Erythraeus

Erythraeus sp., copyright Tom Murray.


Belongs within: Erythraeinae.

Erythraeus is a genus of predatory mites found in Eurasia, North America and southern Africa (Southcott 1961).

Characters (from Southcott 1961): Adults moderately large mites with two eyes on each side; crista present, normal; palpi bearing series of stout conical spines (conalae) distally and ventrally (i.e. along flexor edge) on tibia and genu; palpal tarsus pear- or club-shaped, overreaching palpal tibia1 claw; legs without modified serrate setae (serratalae).

<==Erythraeus Latreille 1806 G91 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. (Erythraeus) H09
    |    |--*E. (E.) phalangoides (de Geer 1778) S61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--E. (E.) adrastus (Southcott 1961) H09
    |    |--E. (E.) ankaraicus Saboori, Cobanoglu & Bayram 2004 H09
    |    |--E. (E.) capeverdensis Haitlinger 2009 H09
    |    |--E. (E.) garmsaricus Saboori, Goldarazena & Khajeali 2004 H09
    |    |--E. (E.) hypertrichotus Saboori, Goldarazena & Khajeali 2004 H09
    |    |--E. (E.) kacperi Haitlinger 2004 H09
    |    |--E. (E.) sabrinae Haitlinger & Saboori 1996 H09
    |    |--E. (E.) shojaii Saboori Babolmorad 2000 H09
    |    `--E. (E.) southcotti Goldarazena & Zhang 1998 H09
    `--E. (Helladerythraeus Beron 1988) G91

Erythraeus incertae sedis:
  E. acis Berlese 1882 SB63 [=Rhyncholophus phalangoides var. acis S61]
  ‘Rhyncholophus’ arenicola Andersén 1863 S61
  E. ‘arenicola’ (Hall 1912) [=Rhyncholophus arenicola non Anderson 1863] S61
  E. banksi Oudemans 1941 [=E. longipes Banks 1894 non Rhyncholophus longipes Koch 1854] S61
  E. carolinus Banks 1947 S61
  E. cinctipes Banks 1894 S61
  ‘Rhyncholophus’ cinereus Dugès 1834 S61 [=Trombidium cinereum CF77]
  E. dubiosus Schweizer 1951 SB63
  E. dugesii (Lucas 1847) S61, E12 [=Rhyncholophus dugesii S61]
  ‘Rhyncholophus’ electoralis [incl. R. canonicalis Pavesi 1876, Trombidium culicis] CF77
  E. elongatus (Banks 1899) [=Erythraeus elongatus] T04
  E. exilipes Banks 1947 S61
  ‘Morieria’ fageli Cooreman 1956 S61
  E. filipes (Berlese 1888) [=Rhyncholophus filipes] S61
  E. foveolatus (Koch 1854) [=Rhyncholophus foveolatus] S61
  E. ghilarovi WL09
  E. gregoryi (Southcott 1946) H98 [=*Parerythraeus gregoryi S61]
  E. groenlandicus Trägårdh 1904 T04
  ‘Rhyncholophus’ hermanni Dugès 1834 S61
  E. impectus (Berlese 1888) [=Rhyncholophus impectus] S61
  E. longipes (Koch 1854) [=Rhyncholophus longipes] S61
  E. miniatus (see below for synonymy) T04
  ‘Rhyncholophus’ moestus Banks 1914 S61
  E. nivalis (Heer 1845) [=Rhyncholophus nivalis] SB63
  E. ‘nivalis’ Schweizer 1951 nec Rhyncholophus nivalis Heer 1845 nec Erythraeus hercules nivalis Schweizer 1922 S51
  ‘Rhyncholophus’ pallipes Lucas 1847 E12
  E. parvisetosus Ewing 1909 S61
  E. posticatus Banks 1916 S61
  ‘Rhyncholophus’ pulcher S61
  E. regalis (Koch 1837) S61 (see below for synonymy)
  E. remotus Banks 1924 S61
  E. rivalis W01
  ‘Rhyncholophus’ rubescens Dugès 1834 S61
  E. simplex Banks 1894 S61
  E. tolteka Vitzthum 1933 S61
  ‘Parerythraeus’ tragardhi Southcott 1961 S61

Erythraeus Latreille 1806 G91 [=Apectolophus Berlese 1891 S61; incl. Parerythraeus Southcott 1946 H98, Rhyncholophus Dugès 1834 S61]

Erythraeus miniatus [incl. Rhyncholophus albicomus Koch 1879, Trombidium hyperboreum Thorell 1872, R. hyperboreus, Erythraeus miniatus var. rubripes] T04

Erythraeus regalis (Koch 1837) S61 [=Rhyncholophus regalis SB63, Belaustium (l. c. for Balaustium) regale S61; incl. Rhyncholophus signatus Koch 1879 T04, Erythraeus signatus T04]

*Erythraeus (Erythraeus) phalangoides (de Geer 1778) S61 [=Acarus phalangoides S61, Rhyncholophus (*Apectolophus) phalangoides S61, R. phalangiodes (l. c.) S61; incl. R. gracilipes Kramer 1897 T04, Erythraeus phalangioides var. gracilipes T04, R. intermedius Trägårdh 1902 T04, E. opilionides T04]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G91] Gabryś, G. 1991. Intergeneric relationships within Erythraeidae (Acari, Actinedida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 207–212. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H09] Haitlinger, R. 2009. Three new species of mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Erythraeidae) from the Republic of Cape Verde. Biologia 64 (6): 1150–1156.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[S51] Schweizer, J. 1951. Die Landmilben des schweizerischen Nationalparkes. 2. Teil: Trombidiformes. Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung des schweizerischen Nationalparks [Résultats des recherches scientifiques entreprises au Parc National Suisse] 3 (Neue Folge): 51–172.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[T04] Trägårdh, I. 1904. Fauna Arctica: Eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898. Band IV, Lieferung I. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Erythracarus

Whirligig mite Erythracarus pyrrholeucus, copyright Thomas Shahan.


Belongs within: Anystidae.

Erythracarus is a cosmopolitan genus of predatory mites distinguished from closely related genera by having widely spaced setae ve on the prodorsum, and having an elongated finger-like projection on the palptibia (Otto 1999).

Characters of adult (from Otto 1999): Prodorsum with an area of more finely striated cuticle; setae ve further apart than setae sce; naso conspicuous; c series with two setae, series d, e, f with one seta, all setae inserted in striated cuticle; one pair of distinct corneas; pair of swellings present posterior to pair of corneas ; more than ten setae on each genital valve; group of 16–54 setae either side anterolateral to genital valves; row of four to seven setae posterolateral to genital valves. Palp femur and genu fused, segment with two dorsal setae; palp tibia with setae o1 and o2 on conspicuously elongated finger-like projection and four to five setae on remainder of segment; seta o1 distinctly spiniform, with coarse teeth dorsally, two rows of minute teeth ventrally; seta o2 feather-like; palp tarsus with minute solenidion ω in proximal half, internal ducts absent. Length of legs increasing from I–IV; tarsi longer than tibiae, with two lateral claws and shorter empodial claw; basi- and telofemora ventrally fused, dorsally separated; tarsi I and II with two solenidia ω and one eupathidium ε; lateral tarsal claws with transverse ventral ridges; tibia IV with more than 25 setae.

Erythracarus Berlese 1903 O99 (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: E. epigeus (Koch 1837) [=Erythraeus epigeus] O99
    |         E. hirsutus (Menge 1854) [=Erythraeus hirsutus] O99
    |         E. lagopus (Menge 1854) [=Erythraeus lagopus] O99
    |         E. proavus (Menge 1854) [=Erythraeus proavus] O99
    |         E. raripilus (Menge 1854) [=Erythraeus raripilus] O99
    |         E. sabulosus (Berlese 1885) [=Erythraeus sabulosus] O99
    |         E. sachalinensis (Zacharda 1985) [=*Palaeoerythracarus sachalinensis] O00
    |         E. tricolor (Lucas 1847) O99, E12 [=Erythraeus tricolor O99]
    |--+--E. barbarus Otto 1999 O99
    |  `--E. ciliatus Otto 1999 O99
    `--+--E. avius Otto 1999 O99
       |--E. grahami (Meyer & Ryke 1960) [=Bechsteinia grahami] O99
       `--+--E. amnicolus Otto 1999 O99
          |--E. flavipes Otto 1999 O99
          `--+--E. parietinus (Hermann 1804) O99 (see below for synonymy)
             `--+--E. festinus (Meyer & Ueckermann 1987) [=Bechsteinia festina] O99
                `--+--E. pyrrholeucus (Hermann 1804) O99 (see below for synonymy)
                   `--+--E. nasutus Otto 1999 O99
                      `--+--E. decoris Otto 1999 O99
                         `--+--E. elegans Otto 1999 O99
                            `--E. katherinae Otto 1999 O99

Nomen nudum: Erythracarus simku Kishida 1959 O99

Erythracarus Berlese 1903 O99 [incl. Bechsteinia Oudemans 1936 O99, Chabrieria Oudemans 1936 O99, Palaeoerythracarus Zacharda 1985 O00]

Erythracarus parietinus (Hermann 1804) O99 [=Trombidium parietinum O99, Anystis parietinum H98, Tarsotomus parietinus O99; incl. Erythraeus comes Berlese 1886 O99, Erythracarus comes O99, Bechsteinia solarii Ueckermann 1987 O99, Erythraeus spinatus Banks 1894 O99, Erythracarus spinatus O99]

Erythracarus pyrrholeucus (Hermann 1804) O99 [=Trombidium pyrrholeucum O99; incl. Bechsteinia californica McGregor 1956 O99, Erythraeus ruricola Dugès 1834 O99, *Erythracarus ruricola O99, Trombidium ruricolum CF77, *Bechsteinia schneideri Oudemans 1936 O99, Tarsotomus terminalis Banks 1916 O99, *Chabrieria terminalis O99]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[O99] Otto, J. C. 1999. Revision of the genus Erythracarus Berlese (Acarina: Anystidae: Erythracarinae). Journal of Natural History 33: 825–909.

[O00] Otto, J. C. 2000. A cladistic analysis of Erythracarinae (Acarina: Prostigmata: Anystidae), with the description of a new genus. Systematic Entomology 25: 447–484.

Bdellidae

Bdella sp., copyright Ken Schneider.


Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Bdellodes.

The Bdellidae, snout mites, are a group of predatory mites characterised by elongate palps on either side of the similarly elongate gnathosoma, tipped by a pair of long sensory setae.

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Two pairs of prodorsal bothridial setae inserted in distinctly cup-shaped bothridia; Peritremes absent; chelicerae free and capable of considerable lateral motion, inserted on elongate subcapitular "snout"; palptibia without clawlike setae or thumblike palptarsus, palpi usually ending in 1–2 elongate setae and often elbowed; postpedal furrows absent; adults with three pairs of genital papillae, two or more eugenital setae; tibia IV and typically also tarsi III–IV and tibia I with trichobothria.

<==Bdellidae [Bdellini]
    |--Odontoscirinae SB63
    |    |--Molgus littoralis G38, TU33
    |    `--Bdellodes SB63
    |--Cytinae SB63
    |    |--Trachymolgus Berlese 1923 SB63
    |    |    `--*T. nigerrimus (Canestrini & Fanzago 1876) [=Bdella nigerrima] SB63
    |    `--Cyta von Heyden 1826 SB63
    |         |--*C. latirostris (Hermann 1804) [=Scirus latirostris] SB63
    |         |--C. coerulipes (Dugès 1834) SB63
    |         |--C. kauaiensis S91
    |         |--C. longiseta Wallace & Mahon 1973 H98
    |         `--C. magdalenae M-PV-G01
    |--Spinibdellinae SB63
    |    |--Biscirus Thor 1913 H98
    |    |    |--B. antarcticus [=Bdella antarctica] T31
    |    |    |--B. aquilonius Wallace & Mahon 1973 H98
    |    |    |--B. arenarius Wallace & Mahon 1973 H98
    |    |    |--B. intermedius Sig Thor 1928 SB63 [=Thoribdella intermedia G38]
    |    |    |--B. norvegicus (Sig Thor 1905) [=Scirus norvegicus] SB63
    |    |    |--B. obliquus Wallace & Mahon 1973 [=B. ubliquus] H98
    |    |    |--B. opimus [=Hoplomolgus opimus] T31
    |    |    |--B. silvaticus (Kramer 1881) [=Bdella silvatica] SB63
    |    |    |--B. thori Womersley 1933 H98
    |    |    `--B. uncinatus WL09
    |    `--Spinibdella Thor 1930 H98
    |         |--S. ampulla Wallace & Mahon 1973 H98
    |         |--S. bifurcata Atyeo 1960 S76
    |         |--S. bioculata S91
    |         |--S. corticis (Ewing 1909) [=Bdella corticis] H98
    |         |--S. cronini (Baker & Balock 1944) [=Bdella cronini] H98
    |         |--S. depressa S91
    |         |--S. gibberabdomen (Thor 1931) [=Bdella gibberabdomen] G38
    |         |--S. howarthi S91
    |         |--S. tenuirostris (Ewing 1917) [=Bdella tenuirostris] H98
    |         `--S. thori (Meyer & Ryke 1959) [=Bdella thori] H98
    `--Bdella Latreille 1795 S61 [Bdellinae SB63]
         |--*B. longicornis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Acarus longicornis] SB63
         |--B. captiosa Atyeo 1960 S91
         |--B. cruentata CF77
         |--B. depressa Ewing 1909 WL09, H98 [=Spinibdella depressa H98]
         |--B. egregia CF77
         |--B. frigida T31
         |--B. histrionica CF77
         |--B. humida Wallace & Mahon 1973 H98
         |--B. iconica Berlese 1923 SB63
         |    |--B. i. iconica SB63
         |    |--B. i. helvetica Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
         |    `--B. i. veneta Berlese 1923 SB63
         |--B. indicata K07
         |--B. latirostris [=Amonia latirostris; incl. A. megacephala] CF77
         |--B. leucocephala [=Amonia leucocephala] CF77
         |--B. lignicola Canestrini 1885 SB63
         |--B. malaccensis Shiba 1976 S76
         |--B. marina T31
         |--B. mexicana S91
         |--B. nihoaensis S91
         |--B. phoenicea CF77
         |--B. semiscutata Sig Thor 1930 SB63
         |--B. septentrionalis WL09
         |--B. subulirostris S51
         |--B. trtopica Atyeo 1960 S76
         |--B. vestita CF77
         `--B. vulgaris (Hermann 1804) [=Scirus vulgaris] SB63

Bdellidae incertae sedis:
  Monotrichobdella WL09
  Neomolgus Oudemans 1937 H98
    |--N. clypeatus (Thor 1930) [=Molgus clypeatus] H98
    |--N. lateralis S91
    `--N. littoralis WL09
  Hoplomolgus Berlese 1923 SB63
    |--*H. capillatus (Berlese 1891) [=Bdella capillata, Molgus capillatus, Neomolgus capillatus] SB63
    |--H. aequalis Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--H. berlesei S51
    |--H. helveticus Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--H. monticola (Willmann 1951) [=Neomolgus monticola] SB63
    |--H. obsoletus Berlese 1923 SB63
    |--H. raeticus Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--H. reticulatus Schweizer & Bader 1963 SB63
    |--H. sublimus SB63
    `--H. tuberculatus Berlese 1923 SB63

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[G38] Grandjean, F. 1938. Observations sur les bdelles (acariens). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 107: 1–24.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K07] Knapp, M. 2007. Important mite crop pests in Africa. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 267–277. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[M-PV-G01] Montiel-Parra, G., G. A. Villegas-Guzman, M. Vargas & O. J. Polaco. 2001. Mites associated with nests of Neotoma albigula Hartley, 1894 (Rodentia: Muridae) in Durango, México. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 586–593. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S51] Schweizer, J. 1951. Die Landmilben des schweizerischen Nationalparkes. 2. Teil: Trombidiformes. Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung des schweizerischen Nationalparks [Résultats des recherches scientifiques entreprises au Parc National Suisse] 3 (Neue Folge): 51–172.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S91] Swift, S. F. 1991. Some observations on the podocephalic canals and tarsal claws of Bdellidae (Acari: Actinedida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 249–252. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[TU33] Thor, S., & T. Uchida. 1933. Acarinen aus den Nordkurilen. Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan 4 (2): 137–138.

[T31] Trägårdh, I. 1931. Acarina from the Juan Fernandez Islands. Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands 3 (4): 553–628.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Charletonia

Charletonia sp., copyright Pfliegler Walter.


Belongs within: Callidosomatinae.

Charletonia is a cosmopolitan genus of medium to large-sized erythraeid mites, adults of which were originally described in the genus Sphaerolophus before their synonymy with the larval Charletonia was recognised.

Characters (from Southcott 1991): Larva with one eye on each side, circular. Dorsal scutum generally quite rounded or roughly pentagonal, with bases of posterior sensilla generally protruding posteriad; may be triangular with rounded angles; anterior margin may be convex, flattened, sinuous or concave; with three pairs of scutalae (except teratologically) and two pairs of sensilla. Pedal coxalae 1, 2, 2. Pedal trochanteralae 1, 1, 1. Palpal tibia1 claw bifurcate. No accessory peg to palpal tribial claw. Pedal posterior tarsal claw with pulvilliform element only, without hook. Galeala setulose or asetulose. Adults and deutonymphs with one circular eye on each side, behind middle of crista. Crista with two sensillary areas, the anterior at vertex of idiosoma. Idiosomal setation dense, setae setulose or asetulose. Palpal tarsus enlarged, globular or pyriform, generally projecting well beyond palpal tibial claw.

<==Charletonia Oudemans 1910 S91 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. cardinalis (Koch 1837) S91 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. agatae S91
    |--C. alarobiaensis S91
    |--C. aranea Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. areolata (Trägårdh 1908) [=Erythraeus areolatus] S91
    |--C. arlettae S91
    |--C. banksi Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. barbata Southcott 1966 [incl. C. grandjeani Southcott 1966] S91
    |--C. berlesiana (Paoli 1937) S91 [=Balaustium berlesianum S66]
    |--C. blascoi WL09
    |--C. braunsi (Oudemans 1910) [=Erythraeus braunsi] S66
    |--C. brunni (Oudemans 1910) S91 [=Erythraeus brunni S66, Balaustium brunni S66]
    |--C. bucephalia Beron 1975 S91
    |--C. buforania (Womersley 1934) [=Erythraeus buforanius, E. buforianus (l. c.)] S91
    |--‘Rhyncholophus’ cavannae Berlese 1885 [=Sphaerolophus (*Cavannea) cavannae] S61
    |    |--R. c. cavannae S61
    |    `--‘Sphaerolophus’ c. corcyraeus Berlese 1910 S61
    |--C. danangensis S91
    |--C. doratae S91
    |--C. edytae S91
    |--C. enghoffi Southcott 1991 S91
    |--C. falcata Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. feideri Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. froggatti (Oudemans 1910) S91 [=Erythraeus froggatti S91, C. frogatti (l. c.) S66]
    |--‘Rhyncholophus’ globiger Berlese 1885 (see below for synonymy) S61
    |--C. goliatha (Berlese 1910) [=Sphaerolophus goliathus] S91
    |--C. hermanni Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. huensis S91
    |--C. ishii Southcott 1991 S91
    |--C. iwonae S91
    |--C. jaegerskioeldi (Trägårdh 1904) S91 (see below for synonymy)
    |--C. jolantae S91
    |--C. keyi Southcott 1983 S91
    |--C. kibonotensis (Trägårdh 1908) S91 [=Erythraeus kibonotensis S66, E. kibonatensis (l. c.) S66]
    |--C. krendowskyi (Feider 1954) S91 [=Erythraeus krendowskyi S66, Erythraes (l. c.) krendowskyi S66]
    |--C. lankensis Southcott 1988 S91
    |--C. lawrencei Southcott 1966 S91
    |--‘Erythraeus’ milloti André 1946 [=Sphaerolophus milloti] S61
    |--C. miyazakii (Kawashima 1958) S91 [=Callidosoma miyazakii S66]
    |--‘Sphaerolophus (Cavannea) mollicomus Berlese 1910 S61
    |--‘Erythraeus (Erythrolophus)’ mollis Berlese 1923 S61
    |--C. naivashae Southcott 1991 S91
    |--C. nishidai Southcott 1991 S91
    |--C. novaehollandiae Oudemans 1941 (n. d.) H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Sphaerolophus’ novus Oudemans 1927 S61
    |--C. ojimai (Kishida 1929) S91 [=Erythraeus ojimai S66, Callidosoma ojimai S66]
    |--C. okinawaensis (Kitahara & Takara 1964) [=Callidosoma okinawaensis] S91
    |--C. oudemansi Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. paolii Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. perthensis (Womersley 1934) [=Erythraeus perthense] S91
    |--C. philometra Southcott 1991 S91
    |--‘Achorolophus’ porcinus Hull 1918 [=Leptus porcinus, Sphaerolophus porcinus] S61
    |--C. rageaui Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. rocciai Treat & Flechtmann 1979 S91
    |--C. shiroyama Yaita, Kato & Toriyama 1961 [incl. C. domrowi Southcott 1966] S91
    |--‘Rhyncholophus’ siculiformis Trägårdh 1904 S61
    |--C. southcotti Kawashima 1961 S91
    |--C. striaticeps Southcott 1991 S91
    |--C. swaziana (Lawrence 1940) S91 [=Erythraeus swazianus S66]
    |--C. taiwanensis Tsai & Chow 1988 S91
    |--C. tamarae S91
    |--C. tatianae S91
    |--C. tragardhi Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. venus Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. vitzthumi Southcott 1966 S91
    |--C. volzi (Oudemans 1910) S91 [=Erythraeus volzi S66, Sphaerolophus volzi S91]
    |--C. westraliensis (Womersley 1934) [=Sphaerolophus westraliense] S91
    |--C. womersleyi Southcott 1966 S91
    `--C. wrighti Southcott 1991 S91

Charletonia Oudemans 1910 S91 [incl. Cavannea Berlese 1910 S91, Coerythrolophus Radford 1950 S61, Erythrolophus Berlese 1920 non Swinhoe 1892 S61, Morieria Oudemans 1941 S61, Sphaerolophus Berlese 1910 S91]

Charletonia cardinalis (Koch 1837) S91 [=Rhyncholophus cardinalis S61, Abrolophus cardinalis S61, Acarus cardinalis CF77, Achorolophus cardinalis S61, Erythraeus cardinalis S91, Sphaerolophus cardinalis S91; incl. Erythraeus singularis Oudemans 1910 S91, *Charletonia singularis S91, Hehlenia singularis S66, Smaris singularis S66]

Charletonia jaegerskioeldi (Trägårdh 1904) S91 [=Erythraeus jaegerskioeldi S91, Balaustium jaegerskioeldi S66, Erythraeus jaegerskioldi (l. c.) S66, Erytraeus (l. c.) jaegerskioeldi S66]

Charletonia novaehollandiae (Oudemans 1941) (n. d.) H98 [=*Morieria novaehollandiae S61, Erythraeus (*Erythrolophus) froggatti Berlese 1920 non E. froggatti Oudemans 1910 S61, *Coerythrolophus froggatti S61]

‘Rhyncholophus’ globiger Berlese 1885 [=Belaustium (l. c. for Balaustium) globigerum, R. (Achorolophus) globiger, *Sphaerolophus globiger] S61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S66] Southcott, R. V. 1966. Revision of the genus Charletonia Oudemans (Acarina: Erythraeidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 14: 687–819.

[S91] Southcott, R. V. 1991. A further revision of Charletonia (Acarina: Erythraeidae) based on larvae, protonymphs and deutonymphs. Invertebrate Taxonomy 5: 61–131.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Buthoidea

Durango bark scorpion Centruroides suffusus, copyright Tomascastelazo.


Belongs within: Orthosterni.
Contains: Microtityus, Buthinae, Tityus.

The Buthoidea are a group of scorpions that lack ventral trichobothria on the patella of the chela (Soleglad & Fet 2001).

<==Buthoidea
    |--Microcharmidae SF01
    `--Buthidae [Androctonini, Androctonoidae, Buthoidae, Centruridae, Centrurini] B-TN08
         |  i. s.: Charmus laneus K92
         |         Uroplectes J98
         |           |--U. emiliae (Werner 1916) [=Lychas emiliae] J98
         |           `--U. occidentalis L49
         |         Microtityus B-TN08
         |         Lissothus SF01
         |         Karasbergia S-BF04
         |         Microbuthus S-BF04
         |         Orthochirus SF01
         |         Zabius SF01
         |         Pakistanorthochirus SF01
         |         Baloorthochirus SF01
         |         Orthochiroides SF01
         |         Apistobuthus SF01
         |         Razianus SF01
         |         Palaeolychas balticus Lourenço & Weitschat 1996 S-BF04
         |         Palaeotityobuthus longiaculeus Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
         |         Palaeoprotobuthus pusillus Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
         |         Palaeoakentrobuthus knodeli Lourenço & Weitschat 2000 S-BF04
         |         Palaeoananteris ribnitiodamgartensis Lourenço & Weitschart 2001 S-BF04
         |         Grosphus hirtus Kraepelin 1901 AS-N08
         |         Stenochirus Karsch 1892 K92
         |           `--*S. sarasinorum Karsch 1892 K92
         |         Rhopalurus Thorell 1876 B-TN08
         |           `--R. rochai (Borelli 1910) SS08
         |         Centrurus B06 [Centrurinae K77]
         |           |--C. degeeri T89
         |           |--C. nitidus T89
         |           |--C. tenuis T89
         |           `--C. vittatus B06
         |         Ananteris Thorell 1891 B-TN08 [Ananterinae K77]
         |           |--*A. balzanii Thorell 1891 B-T08
         |           |--A. arcadioi Botero-Trujillo 2008 B-T08
         |           |--A. ashmolei Lourenço 1981 B-T08
         |           |--A. charlescorfieldi Lourenço 2001 AO02
         |           |--A. columbiana Lourenço 1991 B-TN08
         |           |--A. cussinii Borelli 1910 B-T08
         |           |--A. dorae Botero-Trujillo 2008 B-T08
         |           |--A. ehrlichi Lourenço 1994 B-T08
         |           |--A. gorgonae Lourenço & Flórez 1989 B-T08
         |           |--A. leilae Lourenço 1999 B-T08
         |           |--A. myriamae Botero-Trujillo 2007 B-T08
         |           |--A. pydanieli Lourenço 1982 L-M-HG08
         |           `--A. tolimana Teruel & García 2007 B-T08
         |--+--Hottentotta trilineatus SF15
         |  `--+--Androctonus SF15
         |     |    |--A. australis (Linnaeus 1758) GE02
         |     |    `--A. bicolor SF01
         |     `--Mesobuthus Vachon 1950 SF15, GK04
         |          |  i. s.: M. martensii SF15
         |          |--M. caucasicus (Nordmann 1840) GK04
         |          |--M. eupeus (Koch 1839) GK04
         |          `--+--M. cyprius Gantenbein & Kropf 2000 GK04
         |             `--M. gibbosus (Brullé 1832) GK04
         `--+--Buthinae SF15
            `--+--Parabuthus SF15
               |    |--P. granulatus (Ehrenberg 1831) [incl. P. granulatus bergeri Werner 1916] J98
               |    |--P. laevifrons (Simon 1888) [incl. P. ibelli Werner 1916] J98
               |    `--P. transvaalicus SF15
               `--+--Tityus SF15
                  `--Centruroides Marx 1890 SF15, B-TN08
                       |--C. exilicauda (Wood 1863) SS08
                       |--C. gracilis (Latreille 1804) SS08
                       |--C. hentzi CS90
                       |--C. hoffmanni Armas 1996 S-LFP13
                       |--C. limpidus WS10
                       |--C. margaritatus (Gervais 1841) AO02
                       |--C. nigrimanus (Pocock 1898) C-MF13
                       |--C. nigrovariatus (Pocock 1898) S-LFP13
                       |--C. nitidus [incl. C. beynai] SF01
                       |--C. sculpturatus M-RL88
                       |--C. suffusus Pocock 1902 C-MF13
                       `--C. vittatus (Say 1821) S00

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AO02] Acosta, L. E., & J. A. Ochoa. 2002. Lista de los escorpiones bolivianos (Chelicerata: Scorpiones), con notas sobre su distribución. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 61 (3–4): 15–23.

[AS-N08] Aguiar, A. P. N., P. L. Santana-Neto, J. R. B. Souza & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Relationship between litter characteristics and female size in Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 464–467.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[B-T08] Botero-Trujillo, R. 2008. The scorpion genus Ananteris in Colombia: comments on the taxonomy and description of two new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 287–299.

[B-TN08] Botero-Trujillo, R., & J. A. Noriega. 2008. First record of the scorpion genus Microtityus from Colombia, with the description of a new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 259–266.

[CS90] Corey, D. T., & I. J. Stout. 1990. Ground surface arachnids in sandhill communities of Florida. Journal of Arachnology 18: 167–172.

[C-MF13] Cupul-Magaña, F. G., & O. F. Francke. 2013. Tres especies de alacranes (Scorpiones: Buthidae y Vaejovidae) embotellados en mezcal mexicano. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 22: 123–124.

[GK04] Gantenbein, B., & P. D. Keightley. 2004. Rates of molecular evolution in nuclear genes of east Mediterranean scorpions. Evolution 58 (11): 2486–2497.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K77] Koch, L. E. 1977. The taxonomy, geographic distribution and evolutionary radiation of Australo-Papuan scorpions. Records of the Western Australian Museum 5 (2): 83–367.

[L49] Lawrence, R. F. 1949. A collection of Opiliones and scorpions from north-east Angola made by Dr. A. de Barros Machados in 1948. Diamang Publicações Culturais 1949: 1–20.

[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 394–401.

[M-RL88] Meyer-Rochow, V. B., & A. R. Liddle. 1988. Structure and function of the eyes of two species of opilionid from New Zealand glow-worm caves (Megalopsalis tumida: Palpatores, and Hendea myersi cavernicola: Laniatores). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 233: 293–319.

[S-BF04] Santiago-Blay, J. A., V. Fet, M. E. Soleglad & P. R. Craig. 2004. The second Cretaceous scorpion specimen from Burmese amber (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2 (2): 147–152.

[S-LFP13] Santibáñez-López, C. E., O. F. Francke & L. Prendini. 2013. Systematics of the keyserlingii group of Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae), with descriptions of three new species from Oaxaca, Mexico. American Museum Novitates 3777: 1–47.

[SS08] Sarmento, S. M. N., A. M. de Souza, M. V. Meiado & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Notes on the life history traits of Rhopalurus rochai (Scorpiones, Buthidae) under different feeding regimes. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 476–479.

[SF15] Sharma, P. P., R. Fernández, L. A. Esposito, E. González-Santillán & L. Monod. 2015. Phylogenomic resolution of scorpions reveals multilevel discordance with morphological phylogenetic signal. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 282: 20142953.

[S00] Shultz, J. W. 2000. Skeletomuscular anatomy of the harvestman Leiobunum aldrichi (Weed, 1893) (Arachnida: Opiliones: Palpatores) and its evolutionary significance. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 401–438.

[SF01] Soleglad, M. E., & V. Fet. 2001. Evolution of scorpion orthobothriotaxy: a cladistic approach. Euscorpius 1: 1–38.

[T89] Thorell, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XXI.—Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885–1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 521–729.

[WS10] Wang, M., S. Sun, C. Li & X. Shen. 2010. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus, a useful molecular marker for phylogenetic and population studies. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China), pp. 187–192. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Pholcinae

Pholcus phalangioides, copyright Olaf Leillinger.


Belongs within: Pholcidae.

The Pholcinae are a group of daddy-long-legs spiders united by the reduction of the tarsal comb hairs to a single ventral row, and the usual presence on the male chelicerae of a pair of proximal lateral apophyses (Huber 2011).

<==Pholcinae
    |  i. s.: Aetana Huber 2005 H11
    |         Wanniyala Huber & Benjamin 2005 H11
    |--+--Nyikoa Huber 2007 H11
    |  |    `--N. limbe Huber 2007 HF08
    |  `--Zatavua Huber 2003 H11
    |       |--Z. vohiparara Huber 2003 HF08
    |       `--Z. zanahary H11
    `--+--Paraspermophora Wunderlich 2004 H11
       |--Anansus Huber 2007 H11
       |--Savarna Huber 2005 H11
       |--Khorata Huber 2005 H11
       |    `--K. khammouan Huber 2005 HF08
       |--+--+--Paramicromerys Millot 1946 H11
       |  |  |    `--P. scharffi Huber 2003 HF08
       |  |  `--+--Buitinga Huber 2003 HF08, H11
       |  |     |    |--B. asax Huber 2003 HF08
       |  |     |    `--B. kadogo H11
       |  |     `--Spermophorides Wunderlich 1992 HF08, H11
       |  |          |--S. cuneata (Wunderlich 1987) HF08
       |  |          `--S. elevata (Simon 1873) HF08
       |  `--+--Metagonia Simon 1893 H11
       |     |    |--M. conica (Simon 1893) HF08
       |     |    |--M. mariguitarensis (González-Sponga 1998) T09
       |     |    `--M. reventazona Huber 1997 HF08
       |     `--Spermophora Hentz 1841 HF08, H11
       |          |--S. kerinci Huber 2005 HF08
       |          |--S. senoculata (Dugès 1836) H11
       |          `--S. usambara Huber 2003 HF08
       `--+--Quamtana Huber 2003 H11
          |    `--Q. bonamanzi Huber 2003 HF08
          |--Belisana Thorell 1898 H11
          |    |--B. airai Huber 2005 HF08
          |    |--B. fiji Huber 2005 HF08
          |    |--B. hormigai H11
          |    `--B. ketambe H11
          `--+--Micropholcus Deeleman-Reinhold & Prinsen 1987 H11
             |    `--M. fauroti (Simon 1887) H11
             |--Pehrforsskalia Deeleman-Reinhold & van Harten 2001 H11
             |    `--P. conopyga Deeleman-Reinhold & van Harten 2001 HF08
             `--+--+--Panjange Deeleman-Reinhold & Deeleman 1983 HF08, H11
                |  |    `--P. mirabilis Deeleman-Reinhold 1986 HF08
                |  `--Leptopholceae H11
                |       |--Micromerys Bradley 1877 H11
                |       |    `--M. daviesae Deeleman-Reinhold 1986 HF08
                |       `--Leptopholcus Simon 1893 H11
                |            |--L. debakkeri H11
                |            |--L. gracilis H11
                |            `--L. hispaniola Huber 2000 HF08
                `--+--Calapnita Simon 1892 HF08, H11
                   |    |--C. phyllicola Deeleman-Reinhold 1986 HF08
                   |    `--C. saluang H11
                   |--Ossinissa Dimitrov & Ribera 2005 HF08, H11
                   |    `--*O. justoi (Wunderlich 1991) [=Spermophorides justoi] F05
                   |--Uthina Simon 1893 HF08, H11
                   |    `--U. luzonica Simon 1893 HF08
                   `--Pholcus Walckenaer 1805 H11
                        |--P. barbarus Lucas 1846 E12
                        |--P. bourgini H11
                        |--P. caudatus V09
                        |--P. chattoni H11
                        |--P. crypticolens Bösenberg & Strand 1906 RA08
                        |--P. kwamgumi H11
                        |--P. lamperti H11
                        |--P. manueli Gertsch 1937 [incl. P. affinis Schenkel 1953] RA08
                        |--P. opilionoides (Schrank 1781) HF08
                        |--P. phalangioides (Fuesslin 1775) H11
                        |--P. quadripunctatus Lucas 1846 E12
                        |--P. quinquenotatus H11
                        |--P. sphaeroides B96
                        `--P. zichyi Kulczyński 1901 K01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[H11] Huber, B. A. 2011. Phylogeny and classification of Pholcidae (Araneae): an update. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 211–222.

[HF08] Huber, B. A., & N. Fleckenstein. 2008. Comb-hairs on the fourth tarsi in pholcid spiders. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 232–240.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[RA08] Ramalho, M. O., D. Araujo, M. C. Schneider, A. D. Brescovit & D. M. Cella. 2008. Mesabolivar brasiliensis (Moenkhaus 1898) and Mesabolivar cyaneotaeniatus (Keyserling 1891) (Araneomorphae, Pholcidae): close relationship reinforced by cytogenetic analysis. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 453–456.

[T09] Taylor, C. K. 2009. Australiscutum, a new genus of Monoscutidae (Arachnida: Opiliones) from eastern Australia, with the first record of asymmetrical chelicerae in Opiliones. Insect Systematics and Evolution 40: 319–332.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

Araneini

Female Neoscona arabesca, copyright Bruce Marlin.


Belongs within: Araneinae.
Contains: Araneus.

The Araneini is a group of orb-weaving including the genus Araneus and its closest relatives.

<==Araneini G76
    |  i. s.: Agalenatea Archer 1951 G76
    |           `--A. redii (Scopoli 1763) [=Aranea redii] G76
    |         Zilla Koch 1834 G76
    |           `--Z. diodia (Walckenaer 1802) [=Aranea diodia; incl. *Z. albimacula Koch 1834] G76
    |         Atea Koch 1837 G76
    |           |--*A. sturmi (Hahn 1831) [=Epeira sturmi] G76
    |           `--A. triguttata (Fabricius 1775) G76 [=Araneus triguttatus G76, Epeira triguttata V09]
    |--Singa Koch 1836 F11, G76
    |    |--*S. hamata (Clerck 1757) G76 [=Araneus hamatus G76, Epeira (Singa) hamata K01]
    |    `--S. nitidula Koch 1845 G76 [=Epeira (Singa) nitidula K01]
    |--+--Pronous F11
    |  `--Cercidia Thorell 1870 F11, G76
    |       `--C. prominens (Westring 1851) [=Epeira prominens] G76
    |--Hyposinga Ausserer 1871 F11, G76
    |    |--*H. sanguinea (Koch 1845) [=Singa sanguinea] G76
    |    |--H. albovittata (Westring 1851) [=Singa albovittata] G76
    |    |--H. heri (Hahn 1836) [=Singa heri] G76
    |    `--H. pygmaea (Sundevall 1831) G76 [=Araneus (Singa) pygmaeus S95, Epeira (Singa) pygmaea K01, G76]
    |--+--Araneus F11
    |  `--Aculepeira Chamberlain & Ivie 1942 F11, G76
    |       |--*A. aculeata (Emerton 1877) [=Epeira aculeata] G76
    |       |--A. carbonaria (Koch 1869) [=Araneus carbonarius] G76
    |       `--A. ceropegia (Walckenaer 1802) G76 [=Araneus ceropegius G76, A. (Epeira) ceropegia S95]
    |--Araniella Chamberlain & Ivie 1942 F11, G76
    |    |--*A. displicata (Hentz 1847) [=Epeira displicata, Araneus diplicatus] G76
    |    |--A. alpica (Koch 1869) [=Araneus alpicus] G76
    |    |--A. crispula Tullgren 1952 G76
    |    |--A. inconspicua (Simon 1874) [=Araneus inconspicuus] G76
    |    |--A. opistographa (Kulczynski 1905) [=Araneus cucurbitinus opisthographus] G76
    |    `--A. silesiaca (Fickert 1876) G76
    |--Nuctenea Simon 1864 F11, G76 [incl. Cyphepeira Archer 1951 G76]
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Cyphepeira’ gracilis G76
    |    |--*N. umbratica (Clerck 1757) G76 [=Araneus umbraticus G76, Chinestela umbratica G76, Epeira umbratica V09]
    |    |--N. silvicultrix (Koch 1835) [=Araneus silvicultrix, *Cyphepeira silvicultrix, Epeira silvicultrix] G76
    |    `--+--N. cornuta (Clerck 1757) [=Araneus cornutus, Cyphepeira cornuta] G76
    |       |--N. folium (Schrank 1803) G76 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |--N. ixobola (Thorell 1873) G76 [=Araneus ixobolus G76, Cyphepeira ixobola G76, A. (Epeira) ixobola S95]
    |       |--N. patagiata (Clerck 1757) G76 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--N. sclopetaria (Clerck 1757) [=Araneus sclopetarius, Cyphepeira sclopetaria] G76
    `--Neoscona Simon 1864 F11, G76 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*N. arabesca (Walckenaer 1841) [=Epeira arabesca] G76
         |--N. achine (Simon 1906) [=Araneus achine] TB81
         |--N. adianta (Walckenaer 1802) T98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--N. amamiensis Tanikawa 1998 T98
         |--N. bengalensis Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
         |--N. biswasi (Bhandari & Gajbe 2001) HU08
         |--N. chrysanthusi Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
         |--N. elliptica Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
         |--N. excelsus (Simon 1889) [=Glyptogona excelsus, Araneus excelsus, Epeira excelsa] TB81
         |--N. laglaizei (Simon 1877) TB81 (see below for synonymy)
         |--N. lugubris (Walckenaer 1841) T98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--N. mellotteei (Simon 1895) [=Araneus mellotteei, Aranea mellotteei] T98
         |--N. minoriscylla Yin et al. 1990 T98
         |--N. molemensis Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
         |--N. mukerjei (Tikader 1980) AM11
         |--N. nautica (Koch 1875) T98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--N. oaxacensis (Keyserling 1864) AM11
         |--N. odites (Simon 1906) [=Araneus odites] TB81
         |--N. orientalis (Urquhart 1887) PVD10 [=Epeira victoria var. orientalis Kulczyński 1901 FF99, K01]
         |--N. pavida (Simon 1906) [=Araneus pavida, A. pavidus] TB81
         |--N. poonaensis Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
         |--N. punctigera (Doleschall 1857) (see below for synonymy) T98
         |--N. rumpfi (Thorell 1878) [=Araneus rumpfi] TB81
         |--N. scylla (Karsch 1879) [=Epeira scylla, Aranea scylla, Araneus scyllus] T98
         |--N. scylloides (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) [=Aranea scylloides, Araneus scylloides] T98
         |--N. shillongensis Tikader & Bal 1981 TB81
         |--N. sinhagadensis (Tikader 1975) [=Araneus sinhagadensis] TB81
         |--N. subpullata (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) [=Aranea subpullata, Araneus subpullatus] T98
         |--N. theisi (Walckenaer 1841) T98 (see below for synonymy)
         `--N. vigilans (Blackwell 1865) (see below for synonymy) T98

Neoscona Simon 1864 F11, G76 [incl. Afraranea Archer 1951 T98, Chinestela Chamberlin 1924 T98, Cubanella Franganillo 1926 T98, Friovixia Archer 1951 TB81, Neosconopsis Archer 1951 G76]

Neoscona adianta (Walckenaer 1802) T98 [=Aranea adianta G76, Araneus (Epeira) adianta S95, Araneus adiantus T98, Miranda adianta T98, Neoscona adiantum T98, *Neosconopsis adianta G76; incl. Meta doenitzi Bösenberg & Strand 1906 T98, Aranea doenitzi T98, Araneus doenitzi T98, Neoscona doenitzi T98, Aranea adianta japonica Bösenberg & Strand 1906 T98]

Neoscona laglaizei (Simon 1877) TB81 [=Epeira laglaizei TB81, Araneus laglaizei TB81; incl. E. thomisoides Doleschall 1857 non Duf. 1855 K92]

Neoscona lugubris (Walckenaer 1841) T98 [=Epeira lugubris R13, Araneus lugubris T98; incl. E. indagatrix K. 1871 R13, Neoscona triangula (Keyserling 1864) T98]

Neoscona nautica (Koch 1875) T98 [=Epeira nautica T98, Aranea nautica T98, Araneus nauticus T98; incl. Aranea koratsensis Dönitz & Strand in Bösenberg & Strand 1906 T98, Epeira pullata Thorell 1877 TB81, E. volucripes Keyserling 1885 TB81, Neoscona volucripes TB81]

Neoscona punctigera (Doleschall 1857) [=Epeira punctigera, Afraranea punctigera, Araneus punctigera; incl. Epeira opima Koch 1878, Aranea opima, Araneus opimus, Neoscona opima, Aranea punctigera vatia (Thorell 1877)] T98

Neoscona theisi (Walckenaer 1841) T98 [=Epeira theis T98, Araneus theisi T98, E. theisi TB81, Neoscona theis T98; incl. E. braminica Stoliczka 1869 TB81, E. mangareva Walckenaer 1847 R13, Araneus mangarevus TB81, E. obscura Rainbow 1897 TB81]

Neoscona vigilans (Blackwell 1865) [=Epeira vigilans; incl. Araneus alternidens Schenkel 1936, E. rufofemorata Simon 1884, A. rufofemoratus] T98

Nuctenea folium (Schrank 1803) G76 [=Araneus folium G76, Epeira folium K01; incl. Aranea dumetorum K01, Aranea foliata K01]

Nuctenea patagiata (Clerck 1757) G76 [=Araneus patagiatus G76, Cyphepeira patagiata G76, Epeira patagiata K01; incl. Aranea apoclisa K01, Epeira apoclisa S69]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[F11] Framenau, V. W. 2011. Lariniophora, a new monotypic orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Araneinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (2): 191–201.

[G76] Grasshoff, M. 1976. Zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur mitteleuropäischer Radnetzspinnen der Familie Araneidae (Arachnida: Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 143–154.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[S95] Simon, E. 1895. Arachnides recueillis par Mr G. Potanine en Chine et en Mongolie (1876–1879). Izviestĭia Imperatorskoi Akademĭi Nauk” [Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg], Ser. 5, 4: 331–345.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

[T98] Tanikawa, A. 1998. A revision of the Japanese spiders of the genus Neoscona (Araneae: Araneidae). Acta Arachnologica 47 (2): 133–168.

[TB81] Tikader, B. K., & A. Bal. 1981. Studies on some orb-weaving spiders of the genera Neoscona Simon and Araneus Clerck of the family Araneidae (=Argiopidae) from India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Miscellaneous Publication, Occasional Paper 24: 1–60.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

Tephritoidea

Signal fly Rivellia sp., copyright Stephen Cresswell.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Lonchaeidae, Richardiidae, Piophilidae, Ulidiidae, Tephritidae, Pyrgotidae.

The Tephritoidea are a group of acalyptrate flies united by the reduction or loss of sternite 6 in the male, the presence in females of anterior rod-like apodemes on sternites 4 to 7, and division of the female tergosternite 7 into two sections, with the anterior section forming a tubular oviscape and the posterior section comprising two pairs of longitudinal taeniae.

<==Tephritoidea [Otitoidea] WT11
    |--+--Lonchaeidae WT11
    |  `--Richardiidae WT11
    `--+--Piophilidae WT11
       `--+--Ulidiidae WT11
          `--+--+--+--Tephritidae WT11
             |  |  `--+--Pyrgotidae WT11
             |  |     `--Tachiniscidae [Tachiniscinae] WT11
             |  |          |--Tachinisca cyaneiventris WT11
             |  |          |--Neortalotrypeta bicolor N10
             |  |          |--Agnitrena igniceps N10
             |  |          |--Ischyropteron nigricaudatum N10
             |  |          `--Protortalotrypeta N10
             |  `--Ctenostylidae [Ctenostylinae, Lochmostyliinae] WT11
             |       |--Nepaliseta ashleyi WT11
             |       |--Furciseta plaumanni BW09
             |       |--*Ctenostylum rufum K10
             |       |--Ramuliseta ashleyi K10
             |       |--Sinolochmostylia K10
             |       |--Tauroscypson K10
             |       |    |--T. andina BW09
             |       |    `--T. guiana K10
             |       `--Lochmostylia K10
             |            |--*L. borgmeieri BW09
             |            `--L. lopesi K10
             `--Platystomatidae [Achiasidae] WT11
                  |  i. s.: Giraffomyia GE05
                  |         Lamprogaster C91
                  |           |--L. imperialis ZS10
                  |           `--L. violacea C91
                  |         Achias GE05
                  |           |--A. australis ZS10
                  |           `--A. rothschildi GE05
                  |         Pogonortalis doclea S87
                  |         Plagiostenopterina W10
                  |         Euprosopia tenuicornis CM91
                  |         Elassogaster linearis CM91
                  |         Duomyia CM91
                  |         Lenophila dentipes CM74
                  |--Scholastinae W10
                  |--Trapherinae W10
                  |--Plastotephritinae W10
                  `--Platystomatinae [Angitulinae] W10
                       |--Platystoma Meigen 1803 BR05
                       |--Himeroessa pretiosa W10, S87
                       |--Amphicnephes W10
                       |    |--A. pullus S87
                       |    `--A. stellatus W10
                       |--Senopterina W10 [=Stenopterina S87; incl. Bricinnia W10, Bricinniella W10]
                       |    |--S. brevipes W10
                       |    |--S. caerulescens BW09
                       |    `--S. mexicana W10
                       `--Rivellia W10
                            |--R. basilaris BM76
                            |--R. flavimana M90
                            |--R. inaequata W10
                            |--R. occulta W10
                            |--R. syngenesiae WT11
                            `--R. trigona BM76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K10] Korneyev, V. A. 2010. Ctenostylidae (ctenostylid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 963–969. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[S87] Steyskal, G. C. 1987. Platystomatidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 809–812. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W10] Whittington, A. E. 2010. Platystomatidae (signal flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 903–907. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.