Tamarisk or saltcedar Tamarix aphylla, photographed by John Randall.

Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Nepenthes, Droseraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Cactineae, Phytolaccineae, Caryophyllaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae.

The Caryophyllales were defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the most exclusive clade containing Dianthus caryophyllus, Polygonum sachalinense, Simmondsia chinensis and Rhabdodendron amazonicum. This clade is well supported by molecular studies, but the only possible morphological synapomorphy so far identified is the presence of anthers with the outer parietal cells developing directly into the endothecium (Cantino et al. 2007). Members include the Tamaricaceae, tamarisks, a group of trees and shrubs with generally scale-like leaves found in drier regions of the Old World.

<==Caryophyllales [Caryophyllidae]
    |--Asteropeia T00 [Asteropeiaceae PT01]
    |--Rhabdodendron CD07 [Rhabdodendraceae PT01]
    |    `--R. amazonicum (Spruce ex Benth.) Huber 1909 CD07
    |--Ancistrocladineae T00
    |    |--Nepenthes T00
    |    |--Droseraceae T00
    |    |--Ancistrocladus [Ancistrocladaceae] T00
    |    |    `--A. tectorius T00
    |    `--Dioncophyllaceae T00
    |         |--Dioncophyllum T00
    |         |--Habropetalum T00
    |         `--Triphyophyllum T00
    |--Centrospermae [Caryophyllanae, Polygonales] T00
    |    |--Plumbaginaceae T00
    |    |--Polygonaceae T00
    |    `--Chenopodiales [Chenopodiiflorae] T00
    |         |--Cactineae T00
    |         |--Phytolaccineae T00
    |         |--Caryophyllaceae T00
    |         |--Achatocarpaceae [Achatocarpineae] T00
    |         |    |--Achatocarpus T00
    |         |    `--Phaulothamnus spinescens T00, MF68
    |         `--Chenopodiineae T00
    |              |--Amaranthaceae T00
    |              `--Chenopodiaceae T00
    `--Tamaricineae T00
         |--Tamaricaceae T00
         |    |--Hololachna T00
         |    |--Myrtama T00
         |    |--Tamaricoxylon africaum (Kräusel) Boureau 1951 CBH93
         |    |--Myricaria O88
         |    |    |--M. davurica O88
         |    |    |--M. rosea O88
         |    |    `--M. wardii O88
         |    `--Tamarix T00
         |         |--T. aphylla KM08
         |         |--T. chinensis H06
         |         |--T. dioica VB02
         |         |--T. gallica [incl. T. africana] H93
         |         |--T. hispida ZW16
         |         |--T. nilotica AGF98
         |         |--T. parviflora NDA05
         |         |--T. pentandra NDA05
         |         `--T. ramosissima H06
         `--Frankeniaceae T00
              |--Hypericopsis T00
              |--Niederleinia T00
              `--Frankenia T00
                   |--F. angustipetala H90
                   |--F. annua H90
                   |--F. cinerea KM08
                   |--F. confusa H90
                   |--F. connata H90
                   |--F. crispa H90
                   |--F. cupularis H90
                   |--F. desertorum G04
                   |--F. foliosa H90
                   |--F. gracilis H90
                   |--F. grandifolia RJ11
                   |--F. hirsuta PT98
                   |--F. latior H90
                   |--F. palmeri BTA75
                   |--F. pauciflora KM08
                   |--F. pomonensis CV06
                   |--F. pulverulenta PT98
                   |--F. salina [incl. F. grandifolia var. campestris] H93
                   |--F. serpyllifolia H90
                   `--F. uncinata H90

Caryophyllales incertae sedis:
  Simmondsia [Simmondsiaceae, Simmondsiales] CD07
    `--S. chinensis (Link) Schneid. 1907 CD07 [incl. S. californica H93]
  Limeaceae APG16
  Kewa [Kewaceae] APG16
  Microtea T00 [Microteaceae APG16, Microteoideae]
  Macarthuria T00 [Macarthuriaceae APG16]
    |--M. apetala GK00
    |--N. neocambrica H90
    `--M. vertex LK14
  Physena T00 [Physenaceae APG16]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

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[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MF68] Moran, R., & R. Felger. 1968. Castela polyandra, a new species in a new section; union of Holacantha with Castela (Simaroubaceae). Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 15 (4): 31–40.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

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[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

[ZW16] Zhang, Y.-G., H.-F. Wang, L.-L. Yang, X.-K. Zhou, X.-Y. Zhi, Y.-Q. Duan, M. Xiao, Y.-M. Zhang & W.-J. Li. 2016. Egibacter rhizosphaerae gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic actinobacterium and proposal of Egibaceraceae fam. nov. and Egibacterales ord. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 66: 283–289.

Last updated: 29 August 2020.

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