Clusiaceae

Fruit of Garcinia gummi-gutta, the rind of which is used in some parts of India as a spice. Photo from here.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.
Contains: Calophylloideae, Hypericum.

The Clusiaceae is a family of mostly tropical plants, including some commercial noteworthy species such as Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen). This family has been known in the past as the Guttiferae, referring to resins produced by many species in the family. As recognised here, the Clusiaceae includes the 'families' Bonnetiaceae and Podostemaceae nested within it. The Bonnetiaceae are a group of tropical shrubs with long-pointed buds found in South America and south-east Asia. Podostemaceae are a family of highly derived aquatic plants, in which many of the characteristic features of flowering plants have become reduced or lost.

See also: A simple stream life.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny website): Flavones, flavonols and biflavonoids present; xanthones common; vessel elements with simple perforation plates; schizogenous cavities present; nodes 1:1; stomata paracytic; leaves with colleters, margins entire, stipules 0; inflorescence cymose; corolla contorted; anthers many; nectary 0; gynoecium opposite sepals, or median member adaxial, stigma papillate; ovules many/carpel, micropyle bistomal; fruit a capsule; exotegmen with anticlinal walls sinuous, low, lignified; endosperm at most slight, embryo more or less fusiform.

<==Clusiaceae [Guttiferae]
    |--+--Calophylloideae DL07
    |  `--+--Hypericoideae [Hypericaceae] S95
    |     |    |--Hypericum DL07
    |     |    `--Cratoxylum formosum P88
    |     `--Podostemaceae [Podostemales] DL07
    |          |  i. s.: Marathrum DL07
    |          |--Tristichoideae T00
    |          `--Podostemon DL07 [Podostemoideae T00]
    `--+--Bonnetiaceae DL07
       |    |--Archytaea DL07
       |    |--Bonnetia DL07
       |    `--Ploiarium sessile T00, J06
       `--Clusioideae S95
            |--Garcinia [incl. Pentaphalangium, Septegarcinia, Tripetalum] S95
            |    |--G. barkeriana (Urb. & Ekm.) Judd 1987 [=Rheedia barkeriana Urb. & Ekm. 1929] J87
            |    |--G. gummi-gutta SR07
            |    |--G. mangostana K03
            |    |--G. morella SR07
            |    |--G. parvifolia K03
            |    |--G. picrorrhiza JK80
            |    |--G. porrecta JK80
            |    `--G. xanthochymus JK80
            `--Clusia DL07
                 |--C. clusioides J87
                 |--C. grisebachiana SWK87
                 |--C. gundlachii SWK87
                 |--C. major J87
                 `--C. rosea WM09

Clusiaceae incertae sedis:
  Paleoclusia WM09
  Allanblackia YY22
  Astrotheca YY22
  Balboa YY22
  Caraipa YY22
  Chrysochlamys YY22
  Clusianthemum YY22
  Clusiella YY22
  Haploclathra YY22
  Havetia YY22
  Havetiopsis YY22
  Leioclusia YY22
  Oedematopus YY22
  Pilosperma YY22
  Quapoia YY22
  Rheedia portoricensis YY22, SWK87
  Tovomita YY22
  Tovomitopsis YY22
  Mahurea YY22
  Renggeria YY22
  Kielmeyeroideae T00
  Chrysopioideae [Moronoboideae] T00
  Vismia guianensis K06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[JK80] John, J. & K.-P. Kolbe. 1980. The systematic position of the “Theales” from the viewpoint of serology. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8: 241-248.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115-132.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S95] Stevens, P. F. 1995. Guttiferae subfam. Calophylloideae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 (B. J. Conn, ed.) pp. 61-126. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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