Annual water miner's lettuce Montia fontana, photographed by Sheri Hagwood.

Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Portulaca, Claytonia, Calandrinia, Calyptridium, Lewisia, Opuntioideae.

The Cactineae is a clade of flowering plants strongly supported by molecular analyses. Among its members are the cacti (Cactaceae), the purslanes (Portulacaceae) and the Madagascar-endemic Didereaceae. Many members of the clade are succulent to some degree. Members of the mostly Neotropical Cactaceae are spiny, and leaves are absent in the subfamily Cactoideae. Other members of the clade include the Basellaceae, a tropical and subtropical group of perennial herbs, many of them climbers growing from tuberous rhizomes.

<==Cactineae [Portulaceae]
    |  i. s.: Talinaria palmeri GP09
    |--Talinum G95 [Talinaceae APG16]
    |    |--T. paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. 1791 (see below for synonymy) G95
    |    `--T. triangulare (Jacq.) Willdenow in Linnaeus 1799 (see below for synonymy) G95
    |--Basellaceae AW03
    |    |--Basella rubra PT01
    |    |--Anredera cordifolia [incl. Boussingaultia gracilis var. pseudobaselloides] H93
    |    `--Ullucus tuberosus H93, S00
    |--Hectorellaceae [Pycnophylleae] T00
    |    |--Lyallia T00
    |    |--Pycnophyllum A61
    |    `--Hectorella Hook. f. 1864 A61
    |         `--H. caespitosa Hook. f. 1864 [incl. H. elongata Buchan. 1884] A61
    |--Anacampseros CV06 [Anacampserotaceae APG16]
    |    |--A. australiana H90
    |    |--A. filamentosa CV06
    |    |    |--A. f. ssp. filamentosa CV06
    |    |    `--A. f. ssp. tomentosa CV06
    |    `--A. lanigera G04
    |--Montia Linnaeus 1753 A61 [Montiaceae APG16]
    |    |--M. chamissoi H93
    |    |--M. dichotoma H93
    |    |--M. diffusa H93
    |    |--M. fontana Linnaeus 1753 [incl. M. lamprosperma Cham. 1831] G95
    |    |    |--M. f. ssp. fontana H90
    |    |    |--M. f. ssp. amporitana [incl. M. fontana ssp. intermedia] H90
    |    |    `--M. f. ssp. chondrosperma H90
    |    |--M. howellii H93
    |    |--M. linearis H93
    |    `--M. parvifolia H93
    |--Portulacaceae AW03
    |    |--Avonia dinteri [=Anacampseros dinteri] CV06
    |    |--Neopaxia australasica ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Talinella G04
    |    |--Grahamia G04
    |    |--Talinopsis G04
    |    |--Portulaca G95
    |    |--Claytonia A61
    |    |--Calandrinia OS04
    |    |--Calyptridium H93
    |    `--Lewisia H93
    |--Didiereaceae AW03
    |    |--Portulacarioideae [Portulacarieae] AW03
    |    |    |--Portulacaria Jacquin 1787 AW03
    |    |    |    |--P. afra O98
    |    |    |    `--P. armiana GP09
    |    |    `--Ceraria Pearson & Stephens 1912 AW03
    |    |         |--C. longipedunculata CV06
    |    |         `--C. namaquensis AW03
    |    `--+--Calyptrotheca Gilg 1897 [Calyptrothecoideae] AW03
    |       `--Didiereoideae AW03
    |            |--Didierea Baillon 1880 AW03
    |            |--Alluaudia (Drake) Drake 1903 AW03
    |            |--Alluaudiopsis Humbert & Choux 1934 AW03
    |            `--Decaryia Choux 1934 AW03
    `--Cactaceae AW03
         |  i. s.: Mammillaria H93
         |           |--M. dioica [incl. M. dioica var. incerta] H93
         |           |--M. leucocentra PT01
         |           |--M. milleri H93
         |           `--M. tetrancistra H93
         |         Epiphyllum oxypetalum P88
         |         Pilosocereus K06
         |           |--P. arrabidae H11
         |           |--P. gounellei BV09
         |           |--P. sartorianus I92
         |           |--P. tillianus K06
         |           `--P. tuberculatus BV09
         |         Stenocereus griseus K06
         |         Subpilocereus repandus K06
         |         Schlumbergera × buckleyi MH98
         |         Lophocereus schotti GE05
         |         Echinopsis spachiana H06
         |         Echinocactus H93
         |           |--E. polycephalus H93
         |           `--E. wislizenni LW70
         |         Hylocereus undatus [=Cereus undatus] H90
         |         Eriocereus CGW91
         |           |--E. martinii [=Cereus martinii, Harrisia martinii] H90
         |           `--E. tortuosus [=Cereus tortuosus, Harrisia tortuosus] H90
         |         Carnegiea gigantea [=Cereus giganteus] B38
         |         Bergerocactus emoryi [=Cereus emoryi] H93
         |         Echinocereus H93
         |           |--E. engelmannii [incl. E. munzii] H93
         |           `--E. triglochidiatus [incl. E. mojavensis] H93
         |         Escobaria vivipara [=Coryphantha vivipara, Mammillaria vivipara] H93
         |           |--E. v. var. vivipara H93
         |           |--E. v. var. alversonii (see below for synonymy) H93
         |           |--E. v. var. deserti [=Coryphantha deserti, Mammillaria deserti] H93
         |           `--E. v. var. rosea [=Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea] H93
         |         Ferocactus H93
         |           |--F. cylindraceus [=Echinocactus cylindraceus] H93
         |           |    |--F. c. var. cylindraceus H93
         |           |    `--F. c. var. lecontei H93
         |           |--F. viridescens H93
         |           `--F. wislizenii SBM11
         |         Sclerocactus H93
         |           |--S. johnsonii [=Echinocactus johnsonii, Neolloydia johnsonii] H93
         |           `--S. polyancistrus [=Echinocactus polyancistrus] H93
         |         Phyllocactus akkermanni S00
         |         Eopuntia douglassii Chaney 1944 CBH93
         |         Hariotia Adans. 1763 KC01
         |--Maihuenia [Maihuenioideae] GP09
         |    |--M. patagonica GP09
         |    `--M. poeppigii GP09
         `--+--+--Opuntioideae G04
            |  `--Pereskia GP09 [incl. Rhodocactus G04; Pereskieae, Pereskioideae]
            |       |--P. aculeata H06
            |       |--P. diaz-roemeriana G04
            |       |--P. grandifolia G04
            |       |--P. humboldtii G04
            |       `--P. weberiana G04
            `--Cactoideae [Cereae] G04
                 |  i. s.: Cereus H06
                 |           |--C. jamacaru H06
                 |           `--C. speciosus S00
                 |         Eriosyce napina GP09
                 |--Blossfeldia liliputana GP09
                 `--+--Trichocereus pasacana G04
                    |--Leptocereus quadricostatus G04
                    `--Rhipsalis baccifera G04, H06

Escobaria vivipara var. alversonii [=Coryphantha vivipara var. alversonii, Mammillaria vivipara var. alversonii] H93

Neopaxia australasica ME70 [=Claytonia australasica Hook. f. in Hook. 1840 H90, A61, Montia australasica (Hook. f.) Pax & Hoffman 1934 A61, Paxia australasica H90; incl. C. australasica var. biflora Buchanan 1871 A61, C. calycina Colenso 1896 A61, Montia calycina (Colenso) Pax & Hoffman 1934 A61, C. australasica var. racemosa Buchanan 1871 A61, C. australasica var. sessiliflora Simpson 1952 A61]

Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. 1791 [=Portulaca paniculatum Jacq. 1760; incl. T. patens (Linnaeus) Willdenow 1799] G95

Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willdenow in Linnaeus 1799 [=Portulaca triangulare Jacq. 1760; incl. P. racemosa Linnaeus 1771] G95

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[AW03] Applequist, W. L., & R. S. Wallace. 2003. Expanded circumscription of Didiereaceae and its division into three subfamilies. Adansonia 25 (1): 13–16.

[B38] Blackman, M. W. 1938. New species of Cactopinus Schwarz (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (6): 151–157.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G95] Gideon, O. 1995. Portulacaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 212–220. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[G04] Griffith, M. P. 2004. What did the first cactus look like? An attempt to reconcile the morphological and molecular evidence. Taxon 53 (2): 493–499.

[GP09] Griffith, M. P., & J. M. Porter. 2009. Phylogeny of Opuntioideae (Cactaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 170 (1): 107–116.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H11] Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (tanagers). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 46–329. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[LW70] Lowe, C. H., J. W. Wright, C. J. Cole & R. L. Bezy. 1970. Natural hybridization between the teiid lizards Cnemidophorus sonorae (parthenogenetic) and Cnemidophorus tigris (bisexual). Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 114–127.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[SBM11] Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg & D. W. Martin (eds) 2011. Biology 9th ed. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

Last updated: 4 April 2020.

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