Tydeoidea

Female Tydeus, from here.


Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Procurvata.

The Tydeoidea are a diverse group of free-living mites, many of which are notably resistant to desiccation. They may be more or less omnivorous in diet, with some species having been recorded feeding on a variety of animal, plant or fungal foods (Walter et al. 2009). Within the Tydeoidea, the Triophtydeidae are characterised by antenniform first legs, reduced or absent apoteles, and a median eyespot of subcuticular silver granules (Walter et al. 2009). The Tydeidae are characterised by a loss of eugenital setae in females and a reduction of the cis-acetabulal area between the genital discs. However, monophyly of this group relative to the families Iolinidae and Ereynetidae (together forming the clade Procurvata) has been questioned because of the uncertain position of the distinctive species Australotydeus kirstenae (André & Fain 2000).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Soft-bodied or ornamentally sclerotised dorsally. Gnathosoma with postcheliceral stigmata and tracheae distinct or obscure; cheliceral based fused or closely contiguous along their mesal edges, lacking dorsal cheliceral setae; fixed cheliceral digit reduced, lobe-like, movable cheliceral digit stylet-like or needle-like, rarely elongated, whip-like; subcapitulum characteristically with inversely T-shaped, sclerotised delineation of medial walls of lateral lips; palpi simple, with one to four (rarely five) segments. Prodorsum lacking anteromedian naso, with four pairs (sometimes as few as one pair) of setae, including one pair of bothridial sensilla; eyes present, with either surface cornea or subdermal pigmented areas, or absent. Opisthosoma with seven to eleven pairs of setae dorsally, laterally, and caudally, lacking postlarval setal additions or hypertrichy dorsally, but including a second pair of bothridial sensilla on posterodorsal aspect in certain Ereynetidae and Tydeidae; cupules (lyrifissures) present, sometimes obscure or absent; elements of opisthosomatic segments PS and AD present, including ps1 and, rarely, ps2 or ad1. Adult genital aperture positioned behind legs III and IV, usually longitudinal but transverse in some Iolinidae, and usually with two pairs of genital papillae (reduced to one pair or absent in Iolinidae). Males usually lacking an aedeagus (present in some Iolinidae). Leg setation lacking bothridial setae; tarsus I with one or two usually erect solenidia (with one recumbent solenidion in a rhagidial-like depression in some Ereynetidae) and with or without claws, occasionally with only a median empodium; tarsi II to IV generally with paired claws and a padlike setulose, but not rayed, median empodium. Generally with five active postembryonic instars: larva, protonymph, deutonymph, tritonymph, and adult (tritonymph sometimes suppressed).

<==Tydeoidea
    |--Triophtydeidae [Edbakerellidae, Meyerellidae] AF00
    |    |--Edbakerellinae [Meyerellinae] WL09
    |    |    |--Pseudotriophtydeus AF00
    |    |    `--Edbakerella André 2004 [=Meyerella Baker 1968 (preoc.)] WL09
    |    |         `--‘Meyerella’ marshalli AF00
    |    `--Triophtydeinae AF00
    |         |--Pretriophtydeus tilbrooki AF00
    |         `--Triophtydeus Thor 1932 H98
    |              |--T. bakeri WL09
    |              |--T. immanis WL09
    |              |--T. lebruni H96
    |              `--T. pinicolus (Oudemans 1929) [=Tydeus pinicolus] H98
    `--Tydeidae [Tydidae] AF00
         |  i. s.: Paralorryia Baker 1965 A05
         |           `--P. eharai Baker 1968 C-RSV-S88
         |         Tectotydeus Oudemans 1937 A05
         |           `--*T. demeyeri (Oudemans 1929) [=Tydeus demeyeri] A05
         |         Brachytydeus Thor 1931 [incl. Raphitydeus Thor 1933] A05
         |           `--*B. cruciatus (Koch 1838) [=Tydeus cruciatus, Lorryia cruciata] A05
         |         Stylotydeus Thor 1933 A05
         |         Lasiotydaeus Berlese 1908 A05
         |         Eotydeus A05
         |         Melissotydeus macrosolenus André 1985 A05
         |         Venilia liberta WL09
         |         Metalorryia palpsetosa N07
         |         Retetydeus G38a
         |           |--R. catenulatus G38b
         |           `--R. viviparus Thor 1931 G38a
         |         Ereynetoides watsoni P94
         |--Australotydeus [Australotydeinae] AF00
         |    `--A. kirstenae AF00
         `--+--Procurvata AF00
            `--+--Pretydeinae AF00
               |    |--Prelorryia indoniensis AF00, A05
               |    `--Pretydeus panitae A05
               `--Tydeinae AF00
                    |--Afrotydeus Baker 1970 ACW01, A05
                    |    `--A. munsteri ACW01
                    |--Calotydeus Oudemans 1937 [incl. Homeotydeus André 1980, Pseudolorryia Kaźmierski 1989] A05
                    |    |--*C. croceus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) A05
                    |    |--‘Homeotydeus’ shawi ACW01
                    |    `--C. xylocopae Oudemans 1926 A05
                    |--Lorryia Oudemans 1925 A05
                    |    |--*L. superba Oudemans 1925 A05
                    |    |--L. concinnus Oudemans 1929 A05
                    |    |--L. ferula WL09
                    |    |--L. floridensis ACW01
                    |    |--L. formosa ACW01
                    |    |--L. leptonychotes P94
                    |    |--L. mali Oudemans 1929 A05
                    |    |--L. marcandrei ACW01
                    |    |--L. montrealensis WL09
                    |    |--L. polaris P94
                    |    |--L. pulcher Oudemans 1929 A05
                    |    |--L. reticulata (Oudemans 1928) A05 [=Tydeus reticulatus A05; incl. L. bedfordiensis WL09]
                    |    |--L. schusteri WL09
                    |    |--L. teresae DF96
                    |    |--L. turrialbensis A05
                    |    `--L. woolleyi DW10
                    `--Tydeus Koch 1836 [incl. Orthotydeus André 1980] A05
                         |--*T. spathulatus Oudemans 1928 [=Orthotydeus spathulatus] A05
                         |--T. australensis Baker 1970 H98
                         |--T. bakeri K90
                         |--‘Orthotydeus’ bkaasifrini Bayan 1986 ACW01
                         |--T. californicus (Banks 1904) N07 [=Orthotydeus californicus ACW01]
                         |--T. caudatus (Dugès 1834) [=Tetranychus caudatus, Orthotydeus caudatus] A05
                         |--T. curtus Berlese 1910 SB63
                         |--T. foliorum [=Acarus foliorum; incl. Ty. albellus, Tetranychus virburni] CF77
                         |--T. gloveri [=Orthotydeus gloveri] ACW01
                         |--T. goetzi A05
                         |--T. interruptus Thor 1932 H98
                         |--T. kochi Oudemans 1928 (n. d.) [=Orthotydeus kochi] A05
                         |--‘Orthotydeus’ lindquisti WP99
                         |--T. longisetosus N07
                         |--T. molestus WL09
                         |--T. mumai ACW01
                         |--T. mutabilis Koch 1838 [=Brachytydeus mutabilis] A05
                         |--T. nicaraguensis M-PV-G01
                         |--T. nieuwkerkeni André 2005 A05
                         |--T. olivaceus Koch 1838 A05
                         |--T. schusteri [=Pertydeus schusteri] S79
                         |--T. shawi ACW01
                         |--T. tilbrooki K09
                         |--T. tuttlei Baker 1965 A05
                         |--T. velox Koch 1836 (n. d.) A05
                         |--T. womersleyi Thor 1932 H98
                         `--T. xylocopae A05

*Calotydeus croceus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Acarus croceus, Homeotydeus croceus, Orthotydeus croceus, Pseudolorryia crocea, Tydeus croceus] A05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[A05] André, H. M. 2005. In search of the true Tydeus (Acari, Tydeidae). Journal of Natural History 39 (13): 975–1001.

[AF00] André, H. M., & A. Fain. 2000. Phylogeny, ontogeny and adaptive radiation in the superfamily Tydeoidea (Acari: Actinedida), with a reappraisal of morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 405–448.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[C-RSV-S88] Corpuz-Raros, L. A., G. C. Sabio & M. Velasco-Soriano. 1988. Mites associated with stored products, poultry houses and house dust in the Philippines. Philippine Entomologist 7 (3): 311–321.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[DF96] Duso, C., & P. Fontana. 1996. Mite communities on wild plants surrounding vineyards in north-eastern Italy with special emphasis on phytoseiids (Phytoseiidae). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 261–264. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[G38a] Grandjean, F. 1938a. Retetydeus et les stigmates mandibulaires des acariens prostigmatiques. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 2e Série 10 (3): 279–286.

[G38b] Grandjean, F. 1938b. Au sujet de la néotenie chez les acariens. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences 207: 1347–1350.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H96] Hossain, S. M. 1996. Composition and fluctuations of some mite populations in apple orchards in western Norway. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 243–251. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[K90] Kethley, J. 1990. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 667–756. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Habits and habitats. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 64–82. Texas Tech University Press.

[M-PV-G01] Montiel-Parra, G., G. A. Villegas-Guzman, M. Vargas & O. J. Polaco. 2001. Mites associated with nests of Neotoma albigula Hartley, 1894 (Rodentia: Muridae) in Durango, México. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 586–593. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[N07] Niemczyk, E. 2007. Species, occurrence and role of tydeid mites (Acari: Tydeidae) in apple orchards. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 365–372. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[P94] Pugh, P. J. A. 1994. Non-indigenous Acari of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 207–217.

[S79] Schuster, R. 1979. Soil mites in the marine environment. Recent Advances in Acarology 1: 593–602.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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