Assamiidae

Dorsum of Erecella flava, from Roewer (1935).


Belongs within: Grassatores.
Contains: Irumuinae, Sidaminae, Assamiinae, Polycoryphinae, Dampetrinae, Selencinae, Trionyxellinae, Hypoxestinae, Metereca, Ereca, Chilon.

The Assamiidae are a family of short-legged harvestmen found in tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World.

Characters (from Santos & Prieto 2010): Prosomal shield with five processes on frontal border (central, two internal lateral and two lateral external or marginal); pedipalps not very long, tibia and tarsus dorsoventrally flattened and crossed one on another; penis with distally enlarged trunk (ventral lamina), sometimes bilobed, with variable envelope of membranes; glans cylindrical, subdistal, housing spiny or warty evaginable membrane in the shape of a funnel.

Assamiidae [Assamioidae]
    |--+--Selencinae SG11
    |  `--+--+--Arulla SG11
    |     |  `--Tarnus pulcher SG11
    |     `--+--Trionyxellinae SG11
    |        `--+--Hypoxestinae SG11
    |           `--+--Paktongius SG11
    |              `--Mysoreinae R35
    |                   |--Typestus Roewer 1935 R35
    |                   |    `--*T. sulcatus Roewer 1935 R35
    |                   |--Attakattius Roewer 1929 R35
    |                   |    `--A. spinifrons Roewer 1929 R35
    |                   `--Mysorea Roewer 1935 SG11, R35
    |                        |--*M. brevipus Roewer 1935 R35
    |                        `--M. thaiensis Suzuki 1985 SG11
    `--Erecinae [Tsadseinae] SP10
         |--Metereca SP10
         |--Ereca SP10
         |--Chilon SG11
         |--Valpara Roewer 1929 R35
         |    `--V. albitarsis Roewer 1929 R35
         |--Kukkala Roewer 1929 R35
         |    `--K. trispinifrons Roewer 1929 R35
         |--Mandaria Roewer 1935 SP10
         |    `--*M. caeca Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Merucola Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--*M. granulatus Roewer 1935 [=M. granulata] R35
         |--Dodabetta Roewer 1929 R35
         |    `--D. conigera Roewer 1929 R35
         |--Djemia Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--*D. cooperi Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Wintonia Roewer 1923 SP10
         |    `--*W. scabra Roewer 1923 R35
         |--Sacesphorus Thorell 1889 R35
         |    `--*S. maculatus Thorell 1889 T89
         |--Parapygoplus Roewer 1912 R35
         |    `--P. variatus (Thorell 1889) [=Pygoplus variatus] R35
         |--Irnia Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--*I. scabra Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Bibundina Roewer 1935 SP10
         |    `--*B. pectinata Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Baeorix Thorell 1889 R35 [=Boeorix R23]
         |    `--*B. manducus Thorell 1889 T89 [=Boeorix manducus R23]
         |--Lepchana Roewer 1927 R35
         |    `--L. spinipalpis Roewer 1927 M77
         |--Eubaeorix Roewer 1912 R35 [=Euboeorix (l. c.) R23]
         |    `--E. gravelyi Roewer 1912 R35 [=Euboeorix (l. c.) gravelyi R23]
         |--Sijucavernicus Roewer 1923 R35
         |    `--S. kempi Roewer 1923 R35
         |--Fakoa Roewer 1923 SP10
         |    `--*F. spinulata (Roewer 1915) [=Acanthophrysella spinulata] S92
         |--Buemba Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--*B. filipes Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Tetecus Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--*T. tenuis Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Metapygoplus Roewer 1923 R35
         |    `--*M. intermedius (Loman 1892) [=Pygoplus intermedius] R35
         |--Gapotus Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--*G. frontalis Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Vandarawella Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--*V. bicolor Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Cereoides Roewer 1935 SP10
         |    `--*C. nebulosa (Sørensen 1896) [=Cerea nebulosa] R35
         |--Cereipes Roewer 1935 SP10
         |    `--*C. angusta (Roewer 1912) S92 [=Cerea angusta R35]
         |--Acanthophrysella Strand 1911 R35 [=Acanthophrys Loman 1902 non Milne Edwards 1865 R23]
         |    `--*A. pectinata (Loman 1902) S92 [=Acanthophrys pectinata R35]
         |--Anjolus Goodnight & Goodnight 1948 GG48
         |    `--*A. malkini Goodnight & Goodnight 1948 GG48
         |--Mbinia Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
         |    `--*M. xenophora Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
         |--Cardwella Roewer 1935 SP10
         |    `--*C. atar (Sørensen in Henriksen 1932) [=Wintonia atar, Dampetrus atar ms] R35
         |--Ivocoryphus Lawrence 1965 SP10
         |    `--*I. jezequeli Lawrence 1965 S92
         |--Neocoryphus Lawrence 1965 SP10
         |    `--*N. niger Lawrence 1965 S92
         |--Cereodiscus Roewer 1935 SP10
         |    `--*C. lesserti Roewer 1940 S92
         |--Ereala Roewer 1950 SP10 [incl. Faradjea Roewer 1950 S92]
         |    `--*E. armata Roewer 1950 [incl. Faradjea schoutedeni Roewer 1950] S92
         |--Eregonda Roewer 1950 SP10
         |    `--*E. tenuis Roewer 1950 S92
         |--Termitereca Roewer 1940 SP10
         |    `--*T. singularis Roewer 1940 S92
         |--Angolyppa Lawrence 1957 SP10
         |    `--*A. scabra Lawrence 1957 S92
         |--Angopygoplus Lawrence 1951 SP10
         |    `--*A. dentichelis Lawrence 1951 S92
         |--Montereca Lawrence 1962 L62
         |    `--*M. paucidens Lawrence 1962 S92
         |--Bundukia Lawrence 1962 L62
         |    `--*B. nigra Lawrence 1962 S92
         |--Roewereca Lawrence 1962 L62
         |    `--*R. tenebrosa Lawrence 1962 S92
         |--Neobaeorix Lawrence 1962 L62
         |    `--*N. cornuta Lawrence 1962 S92
         |--Aberdereca Goodnight & Goodnight 1959 L62, S92
         |    `--*A. parva Goodnight & Goodnight 1959 S92
         |--Erebalda Roewer 1940 L62, S92
         |    `--*E. cryptostigma Roewer 1940 S92
         |--Erecops Roewer 1940 L62, S92
         |    `--*E. multispina Roewer 1940 S92
         |--Kakontwea Roewer 1951 L62, S92
         |    `--*K. leleupi Roewer 1951 S92
         |--Lubudia Roewer 1951 L62, S92
         |    `--*L. leleupi Roewer 1951 S92
         |--Kasaina Lawrence 1957 L62, S92
         |    `--*K. scabra Lawrence 1957 S92
         |--Allereca Roewer 1961 L62, S92
         |    `--*A. ruandana Roewer 1961 S92
         |--Comereca Roewer 1961 L62, S92
         |    `--*C. rectipes Roewer 1961 S92
         |--Buniabia Roewer 1961 L62, S92
         |    `--*B. filipes Roewer 1961 S92
         |--Bambereca Kauri 1985 K85
         |    `--*B. spinifrons Kauri 1985 S92
         |--Tubereca Kauri 1985 K85
         |    `--*T. biharaguana Kauri 1985 S92
         |--Neopygoplus Roewer 1923 R35
         |    |--N. jacobsoni Roewer 1923 R35
         |    `--N. siamensis Suzuki 1985 SG11
         |--Tundabia Roewer 1935 R35
         |    |--*T. semicaeca Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--T. ugandensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1959 S92
         |--Bulobana Roewer 1935 R35
         |    |--*B. octopunctata Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--B. infuscata Roewer 1940 S92
         |--Eupygoplus Roewer 1915 R35
         |    |--E. armatus Roewer 1915 R35
         |    `--E. gracilis Roewer 1927 R35
         |--Cerea Sørensen 1896 SP10
         |    |--*C. lugubris Sørensen 1896 S92
         |    `--C. feai Roewer 1927 S92 [=C. feae R35]
         |--Izea Roewer 1927 R35
         |    |--*I. pectinata Roewer 1927 S92
         |    `--I. armata Roewer 1935 R35
         |--Erecongoa Roewer 1950 SP10
         |    |--*E. gracilis Roewer 1950 S92
         |    `--E. granulata Roewer 1952 S92
         |--Lygippus Roewer 1940 SP10
         |    |--*L. abdominalis Roewer 1940 S92
         |    `--L. machadoi Lawrence 1951 S92
         |--Erecabia Roewer 1940 L62, S92
         |    |--*E. hartmanni Roewer 1940 S92
         |    `--E. pluridens Lawrence 1962 S92
         |--Erecomma Roewer 1940 L62, S92
         |    |--*E. montana Roewer 1940 S92
         |    `--E. laurenti Roewer 1961 S92
         |--Cereatta Roewer 1935 R35
         |    |--*C. celeripes (Loman 1910) S92 [=Cerea celeripes R35]
         |    |--C. elegans Roewer 1935 R35
         |    `--C. kivuensis Roewer 1961 S92
         |--Pygoplus Thorell 1889 R35
         |    |--*P. obscurus Thorell 1889 T89
         |    |--P. ferrugineus Thorell 1889 R35
         |    `--P. trifasciatus Thorell 1889 R35
         |--‘Macrobunus’ Roewer 1912 non Tullgren 1901 R35
         |    |--M. aborensis Roewer 1913 R35
         |    |--M. longipes Roewer 1913 R35
         |    `--M. singularis Roewer 1912 R35
         |--Callereca Roewer 1940 SP10
         |    |--*C. gracilis Roewer 1940 S92
         |    |--C. angolensis Lawrence 1949 S92
         |    `--C. teteana Roewer 1954 S92
         |--Cryptopygoplus Lawrence 1931 R35 [incl. Lawrenciola Roewer 1935 L11]
         |    |--*C. africanus Lawrence 1931 S92
         |    |--C. capriviensis Lotz 2011 L11
         |    |--C. coronatus Staręga & Snegovaya 2009 L11
         |    |--C. damaranus Lawrence 1931 [=*Lawrenciola damarana] S92
         |    `--C. rhodesianus Lawrence 1931 [=Lawrenciola rhodesiana] R35
         |--Propygoplus Roewer 1923 R35, M77 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*P. maculatus (Roewer 1912) [=Parapygoplus maculatus] M77
         |    |--*Karsianga’ rugosa Roewer 1940 M77
         |    |--*Sikkimula’ scabrisoma Roewer 1940 M77
         |    |--P. siwalik Martens 1977 M77
         |    `--*Sikkimella’ tenuipes Roewer 1927 M77
         |--Lygippulus Roewer 1954 L62, S92
         |    |--*L. major Roewer 1954 S92
         |    |--L. nigrescens Roewer 1961 S92
         |    |--L. parvulus Roewer 1954 S92
         |    |--L. scaber Roewer 1954 S92
         |    `--L. setipes Roewer 1961 S92
         |--Erecula Roewer 1935 R35
         |    |--*E. pachypes Roewer 1935 R35
         |    |--E. cincta Roewer 1961 S92
         |    |--E. crassipes Kauri 1985 S92
         |    |--E. leleupi Lawrence 1962 S92
         |    |--E. marmorata Roewer 1940 S92
         |    |--E. novemdentata Roewer 1961 S92
         |    `--E. septemdentata Lawrence 1957 S92
         `--Erecella Roewer 1935 R35
              |--*E. lutea Roewer 1935 S92
              |--E. basilewskyi Lawrence 1962 S92
              |--E. biseriata Roewer 1961 S92
              |--E. brunnea Roewer 1940 S92
              |--E. flava Roewer 1935 R35
              |--E. nigropicta Roewer 1961 S92
              |--E. signata Roewer 1950 S92
              |--E. transversalis Roewer 1961 S92
              `--E. walikaleana Kauri 1985 S92

Assamiidae incertae sedis:
  Sokodea Roewer 1935 R35
    `--*S. caeca Roewer 1935 R35
  Maccabeesa Roewer 1936 S92
    `--*M. lawrencei Roewer 1936 S92
  Aburistella Lawrence 1947 S92
    `--A. flava Lawrence 1947 S92
  Afroassamia Caporiacco 1940 S92
    `--*A. laevipes Caporiacco 1940 S92
  Bancoella Lawrence 1947 S92
    `--*B. bimaculata Lawrence 1947 S92
  Banconyx Lawrence 1947 S92
    `--*B. dentichelis Lawrence 1947 S92
  Cleoxestus Roewer 1954 S92
    `--*C. luteipictus Roewer 1954 S92
  Irumuinae SP10
  Kungwea Roewer 1961 S92
    `--K. scabra Roewer 1961 S92
  Lukandamila Roewer 1961 S92
    `--L. cookei Roewer 1961 S92
  Simienatus Roewer 1956 S92
    `--*S. scotti Roewer 1956 S92
  Typhloburista Lawrence 1947 S92
    `--*T. pusilla Lawrence 1947 S92
  Acacinae SP10
    |--Acaca Roewer 1935 R35 [incl. Pseudoacaca Caporiacco 1949 S92]
    |    |--*A. albatra Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--A. liobuniformis (Caporiacco 1949) [=Pseudoacaca liobuniformis] S92
    `--Acanthacaca Roewer 1952 L62, S92
         |--*A. upembensis Roewer 1952 S92
         `--A. katumbea Roewer 1961 S92
  Pungoica Roewer 1914 R35 [incl. Pungoiella Roewer 1914 S92, Pygoselenca Roewer 1953 S92; Pungoicinae]
    |--*P. simoni Roewer 1914 S92
    `--P. bifurcata (Roewer 1914) (see below for synonymy) S92
  Aburistinae SP10
    |--Aburista Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*A. termitarum Roewer 1935 R35
    `--Typhlobunellus Roewer 1927 R35
         |--*T. formicarum Roewer 1927 S92
         `--T. platypalpis Lawrence 1947 S92
  Opcochinae R35
    |--Drugius Roewer 1929 R35
    |    `--D. parvus Roewer 1929 R35
    |--Trionyxana Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--T. gracilipes Roewer 1927 R35
    `--Opcochina Roewer 1927 R35
         |--O. carli Roewer 1929 R35
         `--O. gravelyi Roewer 1927 R35
  Sidaminae SP10
  Assamiinae SP10
  Polycoryphinae SP10
  Dampetrinae SP10
  Parazalmoxis Roewer 1913 S92
    `--*P. africana Roewer 1913 (see below for synonymy) S92
  Nsorkia dorsicana SG11

Dicoryphus Loman 1902 R35 [incl. Coelobunus Loman 1902 S92, Caelobunus R23, Metarhabdopygus Roewer 1913 R35]

Dicoryphus melanacanthus (Loman 1902) [=Coelobunus melanacanthus, Caelobunus melanacanthus; incl. Co. fuscus Roewer 1912, Ca. fuscus] S92

*Parazalmoxis africana Roewer 1913 [incl. Hypoxestus holmi Goodnight & Goodnight 1959, P. roeweri Caporiacco 1949] S92

Propygoplus Roewer 1923 R35, M77 [incl. Karsianga Roewer 1940 M77, Sikkimella Roewer 1927 M77, Sikkimula Roewer 1940 M77]

Pungoica bifurcata (Roewer 1914) [=Pungoiella bifurcata; incl. Pygoselenca albisignata Roewer 1953, Pungoica decorata Lawrence 1947] S92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GG48] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1948. New phalangids from the Southwest Pacific. American Museum Novitates 1371: 1–14.

[K85] Kauri, H. 1985. Opiliones from central Africa. Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Turveren, België, Zoologische Wetenschappen, Annalen 245: 1–167.

[L62] Lawrence, R. F. 1962. Resultats scientifiques des missions zoologiques de l'I.R.S.A.C. en Afrique orientale (P. Basilewsky et N. Leleup, 1957). LXXIV. Opiliones. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale: Sciences Zoologiques 110: 9–89.

[L11] Lotz, L. N. 2011. Three new harvestmen species from southern Africa (Arachnida: Opiliones: Caddidae, Neopilionidae, Assamiidae). Journal of Afrotropical Zoology 7: 3–8.

[M77] Martens, J. 1977. Opiliones aus dem Nepal-Himalaya. III. Oncopodidae, Phalangodidae, Assamiidae (Arachnida). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (4–6): 295–340.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[R35] Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[SP10] Santos, R., & C. E. Prieto. 2010. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae) de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial), con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58 (1): 203–243.

[SG11] Sharma, P. P., & G. Giribet. 2011. The evolutionary and biogeographic history of the armoured harvestmen—Laniatores phylogeny based on ten molecular markers, with the description of two new families of Opiliones (Arachnida). Invertebrate Systematics 25: 106–142.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

[T89] Thorell, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XXI.—Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885–1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 521–729.

Trionyxellinae

Dorsum of Trionyxella granulata, from Roewer (1935).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

The Trionyxellinae are a group of harvestmen found in southern Africa and Asia, characterised by the presence of a pseudonychium between the true claws.

Characters (from Roewer 1935): Anterior margin of the carapace unarmed medially; spiracles concealed by chitinous projections; femur of pedipalp with short ventral teeth; distitarsus I two-segmented; tarsi III and IV with simple claws, with pseudonychium present over claws.

<==Trionyxellinae [Trionyxellidae]
    |--Triaenopodium Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--T. tarsalis Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Kandyca Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--K. minima Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Nuwaria Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--N. granulata Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Nilgirius Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--N. scaber Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Calloristus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*C. granipes Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Balnissa Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*B. parva Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Brysma Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*B. atra Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Trionychiperna Roewer 1929 R35
    |    `--T. carli Roewer 1929 R35
    |--Sampitius Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*S. opacus Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Dulitellus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--*D. maculatus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--D. sarawakensis WP-G10
    |--Namutonia Lawrence 1931 R35 [incl. Gobabisia Roewer 1940 S92]
    |    |--*N. scabra Lawrence 1931 S92
    |    `--N. wuehlischi (Roewer 1940) [=Gobabisia wuehlischi] S92
    |--Trionyxella Roewer 1912 R35
    |    |--T. clavipus Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--T. granulata Roewer 1935 R35
    `--Randilella Lawrence 1963 L63
         `--*R. transvaalensis Lawrence 1963 S92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L63] Lawrence, R. F. 1963. The Opiliones of the Transvaal. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 24 (4): 275–304.

[R35] Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

[WP-G10] Willemart, R. H., A. Pérez-González, J.-P. Farine & P. Gnaspini. 2010. Sexually dimorphic tegumental gland openings in Laniatores (Arachnida, Opiliones), with new data on 23 species. Journal of Morphology 271 (6): 641–653.

Polycoryphinae

Diagnostic features of Pashokia yamadai, from Martens (1977).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

The Polycoryphinae are a group of assamiid harvestmen found in southern Asia and central and eastern Africa (Santos & Prieto 2010).

Characters (from Santos & Prieto 2010): Anterior margin of carapace bearing frontal spine; spiracles concealed by chitinous projections; femur of pedipalp with short ventral teeth; distitarsus I two-segmented; metatarsus II undivided; tarsi III and IV with smooth claws.

<==Polycoryphinae
    |--Polycoryphus Loman 1902 SP10
    |    `--*P. asper Loman 1902 S92
    |--Pykara Roewer 1929 R35
    |    `--P. coxalis Roewer 1929 R35
    |--Kodaika Roewer 1929 R35
    |    `--K. escheri Roewer 1929 R35
    |--Koyna Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--K. spinulata Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Oppalnia Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--O. brevipes Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Phalcochina Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--P. albistriata Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Anaimalus Roewer 1929 R35
    |    `--A. gibbulus Roewer 1929 R35
    |--Panchganius Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*P. blatteri Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Mormuga Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--M. uncifrons Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Mudumalus Roewer 1929 R35
    |    `--M. partialis Roewer 1929 R35
    |--Kavalaica Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--K. atroscutata Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Maracandinus Roewer 1912 SP10 [=Maracandus Pavesi 1895 non Simon 1879 K85]
    |    `--*M. rubrofemoratus (Pavesi 1895) [=Maracandus (Assamia) rubrofemoratus] S92
    |--Harpenna Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*H. denticulata Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Gulufia Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*G. frontalis Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Thomecola Roewer 1927 SP10
    |    `--*T. quadrispina (Roewer 1927) [=Santhomea quadrispina] S92
    |--Palmanella Roewer 1927 SP10
    |    `--*P. tigrina Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Henriquea Roewer 1927 SP10
    |    `--*H. spinigera Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Santhomea Roewer 1927 SP10
    |    `--*S. scabra Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Bueana Roewer 1927 SP10
    |    `--*B. ephippiata Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Sonega Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*S. scututa Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Binderella Roewer 1935 SP10 [incl. Tengelinia Roewer 1935 S92]
    |    `--*B. bistriata Roewer 1935 R35 [incl. *Tengelinia paradoxa Roewer 1935 R35, S92]
    |--Parakodaika Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 SP10
    |    `--*P. angolae Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 S92
    |--Ayenea Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |    `--*A. trimaculata Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |--Montalenia Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |    `--*M. forficula Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |--Niefanga Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |    `--*N. spinosa Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |--Pulchrandrus Kauri 1985 K85
    |    `--*P. longimanus Kauri 1985 S92
    |--Uviranus Kauri 1985 SP10
    |    `--*U. echinops Kauri 1985 S92
    |--Maracandellus Roewer 1923 R35
    |    |--*M. rhinoceros (Thorell 1889) [=Maracandus rhinoceros] R35
    |    `--M. bidentatus Suzuki 1985 SP10
    |--Senarba Roewer 1927 R35
    |    |--S. acanthicoxa Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--S. rudicoxa Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Maracandus Simon 1879 R35
    |    |--M. macei Simon 1879 R35
    |    `--M. monhoti Simon 1879 R35
    |--Paramaracandus SP10
    |    |--P. fuscus Suzuki 1976 S82
    |    `--P. sexdentatus Suzuki 1985 SP10
    |--Procoryphus Roewer 1950 SP10
    |    |--*P. multispinatus Roewer 1950 S92
    |    `--P. straeleni Roewer 1952 S92
    |--Pashokia Roewer 1927 R35
    |    |--P. laeviscutum Roewer 1927 R35
    |    |--P. maxima Martens 1977 M77
    |    |--P. mutatrix Martens 1977 M77
    |    |--P. silhavyi Martens 1977 M77
    |    `--P. yamadai Suzuki 1970 M77
    `--Villiersiella coxalis R59

Nomen nudum: Bueana quadridentata Prieto 1999 SP10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K85] Kauri, H. 1985. Opiliones from central Africa. Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Turveren, België, Zoologische Wetenschappen, Annalen 245: 1–167.

[M77] Martens, J. 1977. Opiliones aus dem Nepal-Himalaya. III. Oncopodidae, Phalangodidae, Assamiidae (Arachnida). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (4–6): 295–340.

[R35] Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[R59] Roewer, C. F. 1959. Opiliones der II. Mont Nimba-Collection von Prof. M. Lamotte. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, 2e série 31 (3): 355–358.

[SP10] Santos, R., & C. E. Prieto. 2010. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae) de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial), con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58 (1): 203–243.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

[S82] Suzuki, S. 1982. A small collection of harvestmen from Malaysia (Opiliones, Arachnida). Acta Arachnologica 31 (1): 27–34.

Sidaminae

Marua spinosa, from Roewer (1935).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

The Sidaminae are a group of assamiid harvestmen found in Africa with large ventral spines on the pedipalp.

Characters (from Santos & Prieto 2010): Femur of pedipalp with large ventral spines; distitarsus I two-segmented; metatarsus II undivided; tarsi III and IV with smooth claws.

<==Sidaminae [Maruinae] SP10
    |--Eusidama Roewer 1913 R35
    |    `--*E. minima Roewer 1913 S92
    |--Edeala Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--*E. palpiplus Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Blantyrea Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--*B. armata Roewer 1912 S92
    |--Congolla Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*C. hispidipalpus Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Neosidama Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--*N. longipes Roewer 1915 S92
    |--Congonia Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*C. spinifrons Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Vilhena Lawrence 1949 L49
    |    `--*V. delicata Lawrence 1949 L49
    |--Scabrosidama Lawrence 1962 L62
    |    `--*S. serratichelis Lawrence 1962 S92
    |--Lisposidama Lawrence 1962 L62
    |    `--*L. filipes Lawrence 1962 S92
    |--Abanatus Roewer 1950 L62, S92
    |    `--*A. beloti Roewer 1950 S92
    |--Celimba Roewer 1940 L62, S92
    |    `--*C. parvula Roewer 1940 S92
    |--Fizibius Roewer 1961 L62, S92
    |    `--*F. proprius Roewer 1961 S92
    |--Mwenga Kauri 1985 K85
    |    `--*M. setosa Kauri 1985 S92
    |--Kituvia Kauri 1985 K85
    |    `--*K. spinifera Kauri 1985 S92
    |--Katangania Kauri 1985 K85
    |    `--*K. monticola Kauri 1985 S92
    |--Orsimonia Roewer 1935 R35 [incl. Othmar Roewer 1935 S92]
    |    |--*O. filipes Roewer 1935 S92
    |    `--O. gracillima (Roewer 1935) S92 [=*Othmar gracillimus R35]
    |--Amhara Pavesi 1897 SP10 [incl. Argobba Roewer 1935 S92, Harsadia Roewer 1935 S92; Harsadiinae]
    |    |--*A. grata Pavesi 1897 S92 [incl. *Harsadia spinosa Roewer 1935 R35, S92]
    |    `--A. nigrescens (Roewer 1935) S92 [=*Argobba nigrescens R35]
    |--Metasidama Roewer 1915 R35
    |    |--*M. ephippiata Roewer 1915 S92
    |    `--M. gracilis Lawrence 1962 S92
    |--Sidama Pavesi 1895 R35 [incl. Phezilbus Roewer 1935 S92]
    |    |--*S. moesta Pavesi 1895 S92
    |    `--S. abessinica Roewer 1912 R35 [incl. *Phezilbus spiniger Roewer 1935 R35, S92]
    `--Marua Roewer 1935 R35
         |--*M. spinosa Roewer 1935 S92
         `--M. schenkeli Roewer 1935 R35

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K85] Kauri, H. 1985. Opiliones from central Africa. Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Turveren, België, Zoologische Wetenschappen, Annalen 245: 1–167.

[L49] Lawrence, R. F. 1949. A collection of Opiliones and scorpions from north-east Angola made by Dr. A. de Barros Machados in 1948. Diamang Publicações Culturais 1949: 1–20.

[L62] Lawrence, R. F. 1962. Resultats scientifiques des missions zoologiques de l'I.R.S.A.C. en Afrique orientale (P. Basilewsky et N. Leleup, 1957). LXXIV. Opiliones. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale: Sciences Zoologiques 110: 9–89.

[R35] Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[SP10] Santos, R. & C. E. Prieto. 2010. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae) de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial), con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58 (1): 203–243.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

Hypoxestinae

Diagnostic features of Hypoxestus glaber, from Kauri (1985).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

The Hypoxestinae are a group of assamiid harvestmen found in Africa and Asia (Santos & Prieto 2010).

Characters (from Santos & Prieto 2010): Anterior margin of carapace unarmed; spiracles visible, unprotected; femur of pedipalp with short ventral teeth; distitarsus I two-segmented; metatarsus II undivided; tarsi III and IV with smooth claws.

<==Hypoxestinae R35
    |--Scabrobunus Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--S. filipes Roewer 1912 R35
    |--Passula Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--P. scabricula Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Podaucheniellus Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--*P. bipalaris Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Nkogoa Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--*N. feai Roewer 1927 S92 [=N. feae R35]
    |--Findia Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--*F. atrolutea Roewer 1915 S92
    |--Congonella Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*C. frontalis Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Randilea Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*R. scabricula Roewer 1935 R35 [=Hypoxestus scabricula S92]
    |--Talaspus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*T. spinimanus Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Parasesostris Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--*P. granulatus Roewer 1915 S92
    |--Metasesostris Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--*M. armatus Roewer 1915 S92
    |--Tusipulla Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*T. coxalis Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Podauchenius Sørensen 1896 R35
    |    `--*P. longipes Sørensen 1896 S92
    |--Musola Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--*M. longipes Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Adamauna Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--*A. maculatipes Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Rhabdopygata Roewer 1954 SP10, S92
    |    `--*R. mossambica Roewer 1954 S92
    |--Lossida Roewer 1935 L62, R35
    |    `--*L. rugosa Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Lossidacola Roewer 1935 L62, R35
    |    `--*L. pachytarsus Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Bwitonatus Roewer 1950 L62, S92
    |    `--*B. marlieri Roewer 1950 S92
    |--Leleupiolus Roewer 1951 L62, S92
    |    `--*L. marmoratus Roewer 1951 S92
    |--Mecutina Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--*M. filipes Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--M. moshinia Roewer 1940 S92
    |--Sesostranus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--*S. niger Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--S. longipes Roewer 1950 S92
    |--Bandona Roewer 1927 SG11, R35
    |    |--B. boninensis Suzuki 1974 S78
    |    `--B. palpalis Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Hypoxestinus Roewer 1927 R35
    |    |--*H. nkogoi Roewer 1927 S92
    |    `--H. frontalis Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Rhabdopygella Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--*R. laevis Roewer 1935 S92
    |    `--R. ferruginea Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Dongila Roewer 1927 R35
    |    |--*D. spinosa Roewer 1927 S92
    |    `--D. silvatica Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Mabwella Roewer 1952 L62, S92
    |    |--*M. wittei Roewer 1952 S92
    |    `--M. trochanteralis Roewer 1954 S92
    |--Sesostrellus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--*S. robustus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--S. gibbosus Kauri 1985 S92
    |    `--S. umbonatus (Roewer 1935) [=Sesostris umbonatus] S92
    |--Doloressus Roewer 1935 [incl. Ealabius Roewer 1950] K85
    |    |--*D. cippatus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--D. filipes Lawrence 1949 S92
    |    |--D. ghesquierei (Roewer 1950) [=Ealabius ghesquierei] S92
    |    `--D. palmgreni Kauri 1985 S92
    |--Dicoryphus Loman 1902 R35 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*D. furvus Loman 1902 S92
    |    |--D. ater (Lawrence 1962) [=Caelobunus ater] S92
    |    |--D. jeanneli (Roewer 1913) [=Metarhabdopygus jeanneli, Caelobunus jeanneli] S92
    |    `--D. melanacanthus (Loman 1902) (see below for synonymy) S92
    |--Sesostris Sørensen 1910 R35
    |    |--*S. gracilis Sørensen 1910 S92
    |    |--S. brevipes Kauri 1985 S92
    |    |--S. insulanus Roewer 1912 R35
    |    |--S. maculatus Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--S. maculifer Kauri 1985 [=S. maculiferus] S92
    |--Viglua Roewer 1940 SP10
    |    |--*V. brunnipes Roewer 1940 S92
    |    `--V. machadoi Lawrence 1949 S92
    |         |--V. m. machadoi S92
    |         |--V. m. granulosa Lawrence 1957 S92
    |         `--V. m. major Lawrence 1949 [=V. majora] S92
    |--Spinixestus Roewer 1952 L62, S92
    |    |--*S. armatus Roewer 1952 S92
    |    |--S. benderanus Kauri 1985 S92
    |    |--S. leleupi Kauri 1985 S92
    |    |--S. polycuspidatus Kauri 1985 S92
    |    |--S. rufus Roewer 1952 S92
    |    `--S. siteteus Roewer 1961 S92
    |--Rhabdopygus Roewer 1912 R35
    |    |--*R. fuscus Roewer 1912 S92
    |    |--R. benoiti Kauri 1985 S92
    |    |--R. funilignorum Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |    |--R. maculatus Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--R. puylaerti Bauer & Prieto 2009 SP10
    |    |--R. robustus Lawrence 1957 S92
    |    |--R. rugipalpis Roewer 1952 S92
    |    `--R. termitarum Roewer 1951 S92
    `--Hypoxestus Loman 1902 S92 [=Amasilla Strand 1911 R23, Amasis Sørensen 1910 R23]
         |  i. s.: H. bituberculatus Lawrence 1962 S92
         |         H. coxicornis Roewer 1940 S92
         |         H. patellaris (Sørensen 1910) [=Amasis patellaris] S92
         |         H. planus Goodnight & Goodnight 1959 S92
         |         H. roeweri Staręga 1992 [=Randilea obscura Roewer 1952 non H. obscurus Roewer 1912] S92
         |         H. trituberculatus Lawrence 1962 S92
         |--*H. (Hypoxestus) levis Loman 1902 (see below for synonymy) S92
         `--H. (Lomanus Kauri 1985) K85
              |--H. (*L.) glaber Kauri 1985 K85
              |--H. (L.) ealanus Kauri 1985 K85
              `--H. (L.) scaphoides Kauri 1985 K85

*Hypoxestus (Hypoxestus) levis Loman 1902 [incl. Amasis accentuatus Sørensen 1910, H. accentuatus, A. mesoleucus Sørensen 1910, H. mesoleucus, H. obscurus Roewer 1912, Amasis quadricornis Sørensen 1910, H. quadricornis] S92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[K85] Kauri, H. 1985. Opiliones from central Africa. Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Turveren, België, Zoologische Wetenschappen, Annalen 245: 1–167.

[L62] Lawrence, R. F. 1962. Resultats scientifiques des missions zoologiques de l'I.R.S.A.C. en Afrique orientale (P. Basilewsky et N. Leleup, 1957). LXXIV. Opiliones. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale: Sciences Zoologiques 110: 9–89.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[R35] Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[SP10] Santos, R., & C. E. Prieto. 2010. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae) de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial), con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58 (1): 203–243.

[SG11] Sharma, P. P., & G. Giribet. 2011. The evolutionary and biogeographic history of the armoured harvestmen—Laniatores phylogeny based on ten molecular markers, with the description of two new families of Opiliones (Arachnida). Invertebrate Systematics 25: 106–142.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

[S78] Suzuki, S. 1978. Three harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) from the Bonin Islands. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 51 (3): 179–185.

Dampetrinae

Dorsum and male genitalia of Dampetrus granulatus, from Forster (1955).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

The Dampetrinae are a group of assamiid harvestmen found in south-east Asia and Australia (Roewer 1935).

Characters (from Roewer 1935): Frontal margin of carapace unarmed, without median denticle. Palpal femur with ventral spines shorter than diameter of femur. Stigmata hidden by row of denticles on posterior margin of coxa IV. Telotarsus I three-segmented; tarsi III and IV without pseudonychium above double claw; double claw of the tarsi III and IV simple, not toothed.

<==Dampetrinae [Dampetroidae]
    |--Metamosoia Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--M. echinata Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Metamermeris Roewer 1920 R35
    |    `--M. speculator Roewer 1920 R35
    |--Octobunus Roewer 1923 R35
    |    `--*O. singularis Roewer 1923 R23, F55
    |--Granobunus Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--G. ferrugineus Roewer 1912 R35
    |--Hyamus Thorell 1891 R35
    |    `--H. formosus Thorell 1891 R35
    |--Metadampetrus Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--M. sublaevis Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Paranothippus Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--P. singularis Roewer 1912 R35
    |--Neonothippus Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--N. marginalis Roewer 1912 R35
    |--Sermowaius Roewer 1923 R35
    |    `--*S. neoguinensis (Roewer 1913) [=Nothippus neoguinensis] R23
    |--Euwintonius Roewer 1923 R35
    |    `--*E. continentalis Roewer 1923 R23
    |--Nothippulus Roewer 1923 R35
    |    `--*N. atroluteus (Roewer 1912) [=Nothippus atroluteus] R23
    |--Heteropygoplus Roewer 1923 R35
    |    `--*H. sublaevis (Roewer 1915) R23, R35 [=Apygoplus sublaevis R35]
    |--Simalurius Roewer 1923 R35
    |    `--*S. jacobsoni Roewer 1923 R35
    |--Paradampetrus Giltay 1930 R35
    |    `--*P. leopoldi Giltay 1930 G30
    |--Dampetrellus Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--D. scaber Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Dongmolla Roewer 1927 R35
    |    `--D. silvestrii Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Pahangius Roewer 1923 R35
    |    `--*P. fasciatus Roewer 1923 R35
    |--Metanothippus Giltay 1930 R35
    |    `--*M. bicolor Giltay 1930 G30
    |--Mermerus Thorell 1876 R35
    |    |--*M. beccari Thorell 1876 T76, R35
    |    `--M. thorelli Banks 1930 B30
    |--Dunkeriana Roewer 1912 R35
    |    |--D. borneensis Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--D. neoguinensis Roewer 1912 R35
    |--Macrodampetrus Roewer 1915 R35
    |    |--M. bicoloripes Roewer 1915 R35
    |    `--M. unicoloripes Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Metahyamus Roewer 1923 R35
    |    |--*M. jacobsoni Roewer 1923 R23
    |    |--M. bicolor Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--M. variedentatus Suzuki 1976 S82
    |--Nothippus Thorell 1890 R35
    |    |--N. affinis Loman 1892 R35
    |    |--N. limbatus Thorell 1890 R35
    |    `--N. tigrinus Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Apygoplus Roewer 1912 R35
    |    |--A. bulbigerus Roewer 1913 R35
    |    |--A. longipes (Roewer 1911) [=Pygoplus longipes] R35
    |    `--A. marginatus Roewer 1915 R35
    |--Mosoia Roewer 1912 R35
    |    |--M. albiceps (Loman 1906) [=Maracandus albiceps] R35
    |    |--M. bulbigera Roewer 1915 R35
    |    |--M. gracilipes Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--M. saylori Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 GG47
    |--Sudaria Roewer 1923 R35
    |    |--*S. sarasinorum (Roewer 1913) R23, R35 [=Apygoplus sarasinorum R35]
    |    |--S. atrolutea Roewer 1935 R35
    |    |--S. jacobsoni Roewer 1923 R35
    |    `--S. simaluris Roewer 1923 R35
    `--Dampetrus Karsch 1880 [incl. Eudampetrus Roewer 1935] R35
         |--*D. australis Karsch 1880 S01 [incl. D. fuscus Sørensen 1886 F55, D. tuberculatus Sørensen 1886 F55]
         |--D. geniculatus Sørensen 1886 F55 [=*Eudampetrus geniculatus R35]
         |--D. gracilis Forster 1949 F49
         |--D. granulatus Sørensen 1886 S01 [incl. D. cristatus Sørensen 1886 F55]
         |--D. isolatus Shear 2001 S01
         `--D. soerenseni Forster 1955 F55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B30] Banks, N. 1930. Phalangida from Borneo. Sarawak Museum Journal, new series 4 (1): 57–86, pls 11–12.

[F49] Forster, R. R. 1949. Australian Opiliones. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 16: 59–89.

[F55] Forster, R. R. 1955. Further Australian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Australian Journal of Zoology 3 (3): 354–411.

[G30] Giltay, L. 1930. Notes préliminaires sur les Opilions recueillis aux Indes Néerlandiases par S. A. R. le Prince Léopold de Belgique. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 69: 419–429.

[GG47] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1947. Report on a collection of phalangids from New Guinea. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 66 (4): 328–338.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[R35] Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[S01] Shear, W. A. 2001. Two new cave-dwelling harvestmen from Western Australia (Arachnida: Opiliones: Assamiidae and “Phalangodidae”). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 64: 153–158.

[S82] Suzuki, S. 1982. A small collection of harvestmen from Malaysia (Opiliones, Arachnida). Acta Arachnologica 31 (1): 27–34.

[T76] Thorell, T. 1876. Descrizione di alcune specie di Opilioni dell'Arcipelago Malese appartenenti al Museo Civico di Genova. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 1, 9: 111–138.

Metereca

Dorsal view and pedipalp of Metereca papillata, from Roewer (1935).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

Metereca is a genus of assamiid harvestmen found in central Africa.

See also: Metereca: crossing the divide.

Characters (from Roewer 1935): Eyemound granulate; area I of scutum without median longitudinal furrow; areas I–V and free tergites I–III unarmed; coxa IV without a larger single lateral spine; legs with Tarsus I 5-segmented, tarsi II and IV each more than 6-segmented, tarsus III 6-segmented; distitarsus II 2-segmented; male with leg IV strongly thickened between coxa and tibia.

<==Metereca Roewer 1923 S92
    |--*M. abnormis (Roewer 1912) [=Ereca abnormis] S92
    |--M. aspersa Roewer 1935 S92
    |--M. concolor Roewer 1961 S92
    |--M. differens (Lawrence 1957) [=Ereca differens] S92
    |--M. katangana Kauri 1985 S92
    |--M. kivuana (Roewer 1961) [=Leleupereca kivuana] S92
    |--M. kivuna Roewer 1961 S92
    |--M. leleupae Kauri 1985 S92
    |--M. longipes Kauri 1985 S92
    |--M. minuta Roewer 1954 S92
    |--M. montana (Roewer 1912) [=Ereca montana] S92
    |--M. papillata Roewer 1935 S92
    |--M. paradoxa Kauri 1985 S92
    |--M. ripensis Kauri 1985 S92
    `--M. simplex (Roewer 1952) [=Erecula simplex] S92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

Selencinae

Dorsal view of Paraselenca marginata, from Roewer (1935).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

The Selencinae are a group of assamiid harvestmen found in Africa with distitarsus I two-segmented, metatarsus II undivided and pectinate claws on tarsi III and IV (Santos & Prieto 2010).

<==Selencinae [Eupodaucheniinae] SP10
    |--Selenca Sørensen 1896 SP10
    |    `--*S. maculata Sørensen 1896 S92
    |--Selencula Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*S. filipes (Roewer 1927) [=Selenca filipes] R35
    |--Selencasta Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*S. minuscula (Roewer 1927) [=Selenca minuscula] R35
    |--Jaundea Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*J. spinulata (Roewer 1912) [=Selenca spinulata, Euselenca spinulata] R35
    |--Metaselenca Roewer 1912 SP10
    |    `--*M. h-album (Loman 1910) [=Selenca h-album] S92
    |--Humbea Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--*H. bimaculata Roewer 1935 R35
    |--Cassinia Roewer 1927 non Brown 1817 (ICBN) SP10
    |    `--*C. macrochelis Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Eupodauchenius Roewer 1912 R35
    |    `--*E. luteocruciatus (Loman 1910) S92 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Bolama Roewer 1927 SP10
    |    `--*B. spinosa Roewer 1927 S92
    |--Umbonimba Roewer 1953 SP10
    |    `--*U. acanthops Roewer 1953 S92
    |--Seuthesplus Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    |--*S. nigeriensis Roewer 1935 R35
    |    `--S. perarmatus Lawrence 1965 S92
    |--Sassandria Roewer 1912 SP10 [incl. Aburitius Roewer 1935 S92, Assiniana Roewer 1914 S92]
    |    |--*S. bicolor Roewer 1912 S92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--S. tenuipes Lawrence 1965 S92
    |--Euselenca Roewer 1923 SP10
    |    |--*E. gracilis (Sørensen 1896) [=Selenca gracilis] R35
    |    `--E. feae Roewer 1927 R35
    |--Seuthes Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    |--*S. simonis (Henriksen 1932) [=Paraselenca simonis] SP10
    |    `--S. inermis Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |--Binderia Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    |--*B. spinarmata Roewer 1935 SP10
    |    `--B. longipes Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    |--Seuthessus Kauri 1985 SP10
    |    |--*S. pustulatus Kauri 1985 SP10
    |    `--S. coriscanus Santos & Prieto 2010 SP10
    `--Paraselenca Roewer 1923 R35
         |--*P. aculeata (Roewer 1912) [=Selenca aculeata] S92
         |--P. hispida (Roewer 1912) [=Selenca hispida] R35
         `--P. marginata Roewer 1935 R35

*Eupodauchenius luteocruciatus (Loman 1910) S92 [=Selenca luteocruciata R35; incl. E. marginatus Roewer 1912 S92]

*Sassandria bicolor Roewer 1912 S92 [incl. *Aburitius inermis Roewer 1935 R35, S92, Assiniana reticulata Roewer 1914 S92, Ab. yapo Roewer 1935 S92]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[R35] Roewer, C.-F. 1935. Alte und neue Assamiidae. Weitere Weberknechte VIII. (8. Ergänzung der “Weberknechte der Erde” 1923). Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Uebersee-Museum in Bremen 1: 1–168.

[SP10] Santos, R., & C. E. Prieto. 2010. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae) de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial), con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58 (1): 203–243.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.

Stygnopsidae

Stygnopsis robusta, from here.


Belongs within: Grassatores.

The Stygnopsidae are a group of harvestmen found in Mexico and Central America characterised by male genitalia with an internal capsule forming a follis on the ventral side in dorsal view of the pars distalis, with a few distal espiniform projections and with several setae on the pars distalis (Cruz-López & Francke 2013).

Stygnopsidae [Isaeinae, Stygnopsinae]
    |--Karos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 SG11, K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*K. barbarikos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 K03
    |    |--K. brignolii Šilhavý 1974 K03
    |    |--K. depressus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03
    |    |--K. dybasi (Goodnight & Goodnight 1947) [=*Potosa dybasi] K03
    |    |--K. gratiosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03 K03
    |    |--K. parvus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03
    |    |--K. projectus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03
    |    |--K. rugosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971 K03
    |    `--K. tuberculatus (Goodnight & Goodnight 1944) [=*Monterella tuberculata] K03
    `--+--Hoplobunus Banks 1900 SG11, K03 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--*H. barretti Banks 1900 [=H. baretti (l. c.)] K03
       |    |--H. apoalensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1973 K03
       |    |--H. boneti (Goodnight & Goodnight 1942) [=*Serrobunus boneti] K03
       |    |--H. mexicanus (Roewer 1915) [=*Haehnelia mexicana] K03
       |    |--H. neglectus Kury & Cokendolpher 2000 (see below for synonymy) K03
       |    |--H. oaxacensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1973 K03
       |    |--H. planus Goodnight & Goodnight 1973 K03
       |    |--H. queretarius Šilhavý 1974 K03
       |    |--H. spinooculorum Goodnight & Goodnight 1973 K03
       |    `--H. zullinii Šilhavý 1977 K03
       `--Stygnopsis Sørensen 1902 SG11, K03
            |--*S. valida (Sørensen 1884) [=Stygnus validus, Stygnopsis validus] K03
            `--S. robusta (Goodnight & Goodnight 1971) [=Hoplobunus robustus] K03

Stygnopsidae incertae sedis:
  Mexotroglinus Šilhavý 1977 K03
    `--*M. sbordonii Šilhavý 1977 K03
  Tampiconus Roewer 1949 K03
    `--*T. philippii Roewer 1949 K03
  Troglostygnopsis Šilhavý 1974 [Troglostygnopsinae] K03
    |--*T. anophthalma Šilhavý 1974 K03
    `--T. inops (Goodnight & Goodnight 1971) [=Hoplobunus inops] K03
  Sbordonia Šilhavý 1977 K03
    |--*S. armigera Šilhavý 1977 K03
    `--S. parvula (Goodnight & Goodnight 1953) [=Paramitraceras parvulus] K03
  Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge 1905 (see below for synonymy) K03
    |--*P. granulatum Pickard-Cambridge 1905 K03, KA-Z11, K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. femorale Goodnight & Goodnight 1953 KA-Z11, K03 [=P. femoralis K03]
    `--P. hispidulum Pickard-Cambridge 1905 KA-Z11, K03 [=*Panzosus hispidulus K03, Par. hispidulus K03]
  Chinquipellobunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 C04
    |--*C. osorioi Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 [=Hoplobunus osorioi] C04
    |--C. coahuilaensis Cokendolpher 2004 C04
    |--C. madlae (Goodnight & Goodnight 1967) [=Hoplobunus madlae] C04
    |--C. mexicanus (Goodnight & Goodnight 1971) [=Pellobunus mexicanus] C04
    `--C. russelli (Goodnight & Goodnight 1967) [=Hoplobunus russelli] C04
  Philora Goodnight & Goodnight 1954 C-LF13
    |--*P. tuxtlae Goodnight & Goodnight 1954 C-LF13
    `--P. quetzalzin Cruz-López & Francke 2013 C-LF13
  Chapulobunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1946 C-LF16
    |--*C. unispinosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1946 C-LF16 [=Karos unispinosus K03]
    |--C. asper Cruz-López & Francke 2016 C-LF16
    |--C. poblano C-LF16
    |--C. psilocybe Cruz-López & Francke 2016 C-LF16
    `--C. regiomontano Cruz-López & Francke 2016 C-LF16
  Montabunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 C-LF16
    `--*M. foliorum Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 [=Karos foliorum] K03

Hoplobunus Banks 1900 SG11, K03 [incl. Haehnelia Roewer 1915 K03, Isaeus Sørensen 1932 K03, Serrobunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 K03]

Hoplobunus neglectus Kury & Cokendolpher 2000 [incl. *Isaeus mexicanus Sørensen 1932, H. mexicanus non Haehnelia mexicana Roewer 1915] K03

Karos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 SG11, K03 [incl. Monterella Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 K03, Potosa Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03]

Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge 1905 [=Paramitroceras (l. c.); incl. Panzosus Roewer 1949, Solola Roewer 1949] K03

*Paramitraceras granulatum Pickard-Cambridge 1905 K03, KA-Z11, K03 [=P. granulatus K03; incl. P. chichivaca Goodnight & Goodnight 1947 K03, *Solola robusta Roewer 1949 K03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C04] Cokendolpher, J. C. 2004. Revalidation of the harvestman genus Chinquipellobunus (Opiliones: Stygnopsidae). Texas Memorial Museum, Speleological Monographs 6: 143–152.

[C-LF13] Cruz-López, J. A., & O. F. Francke. 2013. On the enigmatic genus Philora: familial assignment and taxonomic revision (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnopsidae). Journal of Arachnology 41: 291–305.

[C-LF16] Cruz-López, J. A., & O. F. Francke. 2016. Three new species of the Mexican harvestman genus Chapulobunus (Opiliones: Stygnopsidae). Journal of Arachnology 44: 65–75.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the "Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)". Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[SG11] Sharma, P. P., & G. Giribet. 2011. The evolutionary and biogeographic history of the armoured harvestmen—Laniatores phylogeny based on ten molecular markers, with the description of two new families of Opiliones (Arachnida). Invertebrate Systematics 25: 106–142.

Ereca

Significant features of Ereca maculata, from Lawrence (1962).


Belongs within: Assamiidae.

Ereca is a genus of assamiid harvestmen found in central Africa.

Characters (from Lawrence 1962): Scute and free tergites unarmed; pedipalp femur with short ventral teeth; stigmata hidden beneath coxa IV; tarsal formula 4–5(2):7–8(2):5:5–6.

<==Ereca Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--*E. undulata Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. affinis Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. bengtsoni Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. calcanifera Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. fusca Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. imitatrix Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. itombwensis Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. kalimabengana Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. lata Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. lawrencei Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. loekenae Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. lyrifera Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. maculata Roewer 1913 [=E. undulata maculata] S92
    |    |--E. m. maculata S92
    |    `--E. m. aberdarensis Goodnight & Goodnight 1959 S92 [=E. undulata aberdarensis L62]
    |--E. modesta Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. mwengana Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. robusta Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. rufa Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. sangensis Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. silvatica Kauri 1985 S92
    |--E. simulator Sørensen 1910 S92
    |--E. soerenseni Lawrence 1962 S92
    |--E. triareolata Roewer 1961 S92
    `--E. unicolor Roewer 1961 S92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L62] Lawrence, R. F. 1962. Resultats scientifiques des missions zoologiques de l'I.R.S.A.C. en Afrique orientale (P. Basilewsky et N. Leleup, 1957). LXXIV. Opiliones. Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale: Sciences Zoologiques 110: 9–89.

[S92] Staręga, W. 1992. An annotated check-list of Afrotropical harvestmen, excluding the Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Annals of the Natal Museum 33 (2): 271–336.