Oedipodinae

Locusta migratoria, copyright Alpsdake.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.

The Oedipodinae are a group of grasshoppers characterised by male genitalia in which the ventral aedeagal valves are very closely associated with the dorsal valves, and the narrow ventral lobe appears to participate in directing the neck of the spermatophore into the spermathecal duct (Eades 2000).

<==Oedipodinae P05
    |--Dissosteira carolina E00
    |--Camnula pellucida E00
    |--Arphia BM76
    |--Celes variabilis BM76, B01
    |--Encoptolophus BM76
    |--Pardalophora BM76
    |--Sciretetica BM76
    |--Spharagemon BM76
    |--Trilophida annulata BM76
    |--Xyleus BM76
    |--Duroniella P05
    |    |--D. fracta (Kraus 1890) P05
    |    `--D. laticornis (Karus 1909) P05
    |--Acrotylus P05
    |    |--A. insubricus (Scopoli 1786) P05
    |    |--A. patruelis Y70
    |    `--A. strepens D95
    |--Aiolopus P05
    |    |--A. strepens (Latreille 1804) P05
    |    |--A. tamulus BM76
    |    `--A. thalassinus (Fabricius 1781) P05
    |--Trimerotropis BM76
    |    |--T. citrina D37
    |    |--T. cyaneipennis SM87
    |    |--T. suffusa SM87
    |    `--T. pallidipennis Z94
    |--Sphingonotus P05
    |    |--S. erythropterus R96
    |    |--S. lucasii Saussure 1888 D95
    |    |--S. rubescens (Walker 1870) D95
    |    `--S. tricinctus D95
    |--Oedaleus P05
    |    |--O. australis R96
    |    |--O. decorus (Germar 1817) P05
    |    |--O. infernalis B01
    |    |--O. marmoratus B01
    |    `--O. mlokosiewiczi B01
    |--Oedipoda BM76
    |    |--O. albolineata Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. algeriana Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. arenaria Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. coerulescens D95
    |    |    |--O. c. coerulescens D95
    |    |    `--O. c. sulfurescens Saussure 1884 D95
    |    |--O. fuscocincta Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. mauritanica Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--O. miniata (Pallas 1771) D95
    |    `--O. virescens Lucas 1847 E12
    |--Papipappus clarazianus R15
    `--Locusta E00
         |--L. acuminata L02
         |--L. citrifolia L02
         |--L. coronata (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Gryllus coronatus L02]
         |--L. migratoria E00
         |    |--L. m. migratoria E00
         |    |--L. m. manilensis K-P83
         |    `--L. m. migratorioides E00
         |--L. savignyi Lucas 1847 E12
         |--L. verrucivora (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Gryllus verrucivorus L02]
         |--L. viridis L02
         `--L. viridissima B01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D95] Damerdji, A. 1995. Bio-écologie du peuplement des orthoptères de la région de Ghazaouet (Tlemcen, Algérie). Mésogée 54: 73–80.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181–210.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[P05] Papapavlou, K. P. 2005. New distributional data on the Orthoptera (Saltatoria) of the northern Dodecanese (“southern Sporadhes”) archipelago, Greece. Graellsia 61 (1): 3–11.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[SM87] Sites, J. W., Jr & C. Moritz. 1987. Chromosomal evolution and speciation revisited. Systematic Zoology 36 (2): 153–174.

[Y70] Yinon, U. 1970. Electrophysiological evidence of relationships in acridid insects. Systematic Zoology 19 (4): 397–398.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205–237.

Stenobothrus

Male Stenobothrus lineatus, copyright Gilles San Martin.


Belongs within: Acridoidea.

Stenobothrus is a genus of grasshoppers found in Eurasia and Africa, characterised by the presence of a tooth on the ovipositor.

<==Stenobothrus
    |--S. apricarius B01
    |--S. bicolor B01
    |--S. cognatus B01
    |--S. dorsatus B01
    |--S. elegans B01
    |--S. horvathi Bolivar 1901 B01
    |--S. lineatus F01
    |--S. morio B01
    |--S. nigromaculatus B01
    |--S. parallelus B01
    |--S. petraeus B01
    |--S. simplex B01
    `--S. vagans B01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[F01] Field, L. H. 2001. Stridulatory mechanisms and associated behaviour in New Zealand wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 271–295. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Aphididae

Giant conifer aphids Cinara sp., copyright Frank Mikley.


Belongs within: Aphidoidea.
Contains: Aphidini.

The Aphididae, aphids, are a morphologically diverse group of phytophagous bugs that show an alternation between parthenogenetic and sexually reproducing generations, with parthenogenetic individuals usually being wingless and sexually reproducing individuals alate.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Parthenogenetic females viviparous, sexual females oviparous. Antennae 4—6-segmented; apical segment usually with well-delimited processus terminalis; one primary rhinarium basal to processus terminalis and one subapically on penultimate segment; other (secondary, adult) rhinaria present in most alatae and some apterae, usually concentrated on segment III. Eyes of apterae compound or 3—faceted. Siphunculi and cauda (modified apical segment) usually present; paired siphunculi marginally on or near T5, varying from rings to long, cylindrical tubes. Fore wings, if present, tectiform or, less often, held flat in repose; RP mostly present, M simple or 1— or 2-branched, CuA,sub>1 and CuA2 usually separate. Hind wings mostly with 2 oblique veins.

Aphididae [Eriosomatidae, Pemphigidae]
    |--Periphyllus [Chaitophorinae] CGW91
    |    `--P. californiensis CGW91
    |--Hormaphidinae [Hormaphididae] GE05
    |    |--Ceratovacuna lanigera CGW91, MHG04
    |    |--Oregma WEE70
    |    |--Cerataphis WEE70
    |    `--Pseudoregma CGW91
    |         |--P. bambucicola GE05
    |         `--P. panicola CGW91
    |--Pemphiginae GE05
    |    |--Germaraphis Z02
    |    |--Aploneura lentisci M83
    |    |--Geoica lucifuga WEE70
    |    |--Smynthurodes betae WEE70
    |    |--Eriosoma WEE70
    |    |    |--E. lanigerum CGW91
    |    |    `--E. pyricola WEE70
    |    `--Pemphigus SB80
    |         |--P. bursarius CGW91
    |         |--P. populicaulis SB80
    |         |--P. populitransversus SS74
    |         `--P. populivenae S87
    |--Drepanosiphinae [Drepanosiphidae] GE05
    |    |--Jurocallis SP02
    |    |--Drepanosiphum platanoides A71
    |    |--Paoliella CGW91
    |    |--Ceriferella CGW91
    |    |--Neuquenaphis CGW91
    |    |--Lizerius CGW91
    |    |--Taiwanaphis CGW91 [incl. Sensoriaphis AY04]
    |    |    |--T. furcifera CGW91
    |    |    `--T. tasmaniae CGW91 [=Sensoriaphis tasmaniae WEE70]
    |    `--Neophyllaphis CGW91
    |         |--N. brimblecombei CGW91
    |         `--N. gingerensis CGW91
    |--Cinara [Lachnidae, Lachninae] CGW91
    |    |--C. apini H61a
    |    |--C. brevispinosa H61a
    |    |--C. commatula Hottes & Essig 1954 H61c
    |    |--C. diabola Hottes 1961 H61b
    |    |--C. dubia Hottes & Essig 1954 H61c
    |    |--C. essigi Hottes 1961 H61a
    |    |--C. glabra H61b
    |    |--C. montanesa Hottes 1961 H61b
    |    |--C. osborni H61b
    |    |--C. ponderosae H61a
    |    |--C. pseudotaxifoliae Palmer 1952 H61c
    |    |--C. pseudotsugae (Wilson 1912) [=Lachnus pseudotsugae] H61c
    |    |--C. schwarzii H61b
    |    |--C. solitaria H61b
    |    |--C. splendens (Gillette & Palmer 1924) [=Lachnus splendens] H61c
    |    |--C. taxifoliae (Swain 1918) [=Lachnus taxifoliae] H61c
    |    |--C. tsugae Bradley 1960 H61c
    |    |--C. vagabunda Hottes & Essig 1953 H61c
    |    `--C. wahsugae Hottes 1960 H61c
    `--Aphidinae GE05
         |  i. s.: Aphidocallis caudatus GE05
         |         Cavariella aegopodii CGW91
         |         Aulacorthum CGW91
         |           |--A. circumflexum A71
         |           `--A. solani CGW91
         |         Brachycaudus CGW91
         |           |--B. helichrysi CGW91
         |           |--B. persicae CGW91
         |           `--B. (Appelia) schwartzi (Börner 1931) MF05
         |         Hyalopterus pruni CGW91
         |         Macrosiphum CGW91
         |           |--M. colylicola Shinji 1930 TYM08
         |           |--M. euphorbiae WFS04
         |           |--M. miscanthi WEE70
         |           |--M. (Macrosiphum) rosae (Linnaeus 1758) MF05
         |           `--M. urticae (Linnaeus 1758) V09, L58 [=Aphis urticae V09]
         |         Metopolophium dirhodum CGW91
         |         Myzus CGW91
         |           |--M. ascalonicus CGW91
         |           |--M. cymbalariae CGW91
         |           |--M. inuzakurae Shinji 1930 TYM08
         |           |--M. ornatus CGW91
         |           `--M. persicae B88
         |         Capitophorus elaeagni CGW91
         |         Hyperomyzus lactucae CGW91
         |         Rhopalosiphum CGW91
         |           |--R. insertum CGW91
         |           |--R. maidis CGW91
         |           |--R. nymphaeae CGW91
         |           |--R. padi M83
         |           `--R. rufiabdominalis CGW91
         |         Neomyzus circumflexus WEE70
         |         Brevicoryne brassicae WEE70
         |         Lipaphis erysimi WEE70
         |         Chaetosiphon fragaefolii WEE70
         |         Elatobium abietinum WEE70
         |         Idiopterus nephrelepidis WEE70
         |         Shinjia pteridifoliae WEE70
         |         Longiunguis sacchari WEE70
         `--Aphidini NNA-ZPH05

Aphididae incertae sedis:
  Acyrthosiphon WCH11
    |--A. kondoi CGW91
    `--A. pisum WCH11
  Uroleucon LD04
  Macrosiphoniella madeirensis Aguiar & Ilharco 2005 F05
  Pseudoprotaphis Kadyrbekov 2001 F05
    `--*P. erigerontis (Holman 1966) [=Aphis (Protaphis) erigerontis] F05
  Tuberocephalus Shinji 1929 TYM08
    `--T. artemisiae Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Caraviella azamii Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Eumyzus Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Amphorophora katsurae Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Illinoia kerriae Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Macrocaudus Shinji 1930 TYM08
    `--M. phaseoli Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Microtarsus Shinji 1929 TYM08
    `--M. pterydifoliae Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Anuraphis mumecola Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Pseudomegoura Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Somaphis Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Trama taraxaci Shinji 1930 TYM08
  Trichonosiphoniella Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Tuberocorpus Shinji 1929 TYM08
  Microlophium carnosum V09
  Pterochlorus rosae H01
  Chromaphis juglandicola KU07
  Panaphis juglandis KU07
  Calaphis CGW91
  Euceraphis CGW91
  Therioaphis trifolii CGW91
  Neotoxoptera oliveri CGW91
  Sitobion avenae CGW91, K09
  Pentalonia nigronervosa CGW91
  Megoura viciae N70
  Kallistaphis basalis WEE70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[H61a] Hottes, F. C. 1961a. A new species of Cinara from knob-cone pine (Aphidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 1–2.

[H61b] Hottes, F. C. 1961b. Two new species of Cinara from California (Aphidae) which have Pinus coulteri as host. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 95–100.

[H61c] Hottes, F. C. 1961c. Notes on and a key to species of the genus Cinara (Aphidae) which have Tsuga and Pseudotsuga for host. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 111–118.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[LD04] Lin, C.-P., & B. N. Danforth. 2004. How do insect nuclear and mitochondrial gene substitution patterns differ? Insights from Bayesian analyses of combined datasets. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 686–702.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J., & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163–179.

[NNA-ZPH05] Nieto Nafría, J. M., M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga & N. Pérez Hidalgo. 2005. Toxoptera citricida or Toxoptera citricidus? The validity of a specific name (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Aphidini). Graellsia 61 (1): 141–142.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[S87] Sabrosky, C. W. 1987. Chloropidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1049–1067. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SS74] Senner, J. W., & R. R. Sokal. 1974. Analysis of dimorphism in natural populations with consideration of methodological and epistemological problems. Systematic Zoology 23 (3): 363–386.

[SB80] Sokal, R. R., & C. A. Braumann. 1980. Significance tests for coefficients of variation and variability profiles. Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 50–66.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WCH11] Welch, K. D., P. R. Crain & J. D. Harwood. 2011. Phenological dynamics of web-building spider populations in alfalfa: implications for biological control. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 244–249.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Naucoroidea

Naucoris cimicoides, from here.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Naucoroidea are a group of aquatic, predatory bugs with raptorial forelegs, spinose mid and hind tibiae, and lacking veins in the membrane of the hemelytron (if present) (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Naucoroidea SP02
    |  i. s.: Schizopteryx S02
    |--Triassocoridae GE05
    |--Potamocoridae [Potamocorinae] GE05
    |--Aphelocheiridae [Aphelocheirinae] GE05
    |    |--Coreoidus latus SP02
    |    `--Aphelocheirus I92
    |         |--A. australicus CGW91
    |         `--A. kawamurae Matsumura 1915 I92
    `--Naucoridae GE05
         |  i. s.: Mongonecta S02
         |         Aidium GE05
         |         Angaronecta GE05
         |         Heleonaucoris GE05
         |         Liadonaucoris GE05
         |         Nectodes GE05
         |         Nectonaucoris GE05
         |         Scaphocoris [Scaphocoridae] GE05
         |         Aphlebocoris [Aphlebocoridae] GE05
         |         Apopnus GE05
         |         Scaphodemopsis GE05
         |         Cantaeronecta GE05
         |--Ambrysinae CGW91
         |--Limnocorinae CGW91
         |--Laccocorinae CGW91
         |--Cryphocricinae CGW91
         |--Cheirochelinae CGW91
         `--Naucoris [Naucorinae] CGW91
              |--N. cimicoides H01
              `--N. congrex CGW91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Leptopodomorpha

Salda pallipes, copyright Stephanie Boucher.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Leptopodomorpha are a group of large-eyed, predatory bugs most commonly found on the margins of ponds and streams. They are united by adaptations to a side-by-side copulatory position, with the male abdomen possessing an apparatus for grasping the female (Schuh & Polhemus 1980).

<==Leptopodomorpha [Acanthioideae, Leptopinae] GE05
    |  i. s.: Britannicola GE05
    |         Helenosaldula aberrans SP80
    |         Saldonia [Archegocimicidae] GE05
    |           `--S. sibirica SP02
    |--Leptopodoidea SP80
    |    |--Omaniidae SP80
    |    |    |--Omania SP80
    |    |    |    |--O. coleoptrata SP80
    |    |    |    `--O. marksae WEE70
    |    |    `--Corallocoris SP80
    |    |         |--C. marksae N91
    |    |         `--C. nauruensis SP80
    |    `--Leptopodidae GE05
    |         |--Leptosaldinae SP80
    |         |    |--Leptosalda chiapensis SP80
    |         |    `--Saldolepta Schuh & Polhemus 1980 SP80
    |         |         `--S. kistnerorum SP80
    |         `--Leptopodinae SP80
    |              |--Patapius spinosus SP80
    |              |--Valleriola wilsoni SP80, CGW91
    |              |--Erianotus lanosus SP80
    |              |--Martiniola SP80
    |              `--Leotichius [Leotichiidae] SP80
    |                   `--L. speluncarum SP80
    `--Saldoidea SP80
         |--Aepophilus [Aepophilidae] SP80
         |    `--A. bonnairei SP80
         `--Saldidae [Acanthiidae] SP80
              |  i. s.: Micracanthia ripula SP80
              |         Ioscytus nasti D62
              |         Teoleuca D62
              |         Lampracanthia D62
              |         Oreokora Drake 1962 [=Oreocora] D62
              |           |--*O. chilensis (Blanchard 1852) (see below for synonymy) D62
              |           |--O. amazona (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora amazona] D62
              |           |--O. andensis (Distant 1893) [=Acanthia andensis; incl. Pentacora bruesi Drake 1949] D62
              |           |--O. angusta (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Pentacora angusta] D62
              |           |--O. bacayana (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora bacayana] D62
              |           |--O. bergi (Haglund 1899) [=Salda bergi; incl. Saldula lynchi Drake & Carvalho 1948] D62
              |           |--O. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Saldula doeringi] D62
              |           |--O. perula (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora perula] D62
              |           |--O. pillaona (Drake 1955) D62
              |           |--O. regilla (Drake 1955) [=Pentacora regilla] D62
              |           |--O. rogeri (Kirkaldy 1899) [=Acanthia rogeri] D62
              |           `--O. sola (Drake & Carvalho 1948) [=Saldula sola] D62
              |         Pelachoris Drake 1962 D62
              |           `--*P. leucographa [=Pentacora leucographa] D62
              |--Chiloxanthinae SP80
              |    |--Enalosalda SP80
              |    `--+--Paralosalda SP80
              |       `--+--Chiloxanthus SP80
              |          `--Pentacora SP80
              |               |--P. salina D62
              |               `--P. sphacelata (Uhler 1877) (see below for synonymy) D62
              |--Mesolygaeus [Enicocorinae, Mesolygaeidae] ZG05
              |    `--M. laiyangensis Ping 1928 ZG05
              `--Saldinae SP80
                   |  i. s.: Saldula CGW91
                   |           |--S. brevicornis CGW91
                   |           |--S. hirsuta D62
                   |           |--S. pallipes SP80
                   |           |--S. palustris (Douglas 1874) [=Salda palustris; incl. Saldula fernaldi Drake 1949] D62
                   |           `--S. pexa Drake 1950 [=S. hirsuta pexa] D62
                   |--Salduncula SP80
                   `--+--Saldoidini SP80
                      |    |--Orthophrys SP80
                      |    `--Saldoida D62
                      `--Salda D62 [Saldini SP80]
                           |--S. coxalis [incl. S. argentina] D62
                           |--S. nobilis H01
                           |    |--S. n. nobilis H01
                           |    `--S. n. reuteri H01
                           `--S. pallipes H01

*Oreokora chilensis (Blanchard 1852) [=Acanthia chilensis, Salda chilensis; incl. A. araucanica Kirkaldy 1889] D62

Pentacora sphacelata (Uhler 1877) [=Salda sphacelata, Saldula sphacelata; incl. Salda rubromaculata Heidemann 1901, Pentacora rubomaculata] D62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D62] Drake, C. J. 1962. Synonymic data and two new genera of shore-bugs (Hemiptera: Saldidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 115–124.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[SP80] Schuh, R. T., & J. T. Polhemus. 1980. Analysis of taxonomic congruence among morphological, ecological and biogeographic data sets for the Leptopodomorpha (Hemiptera). Systematic Zoology 29 (1): 1–26.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.

Notonectoidea

Anisops sp., from Landcare Research.


Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Notonectoidea, backswimmers, are a group of aquatic, predatory bugs with a strongly, transversely arched body and a short or absent forewing membrane (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Notonectoidea CGW91
    |  i. s.: Mesotrephes S02 [Mesotrephidae SP02]
    |--+--Helotrephidae GE05
    |  `--Plea D14 [Pleidae GE05, Pleinae]
    |       |--P. leachi [incl. P. minutissima] H01
    |       `--P. rufonotata Distant 1914 D14
    `--Notonectidae GE05
         |  i. s.: Nepidium GE05
         |         Asionecta GE05
         |         Notonectites GE05
         |         Pelonecta GE05
         |         Buenoa scimitra WL09
         |--Clypostemmatinae S02
         |    |--Canteronecta irajae S02
         |    `--Clypostemma GE05
         |         |--C. limna S02
         |         `--C. xyphiale Popov 1964 ZG05
         |--Notonectinae D14
         |    |--Nychia sappho CGW91
         |    |--Enithares CGW91
         |    |    |--E. bergrothi Montand. 1892 D14
         |    |    `--E. woodwardi CGW91
         |    `--Notonecta Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. glauca Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. handlirschi CGW91
         |         |--N. minutissima Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         |--N. montandoni Kirkaldy 1897 I92
         |         |--N. sieblosiensis S02
         |         |--N. striata Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |         `--N. triguttata I92
         `--Anisopinae CGW91
              |--Paranisops inconstans CGW91
              |--Walambianisops CGW91
              `--Anisops D14
                   |--A. assimilis D14
                   |--A. calcaratus TDC06
                   |--A. cleopatra Distant 1914 D14
                   |--A. deichmuelleri S02
                   |--A. gratus TDC06
                   |--A. heydeni S02
                   |--A. hyperion Kirk 1898 D14
                   |--A. inconstans WEE70
                   |--A. stali Kirkaldy 1904 T13
                   |--A. thienemanni TDC06
                   `--A. wakefieldi PC66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.

Anthocoridae

Orius niger, from Raupach et al. (2014).


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.

The Anthocoridae, flower bugs, are a group of small bugs that mostly feed on insect eggs or haemolymph from other insects. They are characterised by the presence of a cuneus in the hemelytron, with the hemelytral membrane usually being veinless, the presence of ocelli, and an apparently three-segmented labium (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Anthocoridae
    |  i. s.: Amphiareus YS01
    |         Bilia MM96
    |         Macrotracheliella laevis MM96
    |         Plochiocorella elongata CGW91
    |--Lasiochilus [Lasiochilinae] CGW91
    |    `--L. femoralis CGW91
    |--Lyctocorinae [Dufouriellinae, Lyctocoraria, Lyctocoridae, Xylocoraria] C61
    |    |--Eoanthocoris cretaceus SP02
    |    |--Physopleurella CGW91
    |    |--Lyctocoris C61
    |    |    |--L. campestris (Fabricius 1794) [=Acanthia campestris] C61
    |    |    `--L. subelegans Breddin 1928 C61
    |    |--Xylocoris C61
    |    |    |  i. s.: X. hirsutus Carayon 1961 C61
    |    |    |--X. (Xylocoris) C61
    |    |    |    |--X. (X.) afer (Reuter 1884) [=Piezostethus afer] C61
    |    |    |    |--X. (X.) cursitans (Fallén 1807) [=Anthocoris cursitans] C61
    |    |    |    `--X. (X.) galactinus C61
    |    |    `--X. (Arrostus) flavipes (Reuter 1875) (see below for synonymy) C61
    |    `--Cardiastethus C61
    |         |--C. affinis C61
    |         |--C. capensis Carayon 1961 C61
    |         |--C. fasciiventris C61
    |         |--C. megalophthalmus C61
    |         |--C. poweri WFS04
    |         |--C. pygmaeus C61
    |         `--C. rufescens C61
    `--Anthocorinae C61
         |  i. s.: Wollastoniella bifoveata Carayon 1958 C61
         |--Anthocoris [Anthocorini] C61
         |    |--A. nemoralis C61
         |    |--A. nemorum H01
         |    |--A. pacificus Kirkaldy 1908 K08
         |    |--A. subcruciatus Walker 1872 C61
         |    `--A. sylvestris K08
         |--Scolopini C61
         |    |--Lasiochiloides Champion 1901 C61
         |    `--Blaptostethus Fieber 1860 C61
         |         |--B. africanus (Carayon 1956) [=Lasiochiloides africanus] C61
         |         `--B. pleneti (Carayon 1958) [=Lasiochiloides pleneti] C61
         `--Oriini C61
              |--Lampronannella Poppius 1909 C61
              |--Dokkiocoris Miller 1951 C61
              |--Pseudotriphleps Poppius 1910 [incl. Horniella Poppius 1910 non Raffray 1904] C61
              |--Caffrocoris Carayon 1961 C61
              |    `--*C. brincki Carayon 1961 C61
              |--Bilianella C61
              |    |--B. microscopica C61
              |    `--B. minuta Carvalho 1951 C61
              |--Montandoniola Poppius 1909 [incl. Teisocoris Hiura 1959] C61
              |    |--*M. moraguesi (Puton 1896) [=Montandoniella moraguesi] C61
              |    |--‘Ectemnus’ pictipennis Esaki 1931 [=*Teisocoris pictipennis] C61
              |    `--M. thripodes Bergroth 1916 C61
              `--Orius Wagner 1952 [Oriini] C61
                   |  i. s.: O. armatus CGW91
                   |         O. cocciphagus (Hesse 1947) [=Triphleps cocciphagus] C61
                   |         O. fogoensis Wagner 1957 C61
                   |         O. insidiosus MM96
                   |         O. laevigatus WS07
                   |         O. minutum KU07
                   |         O. tantillus CGW91
                   |         O. tristicolor WT91
                   |--O. (Orius) C61
                   |    |--O. (O.) brunnescens (Poppius 1913) [=Triphleps brunnescens] C61
                   |    |--O. (O.) niger C61
                   |    `--O. (O.) thripoborus (Hesse 1940) [=Triphleps thripoborus] C61
                   `--O. (Dimorphella) lanatus Carayon 1961 C61

Xylocoris (Arrostus) flavipes (Reuter 1875) [=Piezostethus flavipes; incl. Triphleps frumenti Zacher 1922, T. ramae Narayanan & Chatterji 1953, T. sinui Narayanan & Chatterji 1952] C61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C61] Carayon, J. 1961. Hemiptera (Heteroptera): Anthocoridae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 533–557. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WS07] Walzer, A., & P. Schausberger. 2007. Key factors of intraguild predation among Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 645–648. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[WT91] Wilson, L. T., P. J. Trichilo, D. L. Flaherty, R. Hanna & A. Corbett. 1991. Natural enemy-spider mite interactions: comments on implications for population assessment. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 167–173. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Cimicidae

Common bed bug Cimex lectularius, photographed by Piotr Naskrecki.


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.

The Cimicidae, bed bugs, are a group of flightless, flattened bugs that feed on blood from mammals and birds.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Body oval, flattened; clypeus apically expanded; pronotum anterolaterally and laterally expanded; forewings reduced to transverse scales.

<==Cimicidae
    |--Bucimex A71
    |--Propicimex A71
    |--Cacodmus A71
    |--Aphrania A71
    |--Stricticimex brevispinosus CGW91
    |--Primicimex A71
    |--Loxaspis A71
    |--Crassicimex A71
    |--Leptocimex boueti A71
    |--Afrocimex A71
    |--Latrocimex A71
    |--Oeciacus A71
    |--Paracimex A71
    |--Ornithocoris A71
    |--Hesperocimex A71
    |--Cimexopsis A71
    |--Synxenoderus A71
    |--Haematosiphon A71
    |--Psitticimex A71
    |--Caminicimex A71
    |--Triphleps nigra H01
    |--Canthecona cyanacantha Stal 1870 K08
    |--Pegala biguttula Haglund 1868 K08
    |--Lamprophara bifasciata [incl. L. bifasciata var. quadrifera] K08
    |--Ctenoneurus K08
    |    |--C. bergrothianus Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    |--C. fungicola Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    `--C. hochstetteri K08
    `--Cimex Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. abietis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. acantharis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. aegyptius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. andreae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. annulatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. arabs Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. arenarius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. ater Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. baccarum Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. betulae Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. bidens Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. biguttatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. bimaculatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. bipunctatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. bipustulatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. caeruleus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. calcaratus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. campestris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. cardui Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. clavicornis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. columbarius A71
         |--C. corticalis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. coryli Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. crassicornis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. dolabratus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. dumosus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. erosus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. erraticus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. ferus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. filicis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. gothicus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. griseus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. haemorrhoidalis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. hemipterus A71
         |--C. histrio Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. hyoscyami Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. indus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. interstinctus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. juniperinus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. kalmii Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. kermesinus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. lacustris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. laevigatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. lectularius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. leucocephalus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. lineatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. lineola Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. littoralis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. marginatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. minutus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. mutabilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. nigripes Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. oleraceus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. ornatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. peregrinator Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. personatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. pini Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. populi Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. pratensis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. punctatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. quattuorspinosus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. rolandri Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. rotundatus H74
         |--C. ruber Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. rufipes Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. rugosus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. saltatorius Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. serratus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. stockerus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. stolidus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. striatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. sylvestris Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. ulmi Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. umbratilis Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. vagabundus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. valgus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         |--C. variolosus Linnaeus 1758 L58
         `--C. ypsilon Linnaeus 1758 L58

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

Pentatominae

Brown shield bug Dictyotus caenosus, copyright MAF.


Belongs within: Pentatomoidea.
Contains: Myrocharia, Diemeniini, Poecilometis, Tarisini, Phyllocephalinae, Cephaloplatus, Euschistus, Antestiaria, Pentatoma, Cuspicona.

The Pentatominae is a highly diverse group of stink bugs, the exact definition of which remains debated.

<==Pentatominae [Amyotinae, Graphosomatinae] B27
    |--Mycoolona atricornis G75, G76
    |--+--Mecidea [Mecideinae, Mecideini] G75
    |  `--Diemeniini G75
    |--+--Eysarcoris aeneus G75, G76
    |  |--Neostollia G76
    |  `--Spermatodes G76
    |--Poecilotoma Dallas 1851 [incl. Allportia Schoutenden 1906] G75
    |    |--*P. grandicornis (Erichson 1842) [=Atelocerus grandicornis] G75
    |    |--P. callosa Gross 1975 G75
    |    |--P. perconfusa Gross 1975 G75
    |    `--P. scutellata (Van Duzee 1905) [=Platycoris scutellatus] G75
    |--+--Adelaidena regina G76
    |  `--Kapunda Distant 1911 G75, G76
    |       |--K. troughtoni (Distant 1910) (see below for synonymy) G76
    |       `--K. tepperi Gross 1976 G76
    |--+--Bachesua Gross 1975 G75
    |  |    `--*B. enigmatica Gross 1975 G75
    |  `--Ippatha Distant 1910 G75
    |       |--*I. australiensis Distant 1910 G75
    |       `--I. angustilinea Musgrave 1930 G75
    |--+--Anaximenes G76
    |  `--Piezodorus Fieber 1861 G75, G76
    |       |--P. lituratus (Fabricius 1794) L-SSY04 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |--P. guildinii H91
    |       |--P. hybneri (Gmelin 1790) (see below for synonymy) G76
    |       `--P. pallescens K08
    |--Podopini [Podopinae] G75
    |    |--Coracanthella geophila G75
    |    |--Weda G75
    |    |--Amaurochrous G75
    |    `--Scotinophara G75
    |         |--S. allanae G75
    |         `--S. geophila (Montr. 1858) [=Scutellera geophila] D14
    |--+--Sciomenida Gross 1976 G76
    |  |    `--*S. mcfarlandi Gross 1976 G76
    |  |--Menida Motschulsky 1861 G75, G76
    |  |    |--*M. violacea Motschulsky 1861 G76
    |  |    `--M. personata Distant 1881 G76
    |  `--Lathraedoeus G76
    |       |--*L. speculator G76
    |       |--L. inconstans [=Menida inconstans] G76
    |       `--L. leucophaeus [=Antestia leucophaea, Menida leucophaea] G76
    |--Halyini [Halyinae] G76
    |    |--Poecilometis G76
    |    |--Atelias variegatus G76
    |    |--Coctoteris Stål 1858 G76
    |    |--Tinganina Bergroth 1909 G76
    |    |--Neosurenus Distant 1920 G76
    |    |--Elemana Distant 1912 G76
    |    |--Baracellus Distant 1903 G76
    |    |--Austromalaya Kirkaldy 1908 G76
    |    |--Bathrus Dallas 1851 G76
    |    |--Dalpada Amyot & Serville 1843 G76
    |    |--Acanthidiellum Kirkaldy 1904 [incl. Bromocoris Horvarth 1915] G76
    |    |--Ectenus Dallas 1851 G76
    |    |--Accarana Distant 1888 G76
    |    |--Auxentius Horvarth 1915 G76
    |    |--Neoptolemus Horvarth 1915 G76
    |    |--Babylas Horvarth 1915 G76
    |    |--Brizica Walker 1867 G76
    |    |--Dippilana Distant 1910 G76
    |    |    `--*D. membranacea Distant 1910 [incl. Poecilometis gibbiceps Bergroth 1916] G76
    |    |--Dictyometis Gross 1976 G76
    |    |    `--*D. spriggi Gross 1976 G76
    |    |--Parapoecilometis Gross 1976 G76
    |    |    `--*P. campbelli Gross 1976 G76
    |    |--Polycarmes Stål 1867 G76
    |    |    `--P. punctatissimus (Montr. 1858) [=Acanthidium punctatissimum] D14
    |    |--Anchises Stål 1867 G76
    |    |    `--A. parvulus (Westwood 1837) [=Halys parvulus, Theseus parvulus] G76
    |    |--Theseus Stål 1867 G76
    |    |    |--*T. modestus (Stål 1865) (see below for synonymy) G76
    |    |    `--T. distanti Gross 1972 [=T. scutellatus Distant 1910 non Poecilometis scutellatus Distant 1899] G76
    |    |--Aglaophon Stål 1876 G76
    |    |    |--*A. varius Stål 1876 G76
    |    |    `--A. variegatus Gross 1976 G76
    |    |--Paragenor Gross 1976 G76
    |    |    |--*P. halei Gross 1976 G76
    |    |    |--P. atomicus Gross 1976 G76
    |    |    `--P. robustus Gross 1976 G76
    |    |--Alcaeus Dallas 1851 [incl. Muritha] G76
    |    |    |--*A. varicornis (Westwood 1837) [=Atelocerus varicornis; incl. Al. subspinosus] G76
    |    |    |--A. hermannsburgi (Distant 1910) [=*Muritha hermannsburgi] G76
    |    |    |--A. lignicolor Walker 1867 G76
    |    |    `--A. unifornis Gross 1976 G76
    |    |--Neagenor Bergroth 1891 [=Agenor Dallas 1851 (preoc.)] G76
    |    |    |--*N. spinosus (Dallas 1851) [=*Agenor spinosus] G76
    |    |    |--N. anteaureus Gross 1976 G76
    |    |    |--N. minor Gross 1976 G76
    |    |    `--N. transcontinentalis Gross 1976 G76
    |    `--Omyta Spinola 1850 G76
    |         |--O. centrolineata (Westwood 1837) G76 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |    |--O. c. centrolineata G76
    |         |    `--O. c. siccior Gross 1976 G76
    |         |--O. delineata G76
    |         `--O. spinosa (Dallas 1851) G75 [=Poecilotoma spinosa G75; incl. Platycoris rufescens G76]
    |--+--+--Menestheus cuneatus G75
    |  |  |--Neomenestheus G75
    |  |  |--Hillieria Distant 1910 G75
    |  |  |    `--*H. acuminata Distant 1910 G75
    |  |  |--Paramenestheus Breddin 1900 G75
    |  |  |    |--*P. terricolor Breddin 1900 (see below for synonymy) G75
    |  |  |    `--P. nercivus (Dallas 1851) [=Sciocoris nercivus] G75
    |  |  |--Pseudaelia Distant 1910 G75
    |  |  |    |--*P. clementi Distant 1910 G75
    |  |  |    |--P. gnielae Gross 1975 G75
    |  |  |    `--P. rectimargo Gross 1975 G75
    |  |  `--Eribotes Stål 1867 G75
    |  |       |--*E. australis (Dallas 1852) [=Sciocoris australis] G75
    |  |       |--E. bicuspis G75
    |  |       |--E. challengeri G75
    |  |       |--E. delitescens G75
    |  |       |--E. hobartensis Distant 1910 G75
    |  |       |--E. indicator (Walker 1868) [=Sciocoris indicator] G75
    |  |       `--E. reconditus Bergroth 1920 G75
    |  `--+--Tarisini G75
    |     |--Kitsonia Gross 1975 G75
    |     |    `--*K. rubrocoriosa Gross 1975 G75
    |     |--+--Macrocarenus Stål 1873 G75
    |     |  |    `--*M. acuminatus (Dallas 1851) [=Eurygaster acuminatus] G75
    |     |  `--Macrocarenoides Gross 1975 G75
    |     |       `--*M. scutellatus (Distant 1899) [=Macrocarenus scutellatus] G75
    |     |--+--Ochisme Kirkaldy 1904 G75
    |     |  |    `--O. australis (Dallas 1851) [=Trachyops australis; incl. Hypolcus apricus Bergroth 1916] G75
    |     |  |--Dysnoetus Bergroth 1918 G75
    |     |  |    `--D. rugulosus (Horvarth 1902) [=Dictyotus rugulosus; incl. *Dy. anceps Bergroth 1918] G75
    |     |  |--Turrubulana Distant 1910 G75
    |     |  |    `--*T. plana Distant 1910 G75
    |     |  `--Amphidexius Bergroth 1918 G75
    |     |       `--*A. suspensus Bergroth 1918 G75
    |     `--+--Kumbutha quadrinotata G75
    |        |--Cooperocoris Gross 1975 G75
    |        |    `--*C. australis Gross 1975 G75
    |        |--Ooldeon Gross 1975 G75
    |        |    `--*O. maculipes Gross 1975 G75
    |        |--Brizocoris Gross 1975 G75
    |        |    `--*B. dimorphicus Gross 1975 G75
    |        |--Thryptomenecoris Gross 1975 G75
    |        |    `--*T. officeri Gross 1975 G75
    |        |--Eremophilacoris Gross 1975 G75
    |        |    `--*E. aridicolus Gross 1975 G75
    |        |--Pirricoris Gross 1975 G75
    |        |    `--*P. annectans Gross 1975 G75
    |        |--Tepperocoris Gross 1975 G75
    |        |    |--*T. lofteyensis Gross 1975 G75
    |        |    `--T. vandijki Gross 1975 G75
    |        `--Buthumka Gross 1975 G75
    |             |--*B. orthoscutellata Gross 1975 G75
    |             |--B. reducta Gross 1975 G75
    |             `--B. transitionalis Gross 1975 G75
    `--Pentatomini [Strachiaria, Strachiini] R74
         |  i. s.: Sibaria R74
         |         Agroecus R74
         |         Tibraca R74
         |         Menecles R74
         |         Hymenarcys R74
         |         Berecynthus R74
         |         Galedanta R74
         |         Dichelops R74
         |         Padaeus Stål 1862 R74
         |           |--*P. viduus (Vollenhoven 1868) [=Euschistus viduus] R74
         |           |--P. teapensis (Distant 1890) [=Euschistus teapensis] R74
         |           |--P. trivittatus R74
         |           `--P. verrucifer Stål 1862 [=Euschistus verrucifer] R74
         |         Eurydema [incl. Strachia] SS02
         |           |--E. dominulus (see below for synonymy) H01
         |           |--E. festivum [incl. E. festivum var. decoratum] H01
         |           |--E. fieberi [incl. E. fieberi var. armeniacum] H01
         |           |--E. oleraceum (Linnaeus 1758) L-SSY04 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--E. ornatum H01
         |           `--E. sexpunctatum H01
         |         Biprorulus bibax WEE70
         |         Vitellus insularis Stal 1876 WEE70, K08
         |--+--Phyllocephalinae G75
         |  `--+--Cephaloplatus WEE70
         |     `--Caystrus G76 [incl. Neodius G75]
         |--+--+--Arniscus Distant 1899 G75
         |  |  |    `--A. humeralis G75
         |  |  `--Tholosanus Distant 1899 G75
         |  |       |--*T. proximus (Dallas 1851) (see below for synonymy) G75
         |  |       `--T. colligatus (Walker 1867) [=Pentatoma colligata] G75
         |  `--+--Utheria Gross 1975 G75
         |     |    `--*U. dixoni Gross 1975 G75
         |     |--Paradictyotus Gross 1975 G75
         |     |    `--*P. fuscus Gross 1975 G75
         |     `--Dictyotus Dallas 1851 WEE70, G75
         |          |--*D. tasmanicus Dallas 1851 G75
         |          |--D. caenosus (Westwood 1837) (see below for synonymy) G75
         |          |--D. conspicuus Gross 1975 G75
         |          |--D. inconspicuus Dallas 1851 [incl. Pentatoma aequalis Walker 1867] G75
         |          |--D. incultus (Erichson 1842) [=Cimex incultus] G75
         |          |--D. lincolnensis Gross 1975 G75
         |          |--D. pallipes (Westwood 1837) [=Pentatoma pallipes] G75
         |          |--D. roei (Westwood 1837) [=Pentatoma roei; incl. D. affinis Dallas 1851] G75
         |          `--D. scissicollis (Herrich-Schaeffer 1844) [=Pentatoma scissicolle] G75
         |--+--Codophila G76
         |  |--Proxys G75
         |  |--Euschistus G75
         |  |--Hyparete vitiensis Distant 1901 G76, K08
         |  |--Macromolus G76
         |  |--Lubentius G76
         |  |--Hypsethocus G76
         |  |--Dolycoris Mulsant & Rey 1866 G76, L-SSY04
         |  |    `--D. baccarum H01
         |  |--Monteithiella Gross 1976 G76
         |  |    `--*M. humeralis (Walker 1868) (see below for synonymy) G76
         |  |--Pseudapines Bergroth 1912 G76
         |  |    `--*P. geminata (Van Duzee 1905) [=Apines geminata] G76
         |  |--Notius Dallas 1851 G76
         |  |    |--*N. depressus Dallas 1851 G76
         |  |    `--N. consputus G76
         |  |--Agonoscelis Spinola 1837 G76
         |  |    |--*A. nubila (Fabricius 1775) [=Cimex nubilus] G76
         |  |    `--A. rutila (Fabricius 1775) [=Cimex rutilus] G76
         |  |--Anaxarchus G76
         |  |    |--A. pardalinus D14
         |  |    `--A. reyi (Montr. 1858) [=Pentatoma reyi] D14
         |  |--Eurinome G76
         |  |    |--E. inconspicua (Montr. 1858) [=Pentatoma inconspicua; incl. P. basiventris Sign. 1861] D14
         |  |    `--E. submarginalis G75
         |  |--Carpocoris Kolenati 1846 G76, L-SSY04
         |  |    |--C. fuscispinus H01
         |  |    |--C. lunulatus H01
         |  |    `--C. purpureipennis [incl. C. nigricornis] H01
         |  `--Hypogomphus Spinola 1850 G76
         |       |--*H. rugosus Spinola 1850 G76
         |       |--H. bipunctatus (Guérin-Méneville 1838) [=Platycoris bipunctata] G76
         |       |--H. bufo WEE70
         |       `--H. rotundatus (Dallas 1851) [=Mazium rotundatum] G76
         `--+--+--Murgantia histrionica G76
            |  `--Stenozygum Fieber 1861 G76
            |       |--S. coloratum [incl. *S. variegatum Fieber 1861] G76
            |       |--S. australe G76
            |       |--S. flavifrons Distant 1914 D14
            |       |--S. meridionale Gross 1976 G76
            |       |--S. miniatulum G76
            |       |--S. persignatum G76
            |       `--S. speciosum G76
            `--+--Antestiaria G75
               `--+--+--Alciphron glaucus G76
                  |  |--Chlorocoris subrugosus G76
                  |  |--Acrosternum hilare G76, H91
                  |  |--Pentatoma G75
                  |  |--Plautia G76
                  |  |    |--P. affinis G76
                  |  |    `--P. brunnipennis (Montr. 1861) [=Pentatoma brunnipennis] D14
                  |  |--Glaucias G76
                  |  |    |--G. amyoti G76
                  |  |    |--G. impar G76
                  |  |    `--G. sulcata G76
                  |  `--Nezara Amyot & Serville 1843 G76
                  |       |--N. viridula (Linnaeus 1758) [=Cimex viridulus] G76
                  |       |    |--N. v. viridula G76
                  |       |    `--*N. v. smaragdula (Fabricius 1775) [=Cimex smaragdulus] G76
                  |       `--N. heegeri G89
                  `--+--Cuspicona G76
                     |--Morna Stål 1867 G76
                     |    `--M. florens (Walker 1867) [=Cuspicona florens; incl. *M. cornuta Haglund 1868] G76
                     |--Petalaspis Bergroth 1916 G76
                     |    `--*P. tescorum Bergroth 1916 G76
                     |--Everardia Gross 1975 G76
                     |    `--*E. picta Gross 1975 G76
                     |--Diaphyta Bergroth 1891 (see below for synonymy) G76
                     |    |--D. fulvescens (Dallas 1851) (see below for synonymy) G76
                     |    |--D. pulchra (Dallas 1851) [=Cuspicona pulchra] G76
                     |    |--D. rosea Bergroth 1912 G76
                     |    `--D. tasmani (Distant 1910) [=Vandiemenia tasmani] G76
                     `--Ocirrhoe Stål 1867 G76
                          |--O. australis (Westwood 1837) (see below for synonymy) G76
                          |--O. coronata Gross 1975 G76
                          |--O. dallasi Gross 1975 G76
                          |--O. lutescens Distant 1900 G76
                          |--O. prasinata (Stål 1859) [=Cuspicona prasinata] G76
                          |--O. unimaculata (Westwood 1837) (see below for synonymy) G76
                          `--O. wilsoni Gross 1975 G76

Pentatominae incertae sedis:
  Halyomorpha D14
    |--H. canalana Distant 1914 D14
    `--H. picus H01
  Ambybelus elegans Montr. 1864 D14
  Catacanthus G76
    |--C. carrenoi (Le Guillon 1841) D14 [=Raphigaster carrenoi D14; incl. Cermatulus pulcher G75]
    |--C. incarnatus G76
    |--C. nigripes C91
    |--C. punctus G76
    `--C. viridicatus Distant 1881 K08
  Hypsithocus Bergroth 1927 B27
    `--*H. hudsonae Bergroth 1927 B27
  Bathycoelia Amyot & Serville 1843 [incl. Furtina Stal 1867, Gastraulax Herr. 1844] D14
    `--B. longirostris Montr. 1861 [=Furtina longirostris, Gastraulax longirostris] D14
  Cosmopepla ingressa [=Eysarcoris ingressus] G76
  Sepontia G76
  Stagonomus G76
  Amblycara gladiatora G76
  Hyrmine Stål 1876 G76
    |--*H. sexpunctata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Cimex sexpunctatus] G76
    `--H. dispar (Westwood 1837) G76
  Parocirrhoe G76
  Graphosoma G75
    |--G. italicum I92
    `--G. rubrolineatum G75
  Aeschrus G75
  Aeliini [Aeptini, Dymantaria] G75
    |--Dymantis G75
    `--Aelia G75
         |--A. acuminata H01
         |--A. americana G75
         `--A. sibirica H01
  Galgacus labidus (Erichson 1842) [incl. Dictyotus macer Walker 1867] G75
  Myrocharia G75
  Andrallus CGW91
  Oechalia Stål 1862 CGW91, G75
    `--*O. schellenbergii (Guérin-Méneville 1831) (see below for synonymy) G75
  Platynopus melacanthus (Boisduval 1835) CGW91, D14 [=Pentatoma melacanthum D14]
  Amyotea CGW91
  Cermatulus Dallas 1851 CGW91, G75
    `--*C. nasalis (Westwood 1837) [=Aelia nasalis] G75
  Jalloides Schouteden 1907 G75
    `--*J. rubricosus (Stål 1870) [=Jalla rubricosa] G75
  Sciocoris H01 [Sciocorinae, Sciocorini WEE70]
    |--S. microphthalmus H01
    |--S. obscurus Dallas 1851 G76
    `--S. umbrinus H01

Diaphyta Bergroth 1891 [=Periboea Stål 1867 (preoc.) non Kunth 1843 (ICBN); incl. Vandiemenia Distant 1910] G76

Diaphyta fulvescens (Dallas 1851) [=Cuspicona fulvescens; incl. C. pulchra Stål 1867 non Dallas 1851, *Diaphyta pulchra, *Periboea pulchra] G76

Dictyotus caenosus (Westwood 1837) [=Pentatoma caenosus; incl. D. bipunctatus Dallas 1851, P. latifrons Walker 1867, D. plebejus Stål 1859, D. polysticticus White in Dallas 1857, Pentatoma tibialis Walker 1867, P. vilis Walker 1867] G75

Eurydema dominulus [incl. Strachia festiva var. albiventris, E. dominulus var. dauricum, E. dominulus var. lhesgica] H01

Eurydema oleraceum (Linnaeus 1758) L-SSY04 [incl. E. oleraceum var. angulare H01, E. oleraceum var. annulatum H01, E. oleraceum var. consimile H01]

Kapunda troughtoni (Distant 1910) [=Sciocoris troughtoni; incl. S. herrmansi Distant 1910, S. rubens Distant 1910, *Kapunda typica Distant 1911] G76

*Monteithiella humeralis (Walker 1868) [=Strachia humeralis; incl. Antestia orbona, Pentatoma pallipes Dallas 1851 non Westwood 1837] G76

Ocirrhoe australis (Westwood 1837) [=Rhynchocoris australis; incl. Cuspicona inconspicua Stål 1867 non Dallas 1851, *Ocirrhoe inconspicua] G76

Ocirrhoe unimaculata (Westwood 1837) [=Rhynchocoris unimaculata; incl. Acanthosoma chlorophila Walker 1867] G76

*Oechalia schellenbergii (Guérin-Méneville 1831) [=Pentatoma schellenbergii; incl. O. consocialis] G75

Omyta centrolineata (Westwood 1837) G76 [=Atelocerus centrolineatus G76, Poecilotoma centrolineata G75; incl. *O. deyrollei Spinola 1850 G76]

*Paramenestheus terricolor Breddin 1900 [incl. P. abditus Bergroth 1916, P. brevis (Van Duzee 1905), P. semoni (Horvarth 1900)] G75

Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin 1790) [=Cimex hybneri; incl. C. rubrofasciatus Fabricius 1787 non De Geer 1783, Piezodorus rubrofasciatus] G76

Piezodorus lituratus (Fabricius 1794) L-SSY04 [=Cimex lituratus G76; incl. P. lituratus var. alliaceus H01, *P. degeeri Fieber 1861 G76]

*Theseus modestus (Stål 1865) [=Poecilometis modestus; incl. Spudeus lyricus Distant 1899, Theseus lyricus, T. nigrescens Distant 1910, Poecilometis plenus Walker 1869, P. scutellatus Distant 1899, Theseus turneri Distant 1910] G76

*Tholosanus proximus (Dallas 1851) [=Sciocoris proximus; incl. Pentatoma laticeps Walker 1867, Dictyotus laticeps, T. piceatus Distant 1910] G75

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B27] Bergroth, E. 1927. Hemiptera Heteroptera from New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 671–684.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 Heft 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119–138.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[R74] Rolston, L. H. 1974. Revision of the genus Euschistus in Middle America (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini). Entomologica Americana 48 (1): 1–102.

[SS02] Sweet, M. H. & C. W. Schaefer. 2002. Parastrachiinae (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) raised to family level. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95: 441–448.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.