Hydrachnidia

Hydrodroma sp., copyright Martin Steinmeier.


Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Stygothrombiidae, Protohydrachnidia, Rhynchohydracaridae, Hydryphantidae, Neohydrachnidia.

The Hydrachnidia are a large group of predatory water mites with parasitic larvae. Authorities differ as to whether the divergent Stygothrombiidae should be placed within this group or not. Hydrachnidia excluding the Stygothrombiidae have palps with femur and genu separate, and usually relatively simple claws (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009, as Stygothrombiidae + Hydrachnidiae): Active in or on water, or (as larvae) parasitic on aquatic insects. Adults with idiosoma and appendages usually not hypertrichous; idiosoma with series of stomatoid fissures or glandularia comprising gland-like structures that each open on a small platelet, often adjacent to associated seta. Larvae with palpgenu bearing two setae.

<==Hydrachnidia [Hydrachnellae] G91
    |  i. s.: Thyopsis cancellata W01
    |--Stygothrombiidae G91
    `--Hydrachnidiae [Hydracarina, Hydrachnida] LKW09
         |--Protohydrachnidia W91
         `--Euhydrachnidia [Hydryphantoidea] WWO01
              |  i. s.: Rhynchohydracaridae RFF05
              |         Thermacarus Sokolow 1927 [Thermacaridae] RFF05
              |           |--T. andinus Martín & Schwoerbel 2002 RFF05
              |           `--T. nevadensis Marshall 1928 RFF05
              |         Teratothyadidae WL09
              |           |--Teratothyas WL09
              |           `--Teratothyasides WL09
              |                |--T. sagariphorus WL09
              |                `--T. undulatus WL09
              |         Ctenothyadidae WL09
              |           |--Ctenothyas verrucosa WL09
              |           `--Stellulathyas WL09
              |                |--S. lundbladi WL09
              |                `--S. magnifica WL09
              |         Zelandothyadidae WL09
              |           |--Australiothyas [Australiothyadinae] WL09
              |           `--Zelandothyas [Zelandothyadinae] WL09
              |                `--Z. diamphida WL09
              |--Hydryphantidae W91
              `--+--Neohydrachnidia W91
                 `--Hydrodroma Koch 1837 W91, S86 [Hydrodromidae]
                      |--H. americana PW01
                      |--H. despiciens (Müller 1776) W91
                      |    |--H. d. despiciens RFF05
                      |    |--H. d. brevirostris Lundblad 1941 RFF05
                      |    |--H. d. clavipes Lundblad 1953 RFF05
                      |    |--H. d. crassiseta Viets 1954 RFF05
                      |    |--H. d. longiseta Viets 1954 RFF05
                      |    |--H. d. macronyx Viets 1954 RFF05
                      |    `--H. d. micronyx Viets 1954 RFF05
                      |--H. monticola WL09
                      |--H. peregrina (Koenike 1905) RFF05
                      |    |--H. p. peregrina RFF05
                      |    `--H. p. robusta Viets 1954 RFF05
                      |--H. rheophila Cook 1967 S86
                      |--H. stalagmophila Lundblad 1941 RFF05
                      |--H. torrenticola S86
                      `--H. ungulata Lundblad 1941 RFF05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G91] Gabryś, G. 1991. Intergeneric relationships within Erythraeidae (Acari, Actinedida). In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 207-212. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 97-103. Texas Tech University Press.

[PW01] Proctor, H., & K. Wilkinson. 2001. Coercion and deceit: Water mites (Acari: Hydracarina) and the study of intersexual conflict. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 155-169. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RFF05] Rosso de Ferradás, B. & H. R. Fernández. 2005. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia) de Sudamérica. Graellsia 61 (2): 181-224.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 652-696. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

[W91] Wohltmann, A. 1991. Nutrition and respiratory rate of water mites (Actinedida: Hydrachnidia) from a phylogenetic point of view. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 543-548. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: Features facilitating coexistence. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 121-135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WWO01] Wohltmann, A., H. Witte & R. Olomski. 2001. Organismal patterns causing high potential for adaptive radiation in Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 83-99. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

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