Asteroideae

Climbing hempvine Mikania scandens, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.


Belongs within: Asteraceae.
Contains: Senecio, Othonninae, Calenduleae, Gnaphalieae, Astereae, Anthemideae, Inuleae, Plucheeae, Helenieae, Coreopsideae, Heliantheae, Eupatorium.

The Asteroideae is a major clade within the composite-flowered plants, a major characteristic of which is the presence of true ray florets in many species. Around 3000 species within the Asteroideae are placed in the tribe Senecioneae, characterised by a well-developed pappus of simple or plumose hairs, and flattened, more or less truncate style-arms (Allan 1961).

Synapomorphies (from www.mobot.org): Sesquiterpene lactones at biogenetic levels 3 and 4, benzopyrans, benzofurans present; ray florets common, female, disc florets with corolla shallowly lobed, perfect; anthers often ecalcarate and usually ecaudate; pollen 25.0-34.3 µm in diameter, colpus ends acute, exine 2.3-4.2 µm across, with a double tectum; style hairs often rounded, only more or less at style tip, stigmatic areas in two marginal bands; n = (4-)9-10(-19); rbcL 6bp x 4 inversion.

<==Asteroideae [Helianthoideae, Inuloideae]
    |  i. s.: Psilostrophe tagetina KJ94, BTA75
    |--Senecioneae [Senecionideae] PF02
    |    |  i. s.: Blennosperma T00
    |    |         Crassocephalum H03
    |    |           |--C. coeruleum CV06
    |    |           `--C. crepidioides MH98
    |    |         Erechtites Raf. 1817 A61
    |    |           |--E. diversifolia Petrie 1887 [incl. Senecio dunedinensis Belcher 1956] A61
    |    |           |--E. hieracifolia MH98
    |    |           |--E. kermadecensis (Belcher) Allan 1961 [=Senecio kermadecensis Belcher 1956] A61
    |    |           |--E. sonchoides DC. 1838 A61
    |    |           |--E. valerianaefolia A61
    |    |           `--E. wairauensis (Belcher) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |                |--E. w. var. wairauensis A61
    |    |                `--E. w. var. robusta Allan 1961 A61
    |    |         Traversia Hooker 1864 A61
    |    |           `--*T. baccharoides Hooker 1864 [incl. Senecio geminatus Kirk 1899] A61
    |    |         Brachyglottis Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |    |           |--*B. repanda Forster & Forster 1776 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |           |    |--B. r. var. repanda A61
    |    |           |    |--B. r. var. arborescens (Oliver) Allan 1961 [=B. arborescens Oliver 1948] A61
    |    |           |    `--B. r. var. rangiora (Buchan.) Allan 1961 [=B. rangiora Buchan. 1882] A61
    |    |           |--B. adamsii W91
    |    |           |--B. belidioides W91
    |    |           |    |--B. b. var. bellidioides W91
    |    |           |    `--B. b. var. crassa W91
    |    |           `--B. buchanani W91
    |    |         Melalema S06
    |    |         Culcitium S06
    |    |--Senecio BR65
    |    `--Othonninae BR65
    `--+--+--Calenduleae PF02
       |  `--+--Gnaphalieae PF02
       |     `--+--Astereae PF02
       |        `--Anthemideae PF02
       `--+--+--Inuleae PF02
          |  `--Plucheeae PF02
          `--+--Athroismeae PF02
             |    |--Athroisma de Candolle 1883 PF02
             |    |--Blepharispermum PF02
             |    `--Leucoblepharis PF02
             `--+--Helenieae PF02
                `--+--Coreopsideae PF02
                   `--+--+--+--Tagetes TS03 [Tageteae PF02]
                      |  |  |    `--T. minuta B00
                      |  |  `--+--Bahieae PF02
                      |  |     `--Chaenactideae PF02
                      |  `--Neurolaeneae PF02
                      |       |--Neurolaena lobata J87
                      |       `--Calea N10
                      |           |--C. dalyi G09
                      |           `--C. pinifolia Forster 1786 (n. d.) A61
                      `--+--Polymnia Linnaeus 1751 [Polymnieae, Polymniinae] PF02
                         |    `--P. pyramidalis OB11
                         `--+--Heliantheae PF02
                            `--+--Milleria YY22 [Millerieae PF02]
                               `--+--Madia D51 [Madieae PF02]
                                  |    |--M. citrigracilis D51
                                  |    |--M. citriodora D51
                                  |    `--M. sativa D51
                                  `--+--Perityleae PF02
                                     `--Eupatorieae [Eupatoriaceae] PF02
                                          |--Eupatorium GJ09
                                          |--Ophryosporus N10
                                          |--Gymnocoronis S06
                                          |--Adenostemma lavenia S06, LK14
                                          |--Alomia [incl. Lycapsus] S06
                                          |--Stevia S06
                                          |--Kanimia S06
                                          |--Brickellia N10
                                          |    |--B. argyrolepsis MM96
                                          |    `--B. californica BT72
                                          |--Chromolaena GJ09
                                          |    |--C. odorata GJ09
                                          |    `--C. squalida W03
                                          |--Ageratum C06
                                          |    |--A. conyzoides MM96
                                          |    `--A. houstonianum M65
                                          |--Ageratina N10
                                          |    |--A. adenophora H06
                                          |    |--A. altissima N10
                                          |    `--A. riparia H06
                                          `--Mikania [incl. Willoughbya] S06
                                               |--M. batatifolia M83
                                               |--M. cordata W03
                                               |--M. cyanosma J87
                                               |--M. dissecta J87
                                               |--M. hotteana J87
                                               |--M. micrantha W03
                                               |--M. rhomboidea J87
                                               |--M. scandens MM96
                                               `--M. tripartita J87

*Brachyglottis repanda Forster & Forster 1776 [incl. Cineraria repanda Forster 1786; incl. Senecio (Brachyglottis) forsteri Hooker 1853, S. georgii Endl. 1836] A61

Erechtites wairauensis (Belcher) Allan 1961 [=Senecio wairauensis Belcher 1956; incl. E. glabrescens Kirk 1877 non DC. 1838, E. prenanthoides var. minor Hooker 1853] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G09] Goyder, D. J. 2009. Blepharodon crabronum (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from the pre-Cambrian serranias of eastern Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 179–181.

[H03] Hancock, D. L. 2003. The status and relationships of Terpnodesma Munro and establishment of the new tribe Axiothaumini (Diptera: Tephritidae: Tephritinae). African Entomology 11 (1): 143–145.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ94] Kim, K.-J., & R. K. Jansen. 1994. Comparisons of phylogenetic hypotheses among different data sets in dwarf dandelions (Krigia, Asteraceae): additional information from internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution 190: 157–185.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–658.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[TS03] Tremetsberger, K., T. F. Stuessy, Y.-P. Guo, C. M. Baeza, H. Weiss & R. M. Samuel. 2003. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) variation within and among populations of Hypochaeris acaulis (Asteraceae) of Andean southern South America. Taxon 52: 237–245.

[W03] Waterhouse, B. M. 2003. Know your enemy: recent records of potentially serious weeds in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Papua (Indonesia). Telopea 10 (1): 477–485.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 27 June 2018.

Heliantheae

Common cocklebur Xanthium strumarium, photographed by J. V. Littell.


Belongs within: Asteroideae.

The Heliantheae are a group of composite-flowered plants distinguished by their scaled receptacles and (usually) stiff pappuses. Significant members include the sunflower Helianthus annuus and Jerusalem artichoke H. tuberosus. Molecular studies indicate the presence of two major clades within the Heliantheae; interestingly, the morphologically similar genera Montanoa and Rojasianthe, sharing such characters as chromosome number, opposite phyllotaxy, accrescent pales, blackish disc corollas and neutral ray flowers with white corollas, are each placed basally on oppposite clades (Panero & Funk 2002).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Receptacle with chaffy scales; involucral bracts without scarious margins; heads mostly heterogamous-radiate; pappus of scales, awns or stiff plumose bristles, rarely absent; style-branches flattish, not truncate; leaves often opposite.

<==Heliantheae
    |  i. s.: Spilanthes paniculata PF02, BB07
    |         Galinsoga [Galinsoginae] BR65
    |           `--G. parviflora BR65
    |--+--Montanoa PF02
    |  |    |--M. bipinnatifida Z02
    |  |    |--M. hibiscifolia H06
    |  |    |--M. liebmannii PF02
    |  |    `--M. pteropoda PF02
    |  `--Ecliptinae PF02
    |       |--Salmea PF02
    |       `--Eclipta BR65
    |            |--E. alba PP07
    |            |--E. erecta C55
    |            |--E. platyglossa BR65
    |            `--E. prostrata VB02
    `--+--Rojasianthe Standley & Steyermark 1940 [Rojasianthinae] PF02
       `--+--Rudbeckiinae PF02
          |--Zaluzania YY22 [Zaluzaniinae PF02]
          |--Zinnia YY22 [Zinniinae PF02]
          |--Engelmaniinae PF02
          |--Helianthus BR65 [Helianthinae PF02]
          |    |--H. annuus Linnaeus 1753 CD07
          |    |--H. bolanderi D51
          |    |--H. paradoxus MAA95
          |    |--H. petiolaris D51
          |    `--H. tuberosus BR65
          |--Verbesininae PF02
          |    |--Siegesbeckia orientalis BR65
          |    |--Verbesina DH98
          |    |    |--V. encelioides DH98
          |    |    `--V. turbaiensis MM96
          |    `--Wedelia von Jacquin 1763 BR65
          |         |--W. biflora P88
          |         |--W. glauca (Orteg) Blake 1917 [=Pascalia glauca Orteg 1797] SS02
          |         |--W. serrata J87
          |         |--W. trilobata P88
          |         `--W. verbesinoides [incl. W. stirlingii] BR65
          `--Ambrosiinae [Ambrosieae] PF02
               |--Iva axillaris BR65
               |--Ambrosia BR65
               |    |--A. artemisiifolia BR65
               |    |--A. dumosa C90
               |    |--A. psilostachya BR65
               |    `--A. tenuifolia C55
               `--Xanthium BR65
                    |--X. californicum BR65
                    |--X. canadense MH98
                    |--X. indicum C55
                    |--X. macrocarpum C55
                    |--X. orientale BR65
                    |--X. pungens BR65
                    |--X. spinosum BR65
                    `--X. strumarium BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135-142.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[MAA95] McCarthy, E. M., M. A. Asmussen & W. W. Anderson. 1995. A theoretical assessment of recombinational speciation. Heredity 74: 502-509.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909-922.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SS02] Salunkhe, C. B., V. B. Shimpale, M. M. Sardesai & S. R. Yadav. 2002. Some new records of Asteraceae for the state of Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 555-557.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27-34.

Plucheeae

Epaltes australis, photographed by Ian Sutton.


Belongs within: Asteroideae.

The Plucheeae is a group of composite-flowered plants distinguished by their flowers with filiform style-branches.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965, as Plucheinae): Style-branches filiform, stigmatic on inner side, beset with collecting hairs downwards to below place of division; heads heterogamous-discoid, female flowers usually with minute ligules or none; bisexual flowers often sterile with shortly bifid or entire styles; receptacle naked.

<==Plucheeae [Plucheinae]
    |--Cratystylis Moore 1905 BR65
    |    `--C. conocephala [=Olearia conocephala von Mueller 1886, Pluchea conocephala von Mueller 1887] BR65
    |--Sphaeranthus BR65
    |    |--S. indicus [incl. S. hirtus] BR65
    |    `--S. wattii CV06
    |--Pterocaulon Elliot 1824 [incl. Monenteles Labillardière 1824-1825] BR65
    |    |--P. glandulosum BR65
    |    `--P. sphacelatum BR65
    |--Pluchea BR65
    |    |--P. dentex [incl. P. rubelliflora var. major] BR65
    |    |--P. rubelliflora (von Mueller) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) BR65
    |    `--P. symphytifolia J87
    |--Epaltes BR65
    |    |--E. australis BR65
    |    |--E. brasiliensis C55
    |    |--E. cunninghamii BR65
    |    |--E. divaricata BR65
    |    `--E. tatei BR65
    `--Pterigeron BR65
         |--P. adscendens BR65
         |--P. cylindriceps BR65
         |--P. dentatifolius BR65
         |--P. liatroides BR65
         `--P. odorus BR65

Pluchea rubelliflora (von Mueller) Druce 1917 [=Eyrea rubelliflora von Mueller 1852; incl. P. eyrea von Mueller 1859] BR65

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

Lauraceae

Ceylon cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum, from here.


Belongs within: Laurales.

The Lauraceae is a pantropical group of often aromatic flowering plants including mostly shrubs and trees. Commercially significant species include the bay tree Laurus nobilis, avocado Persea americana and cinnamon Cinnamomum species. The genus Cinnamomum also includes the camphor laurel C. camphora, whose aromatic wood is used to repel insects. Members of the genus Sassafras are deciduous; the North American species Sassafras albidum was historically used to flavour root beer, though 'sassafras oil' is now more commonly derived from other species of Lauraceae. The genus Cassytha comprises parasitic, largely non-photosynthetic vines with minute, scale-like leaves commonly known as 'dodder laurels' in reference to their strong superficial resemblance to the unrelated dodders of the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae).

Characters (from H. van der Werff): Shrubs to tall trees, evergreen or rarely deciduous (Cassytha a parasitic vine with leaves reduced to scales), usually aromatic. Leaves alternate, rarely whorled or opposite, simple, without stipules, petiolate. Leaf blade: unlobed (unlobed or lobed in Sassafras), margins entire, occasionally with domatia (crevices or hollows serving as lodging for mites) in axils of main lateral veins (in Cinnamomum). Inflorescences in axils of leaves or deciduous bracts, panicles (rarely heads), racemes, compound cymes, or pseudoumbels (spikes in Cassytha), sometimes enclosed by decussate bracts. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, bisexual only, or staminate and pistillate on different plants, or staminate and bisexual on some plants, pistillate and bisexual on others; flowers usually yellow to greenish or white, rarely reddish; hypanthium well developed, resembling calyx tube, tepals and stamens perigynous; tepals 6(-9), in 2(-3) whorls of 3, sepaloid, equal or rarely unequal, if unequal then usually outer 3 smaller than inner 3 (occasionally absent in Litsea); stamens (3-)9(-12), in whorls of 3, but 1 or more whorls frequently staminodial or absent; stamens of 3d whorl with 2 glands near base; anthers 2- or 4-locular, locules opening by valves; pistil 1, 1-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; placentation basal; ovule 1; stigma subsessile, discoid or capitate. Fruits drupes, drupe borne on pedicel with or without persistent tepals at base, or seated in ± deeply cup-shaped receptacle (cupule), or enclosed in accrescent floral tube. Seed 1; endosperm absent.

<==Lauraceae
    |--Eusideroxylon zwageri K03
    |--Ampelodaphne YY22
    |--Hypodaphnis YY22
    |--Paxiodendron YY22
    |--Iteadaphne YY22
    |--Polyadenia YY22
    |--Aydendron YY22
    |--Ravensara YY22
    |--Parabenzoin praecox [=Lindera praecox] LO98
    |--Dahlgrenodendron FPC04
    |--Laurocarpum JD05
    |--Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Bl.) Bl. 1851 (see below for synonymy) G06
    |--Alseodaphne hainanensis G06
    |--Machilus khasyana G06
    |--Umbellularia californica [incl. U. californica var. fresnensis] H93
    |--Daphnogene Unger 1850 HL08
    |    |--D. cinnamomifolia HL08
    |    `--D. lanceolata HL08
    |--Actinodaphne YY22
    |    |--A. angustifolia [incl. A. hookeri] BS07
    |    `--A. pseudogermarii JD05
    |--Sassafras YY22
    |    |--S. albidum C96
    |    `--S. ferretianum S89
    |--Lindera K03
    |    |--L. benzoin P93
    |    |--L. pipericarpa K03
    |    `--L. pulcherrima D07
    |--Laurophyllum Goeppert 1854 HL08
    |    |--L. knauense JD05
    |    |--L. lomatolepis Rüffle, Müller-Stoll & Litke 1976 HL08
    |    `--L. syncarpifolium JD05
    |--Neolitsea DS04
    |    |--N. australiensis B00a
    |    |--N. cassia DS04
    |    |--N. dealbata B00a
    |    `--N. sericea [incl. Litsaea glauca] LO98
    |--Laurus [Lauroideae] F71
    |    |--L. australiensis Ettingshausen 1883 F71
    |    |--L. azorica KL98
    |    |--L. cinnamomum A93
    |    |--L. nobilis R-RR-GM-S98
    |    `--L. princeps S89
    |--Nectandra J87
    |    |--N. coriacea J87
    |    |--N. membranacea J87
    |    |--N. patens J87
    |    |--N. sintenisii SWK87
    |    `--N. tabascensis BT87
    |--Beilschmiedia Nees 1831 A61
    |    |--B. bancrofti WO95
    |    |--B. bhutanica Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--B. obtusifolia B00a
    |    |--B. pendula J87
    |    |--B. roxburghiana G06
    |    |--B. tarairi (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    `--B. tawa (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--Dehaasia G06
    |    |--D. arunachalensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--D. assamica G06
    |    |--D. candolleana G06
    |    |--D. cuneata G06
    |    |--D. incrassata (Jack) Kosterm. 1952 [=Laurus incrassata Jack 1822] G06
    |    |--D. kurzii G06
    |    `--D. rangamattiensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |--Endiandra B00a
    |    |--E. compressa B00a
    |    |--E. discolor B00a
    |    |--E. glauca B00a
    |    |--E. hypotephra B00b
    |    |--E. impressicosta B00a
    |    |--E. palmerstoni H42
    |    |--E. pubens B00a
    |    `--E. sieberi B00a
    |--Ocotea J87
    |    |--O. acarina J87
    |    |--O. acrantha J87
    |    |--O. bullata P65
    |    |--O. foeniculacea J87
    |    |--O. kenyensis K09
    |    |--O. leucoxylon SWK87
    |    |--O. moschata SWK87
    |    |--O. portoricensis SWK87
    |    |--O. spathulata SWK87
    |    `--O. wrightii J87
    |--Phoebe G06
    |    |--P. attenuata D07
    |    |--P. baishyae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. boehlensis JD05
    |    |--P. cathia G06
    |    |--P. declinata (Bl.) Nees 1836 [=Laurus declinata Bl. 1823, Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm. 1974] G06
    |    |--P. lanceolata G06
    |    |--P. lummaoensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. mexicana BT87
    |    |--P. montanum J87
    |    |--P. pallida G06
    |    |--P. prazeri Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    `--P. tampicensis BT87
    |--Cassytha Linnaeus 1753 [Cassythoideae] A61
    |    |--C. aurea G04b
    |    |--C. candida LK14
    |    |--C. capillaris B12
    |    |--C. filiformis P88
    |    |--C. flava GK00
    |    |--C. glabella G04b
    |    |--C. melantha G04b
    |    |--C. micrantha GK00
    |    |--C. nodiflora G04a
    |    |--C. paniculata Br. 1810 A61
    |    |--C. peninsularis B00b
    |    |--C. pubescens A61
    |    `--C. racemosa G04b
    |--Litsea Lamarck 1789 A61
    |    |--L. auriculata LI89
    |    |--L. bindoniana B00a
    |    |--L. breviumbellata B00a
    |    |--L. calicaris (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--L. chinensis L00
    |    |--L. glutinosa H06
    |    |--L. graciae K03
    |    |--L. leefeana CW92
    |    |--L. macrophylla B00a
    |    |--L. odorifera K03
    |    |--L. reticulata B00a
    |    |--L. salicifolia (Roxb. ex Nees) Hooker 1886 [incl. Tetranthera lanceaefolia Roxburgh 1832] BS07
    |    `--L. stocksii (Meisner) Hooker 1886 (see below for synonymy) BS07
    |         |--L. s. var. stocksii BS07
    |         |--L. s. var. acutata (Meisner) Hooker 1886 (see below for synonymy) BS07
    |         `--L. s. var. glabrescens (Meisner) Hooker 1886 (see below for synonymy) BS07
    |--Cryptocarya G06
    |    |--C. alba B14
    |    |--C. amygdalina G06
    |    |--C. biswasii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--C. burkillii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--C. corrugata B00a
    |    |--C. costata G06
    |    |--C. cunninghamii LK14
    |    |--C. dekae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--C. densiflora B00a
    |    |--C. erythroxylon B00a
    |    |--C. everettii G06
    |    |--C. foveolata WO95
    |    |--C. glaucescens B00a
    |    |--C. grandis B00a
    |    |--C. hypospodia B00a
    |    |--C. kurzii G06
    |    |--C. mackinnoniana B00a
    |    |--C. microneura B00a
    |    |--C. murrayi B00a
    |    |--C. oblata H42
    |    |--C. rigida B00a
    |    |--C. triplinervis P82
    |    `--C. woodi BP60
    |--Persea G06
    |    |--P. americana J87
    |    |    |--P. a. var. americana FYP07
    |    |    `--P. a. var. dryifolia FYP07
    |    |--P. anomala J87
    |    |--P. arunachalensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. bhaskarii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. borbonia M83
    |    |--P. fructifera G06
    |    |--P. gamblei G06
    |    |--P. gratissima [incl. Laurus persea] C55
    |    |--P. haridasanii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. himalayaensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. hintonii BTA75
    |    |--P. indica KL98
    |    |--P. lobitensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. macrantha SR07
    |    |--P. odoratissima [=Machilus odoratissima] G06
    |    |--P. robusta (Smith) Kosterm. 1962 [=Machilus robusta Smith 1921] G06
    |    |--P. russellii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. schideana BT87
    |    |--P. sharmae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. sikkimensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    |    |--P. thunbergii (Sieb. & Zucc.) Kosterm. 1957 [=Machilus khunbergii Sieb. & Zucc. 1847] G06
    |    `--P. upendrae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
    `--Cinnamomum G06
         |--C. bejolghota G06
         |--C. bhamoensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. bhaskarii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. bishnupadae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. blandfordii Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. burmannii (Nees & Nees) Bl. 1826 [=Laurus burmannii Nees & Nees 1823] G06
         |--C. cacharensis G06
         |--C. camphora (Linnaeus) Presl 1825 CD07
         |--C. cupulatum G06
         |--C. discoideum JD05
         |--C. glaucescens G06
         |--C. impressinervium G06
         |--C. iners P88
         |--C. leichhardtii Ettingshausen 1883 F71
         |--C. lohitensis Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. macrophyllum Miq. 1864 G06
         |--C. mollissimum Hooker 1886 G06
         |--C. oliveri B00a
         |--C. polymorphoides F71
         |--C. sanjappae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. sieboldii [incl. C. loureirii] LO98
         |--C. subavenium Miq. 1858 G06
         |--C. sulphuratum SR07
         |--C. suvrae Gangopadhyay 2006 G06
         |--C. tamala D07
         |--C. tavoyanum G06
         |--C. travancoricum VM02
         |--C. walaiwarense Kostermans 1983 VM02
         `--C. zeylanicum E30

Beilschmiedia tarairi (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 [=Laurus tarairi Cunn. 1838, Nesodaphne tarairi (Cunn.) Hook. f. 1854] A61

Beilschmiedia tawa (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 [=Laurus tawa Cunn. 1838, Nesodaphne tawa Hook. f. 1854; incl. L. victoriana Col. in Hooker 1864 (n. n.)] A61

Litsea calicaris (Cunn.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Kirk 1889 [=Laurus calicaris Sol. ex Cunn. 1838, Tetranthera calicaris Hook. f. 1854; incl. T. tangao Cunn. 1838 (n. n.)] A61

Litsea stocksii (Meisner) Hooker 1886 [=Cylicodaphne oblonga var. stocksii Meisner in de Candolle 1864; incl. L. josephii Almeida 1990 (nom. illeg.), L. vartakii Almeida 1989 (nom. illeg.)] BS07

Litsea stocksii var. acutata (Meisner) Hooker 1886 [=Cylicodaphne myristicaefolia var. acutata Meisner in de Candolle 1864] BS07

Litsea stocksii var. glabrescens (Meisner) Hooker 1886 [=Cylicodaphne wightiana var. glabrescens Meisner in de Candolle 1864] BS07

Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Bl.) Bl. 1851 [=Ocotea umbelliflora Bl. 1826; incl. N. nicobarica Chakrab. & Vasud. 1985] G06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[A93] Anonymous. 1793. Histoire naturelle. Bulletin de la Société Philomatique, a ses Correspondans 29: 1.

[BP60] Baker, E. W., & A. E. Pritchard. 1960. The tetranychoid mites of Africa. Hilgardia 29 (11): 455–574.

[BT87] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1706: 1–237.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[BS07] Bhuinya, T., & P. Singh. 2007. Critical notes on Litsea stocksii (Meisn.) Hook. f. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 195–198.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Rutelinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 359–382. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[E30] Enderlein, G. 1930. Die Copeognathen-Fauna der Seychellen. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 21.

[FYP07] Faber, B. A., W. L. Yee & P. A. Phillips. 2007. Effect of abamectin treatments for avocado thrips (Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]) on persea mite (Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker and Abbatiello [Acari: Tetranychidae]) and avocado bud mite (Tegolophus myresi Keifer [Acari: Eriophyidae]) populations and on their associated damage to leaves and fruit of avocado (Persea americana). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 521–527. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[FPC04] Friis, E. M., K. R. Pedersen & P. R. Crane. 2004. Araceae from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal: evidence on the emergence of monocotyledons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (47): 16565–16570.

[G06] Gangopadhyay, M. 2006. Notes on the family Lauraceae from India and its adjoining countries—I. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 103–156.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[HL08] Henniger, M. & R. Leder. 2008. Eozäne Makroflora der Querfurter Mulde. Mauritiana 20 (2): 229–251.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[K09] Kelbessa, E. 2009. Three new species of Acanthaceae from Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 57–65.

[KL98] Kiffe, K., K. Lewejohann. 1998. Ein Neufund von Carex oedipostyla Duval-Jouve (Cyperaceae) auf Teneriffa, Kanarische Inseln. Willdenowia 28: 117–122.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[L00] Labillardiere, C. 1800. Mémoire sur deux espèces de litchi des Molluques. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (45): 161.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[LI89] Liang L.-R. & K. Ishikawa. 1989. Occurrence of Gamasellus (Acarina, Gamasida, Ologamasidae) on Tian-mu Mountains in east China. Reports of Research, Matsuyama Shinonome Junior College 20: 143–152.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–658.

[P82] Pickard, J. 1982. Catastrophic disturbance and vegetation on Little Slope, Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 161–170.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[P65] Pletzen, R. van. 1965. Studies on the South African Oribatei (Acari). III. Further new species of the genus Scheloribates Berlese 1908. Acarologia 7 (1): 113–120.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R-RR-GM-S98] Ramil-Rego, P., M. Rodríguez-Guitián & C. Muñoz-Sobrino. 1998. Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 335–351.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S89] Squinabol, S. 1889. Res Ligusticae. VII.—Cenno preliminare sulla flora fossile di Santa Giustina. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 73–76.

[VM02] Viswanathan, M. B., & U. Manikandan. 2002. Emending of an endemic and critically endangered species Cinnamomum walaiwarense Kosterm., family Lauraceae, of Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 557–559.

[WO95] Walter, D. E., & D. J. O'Dowd. 1995. Beneath biodiversity: factors influencing the diversity and abundance of canopy mites. Selbyana 16 (1): 12–20.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 13 November 2018.

Hydrocotyle

Water pennywort Hydrocotyle vulgaris, from Robert Paul Hudson.


Belongs within: Araliaceae.

Hydrocotyle, the water pennyworts, is a genus of aquatic and semi-aquatic creeping plants. Some species are cultivated in aquaria but they are also known in some areas as invasive weeds.

Characters (from She, Watson & Cannon): Herbs, perennial. Stem slender, creeping or decumbent, rooting at the nodes. Leaves petiolate; petioles not sheathing; stipules present, entire or parted to base, membranous; blade cordate, orbicular, or reniform. Inflorescence a simple umbel; umbels sometimes densely capitate; peduncles axillary, obsolete to much longer than leaves; bracts present or absent; pedicels very short or extended (best seen in fruiting material). Flowers bisexual. Calyx teeth minute or obsolete. Petals white, greenish or yellow, valvate, ovate, spreading. Stylopodium conic to depressed. Fruit globose or ellipsoid, strongly flattened laterally, base cordate, dorsal surface rounded, glabrous (rarely with white hairs); dorsal and lateral ribs usually conspicuous, slender, acute (rarely obsolete); vittae inconspicuous. Seed face plane to concave; endocarp woody. Carpophore usually absent.

<==Hydrocotyle Linnaeus 1753 A61 [incl. H. sect. Euhydrocotyle C06]
    |--H. alata GK00
    |--H. americana Linnaeus 1753 [incl. H. nitens Colenso 1891] A61
    |    |--H. a. var. americana A61
    |    `--H. a. var. heteromeria (Rich.) Kirk 1899 [=H. heteromeria Rich. 1820] A61
    |--H. callicarpa GK00
    |--H. diantha GK00
    |--H. dissecta Hooker 1853 A61
    |--H. elongata Cunn. 1839 [incl. H. concinna Colenso 1885, H. echinella Colenso 1888] A61
    |--H. grammatocarpa LK14
    |--H. hirsuta J87
    |--H. hydrophila Petrie 1897 [=H. tripartita var. hydrophila (Petrie) Cheeseman 1906] WJ82
    |--H. microphylla Cunn. 1839 A61
    |--H. moschata Forster 1786 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    |--H. muscosa Br. ex Rich. 1820 WJ82, A61
    |--H. natans C55
    |--H. novaezelandiae DC. 1830 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--H. n. var. novaezelandiae A61
    |    |--H. n. var. involucrata (Col.) Allan 1961 [=H. involucrata Col. 1887] A61
    |    |--H. n. var. lobulata Kirk 1899 A61
    |    |--H. n. var. montana Kirk 1899 A61
    |    `--H. n. var. robusta (Kirk) Cheesem. 1906 [=H. robusta Kirk 1899] A61
    |--H. pilifera GK00
    |    |--H. p. var. pilifera GK00
    |    `--H. p. var. glabrata GK00
    |--H. pterocarpa Muell. 1855 A61
    |--H. pusilla J87
    |--H. ranunculoides V09
    |--H. rugulosa G04
    |--H. sibthorpioides Lam. 1789 A61
    |--H. sulcata Webb & Johnson 1982 WJ82
    |--H. tripartita Br. ex Rich. 1820 WJ82
    |--H. umbellata H93
    |--H. verticillata [incl. H. verticillata var. triradiata] H93
    `--H. vulgaris K03

Nomen nudum: Hydrocotyle tripartita var. subpilosa Petrie in Allan 1961 WJ82

Hydrocotyle moschata Forster 1786 A61 [incl. H. colorata Colenso 1886 A61, H. compacta C06, H. sibthorpioides var. laciniata Kirk 1899 A61, H. moschata var. parvisolia Carse 1928 A61]

Hydrocotyle novaezelandiae DC. 1830 [incl. H. alsophila Col. 1886, H. amoena Col. 1889, H. dichondraefolia Cunn. 1839, H. intermixta Col. 1885] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WJ82] Webb, C. J., & P. N. Johnson. 1982. Hydrocotyle (Umbelliferae) in New Zealand: the 3-foliolate species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 120: 163–168.

Last updated: 31 August 2018.

Piperales

Florida peperomia Peperomia obtusifolia, photographed by Roger L. Hammer.


Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Aristolochiaceae.

The Piperales is a clade of mostly herbaceous plants (some species are lianes or small trees) found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. Members of the families Piperaceae and Saururaceae have small flowers borne in elongate spikes. Commercially significant species include Piper nigrum, pepper, and Piper betle, betel.

Synapomorphies (from www.mobot.org): Plant herbaceous, growth sympodial; sesquiterpenes [e.g. gamma-elemene] present; starch grains compound; primary stem with distinct bundles; vessel elements in radial files, with simple perforation plates; wood with broad rays; nodes often swollen; stomata not paracytic; leaves two-ranked, lamina with secondary veins palmate; stamens in threes; seed more or less tegmic, endotegmen tanniniferous; PHYE gene absent.

<==Piperales [Piperineae]
    |--Aristolochiaceae SaaRai07
    |--Saururaceae DS04
    |    |--Houttuynia cordata DS04
    |    `--Saururus JD05
    |         |--S. bilibatus JD05
    |         `--S. cernuus DS04
    `--Piperaceae DS04
         |  i. s.: Nematanthera YY22
         |         Symbryon YY22
         |         Verhuellia YY22
         |         Lepianthes umbellatum [=Pothomorphe umbellata] J87
         |--+--Macropiper Miq. 1839 DS04, A61
         |  |    `--M. excelsum (Forst. f.) Miq. 1843 [=Piper excelsum Forst. f. 1786] A61
         |  |         |--M. e. var. excelsum A61
         |  |         `--M. e. var. majus (Cheeseman) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |  `--Piper [Piperoideae] DS04
         |       |--P. aduncum J87
         |       |--P. amarum J87
         |       |--P. betle Linnaeus 1753 CD07
         |       |--P. carinum K03
         |       |--P. cenocladum DL99
         |       |--P. confusum J87
         |       |--P. feistmanteli Ettingshausen 1886 F71
         |       |--P. hispidum J87
         |       |--P. longum SDK05
         |       |--P. methysticum HSS13
         |       |--P. nigrum SanRav07
         |       |--P. oviedoi J87
         |       |--P. rugosum J87
         |       `--P. wightii SanRav07
         `--Peperomia Ruiz & Pav. 1794 DS04, A61 [Peperomioideae]
              |--P. acuminata J87
              |--P. alata J87
              |--P. cabaianum J87
              |--P. distachya J87
              |--P. dominicana J87
              |--P. galioides J87
              |--P. glabella J87
              |--P. hernandifolia J87
              |--P. heyneana D07
              |--P. hispidula J87
              |--P. leonardii J87
              |--P. magnoliifolia J87
              |--P. michelensis J87
              |--P. obtusifolia J87
              |--P. pellucida P88
              |--P. polybotrya DS04
              |--P. pseudo-rhombea de Candolle 1869 (see below for synonymy) SanRav07
              |--P. quadrifolia J87
              |--P. ramosa J87
              |--P. reflexa J87
              |--P. tenella J87
              |--P. tetraphylla (Forst. f.) Hook. & Arn. 1832 (see below for synonymy) A61
              `--P. urvilleana Rich. 1832 (see below for synonymy) A61

Macropiper excelsum var. majus (Cheeseman) Allan 1961 [=Piper excelsum var. major Cheeseman 1906; incl. Piper psittacorum Endl. 1833, Macropiper excelsum var. psittacorum (Endl.) Laing 1915] A61

Peperomia pseudo-rhombea de Candolle 1869 [incl. P. dindigulensis Wight 1821, P. thomsoni Hooker 1886] SanRav07

Peperomia tetraphylla (Forst. f.) Hook. & Arn. 1832 [=Piper tetraphyllum Forst. f. 1786; incl. Pe. novae-zealandiae Col. 1895] A61

Peperomia urvilleana Rich. 1832 [incl. P. endlicheri Miq. 1843, P. muricatula Colenso 1895, P. simplex Endl. 1833] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[DL99] Dyer, L. A. & D. K. Letourneau. 1999. Relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces in a tropical forest community. Oecologia 119: 265-274.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SaaRai07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312-315.

[SanRav07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SDK05] Sharma, L. K., N. K. Dadhich & A. Kumar. 2005. Plant based veterinary medicine from traditional knowledge of India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 43-52.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Lomariopsidaceae

Elaphoglossum peltatum, photographed by Robbin Moran.


Belongs within: Leptosporangiatae.

The Lomariopsidaceae is a family of tropical hemiepiphytic ferns.

Characters (from Smith et al. 2006): Rhizomes creeping or sometimes climbing (plants hemiepiphytic); petioles with round vascular bundles arranged in a gutter-shape; blades 1-pinnate, pinnae entire or crenate, often articulate, auriculate in some genera; veins free, more or less parallel or pinnate; sori discrete, round, and with round-reniform to reniform indusia, or exindusiate, or sporangia acrostichoid and the fronds dimorphic; spores bilateral, monolete, variously winged or ornamented; x = 41 (lower numbers known in some Lomariopsis species).

<==Lomariopsidaceae
    |--Lomariopsis I88
    |    |--L. amydrophlebia J87
    |    `--L. cochinchinensis Fée 1845 I88
    `--Elaphoglossum R-SN07
         |--E. chartaceum J87
         |--E. crinitum [=Hymenodium crinitum] J87
         |--E. firmum L54
         |--E. formosum L54
         |--E. hirtum L54
         |--E. huacsaro J87
         |--E. latifolium J87
         |--E. longifolium L54
         |--E. marginatum (Wallich) Moore 1857 [=Acrostichum marginatum Wallich ex Fée 1845] I88
         |--E. moranii Mickel 1992 R-SN07
         |--E. pachyphyllum J87
         |--E. peltatum J87
         |--E. pilosum L54
         |--E. revolutum J87
         `--E. stelligerum (Wallich) Moore ex Alston & Bonner 1956 (see below for synonymy) I88

Elaphoglossum stelligerum (Wallich) Moore ex Alston & Bonner 1956 [=Acrostichum stelligerum Wallich ex Baker in Hooker & Baker 1874; incl. A. yunnanense Baker 1898, Elaphoglossum yunnanense (Baker) Christensen 1931] I88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[I88] Iwatsuki, K. 1988. An enumeration of the pteridophytes of Nepal. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 231-339.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[L54] Lötschert, W. 1954. Beitrag zur Pteridophyten-Flora von Mittel-Amerika. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (1-2): 109-119.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143-148.

Smith, A. R., K. M. Pryer, E. Schuettpelz, P. Korall, H. Schneider & P. G. Wolf. 2006. A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55 (3): 705-731.