Cactineae

Annual water miner's lettuce Montia fontana, photographed by Sheri Hagwood.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Portulaca, Claytonia, Calandrinia, Calyptridium, Lewisia, Opuntioideae.

The Cactineae is a clade of flowering plants strongly supported by molecular analyses. Among its members are the cacti (Cactaceae), the purslanes (Portulacaceae) and the Madagascar-endemic Didereaceae. Many members of the clade are succulent to some degree. Members of the mostly Neotropical Cactaceae are spiny, and leaves are absent in the subfamily Cactoideae.

<==Cactineae [Portulaceae]
    |  i. s.: Talinaria palmeri GP09
    |--Talinum G95 [Talinaceae APG16]
    |    |--T. paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. 1791 (see below for synonymy) G95
    |    `--T. triangulare (Jacq.) Willdenow in Linnaeus 1799 (see below for synonymy) G95
    |--Basellaceae AW03
    |    |--Basella rubra PT01
    |    |--Anredera cordifolia [incl. Boussingaultia gracilis var. pseudobaselloides] H93
    |    `--Ullucus tuberosus H93, S00
    |--Anacampseros CV06 [Anacampserotaceae APG16]
    |    |--A. filamentosa CV06
    |    |    |--A. f. ssp. filamentosa CV06
    |    |    `--A. f. ssp. tomentosa CV06
    |    `--A. lanigera G04
    |--Hectorellaceae [Pycnophylleae] T00
    |    |--Lyallia T00
    |    |--Pycnophyllum A61
    |    `--Hectorella Hook. f. 1864 A61
    |         `--H. caespitosa Hook. f. 1864 [incl. H. elongata Buchan. 1884] A61
    |--Montia Linnaeus 1753 A61 [Montiaceae APG16]
    |    |--M. chamissoi H93
    |    |--M. dichotoma H93
    |    |--M. diffusa H93
    |    |--M. fontana Linnaeus 1753 [incl. M. lamprosperma Cham. 1831] G95
    |    |--M. howellii H93
    |    |--M. linearis H93
    |    `--M. parvifolia H93
    |--Portulacaceae AW03
    |    |--Avonia dinteri [=Anacampseros dinteri] CV06
    |    |--Neopaxia australasica ME70
    |    |--Talinella G04
    |    |--Grahamia G04
    |    |--Talinopsis G04
    |    |--Portulaca G95
    |    |--Claytonia A61
    |    |--Calandrinia OS04
    |    |--Calyptridium H93
    |    `--Lewisia H93
    |--Didiereaceae AW03
    |    |--Portulacarioideae [Portulacarieae] AW03
    |    |    |--Portulacaria Jacquin 1787 AW03
    |    |    |    |--P. afra O98
    |    |    |    `--P. armiana GP09
    |    |    `--Ceraria Pearson & Stephens 1912 AW03
    |    |         |--C. longipedunculata CV06
    |    |         `--C. namaquensis AW03
    |    `--+--Calyptrotheca Gilg 1897 [Calyptrothecoideae] AW03
    |       `--Didiereoideae AW03
    |            |--Didierea Baillon 1880 AW03
    |            |--Alluaudia (Drake) Drake 1903 AW03
    |            |--Alluaudiopsis Humbert & Choux 1934 AW03
    |            `--Decaryia Choux 1934 AW03
    `--Cactaceae AW03
         |  i. s.: Mammillaria H93
         |           |--M. dioica [incl. M. dioica var. incerta] H93
         |           |--M. leucocentra PT01
         |           |--M. milleri H93
         |           `--M. tetrancistra H93
         |         Epiphyllum oxypetalum P88
         |         Pilosocereus K06
         |           |--P. arrabidae H11
         |           |--P. sartorianus I92
         |           `--P. tillianus K06
         |         Stenocereus griseus K06
         |         Subpilocereus repandus K06
         |         Schlumbergera × buckleyi MH98
         |         Lophocereus schotti GE05
         |         Echinopsis spachiana H06
         |         Harrisia martinii H06
         |         Echinocactus H93
         |           |--E. polycephalus H93
         |           `--E. wislizenni LW70
         |         Hylocereus undulatus K10
         |         Eriocereus martinii CGW91
         |         Carnegiea gigantea [=Cereus giganteus] B38
         |         Bergerocactus emoryi [=Cereus emoryi] H93
         |         Echinocereus H93
         |           |--E. engelmannii [incl. E. munzii] H93
         |           `--E. triglochidiatus [incl. E. mojavensis] H93
         |         Escobaria vivipara [=Coryphantha vivipara, Mammillaria vivipara] H93
         |           |--E. v. var. vivipara H93
         |           |--E. v. var. alversonii (see below for synonymy) H93
         |           |--E. v. var. deserti [=Coryphantha deserti, Mammillaria deserti] H93
         |           `--E. v. var. rosea [=Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea] H93
         |         Ferocactus H93
         |           |--F. cylindraceus [=Echinocactus cylindraceus] H93
         |           |    |--F. c. var. cylindraceus H93
         |           |    `--F. c. var. lecontei H93
         |           `--F. viridescens H93
         |         Sclerocactus H93
         |           |--S. johnsonii [=Echinocactus johnsonii, Neolloydia johnsonii] H93
         |           `--S. polyancistrus [=Echinocactus polyancistrus] H93
         |         Phyllocactus akkermanni S00
         |--Maihuenia [Maihuenioideae] GP09
         |    |--M. patagonica GP09
         |    `--M. poeppigii GP09
         `--+--Cactoideae [Cereae] G04
            |    |  i. s.: Cereus H06
            |    |           |--C. jamacaru H06
            |    |           `--C. speciosus S00
            |    |         Eriosyce napina GP09
            |    |--Blossfeldia liliputana GP09
            |    `--+--Trichocereus pasacana G04
            |       |--Leptocereus quadricostatus G04
            |       `--Rhipsalis baccifera G04, H06
            `--+--Opuntioideae G04
               `--Pereskia GP09 [incl. Rhodocactus G04; Pereskieae, Pereskioideae]
                    |--P. aculeata H06
                    |--P. diaz-roemeriana G04
                    |--P. grandifolia G04
                    |--P. humboldtii G04
                    `--P. weberiana G04

Escobaria vivipara var. alversonii [=Coryphantha vivipara var. alversonii, Mammillaria vivipara var. alversonii] H93

Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. 1791 [=Portulaca paniculatum Jacq. 1760; incl. T. patens (Linnaeus) Willdenow 1799] G95

Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willdenow in Linnaeus 1799 [=Portulaca triangulare Jacq. 1760; incl. P. racemosa Linnaeus 1771] G95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[AW03] Applequist, W. L., & R. S. Wallace. 2003. Expanded circumscription of Didiereaceae and its division into three subfamilies. Adansonia 25 (1): 13–16.

[B38] Blackman, M. W. 1938. New species of Cactopinus Schwarz (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (6): 151–157.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G95] Gideon, O. 1995. Portulacaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 212–220. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[G04] Griffith, M. P. 2004. What did the first cactus look like? An attempt to reconcile the morphological and molecular evidence. Taxon 53 (2): 493–499.

[GP09] Griffith, M. P., & J. M. Porter. 2009. Phylogeny of Opuntioideae (Cactaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 170 (1): 107–116.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H11] Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (tanagers). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 46–329. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K10] Keighery, G. 2010. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 299–311.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[LW70] Lowe, C. H., J. W. Wright, C. J. Cole & R. L. Bezy. 1970. Natural hybridization between the teiid lizards Cnemidophorus sonorae (parthenogenetic) and Cnemidophorus tigris (bisexual). Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 114–127.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

Last updated: 25 November 2018.

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