Caryophyllales

Tamarisk or saltcedar Tamarix aphylla, photographed by John Randall.


Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Nepenthes, Droseraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Cactineae, Phytolaccineae, Caryophyllaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae.

The Caryophyllales were defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the most exclusive clade containing Dianthus caryophyllus, Polygonum sachalinense, Simmondsia chinensis and Rhabdodendron amazonicum. This clade is well supported by molecular studies, but the only possible morphological synapomorphy so far identified is the presence of anthers with the outer parietal cells developing directly into the endothecium (Cantino et al. 2007).

<==Caryophyllales [Caryophyllidae]
    |  i. s.: Simmondsia [Simmondsiaceae, Simmondsiales] CD07
    |           `--S. chinensis (Link) Schneid. 1907 CD07
    |--Asteropeia T00 [Asteropeiaceae PT01]
    |--Rhabdodendron CD07 [Rhabdodendraceae PT01]
    |    `--R. amazonicum (Spruce ex Benth.) Huber 1909 CD07
    |--Ancistrocladineae T00
    |    |--Nepenthes T00
    |    |--Droseraceae T00
    |    |--Ancistrocladus [Ancistrocladaceae] T00
    |    |    `--A. tectorius T00
    |    `--Dioncophyllaceae T00
    |         |--Dioncophyllum T00
    |         |--Habropetalum T00
    |         `--Triphyophyllum T00
    |--Centrospermae [Caryophyllanae] T00
    |    |--Plumbaginaceae T00
    |    |--Polygonaceae T00
    |    `--Chenopodiales [Chenopodiiflorae] T00
    |         |--Cactineae T00
    |         |--Phytolaccineae T00
    |         |--Caryophyllaceae T00
    |         |--Achatocarpaceae [Achatocarpineae] T00
    |         |    |--Achatocarpus T00
    |         |    `--Phaulothamnus T00
    |         `--Chenopodiineae T00
    |              |--Amaranthaceae T00
    |              `--Chenopodiaceae T00
    `--Tamaricineae T00
         |--Frankeniaceae T00
         |    |--Hypericopsis T00
         |    |--Niederleinia T00
         |    `--Frankenia T00
         |         |--F. cinerea KM08
         |         |--F. desertorum G04
         |         |--F. hirsuta PT98
         |         |--F. pauciflora KM08
         |         |--F. pomonensis CV06
         |         `--F. pulverulenta PT98
         `--Tamaricaceae T00
              |--Hololachna T00
              |--Myrtama T00
              |--Tamarix T00
              |    |--T. aphylla AGF98
              |    |--T. chinensis H06
              |    |--T. dioica VB02
              |    |--T. nilotica AGF98
              |    `--T. ramosissima H06
              `--Myricaria O88
                   |--M. davurica O88
                   |--M. rosea O88
                   `--M. wardii O88


REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123-134.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

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