N. emersa SK02, Harrisonia emersa (n. n.) SK02, Hedwigia emersa (n. n.) SK02, Hedwigidium emersum SK02, Gymnostomum imberbe D24, Hedwigia imberbis SK02, Hedwigidium imberbe SK02, Schistidium australe (nom. inv.) SK02]

Rhacocarpus purpurascens (Brid.) Paris 1900 [incl. Braunia humboldtii, Harrisonia humboldtii, Hedwigia humboldtii, Rhacocarpus humboldtii; incl. Harrisonia australis, R. australis] SK02

Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Frahm 1996 [=Harrisonia webbiana, R. webbianus (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Bryum section Eu-Bryum

Bryum caespiticium, from the Ohio Moss and Lichen Association.


Belongs within: Bryaceae.

The section Eu-Bryum of the genus Bryum includes often tall mosses with rather long, narrow leaves (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Innovations usually not julaceous, cells wider, more or less hexagonal-rhomboid. Inner peristome perfect. Outer teeth pale yellow above, at base thickened, deeper in colour, orange. Spores small.

<==Bryum sect. Eu-Bryum D24
    |--*B. argenteum Hedw. 1801 SK02, D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--B. a. var. argenteum D24
    |    `--B. a. var. majus [incl. B. perpusillum] D24
    |--B. affine [=Webera affinis] D24
    |    |--B. a. var. affine D24
    |    `--B. a. var. cirratum D24
    |--B. alpinum Huds. ex Withering 1801 D24, SK02
    |    |--B. a. var. alpinum D24
    |    |--B. a. var. distantifolium D24
    |    |--B. a. var. meridionale D24
    |    `--B. a. var. viride D24
    |--B. atropurpureum [incl. B. barnesii] D24
    |    |--B. a. var. atropurpureum D24
    |    `--B. a. var. gracilentum [incl. B. elegantulum] D24
    |--B. caespiticium Hedw. 1801 D24, SK02 [=B. cespiticium (l. c.) SK02]
    |    |--B. c. var. caespiticium [incl. B. laxirete (preoc.)] SK02
    |    |--B. c. var. badium D24
    |    |--B. c. var. crinitum Wilson 1859 SK02
    |    `--B. c. var. imbricatum [incl. B. caespiticium var. kunzei] D24
    |--B. dixoni Card. ex Nicholson 1901 D24
    |--B. donianum D24
    |--B. elegans FHH01 [=B. capillare var. elegans D24; incl. B. barbatum D24, B. leptaleum D24, B. stirtoni D24]
    |--B. erythrocarpum [incl. B. sanguineum] D24
    |--B. gemmiparum D24
    |--B. intermedium (Brid.) Bland. 1809 D24, SK02
    |--B. mildeanum D24
    |--B. muehlenbeckii Bruch & Schimp. 1846 D24, SK02 [incl. B. cheelii SK02]
    |--B. murale D24
    |--B. neodamense D24
    |--B. pallescens D24
    |--B. provinciale D24
    |--B. pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) Gaertn. 1802 D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--B. p. var. pseudotriquetrum D24
    |    `--B. p. var. compactum non B. pendulum var. compactum D24
    |--B. rubens Mitt. 1856 D24, SK02
    |--B. rufifolium Dixon 1924 [=B. rubicundum Stirton non C.M. 1859] D24
    `--B. sauteri Bruch & Schimp. 1846 D24, SK02

*Bryum argenteum Hedw. 1801 SK02, D24, SK02 [incl. B. amblyolepis SK02, B. amblophyllum (nom. inv.) SK02, B. austroargenteum (n. n.) SK02, B. hampeanum (n. n.) SK02, B. leucophyllum Dozy & Molk. 1844 SK02, B. argenteum var. niveum Wilson 1859 SK02, B. parasemum D24]

Bryum pseudotriquetrum
(Hedw.) Gaertn. 1802 D24, SK02 [incl. B. austroaffine SK02, B. pseudotriquetrum var. bimum SK02, B. intortulum D24, B. rubiginosum SK02, B. subventricosum SK02, B. tasmanicum SK02, B. ventricosum (nom. illeg.) SK02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Webera subgenus Eu-Webera

Webera proligera, photographed by Hermann Schachner.


Belongs within: Bryaceae.

The subgenus Eu-Webera of the genus Webera includes species with relatively wide leaves and capsules compared to other members of the genus (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Leaves wider, without a distinct border, not dimorphous, the comal less suddenly elongated, the areolation usually wider. Capsule wider, with a shorter neck; basal membrane of inner peristome usually higher, cilia present, often perfect, not appendiculate; processes usually with a more or less gaping slit along their median line.

<==Webera subg. Eu-Webera D24
    |--W. annotina [=Mnium annotinum, Pohlia annotina] D24
    |    |--W. a. var. annotina D24
    |    |--W. a. var. bulbifera [incl. W. annotina var. tenuifolia] D24
    |    `--W. a. var. erecta [=Trentepohlia erecta] D24
    |--W. carnea [=Bryum carneum, Pohlia carnea] D24
    |--W. commutata [=Pohlia commutata] D24
    |    |--W. c. var. commutata D24
    |    `--W. c. var. catenulata [=Bryum catenulatum] D24
    |--W. cucullata [=Bryum cucullatum, Pohlia cucullata] D24
    |--W. gracilis [=Bryum gracile, Pohlia gracilis] D24
    |--W. ludwigii [=Bryum ludwigii, Pohlia ludwigii] D24
    |    |--W. l. var. ludwigii D24
    |    `--W. l. var. latifolia D24
    `--W. proligera [=Pohlia proligera; incl. W. annotina var. angustifolia] D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

Philonotis subgenus Eu-Philonotis

Philonotis calcarea, copyright Michael Becker.


Belongs within: Bartramiaceae.

The subgenus Eu-Philonotis of the genus Philonotis mostly includes robust and erect mosses (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Usually robust and erect; stems usually straight and regularly branched. Dioicous. Male flower discoid, terminal.

<==Philonotis Brid. 1827 subg. Eu-Philonotis
    |--P. caespitosa D24
    |    |--P. c. var. caespitosa D24
    |    `--P. c. var. adpressa D24
    |--P. calcarea D24
    |--P. capillaris [=P. fontana var. capillaris; incl. P. arnellii, P. ryani Philibert 1894] D24
    |--P. fontana [=Mnium fontanum; incl. P. fontana var. pumila] D24
    |    |--P. f. var. fontana D24
    |    |--P. f. var. adpressa non P. caespitosa var. adpressa [incl. P. heterophylla] D24
    |    |--P. f. var. ampliretis Dixon 1902 [incl. P. laxa] D24
    |    |--P. f. var. falcata D24
    |    `--P. f. var. tomentella [incl. P. fontana var. compacta] D24
    |--P. marchica D24
    |--P. mollis (Dozy & Molk.) Mitt. 1859 SK02 [=P. calcarea var. mollis D24]
    `--P. seriata D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Bryum section Leucodontium

Bryum pallens, from here.


Belongs within: Bryaceae.

The section Leucodontium of the genus Bryum includes mosses found in watery situations, characterised by entirely pale outer peristome teeth (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Innovations not julaceous; cells wider, more or less hexagonal-rhomboid. Leaves rather wide, obtuse or shortly pointed only, relatively flaccid, cells relatively wide. Capsules pale. Inner peristome usually perfect, appendiculate cilia mostly well-developed, as long as processes, with distinct transverse appendages; basal membrane not adherent to outer peristome. Outer teeth pale yellow throughout length, hardly thickened at base. Spores usually small.

<==Bryum sect. Leucodontium D24
    |--B. cyclophyllum [=Mnium cyclophyllum] D24
    |--B. duvalii D24
    |--B. fallax D24
    |--B. pallens Swartz 1801 D24, SK02 [incl. B. origanum D24]
    |    |--B. p. var. pallens D24
    |    |--B. p. var. euryphyllum Jones 1917 D24
    |    `--B. p. var. speciosum [incl. B. rubricosum] D24
    `--B. turbinatum [=Mnium turbinatum] D24
         |--B. t. var. turbinatum D24
         `--B. t. var. latifolium [=B. schleicheri var. latifolium, Mnium latifolium] D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Grimmia

Grimmia pulvinata, copyright Michael Becker.


Belongs within: Grimmiales.

Grimmia is a genus of mostly short-stemmed mosses found growing in close cushions or tufts on rocks (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Mostly short-stemmed, growing in close cushions or tufts on rocks; stems dichotomous. Leaves crowded, more or less lanceolate, usually hyaline-pointed, margin frequently thickened, almost always entire; areolation short and often opaque above. Seta arcuate or straight. Calyptra smooth; capsule oval. Peristome teeth 16, cleft at apex or entire, lanceolate.

<==Grimmia Hedw. 1801 SK02
    |--G. subg. Eu-Grimmia D24
    |    |--G. alpestris D24 [incl. G. doniana var. sudetica D24, SK02, G. ungeri D24]
    |    |--G. arenaria [incl. G. curvula] D24
    |    |--G. atrata D24
    |    |--G. calyptrata D24
    |    |--G. commutata D24
    |    |--G. decipiens [=Trichostomum decipiens; incl. G. schultzii, G. subaquila] D24
    |    |--G. donniana Smith 1804 D24, SK02
    |    |--G. elatior D24
    |    |--G. elongata D24
    |    |--G. funalis (Schwägr.) Bruch & Schimp. 1845 D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--G. hartmani D24
    |    |--G. homodictyon Dixon 1901 D24
    |    |--G. inaequalis D24, SK02 [incl. G. incrassicapsulis SK02]
    |    |--G. incurva [incl. G. contorta] D24
    |    |--G. montana D24
    |    |--G. muehlenbeckii D24
    |    |--G. orbicularis Bruch 1844 D24, SK02 [incl. G. campbelliae Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02]
    |    |--G. ovalis (Hedw.) Lindb. 1871 D24, SK02
    |    |--G. ovata [incl. G. hemipolia] D24
    |    |    |--G. o. var. ovata D24
    |    |    `--G. o. var. cylindrica D24
    |    |--G. patens [=Bryum patens, Rhacomitrium patens] D24
    |    |--G. pennsylvanica D24
    |    |--G. pulvinata (Hedw.) Smith 1807 D24, SK02
    |    |    |--G. p. var. pulvinata SK02
    |    |    `--G. p. var. africana (Hedw.) Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--G. retracta Stirton 1886 (see below for synonymy) D24
    |    |--G. robusta [=G. decipiens var. robusta] D24
    |    |--G. stirtoni D24
    |    |--G. subsquarrosa D24
    |    |    |--G. s. var. subsquarrosa D24
    |    |    `--G. s. var. edinensis D24
    |    |--G. subsulcata D24
    |    |--G. torquata D24
    |    |--G. trichophylla D24 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--G. unicolor D24
    `--G. subg. Gasterogrimmia D24
         |--G. anodon Bruch & Schimp. 1845 D24, SK02
         `--G. crinita D24

Grimmia incertae sedis:
  G. amblyophylla D03
  G. argentea M49
  G. asperitricha M49
  G. australis (Dixon & Sainsbury) Muñoz & Ochyra 1999 SK02
  G. austrofunalis Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02
  G. austro-leucophaea D03
  G. cyathocarpa (Hampe) Mitt. 1882 [=Guembelia cyathocarpa] SK02
  G. depressa D03
    |--G. d. var. depressa D03
    `--G. d. var. terrestris D03
  G. fallax Dusén 1903 D03
  G. humilis D03
  G. laevigata (Brid.) Brid. 1826 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  G. longirostris Hooker 1818 SK02
  G. macroperichaetialis Greven 1998 SK02
  G. macropulvinata Dusén 1903 D03
  G. paramattensis Müll.Hal. 1898 (n. d.) SK02
  G. redunca N02
  G. reflexidens Müll.Hal. 1849 SK02
  G. subcallosa Müll.Hal. 1898 (n. d.) SK02
  G. tortuosa D03

Nomina nuda: Grimmia arachnoidea Dusén 1903 D03
             Grimmia australasica Mitt. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Grimmia austroapocarpa Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Grimmia encalyptoides Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Grimmia flexiseta Dusén 1903 D03
             Grimmia histrioipila Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02
             Grimmia pachyphylla Müller in Dusén 1903 [=Andreaea pachyphylla Dusén 1903] D03
             Grimmia pycnophylla Dusén 1903 D03
             Grimmia scabridorsum Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 SK02

Grimmia funalis (Schwägr.) Bruch & Schimp. 1845 D24, SK02 [=Trichostomum funale D24, Eugrimmia funalis (nom. inv.) SK02; incl. Grimmia horni D24]

Grimmia laevigata (Brid.) Brid. 1826 [incl. G. campestris, G. leiocarpa, G. leucophaea, G. leucophaea var. subrotunda] SK02

Grimmia pulvinata var. africana (Hedw.) Hooker & Wilson 1854 SK02 [incl. Gr. trichophylla var. australis (nom. inv.) non Gr. australis (Dixon & Sainsbury) Muñoz & Ochyra 1999 SK02, Gr. pulvinata var. basaltica M49, SK02, Gr. callosa SK02, Gr. cygnicolla SK02, Dryptodon obtusus D24, Gr. pulvinata var. obtusa (nom. illeg.) SK02, Guembelia obtusata SK02, Gr. obtusata (Müll.Hal. & Hampe) Jaeger 1874 SK02, Gr. pygmaea Müll.Hal. 1849 SK02, Gr. tasmanica Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02, Gr. woollsiana Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02]

Grimmia retracta Stirton 1886 [incl. G. retracta var. submutica non Grimmia apocarpa f. submutica Watts & Whitel. 1902] D24

Grimmia trichophylla D24 [incl. G. crispatula SK02, G. fuliginea D24, G. polita D24, G. stenophylla Müll.Hal. 1898 SK02, G. undulata D24]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supplement no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355–360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Cynodontium

Cynodontium polycarpum, photographed by Hermann Schachner.


Belongs within: Dicranaceae.

Cynodontium is a genus of relatively tall mosses with recurved margins on the leaves (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Leaves with recurved margins, long, wider at base, gradually and longly acuminated in the upper part; cells often papillose. Fruit larger, smooth or striate, symmetrical or more frequently inclined and unequal, often strumose, on longer seta. Peristome variable. Lid longly subulate.

<==Cynodontium
    |--C. bruntoni [=Dicranum bruntoni, Dicranoweisia bruntoni, Oncophorus bruntoni] D24
    |--C. gracilescens [=Dicranum gracilescens, Oncophorus gracilescens] D24
    |    |--C. g. var. gracilescens D24
    |    `--C. g. var. alpestre [incl. C. subalpestre] D24
    |--C. jenneri (see below for synonymy) D24
    |--C. polycarpum [=Dicranum polycarpum, Oncophorus polycarpus] D24
    |--C. strumiferum [=Dicranum strumiferum, C. polycarpum var. strumiferum, Oncophorus strumifer] D24
    |--C. virens [=Bryum virens, Oncophorus virens] D24
    |    |--C. v. var. virens D24
    |    `--C. v. var. serratum D24
    `--C. wahlenbergii [=C. virens var. wahlenbergii, Onchophorus wahlenbergii] D24
         |--C. w. var. wahlenbergii D24
         `--C. w. var. compactum D24

Cynodontium jenneri [=Didymodon jenneri Schimp. 1868; incl. C. polycarpum var. laevifolia, C. polycarpum var. laxirete, C. laxirete Grebe 1901] D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

Dicranoweisia

Dicranoweisia crispula, photographed by Hermann Schachner.


Belongs within: Dicranaceae.

Dicranoweisia is a genus of mosses growing in dense cushions, with leaves crisped when dry and smooth, erect capsules (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Plants in dense cushions; leaves crisped when dry, entire, with angular cells more or less distinct. Capsule erect, smooth; peristome teeth cleft at apex or undivided, articulated and internally barred.

<==Dicranoweisia Lindb. ex Mild. 1869 SK02
    |--D. antarctica (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 SK02
    |--D. austro-crispula D03
    |--D. brevipes (Müll.Hal.) Cardot 1885 SK02
    |--D. cirrata SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--D. compacta D24
    |--D. crispula [=Weisia crispula; incl. Dicranum leiophyllum] D24
    |    |--D. c. var. crispula D24
    |    `--D. c. var. atrata D24
    |--D. microcarpa (Hooker & Wilson) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--D. perpulvinata Dusén 1903 D03

Nomen nudum: Dicranoweisia tenella Dusén 1903 D03

Dicranoweisia cirrata SK02 [=Mnium cirrhatum D24, Holomitrium cirratum SK02, Weisia cirrhata D24; incl. Dicranoweisia sutherlandii D24]

Dicranoweisia microcarpa (Hooker & Wilson) Paris 1896 [=Weissia microcarpa, Brachydontium microcarpum, Dicranum microcarpum; incl. Weissia bicolor Hampe 1880] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Trichostomum

Trichostomum crispulum, photographed by Hermann Schachner.


Belongs within: Pottiaceae.

Trichostomum is a genus of mostly tall, relatively robust mosses (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Dixon 1924): Plants for the most part tall, rather robust; leaves usually narrow, elongate, with lax, pellucid, or hyaline basal cells, and minute, obscure, papillose upper areolation, curled and often strongly cirrate-incurved when dry. Capsule oblong or cylindrical, peristomate, teeth slender, divided to or nearly to base into two filiform division, more or less imperfect, or long, erect, oblique or contorted. Dioicous.

<==Trichostomum Bruch 1829 SK02
    |--T. austrocrispum (Beckett) Zander 1993 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--T. bombayense N02
    |--T. brachydontium Bruch 1829 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--T. crispulum Bruch 1829 SK02 [=Mollia crispula D24; incl. M. scaphoidea D24]
    |    |--T. c. var. crispulum D24
    |    |--T. c. var. brevifolium D24
    |    |--T. c. var. elatum D24
    |    |--T. c. var. nigro-viride D24
    |    `--T. c. var. viridulum [incl. T. crispulum var. angustifolium, T. crispulum var. longifolium] D24
    |--T. diminutum [=Timmiella diminuta] SK02
    |--T. eckelianum Zander 1993 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--T. flavovirens [=Mollia flavovirens; incl. Barbula limosa, M. subbifaria] D24
    |--T. fragile [=Barbula fragilis, Didymodon fragilis, Mollia fragilis; incl. Barbula aggregata, Mollia thrausta] D24
    |--T. hibernicum [=Mollia hibernica, Tortula hibernica; incl. Barbula cirrifolia] D24
    |--T. leptotheca Müll.Hal. 1868 (n. d.) SK02
    |--T. limosellum (Stirt.) Dixon 1924 [=Barbula limosella] D24
    |--T. mutabile [incl. Mollia brachydontia, M. compressa, M. intumescens, M. lutescens] D24
    |    |--T. m. var. mutabile D24
    |    |--T. m. var. cophocarpum D24
    |    `--T. m. var. littorale [=Mollia littoralis; incl. T. episemum] D24
    |--T. nitidum [=Mollia nitida, Tortula nitida] D24
    |--T. pallidum [=Ditrichum pallidum] SK02
    |--T. polyphyllum SK02 [=Bryum polyphyllum D24, Glyphomitrium polyphyllum D24, Ptychomitrium polyphyllum SK02]
    |--T. sublamprothecium J87
    |--T. tenuirostre [=Weisia tenuirostris, Mollia tenuirostris; incl. Didymodon cylindricus] D24
    |    |--T. t. var. tenuirostre D24
    |    |--T. t. var. daldinianum D24
    |    `--T. t. var. holtii [incl. Mollia terrena] D24
    `--T. tortuosum [=Barbula tortuosa, Bryum tortuosum, Mollia tortuosa] D24
         |--T. t. var. tortuosum D24
         |--T. t. var. dicranoideum [=Mollia tortuosa var. dicranoidea] D24
         `--T. t. var. fragilifolium [=Barbula tortuosa var. fragilifolia] D24

Nomina nuda: Trichostomum albovaginatum Hampe ex Müll.Hal. 1901 SK02
             Trichostomum weymouthii Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Desmatodon weymouthii Watts & Whitel. 1902] SK02

Trichostomum austrocrispum (Beckett) Zander 1993 [=Weissia austrocrispa (Beckett) Stone 1980; incl. Pleuridium lanceolatum (R.Br.bis) Paris 1898] SK02

Trichostomum brachydontium Bruch 1829 [incl. Tortella aristatula Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 (n. n.), Tr. aristatulum Broth. 1916] SK02

Trichostomum eckelianum Zander 1993 [incl. Tortella cirrhata Broth. 1902, Tr. cirrhatum (preoc.), To. subflavovirens Broth. & Watts 1915] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Tilioideae

Small-leaved limes Tilia cordata, copyright Waugsberg.


Belongs within: Malvaceae.

The Tiliaceae or Tilioideae has been used by past authors in a broader sense than its current circumscription, but most recent authors would restrict this name to a group of trees and shrubs from northern temperate regions and Central America. Species of the genus Tilia, the limes or linden trees, are large, deciduous trees with heart-shaped leaves. Entelea arborescens, whau, is a small tree with dry, spinose fruit capsules endemic to New Zealand.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Stachyose, raffinose present; some species with siliceous leaves; petiole bundle annular, with medullary phloem strands and inverted bundles; leaves distichous, horizontally conduplicate; calyx free; androecium free, staminodia and stamens antepetalous, antesepalous sector empty; gynoecium opposite sepals; outer integument 3-4 cells across, inner integument 4-5 cells across, postament present; cotyledons folded; n = 41.

Tilioideae [Tiliaceae, Tiliales] BAN98
    |--Althoffia YY22
    |--Asterophorum YY22
    |--Carpodiptera YY22
    |--Vasivaea YY22
    |--Clappertonia ficifolia [=Honckenya ficifolia] P88
    |--Craigia yunnanensis BAN98
    |--Mollia Martius 1824 D24
    |--Trichospermum pleiostigma B00
    |--Entelea Br. 1814 A61
    |    `--E. arborescens Br. 1824 [incl. Apeiba australis Rich. 1832] A61
    `--Tilia H03
         |--T. americana H03
         |--T. cordata RB05
         |--T. europaea BAN98
         |--T. glabra Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. grandifolia C55
         |--T. heterophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. miqueliana LO98
         |--T. mycrophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         |--T. platyphyllos Ventenat 1800 V00
         |    |--T. p. var. platyphyllos V00
         |    `--T. p. var. corralina V00
         |--T. pubescens [incl. T. caroliniana] V00
         |    |--T. p. var. pubescens V00
         |    `--T. p. var. leptophylla Ventenat 1800 V00
         `--T. rotundifolia Ventenat 1800 [incl. T. alba, T. argentea] V00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses, 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[H03] Healy, R. A. 2003. Mattirolomyces tiffanyae, a new truffle from Iowa, with ultrastructural evidence for its classification in the Pezizaceae. Mycologia 95 (4): 765–772.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RB05] Ruczyński, I., & W. Bogdanowicz. 2005. Roost cavity selection by Nyctalus noctula and N. leisleri (Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera) in Białowieża Primeval Forest, eastern Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 921–930.

[V00] Ventenat, C. 1800. Extrait d'une monographie du genre tilleul. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (35): 83–84.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Poales

Lesser bulrush Typha angustifolia, copyright Le Loup Gris.


Belongs within: Commelinidae.
Contains: Bromeliaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Restionaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae.

The Poales are a clade of monocotyledonous flowering plants united by molecular analyses, as well as by the presence of epidermal silica bodies (phytoliths).

Characters (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Web): Mycorrhizae absent; vessel elements in roots often with simple perforation plates, vessels also in stem and leaf, also with simple perforation plates; SiO2 epidermal; raphides absent; inflorescence indeterminate; style well developed, stigmas small, dry; micropyle bistomal, both integuments ca. 2 cells across; cotyledon hyperphyllar, haustorial; whole nuclear genome duplication [σ/sigma event]; mitochondrial sdh3 [succinate dehydrogenase 3] gene lost.

<==Poales [Glumiflorae, Juncales, Xyridaceae, Xyridales, Xyridineae]
    |  i. s.: Lyginia OS04 [Lyginiaceae DS04]
    |           |--L. barbata RL05
    |           `--L. imberbis OS04
    |         Hopkinsiaceae DS04
    |--Rapateaceae [Rapateoideae] DS04
    |    |--Rapatea xiphoides DS04
    |    `--+--+--Cephalostemon flavus DS04
    |       |  `--Spathanthus bicolor DS04
    |       `--+--Stegolepis DS04
    |          |    |--S. ligulata BS05
    |          |    `--S. parvipetala DS04
    |          `--Saxofridericioideae DS04
    |               |--Kunhardtia radiata DS04
    |               `--+--Epidryos allenii DS04
    |                  `--Schoenocephalium cucullatum DS04
    `--+--Typhaceae [Typhales] DS04
       |    |--Sparganium Linnaeus 1753 DS04, ME70 [Sparganiaceae]
       |    |    |--S. americanum DS04
       |    |    |--S. emersum L06
       |    |    |--S. erectum L06
       |    |    |--S. eurycarpum DS04
       |    |    |--S. pusilloides JD05
       |    |    |--S. simplex CS77
       |    |    `--S. subglobosum Morong 1888 [incl. S. antipodum Graebner 1900] ME70
       |    `--Typha Linnaeus 1753 SR07, ME70
       |         |--T. angustata PP07
       |         |--T. angustifolia Linnaeus 1753 BF89
       |         |    |--T. a. var. angustifolia C06
       |         |    `--T. a. var. brownii C06
       |         |--T. domingensis VB02
       |         |--T. elephantiana VB02
       |         |--T. latifolia Linnaeus 1753 CD07
       |         |    |--T. l. ssp. latifolia G01
       |         |    `--T. l. ssp. capensis G01
       |         |--T. minima GR98
       |         `--T. orientalis Presl 1852 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--Bromeliaceae SR07
          `--+--+--Eriocaulaceae DS04
             |  `--+--Abolboda [Abolbodoideae] DS04
             |     |    `--A. macrostachya DS04
             |     `--+--Aratitiyopea lopezii DS04
             |        `--Orectanthe sceptrum DS04
             `--+--+--Flagellariaceae DS04
                |  |    |--Flagellaria indica GPWG01
                |  |    `--Susum YY22
                |  `--+--Restionaceae SR07
                |     `--+--Joinvillea [Joinvilleaceae] DS04
                |        |    |--J. ascendens GPWG01
                |        |    `--J. plicata GPWG01
                |        `--+--Poaceae SR07
                |           `--Ecdeiocolea [Ecdeiocoleaceae] SR07
                |                `--E. monostachya DS04
                `--+--Mayaca [Mayacaceae] SR07
                   |    `--M. sellowiana DS04
                   `--+--+--+--Cyperaceae SR07
                      |  |  `--Juncaceae DS04
                      |  `--+--Prionium [Prioniaceae] DS04
                      |     |    `--P. serratum DS04
                      |     `--Thurnia [Thurniaceae] DS04
                      |          |--T. jenmani DS04
                      |          `--T. polycephala DS04
                      `--Xyridoideae DS04
                           |--Achlyphila DS04
                           `--Xyris SR07
                                |--X. bicephala DS04
                                |--X. cheumatophila LK14
                                |--X. complanata LK14
                                |--X. indica LK14
                                |--X. jupicai DS04
                                |--X. laxifolia C55
                                |--X. oligantha LK14
                                |--X. pauciflora LK14
                                `--X. pusilla LK14

Typha orientalis Presl 1852 ME70 [incl. T. muelleri Rohrb. 1869 ME70, T. angustifolia var. muelleri C06]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS05] Barfuss, M. H. J., R. Samuel, W. Till & T. F. Stuessy. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions. American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 337–351.

[BF89] Burnham, B. H., & P. E. Fell. 1989. Distribution of Melampus bidentatus (Say) and Succinea wilsoni (Lea) within a tidal marsh in eastern Connecticut. Nautilus 103 (3): 109–112.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[G01] Grout, T. G. 2001. Advances in understanding the ecology of Euseius (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) species on citrus in southern Africa. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 464–469. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[L06] Lewin, I. 2006. The gastropod communities in the lowland rivers of agricultural areas—their biodiversity and bioindicative value in the Ciechanowska Upland, central Poland. Malacologia 49 (1): 7–23.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

Restionaceae

Scale-rush Lepyrodia scariosa, copyright John Tann.


Belongs within: Poales.

The Restionaceae are a group of rush-like plants found in southern parts of the world, particularly Africa, Australasia and southeast Asia. Leaves are reduced to sheaths around the photosynthetic stems.

<==Restionaceae [Anarthriaceae, Centrolepidaceae, Farinosae, Restionineae] APG16
    |--Anarthria DS04
    |    |--A. gracilis GK00
    |    |--A. laevis GK00
    |    |--A. polyphylla DS04
    |    |--A. prolifera DS04
    |    `--A. scabra GK00
    `--+--Baloskion tetraphyllum DS04
       `--+--+--Thamnochortus cinereus DS04
          |  `--Elegia DS04
          |       |--E. capensis GPWG01
          |       |--E. fenestrata DS04
          |       `--E. stipularis GPWG01
          `--Lepyrodia DS04
               |--L. caudata D95
               |--L. drummondiana GK00
               |--L. glauca DS04
               |--L. gracilis D95
               |--L. interrupta D95
               |--L. macra GK00
               |--L. muirii GK00
               `--L. scariosa DS04

Restionaceae incertae sedis:
  Leptocarpus Br. 1810 (nom. cons.) ME70
    |--*L. aristatus ME70
    |--L. similis Edgar 1969 [incl. L. simplex var. fasciculatus Hooker 1853] ME70
    |--L. simplex [=Restio simplex] C06
    `--L. tenax GK00
  Phyllocomos YY22
  Askidiosperma YY22
  Cannomois YY22
  Chaetanthus YY22
  Dielsia YY22
  Dovea YY22
  Harperia lateriflora OS04
  Hypodiscus YY22
  Hypolaena OS04
    |--H. exsulca OS04
    `--H. lateriflora A27
  Lepidobolus preissianus OS04
  Onychos YY22
  Restio complanatus BR65
  Staberona YY22
  Willdenowia YY22
  Loxocarya RL05
  Empodisma gracillimum HE80, P05
  Alexgeorgia nitens RL05
  Desmocladus RL05
    |--D. asper OS04
    |--D. fasciculata RL05
    `--D. flexuosa RL05
  Chondropetalum GPWG01
  Apodasmia ceramophila GK00, GKL04
  Meeboldina denmarkica GK00
  Sporadanthus Muell. 1874 ME70
    `--*S. traversii (Muell.) Muell. ex Kirk 1878 [=Lepyrodia traversii Muell. 1873] ME70
  Calorophus Labill. 1806 ME70
    |--*C. elongata ME70
    `--C. minor Hook. f. 1853 ME70 (see below for synonymy)
  Brizula drummondii GK00
  Aphelia SR07
    |--A. brizula SR07
    `--A. cyperoides GK00
  Gaimardia Gaud. 1825 ME70
    |--*G. australis ME70
    `--G. setacea Hook. f. 1853 ME70
  Centrolepis Labill. 1804 [incl. Alepyrum Brown 1810, Pseudalepyrum Dandy 1932] ME70
    |--*C. fascicularis ME70
    |--C. alepyroides GK00
    |--C. aristata GK00
    |--C. banksii LK14
    |--C. cephaloformis G04
    |--C. ciliata (Hooker) Druce 1917 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. curta LK14
    |--C. drummondiana GK00
    |--C. exserta LK14
    |--C. glabra GK00
    |--C. humillima GK00
    |--C. minima Kirk 1891 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. monogyna SR07
    |--C. mutica GK00
    |--C. pallida (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. pilosa GK00
    |--C. polygyna GK00
    `--C. strigosa (Brown) Roemer & Schultes 1817 HE80 [=Desvauxia strigosa Brown 1810 ME70]

Nomina nuda: Chaetanthus aristatus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Chordifex laxus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Hypolaena humilis Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina cana Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina coangustata Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina kraussii Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina roycei Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina scariosa Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Meeboldina tephrina Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Sporadanthus strictus Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00 GK00

Calorophus minor Hook. f. 1853 ME70 [=C. elongatus var. minor Hook. f. 1858 ME70, Empodisma minor HE80, Hypolaena lateriflora var. minor (Hook. f.) Cheeseman 1906 ME70]

Centrolepis ciliata (Hooker) Druce 1917 HE80 [=Gaimardia ciliata Hooker 1844 ME70, Alepyrum ciliatum (Hooker) Hieron. 1888 ME70, Pseudalepyrum ciliatum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70; incl. Centrolepis viridis var. ligulata Kirk 1891 ME70, Gaimardia ciliata var. ligulata (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 ME70, Pseudalepyrum ciliatum var. ligulatum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70, Alepyrum viride Kirk 1882 (n. n.) ME70, Centrolepis viridis Kirk 1891 ME70]

Centrolepis minima Kirk 1891 HE80 [=Gaimardia minima (Kirk) Cheesem. 1925 non Col. 1890 ME70, Pseudalepyrum minimum (Kirk) Dandy 1932 ME70]

Centrolepis pallida (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 HE80 [=Gaimardia pallida Hooker 1844 ME70, Alepyrum pallidum (Hooker) Hooker 1853 ME70, Pseudalepyrum pallidum (Hooker) Dandy 1932 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BM65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[GKL04] Gibson, N., G. J. Keighery & J. A. K. Lane. 2004. Five years monitoring of the Lake Muir-Unicup wetland system, south-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 29–33.

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Bromelioideae

Horticultural variant of Amazonian zebra plant Aechmea chantinii, copyright BotBIn.


Belongs within: Bromeliaceae.

The Bromelioideae are a group of herbaceous, often epiphytic, plants that grow with leaves arranged in water-collecting rosettes.

<==Bromelioideae
    |--Greigia SHZ05
    |    |--G. mulfordii Smith 1949 SHZ05
    |    `--G. sphacelata (Ruiz & Pavon) Regel 1865 SHZ05
    `--+--Bromelia SHZ05
       |    |--B. ananas C55
       |    |--B. balansae OMM08
       |    |--B. keratas BS05
       |    |--B. pinguin B10
       |    |--B. plumieri (Morren) Smith 1967 SHZ05
       |    `--B. serra Grisebach 1879 SHZ05
       |--+--Deinacanthon urbanianum (Mez) Mez 1896 SHZ05
       |  `--Ochagavia SHZ05
       |       |  i. s.: O carnea SHZ05
       |       |--O. elegans Philippi 1856 SHZ05
       |       `--+--O. litoralis (Philippi) Zizka, Trumpler & Zoellner 2002 SHZ05
       |          `--Fascicularia bicolor (Ruiz & Pavon) Mez 1896 SHZ05
       |               |--F. b. ssp. bicolor SHZ05
       |               `--F. b. ssp. canaliculata SHZ05
       `--+--Fernseea itatiaiae (Wawra) Baker 1889 SHZ05
          `--+--Orthophytum supthutii Gross & Barthlott 1900 SHZ05
             |--Cryptanthus SHZ05
             |    |--C. glaziovii Mez 1891 SHZ05
             |    `--+--C. bahianus Smith 1943 SHZ05
             |       `--Acanthostachys strobilacea (Schultes) Klotzsch 1840 SHZ05
             |--+--Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda da Camara) Mez 1894 SHZ05
             |  `--Ananas SHZ05
             |       |--A. comosus (Linnaeus) Merrill 1917 SHZ05
             |       |--A. nanus (Smith) Smith 1962 SHZ05
             |       `--A. sativus FS-K03
             `--+--+--Ronnbergia petersii Smith 1973 SHZ05
                |  `--‘Aechmea’ subg. Pothuava SHZ05
                |       |--A. drakeana André 1888 SHZ05
                |       `--A. squarrosa L03
                `--+--+--‘Quesnelia’ lateralis Wawra 1880 SHZ05
                   |  `--+--Billbergia SHZ05
                   |     |    |--B. decora Poeppig & Endlicher 1838 SHZ05
                   |     |    `--B. nutans Wendland ex Regel 1869 SHZ05
                   |     `--+--Edmundoa lindenii (Regel) Leme 1997 SHZ05
                   |        |--‘Aechmea (subg. Platyaechmea)’ fasciata (Lindley) Baker 1879 SHZ05
                   |        |--+--‘Aechmea (subg. Pothuava)’ nudicaulis (Linnaeus) Grisebach 1864 SHZ05
                   |        |  `--‘Quesnelia’ liboniana (de Johnge) Mez 1922 SHZ05
                   |        |--+--‘Aechmea (subg. Platyaechmea)’ distichantha Lemaire 1853 SHZ05
                   |        |  `--‘Aechmea’ subg. Ortgiesia SHZ05
                   |        |       |--A. gracilis Lindman 1891 SHZ05
                   |        |       `--+--A. calyculata (Morren) Baker 1879 SHZ05
                   |        |          |--A. kertesziae Reitz 1952 SHZ05
                   |        |          `--‘A. (subg. Lamprococcus)’ racinae Smith 1941 SHZ05
                   |        `--+--Nidularium procerum Lindman 1891 SHZ05
                   |           |--Wittrockia superba Lindman 1891 SHZ05
                   |           `--Neoregelia SHZ05
                   |                |--N. binotii (Antoine) Smith 1936 SHZ05
                   |                `--+--N. laevis (Mez) Smith 1934 SHZ05
                   |                   `--‘Aechmea (subg. Ortgiesia)’ pimenti-velosoi Reitz 1952 SHZ05
                   `--+--Lymania alvimii (Smith & Read) Read 1984 SHZ05
                      |--Streptocalyx poeppigii Beer 1856 SHZ05
                      |--Hohenbergia stellata Schultes 1830 SHZ05
                      |--Chevaliera SHZ05
                      |    |--‘Aechmea’ comata L03
                      |    `--C. sphaerocephala Baker 1879 SHZ05
                      |--Araeococcus SHZ05
                      |    |--A. flagellifolius Harms 1929 SHZ05
                      |    `--A. goeldianus Smith 1955 SHZ05
                      |--+--‘Quesnelia’ edmundoi Smith 1955 SHZ05
                      |  `--Canistrum fosterianum Smith 1952 SHZ05
                      |--Portea SHZ05
                      |    |--P. leptantha Harms 1929 SHZ05
                      |    `--+--P. petropolitana (Wawra) Mez 1892 SHZ05
                      |       `--‘Aechmea’ (subg. Macrochordion) lamarchei Mez 1892 SHZ05
                      |--+--Hohenbergiopsis guatemalensis (Smith) Smith & Read 1976 SHZ05
                      |  |--Ursulaea tuitensis (Magana & Lott) Read & Baensch 1994 SHZ05
                      |  `--+--Androlepis skinneri (Koch) Brongniart ex Houllet 1870 SHZ05
                      |     `--‘Aechmea’ subg. Podaechmea SHZ05
                      |          |--A. lueddemanniana (Koch) Mez 1934 SHZ05
                      |          `--A. mexicana Baker 1879 SHZ05
                      `--Aechmea SHZ05
                           |  i. s.: A. bracteata C-MM-R07
                           |         A. bromeliifolia SHZ05
                           |--A. subg. Aechmea SHZ05
                           |    |--A. filicaulis (Grisebach) Mez 1894 SHZ05
                           |    `--A. mertensii (Meyer) Schultes 1809 SHZ05
                           |--A. subg. Lamprococcus SHZ05
                           |    |--A. farinosa (Regel) Smith 1966 SHZ05
                           |    |--A. fulgens Brongniart 1841 SHZ05
                           |    `--A. warasii Pereira 1972 SHZ05
                           `--A. (subg. Platyaechmea) chantinii (Carrière) Baker 1889 SHZ05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BS05] Barfuss, M. H. J., R. Samuel, W. Till & T. F. Stuessy. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships in subfamily Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae) based on DNA sequence data from seven plastid regions. American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 337–351.

[B10] Boucher, S. 2010. Agromyzidae (leaf-mining flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1057–1071. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C-MM-R07] Castaño-Meneses, G., & B. E. Mejía-Recamier. 2007. Community structure of mites in Tillandsia violacea (Bromeliaceae) from a temperate forest of central Mexico. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 657–664. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[FS-K03] Foissner, W., M. Strüder-Kypke, G. W. M. van der Staay, S. Y. Moon-van der Staay & J. H. P. Hackstein. 2003. Endemic ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae): a combined morphological, molecular, and ecological study. European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 365–372.

[L03] Leme, E. M. C. 2003. Nominal extinction and the taxonomist’s responsibility: the example of Bromeliaceae in Brazil. Taxon 52: 299–302.

[OMM08] Osses, F., E. G. Martins & G. Machado. 2008. Oviposition site selection by the bromeliad-dweller harvestman Bourguyia hamata (Arachnida: Opiliones). Journal of Ethology 26 (2): 233–241.

[SHZ05] Schulte, K., R. Horres & G. Zizka. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Bromelioideae and its implications on biogeography and the evolution of CAM in the family (Poales, Bromeliaceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 113–125.