Analgidae

Megninia sp., copyright Daktaridudu.


Belongs within: Analgoidea.

The Analgidae are a group of mites inhabiting the feathers of a variety of birds, most commonly Passeriformes (OConnor 2009).

Characters (from OConnor 2009): Chelicerae well developed; legs III and IV inserted laterally or ventrally; genu III with solenidion ς present; tibia IV with one ventral seta; tarsus I with solenidion ω1 inserted basally; pretarsal ambulacral stalk thickened, asymmetrical, with ventral surface convex, distally rounded at point of contact with ambulacral disc, arising ventrally from tarsal apex.

<==Analgidae DW10
    |--Kiwialges WP99
    |--Diplaegidia columbae DW10
    |--Ancyralges O09
    |--Plesialges Trouessart in Trouessart & Berlese 1919 H98
    |    `--P. mimus Trouessart & Berlese 1919 H98
    |--Anhemialges Gaud & Mouchet 1959 H98
    |    |--A. gracillimus (Bonnet 1924) [=Megninia gracillima] H98
    |    `--A. longipes DW10
    |--Analges Nitzsch in Ersch & Grube 1818 H98
    |    |--A. corvinus DW10
    |    |--A. passerinus DW10
    |    |--A. sturninus DW10
    |    `--A. tetracentros Trouessart 1899 [=A. tetracentrus (l. c.)] H98
    `--Megninia Berlese 1883 H98
         |--M. acutipes Bonnet 1924 H98
         |--M. analgoides Bonnet 1924 H98
         |--M. columbae E-KO07
         |--M. cubitalis (Mégnin in Robin & Mégnin 1877) [=Dermalichus cubitalis] H98
         |--M. ginglymura (Mégnin in Robin & Mégnin 1877) [=Analges ginglymura] H98
         `--M. hologastra Gaud 1975 H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[E-KO07] El-Kammah, K. M., & L. M. I. Oyoun. 2007. Taxonomic records of mite species associated with animal and poultry farms in the Nile delta, vally and N. Sinai Egypt. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 223–232. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 565–657. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Pyroglyphidae

House dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, from Time.


Belongs within: Analgoidea.

The Pyroglyphidae are a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of astigmatic mites including the house dust mites and related taxa.

Characters (from OConnor 2009): Chelicerae well developed. Genu III with solenidion ς present; tibia IV with one ventral seta; tarsus I with solenidion ω1 inserted subapically, very near solenidion ω3; tarsus II with solenidion ω inserted in basal half of segment; pretarsi I and II with ambulacral stalks shorter than tarsi.

<==Pyroglyphidae
    |--Pyroglyphus africanus O09, E-KO07
    |--Sturnophagoides bakeri DW10
    |--Hirstia P90
    |--Paralgopsis DW10
    |--Gymnoglyphus longior O09
    |--Malayoglyphus O09
    |--Onychalges O09
    |--Weelawadjia Fain & Lowry 1975 H98
    |    `--W. australis Fain & Lowry 1975 H98
    |--Euroglyphus Fain 1965 H98
    |    |--E. longior O09
    |    `--E. maynei (Cooreman 1950) [=Mealia maynei] H98
    `--Dermatophagoides Bogdanoff 1864 [incl. Mealia Trouessart 1898] H98
         |--D. evansi QA91
         |--D. farinae Hughes 1961 H98
         |--D. microceras HD91
         |--D. pteronyssinus (Trouessart 1898) H98 (see below for synonymy)
         `--D. siboney MR01

Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart 1898) H98 [=Mealia pteronyssina H98, Tyrophagus pteronyssinus H98; incl. M. scheremetewskyi C91]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C91] Colloff, M. J. 1991. Practical and theoretical aspects of the ecology of house dust mites (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) in relation to the study of mite-mediated allergy. Review of Medical and Veterinary Entomology 79 (11–12): 611–630.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[E-KO07] El-Kammah, K. M., & L. M. I. Oyoun. 2007. Taxonomic records of mite species associated with animal and poultry farms in the Nile delta, vally and N. Sinai Egypt. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 223–232. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[HD91] Hart, B. J., & A. E. Douglas. 1991. The relationship between house-dust mites and fungi. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 319–324. Chapman & Hall: London.

[MR01] Morris, M. J. A., & J. Rimmer. 2001. Allergenicity of the predator dust mite Cheyletus tenuipilis (Acari: Cheyletidae): a preliminary study. In : Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 558–564. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 565–657. Texas Tech University Press.

[P90] Philips, J. R. 1990. Acarina: Astigmata (Acaridida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 757–778. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[QA91] Quintero, M. T., & H. A. Acevedo. 1991. Studies on deep litter mites on farms in Mexico. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 443–448. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Tydeoidea

Female Tydeus, from here.


Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Procurvata.

The Tydeoidea are a diverse group of free-living mites, many of which are notably resistant to desiccation. They may be more or less omnivorous in diet, with some species having been recorded feeding on a variety of animal, plant or fungal foods (Walter et al. 2009). Within the Tydeoidea, the Triophtydeidae are characterised by antenniform first legs, reduced or absent apoteles, and a median eyespot of subcuticular silver granules (Walter et al. 2009). The Tydeidae are characterised by a loss of eugenital setae in females and a reduction of the cis-acetabulal area between the genital discs. However, monophyly of this group relative to the families Iolinidae and Ereynetidae (together forming the clade Procurvata) has been questioned because of the uncertain position of the distinctive species Australotydeus kirstenae (André & Fain 2000).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Soft-bodied or ornamentally sclerotised dorsally. Gnathosoma with postcheliceral stigmata and tracheae distinct or obscure; cheliceral based fused or closely contiguous along their mesal edges, lacking dorsal cheliceral setae; fixed cheliceral digit reduced, lobe-like, movable cheliceral digit stylet-like or needle-like, rarely elongated, whip-like; subcapitulum characteristically with inversely T-shaped, sclerotised delineation of medial walls of lateral lips; palpi simple, with one to four (rarely five) segments. Prodorsum lacking anteromedian naso, with four pairs (sometimes as few as one pair) of setae, including one pair of bothridial sensilla; eyes present, with either surface cornea or subdermal pigmented areas, or absent. Opisthosoma with seven to eleven pairs of setae dorsally, laterally, and caudally, lacking postlarval setal additions or hypertrichy dorsally, but including a second pair of bothridial sensilla on posterodorsal aspect in certain Ereynetidae and Tydeidae; cupules (lyrifissures) present, sometimes obscure or absent; elements of opisthosomatic segments PS and AD present, including ps1 and, rarely, ps2 or ad1. Adult genital aperture positioned behind legs III and IV, usually longitudinal but transverse in some Iolinidae, and usually with two pairs of genital papillae (reduced to one pair or absent in Iolinidae). Males usually lacking an aedeagus (present in some Iolinidae). Leg setation lacking bothridial setae; tarsus I with one or two usually erect solenidia (with one recumbent solenidion in a rhagidial-like depression in some Ereynetidae) and with or without claws, occasionally with only a median empodium; tarsi II to IV generally with paired claws and a padlike setulose, but not rayed, median empodium. Generally with five active postembryonic instars: larva, protonymph, deutonymph, tritonymph, and adult (tritonymph sometimes suppressed).

<==Tydeoidea
    |--Triophtydeidae [Edbakerellidae, Meyerellidae] AF00
    |    |--Edbakerellinae [Meyerellinae] WL09
    |    |    |--Pseudotriophtydeus AF00
    |    |    `--Edbakerella André 2004 [=Meyerella Baker 1968 (preoc.)] WL09
    |    |         `--‘Meyerella’ marshalli AF00
    |    `--Triophtydeinae AF00
    |         |--Pretriophtydeus tilbrooki AF00
    |         `--Triophtydeus Thor 1932 H98
    |              |--T. bakeri WL09
    |              |--T. immanis WL09
    |              |--T. lebruni H96
    |              `--T. pinicolus (Oudemans 1929) [=Tydeus pinicolus] H98
    `--Tydeidae [Tydidae] AF00
         |  i. s.: Paralorryia Baker 1965 A05
         |           `--P. eharai Baker 1968 C-RSV-S88
         |         Tectotydeus Oudemans 1937 A05
         |           `--*T. demeyeri (Oudemans 1929) [=Tydeus demeyeri] A05
         |         Brachytydeus Thor 1931 [incl. Raphitydeus Thor 1933] A05
         |           `--*B. cruciatus (Koch 1838) [=Tydeus cruciatus, Lorryia cruciata] A05
         |         Stylotydeus Thor 1933 A05
         |         Lasiotydaeus Berlese 1908 A05
         |         Eotydeus A05
         |         Melissotydeus macrosolenus André 1985 A05
         |         Venilia liberta WL09
         |         Metalorryia palpsetosa N07
         |         Retetydeus G38a
         |           |--R. catenulatus G38b
         |           `--R. viviparus Thor 1931 G38a
         |         Ereynetoides watsoni P94
         |--Australotydeus [Australotydeinae] AF00
         |    `--A. kirstenae AF00
         `--+--Procurvata AF00
            `--+--Pretydeinae AF00
               |    |--Prelorryia indoniensis AF00, A05
               |    `--Pretydeus panitae A05
               `--Tydeinae AF00
                    |--Afrotydeus Baker 1970 ACW01, A05
                    |    `--A. munsteri ACW01
                    |--Calotydeus Oudemans 1937 [incl. Homeotydeus André 1980, Pseudolorryia Kaźmierski 1989] A05
                    |    |--*C. croceus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) A05
                    |    |--‘Homeotydeus’ shawi ACW01
                    |    `--C. xylocopae Oudemans 1926 A05
                    |--Lorryia Oudemans 1925 A05
                    |    |--*L. superba Oudemans 1925 A05
                    |    |--L. concinnus Oudemans 1929 A05
                    |    |--L. ferula WL09
                    |    |--L. floridensis ACW01
                    |    |--L. formosa ACW01
                    |    |--L. leptonychotes P94
                    |    |--L. mali Oudemans 1929 A05
                    |    |--L. marcandrei ACW01
                    |    |--L. montrealensis WL09
                    |    |--L. polaris P94
                    |    |--L. pulcher Oudemans 1929 A05
                    |    |--L. reticulata (Oudemans 1928) A05 [=Tydeus reticulatus A05; incl. L. bedfordiensis WL09]
                    |    |--L. schusteri WL09
                    |    |--L. teresae DF96
                    |    |--L. turrialbensis A05
                    |    `--L. woolleyi DW10
                    `--Tydeus Koch 1836 [incl. Orthotydeus André 1980] A05
                         |--*T. spathulatus Oudemans 1928 [=Orthotydeus spathulatus] A05
                         |--T. australensis Baker 1970 H98
                         |--T. bakeri K90
                         |--‘Orthotydeus’ bkaasifrini Bayan 1986 ACW01
                         |--T. californicus (Banks 1904) N07 [=Orthotydeus californicus ACW01]
                         |--T. caudatus (Dugès 1834) [=Tetranychus caudatus, Orthotydeus caudatus] A05
                         |--T. curtus Berlese 1910 SB63
                         |--T. foliorum [=Acarus foliorum; incl. Ty. albellus, Tetranychus virburni] CF77
                         |--T. gloveri [=Orthotydeus gloveri] ACW01
                         |--T. goetzi A05
                         |--T. interruptus Thor 1932 H98
                         |--T. kochi Oudemans 1928 (n. d.) [=Orthotydeus kochi] A05
                         |--‘Orthotydeus’ lindquisti WP99
                         |--T. longisetosus N07
                         |--T. molestus WL09
                         |--T. mumai ACW01
                         |--T. mutabilis Koch 1838 [=Brachytydeus mutabilis] A05
                         |--T. nicaraguensis M-PV-G01
                         |--T. nieuwkerkeni André 2005 A05
                         |--T. olivaceus Koch 1838 A05
                         |--T. schusteri [=Pertydeus schusteri] S79
                         |--T. shawi ACW01
                         |--T. tilbrooki K09
                         |--T. tuttlei Baker 1965 A05
                         |--T. velox Koch 1836 (n. d.) A05
                         |--T. womersleyi Thor 1932 H98
                         `--T. xylocopae A05

*Calotydeus croceus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Acarus croceus, Homeotydeus croceus, Orthotydeus croceus, Pseudolorryia crocea, Tydeus croceus] A05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[A05] André, H. M. 2005. In search of the true Tydeus (Acari, Tydeidae). Journal of Natural History 39 (13): 975–1001.

[AF00] André, H. M., & A. Fain. 2000. Phylogeny, ontogeny and adaptive radiation in the superfamily Tydeoidea (Acari: Actinedida), with a reappraisal of morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 405–448.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[C-RSV-S88] Corpuz-Raros, L. A., G. C. Sabio & M. Velasco-Soriano. 1988. Mites associated with stored products, poultry houses and house dust in the Philippines. Philippine Entomologist 7 (3): 311–321.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[DF96] Duso, C., & P. Fontana. 1996. Mite communities on wild plants surrounding vineyards in north-eastern Italy with special emphasis on phytoseiids (Phytoseiidae). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 261–264. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[G38a] Grandjean, F. 1938a. Retetydeus et les stigmates mandibulaires des acariens prostigmatiques. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 2e Série 10 (3): 279–286.

[G38b] Grandjean, F. 1938b. Au sujet de la néotenie chez les acariens. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences 207: 1347–1350.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H96] Hossain, S. M. 1996. Composition and fluctuations of some mite populations in apple orchards in western Norway. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 243–251. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[K90] Kethley, J. 1990. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 667–756. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K09] Krantz, G. W. 2009. Habits and habitats. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 64–82. Texas Tech University Press.

[M-PV-G01] Montiel-Parra, G., G. A. Villegas-Guzman, M. Vargas & O. J. Polaco. 2001. Mites associated with nests of Neotoma albigula Hartley, 1894 (Rodentia: Muridae) in Durango, México. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 586–593. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[N07] Niemczyk, E. 2007. Species, occurrence and role of tydeid mites (Acari: Tydeidae) in apple orchards. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 365–372. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[P94] Pugh, P. J. A. 1994. Non-indigenous Acari of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 207–217.

[S79] Schuster, R. 1979. Soil mites in the marine environment. Recent Advances in Acarology 1: 593–602.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Eriophyes

Galls caused by Eriophyes laevis on leaf of alder Alnus glutinosa, copyright Graham Calow.


Belongs within: Eriophyoidea.

Eriophyes is a diverse genus of vermiform plant-feeding mites, members of which may cause galls or leaf blisters on their host plants.

<==Eriophyes von Siebold 1851 SB07
    |--*E. pyri (Pagenstecher 1857) [=Phytoptus pyri; incl. P. piri Nalepa 1890, Eriophyes sorbi Canestrini 1892] SB07
    |--E. betulae NMF07
    |--E. brachytarsus KU07
    |--E. cernuus G91
    |--E. chondriphora L91
    |--E. convolvens NMF07
    |--E. cuscutae BC01
    |--E. dioscoridis RA-RH91
    |--E. emarginatae WL09
    |--E. gallarum NMF07
    |--E. inaequalis WL09
    |--E. insidiosus WL09
    |--E. laevis L91
    |--E. lantanae W99
    |--E. mali Nalepa 1926 [=E. piri var. mali, Aceria mali, Phyllocoptes mali] SB07
    |--E. melaleucae (Keifer 1974) [=Phytoptus melaleucae] H98
    `--E. sandorici C-R02

Fossil gall: Eriophyes daphnogene Ambrus & Hably 1979 DB11
             Eriophyes vilarrubiae Villalta 1957 [=Eriophyies (l. c.) vilarrubiae] DB11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC01] Briese, D. T., & J. M. Cullen. 2001. The use and usefulness of mites in biological control of weeds. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 453–463. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[C-R02] Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 2002. Philippine acarine biological control agents: status, bioecology and research prospects. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85 (2): 137–154.

[DB11] Dunlop, J. A., & S. J. Braddy. 2011. Cteniza bavincourti and the nomenclature of arachnid-related trace fossils. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 250–257.

[G91] Gupta, S. K. 1991. The mites of agricultural importance in India with remarks on their economic status. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 509–522. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[L91] Lillo, E. de. 1991. Preliminary observations of ovoviviparity in the gall-forming mite, Aceria caulobius (Nal.) (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae). In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 223–229. Chapman & Hall: London.

[NMF07] Navia, D., G. J. de Moraes & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites as invasive alien species: quarantine procedures. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 307–316. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[RA-RH91] Ramsy, A. H., H. A. Abddel-Rahman & H. E. Hussein. 1991. Allelochemicals in phytoseiid-prey interactions: resulting effect on prey-preference of Phytoseiulus persimilis. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 679–681. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[SB07] Shi, A., & J. Boczek. 2007. Morphology of two sibling species of eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) Eriophyes pyri and E. mali. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 589–594. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197–200.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Poronoticae

Dorsal (left) and ventral views of Unduloribates hebes, from Norton & Behan-Pelletier (2009).


Belongs within: Brachypylina.
Contains: Oribatellidae, Anachipteria, Achipteria, Campachipteria, Tegoribatidae, Heterobelbidae, Tectocepheidae, Microtegeidae, Oripodoidea, Licneremaeoidea, Scapheremaeus, Eremaeozetoidea, Ameronothroidea, Galumnoidea, Ceratozetoidea, Phenopelopidae.

The Poronoticae are a group of oribatid mites possessing an octotaxic system, a series of glandular openings (most typically four pairs) on the notogaster in the form of porose areas or saccules. Monophyly of the group is uncertain; a number of taxa lacking the octotaxic system are otherwise similar in morphology to clearly poronotic species and it is probable that the octotaxic system has evolved more than once and/or been lost in some subgroups.

Members of the Poronoticae include the Achipterioidea, known from soil, litter, mosses and liverworts. Members of the Achipteriidae have characteristic spiral internal thickenings in the bothridium and a distinct long, thin, dorsally concave genu in leg IV (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). The Epactozetidae are a Neotropical family with large, auriculate pteromorphs and foveate patterning on the notogaster (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009).

Poronoticae B65
    |  i. s.: Oribatellidae B65
    |--Achipterioidea PL17
    |    |--Epactozetidae NB-P09
    |    |    |--Epactozetes Grandjean 1930 S04
    |    |    |    |--*E. imitator Grandjean 1930 S04
    |    |    |    `--E. setosus Balogh & Mahunka 1969 S04
    |    |    `--Truncozetes Balogh & Mahunka 1969 S04
    |    |         |--*T. mucronatus Balogh & Mahunka 1969 S04
    |    |         |--T. rugosus Mahunka 1998 S04
    |    |         `--T. sturmi Balogh 1984 S04
    |    |--Achipteriidae S04
    |    |    |  i. s.: Hoffmanacarus Mahunka 1995 S04
    |    |    |           `--*H. virginianus Mahunka 1995 S04
    |    |    |         Cubachipteria Balogh & Mahunka 1979 S04
    |    |    |           |--*C. remota (Balogh & Mahunka 1979) [=Achipteria (*Cubachipteria) remota] S04
    |    |    |           `--C. bispina (Calugar 1990) [=Achipteria (Cubachipteria) bispina] S04
    |    |    |         Dentachipteria Nevin 1974 S04
    |    |    |           |--*D. ringwoodensis Newin 1974 S04
    |    |    |           `--D. highlandensis Nevin 1974 S04
    |    |    |         Novoribatella Engelbrecht 1986 NB-P09, S04
    |    |    |           |--*N. transcripta (Mahunka 1985) [=Tectoribates transcriptus] S04
    |    |    |           |--N. minutisetarum Engelbrecht 1986 S04
    |    |    |           `--N. pentasetarum Engelbrecht 1986 S04
    |    |    |         Tectoribates Berlese 1910 NB-P09, S04 [incl. Anoribatella Kunst 1962 S04]
    |    |    |           |--*T. proximus (Berlese 1910) (see below for synonymy) S04
    |    |    |           |--T. africanus Balogh 1959 S04
    |    |    |           |--T. deserticola (Balogh & Mahunka 1965) [=Anoribatella deserticola] S04
    |    |    |           |--T. mongolicus Bayartogtokh 1997 S04
    |    |    |           |--T. ornatus (Schuster 1958) S04 [=Anachipteria ornata S04, *Anoribatella ornata B65]
    |    |    |           `--T. parvus Sellnick 1931 S93
    |    |    |         Cerachipteria Grandjean 1935 [incl. Zygachipteria Mihelčič 1956] S04
    |    |    |           |--*C. digita Grandjean 1935 S04
    |    |    |           |    |--C. d. digita S04
    |    |    |           |    |--C. d. jugata Mihelčič 1956 [=C. (Zygachipteria) jugata] S04
    |    |    |           |    `--C. d. pyrenaica Pérez-Íñigo 1991 [incl. C. fusiger Mihelčič 1957 (n. d.)] S04
    |    |    |           |--C. franzi Willmann 1953 S04
    |    |    |           `--C. minuscula (Berlese 1902) [=Oribata minuscula] S04
    |    |    |         Parachipteria Hammen 1952 [incl. Pseudachipteria Travé 1960] S04
    |    |    |           |--*P. punctata (Nicolet 1855) [=Oribata punctata] S04
    |    |    |           |--P. agenjoi (Pérez-Íñigo 1976) [=Pseudachipteria agenjoi] S04
    |    |    |           |--P. floresiana (Pérez-Íñigo 1992) [=Pseudachipteria floresiana] S04
    |    |    |           |--P. insularis (Pérez-Íñigo 1992) [=Pseudachipteria insularis] S04
    |    |    |           |--P. magna (Sellnick 1928) S04 [=Notaspis magna S04, *Pseudachipteria magna BB92]
    |    |    |           |--P. nicoleti (Berlese 1883) S07
    |    |    |           `--P. ovalis (Koch 1835) (n. d.) [=Oribata ovalis] S04
    |    |    |--Anachipteria PL17
    |    |    `--+--Achipteria PL17
    |    |       `--Campachipteria PL17
    |    `--Tegoribatidae B-P01
    `--+--Heterobelbidae PL17
       `--+--+--Tectocepheidae PL17
          |  `--+--Microtegeidae PL17
          |     `--Oripodoidea PL17
          `--+--+--Licneremaeoidea SK10
             |  |--Scapheremaeus SK10
             |  |--Eremaeozetoidea ME09
             |  `--Ameronothroidea SK10
             `--+--Galumnoidea SK10
                `--+--Podacarus Grandjean 1955 SK10, S04 [Podacaridae]
                   |    `--*P. auberti Grandjean 1955 S04
                   |         |--P. a. auberti S04
                   |         `--P. a. occidentalis Wallwork 1966 S04
                   `--+--Ceratozetoidea PL17
                      `--Phenopelopoidea [Pelopoidea] NB-P09
                           |  i. s.: Plakoribates Popp 1960 NB-P09, S04
                           |           |--*P. multicuspidatus Popp 1960 S04
                           |           |--P. confluens Balogh 1970 S04
                           |           |--P. neotropicus Balogh & Mahunka 1978 S04
                           |           `--P. scutatus Hammer 1979 S04
                           |--Phenopelopidae PL17
                           `--Unduloribatidae [Unduloribatoidea] NB-P09
                                |--Koreoribates Choi 1994 S04
                                |    `--*K. foliatus Choi 1994 S04
                                `--Unduloribates Balogh 1943 S04
                                     |--*U. undulatus (Berlese 1914) [=Sphaerozetes (Tectoribates) undulatus] S04
                                     |--U. brevisetosus Nübel-Reidelbach & Woas 1992 S04
                                     |--U. hebes Aoki 1965 S04
                                     |--U. medusa Piffl 1972 S04
                                     `--U. parvus NB-P09

*Tectoribates proximus (Berlese 1910) [=Sphaerozetes (*Tectoribates) proximus; incl. T. punctatus Sellnick 1943] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B65] Balogh, J. 1965. A synopsis of the world oribatid (Acari) genera. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 11 (1–2): 5–99.

[BB92] Balogh, J., & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[B-P01] Behan-Pelletier, V. M. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of Hypozetes (Acari: Tegoribatidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 50–57. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ME09] Maraun, M., G. Erdmann, G. Schulz, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & K. Domes. 2009. Multiple convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites indicates the primacy of ecology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 276: 3219–3227.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[PL17] Pachl, P., A. C. Lindl, A. Krause, S. Scheu, I. Schaefer & M. Maraun. 2017. The tropics as an ancient cradle of oribatid mite diversity. Acarologia 57 (2): 309–322.

[SK10] Schäffer, S., S. Koblmüller, T. Pfingstl, C. Sturmbauer & G. Krisper. 2010. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple independent evolution of diagnostic morphological characters in the "Higher Oribatida" (Acari), conflicting with current classification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 246.

[S07] Schatz, H. 2007. Biogeography of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica and Panama. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 151–167. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

Isobactrus

Dorsal view of Isobactrus uniscutatus, from Bartsch & Smit (2006).


Belongs within: Halacaridae.

Isobactrus is a cosmopolitan genus of marine halacarid mites with the ventral armature reduced and not forming a solid shield, and a club-like seta in front of the lateral disti-dorsal seta on tarsi I and II (Newell 1947).

Characters (from Newell 1947): Genital opening of female ventral in position, not guarded by opercula and surrounded by only three pairs of setae. Adults more heavily armoured than nymphs; all dorsal and ventral plates separate. Ventral plates greatly reduced, not forming a solid shield. Femur I greatly swollen, less than 1.5 times as long as high. Tarsi I and II each with a single club-like seta in front of lateral disti-dorsal seta. Two claws on all tarsi.

<==Isobactrus Newell 1947 AB07
    |--I. microdens AB07
    `--+--I. macquariensis AB07
       `--+--I. magnus (Lohmann 1907) AB07, N47 [=Rhombognathus magnus N47]
          `--+--I. calderensis AB07
             `--+--+--I. obesus AB07
                |  `--+--I. luxtoni AB07
                |     `--+--I. asper AB07
                |        `--+--I. ponapensis AB07
                |           `--+--I. australiensis AB07
                |              `--I. pacificus AB07
                `--+--I. peregrinus AB07
                   `--+--+--I. gryposetus AB07
                      |  |--+--I. hamatus AB07
                      |  |  `--I. levis (Viets 1927) AB07, N47 [=Rhombognathus levis N47]
                      |  `--+--I. hartmanni AB07
                      |     `--+--I. dentatus AB07
                      |        |--I. latistriatus AB07
                      |        `--I. tuberculatus AB07
                      `--+--I. ponticus AB07
                         `--+--I. rugosus AB07
                            `--+--I. uniscutatus AB07
                               `--+--I. cryptorhynchus (Trouessart 1901) AB07, N47 [=Rhombognathus cryptorhynchus N47]
                                  `--+--I. ungulatus AB07
                                     `--+--*I. setosus (Lohmann 1889) N47, AB07, N47 (see below for synonymy)
                                        |--I. hutchinsoni Newell 1947 AB07, N47
                                        `--I. pulchellus AB07

*Isobactrus setosus (Lohmann 1889) N47, AB07, N47 [=Aletes setosus N47, Rhombognathus setosus N47]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AB07] Abé, H., & I. Bartsch. 2007. Historical biogeography of the halacarid mite genus Isobactrus (Prostigmata, Halacaridae). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 119–126. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[N47] Newell, I. M. 1947. A systematic and ecological study of the Halacaridae of eastern North America. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection 10 (3): 1–232.

Stigmaeus

Dorsal (left) and ventral views of Stigmaeus alvandis, from Khanjani & Ueckermann (2002).


Belongs within: Raphignathoidea.

Stigmaeus is a genus of predatory mites with ten to sixteen dorsal shields on the idiosoma, and four pairs of setae on the prodorsal shield (Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002).

Characters (from Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002): Idiosoma with 10–16 dorsal shields, dimpled or reticulated in most species; prodorsum with four pairs of setae on single large or on a large median and a pair of lateral shields; opisthosomal shielding consisting of an unpaired median shield bearing two or three pairs of setae and unpaired or paired suranal shield and three or six pairs of smaller shields (humerals, marginal, median zonals, lateral zonals and intercalaries) surrounding median shield. Median shield distinct, indistinct or absent. Dorsum with 13–14 pairs of setae.

<==Stigmaeus Koch 1836 KU02
    |--*S. cruentus Koch 1836 KU02
    |--S. africanus E-KO07
    |--S. alvandis Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002 KU02
    |--S. antrodes Berlese 1910 SB63 [incl. S. antrodes var. reticulatus Halb. 1923 G44]
    |--S. bdelloides SS55
    |--S. bicolor Canestrini & Fanzago 1876 CF77
    |--S. elongatus Berlese 1886 [incl. S. luteus Summers 1962] KU02
    |--S. eutrichus Berlese 1910 SB63
    |--S. fissuricola Halbert 1920 [=S. rhodomelas var. fissuricola] S76
    |--S. raynei WHE88
    |--S. rhodomelas Berl. 1910 G44
    |--S. sinai WL09
    |--S. spagneti WHE88
    |--S. unicus Kuznetzov 1977 KU02
    `--S. zaheri E-KO07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[E-KO07] El-Kammah, K. M., & L. M. I. Oyoun. 2007. Taxonomic records of mite species associated with animal and poultry farms in the Nile delta, vally and N. Sinai Egypt. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 223–232. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[G44] Grandjean, F. 1944. Observations sur les acariens de la famille des Stigmaeidae. Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, 5me Période 26: 103–131.

[KU02] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2002. The stigmaeid mites of Iran (Acari: Stigmaeidae). International Journal of Acarology 28 (4): 317–339.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[SS55] Summers, F. M., & E. I. Schlinger. 1955. Mites of the family Caligonellidae (Acarina). Hilgardia 23 (12): 539–561.

[WHE88] Walter, D. E., H. W. Hunt & E. T. Elliott. 1988. Guilds or functional groups? An analysis of predatory arthropods from a shortgrass steppe soil. Pedobiologia 31: 247–260.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Tetranychus

Two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, copyright J. Holopainen.


Belongs within: Tetranychinae.

Tetranychus is a genus of spider mites with the duplex setae on tarsus I widely separated and the empodium of the female and empodia III and IV of the male consisting of three pairs of hairs with or without a proximodorsal claw (Baker & Pritchard 1960).

<==Tetranychus Dufour 1832 CF77
    |--T. gloveri NG96
    |--T. neocaledonicus (André 1933) NG96, H98 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--T. (Tetranychus) BT72
       |    |--*T. (T.) lintearius Dufour 1832 BT72, G48 [incl. T. russeolus CF77, T. ulmi CF77, T. vestitus CF77]
       |    |--T. (T.) cinnabarinus (Boisduval 1867) AP80, BP60 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--T. (T.) ludeni Zacher 1913 AP80, H98
       |    |--T. (T.) mexicanus AP80
       |    |--T. (T.) nakahari AP80
       |    |--T. (T.) urticae Koch 1836 NG96, BT72 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--T. (T.) yusti AP80
       `--+--T. kanzawai Kishida 1927 NG96, H98 [incl. T. hydrangeae Pritchard & Baker 1955 WL09, H98]
          `--+--T. pacificus NG96
             `--T. (Armenychus Wainstein 1960) BT72
                  |--T. (*A.) armeniaca BT72
                  |--T. (A.) cobrensus Baker & Tuttle 1972 BT72
                  `--T. (A.) mcdanieli McGregor 1931 NG96, BT72

Tetranychus incertae sedis:
  T. abacae MF07
  T. andrei Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
  T. armipennis W99
  T. bastosi S91
  T. browningi Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
  T. canadensis NMF07
  T. crataegi Hirst 1920 H23
  T. desertorum Banks 1900 [incl. T. opuntiae Banks 1908] H98
  T. dianellae Davis 1967 H98
  T. dugesi Cano & Alsacio 1886 Hof07
  T. evansi Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
  T. frater NMF07
  T. gibbus Koch & Berendt 1854 S93
  T. lambi Pritchard & Baker 1955 H98
  T. latus CF77
  T. lombardinii Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
  T. macfarlanei Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
  T. marianae McGregor 1950 H98
  T. ogmophallos MF07
  T. papayae G01
  T. piercei Ho07
  T. pilosus CF77
  T. pueraricola WL09
  T. quercivorus NG96
  T. rhagodiae Miller 1966 H98
  T. savenkoae NG96
  T. sayedi Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
  T. schoenei NMF07
  T. spinigerus Lucas 1847 (n. d.) E12 [=Metatetranychus spinigerus BP60]
  T. truncatus NMF07
  T. tumidosus Baker & Pritchard 1960 BP60
  T. turkestani Ugarov & Nikolski 1937 KB91 [incl. T. atlanticus WL09]

Tetranychus neocaledonicus (André 1933) NG96, H98 [=Eotetranychus neocaledonicus H98; incl. T. cucurbitae Rahman & Sapra 1958 BP60]

Tetranychus (Tetranychus) cinnabarinus (Boisduval 1867) AP80, BP60 [=Acarus cinnabarinus BP60; incl. T. cucurbitacearum Sayed 1946 BP60]

Tetranychus (Tetranychus) urticae Koch 1836 NG96, BT72 [incl. T. arabicus K07, Epitetranychus alceae Linnaeus 1758 S61, T. altheae S61, Acarus cucumeris Boisduval 1867 H98, T. cucumeris H98, A. rosarum Boisduval 1867 H98, T. rosarum H98, A. sambuci Schranck 1781 S61, A. telarius Linnaeus 1758 (nom. rej.) H98, Eotetranychus telarius SB63, Tetranychus telarius BP60]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AP80] Andrews, K. L., & S. L. Poe. 1980. Spider mites of El Salvador, Central America (Acari: Tetranychidae). Florida Entomologist 63 (4): 502–505.

[BP60] Baker, E. W., & A. E. Pritchard. 1960. The tetranychoid mites of Africa. Hilgardia 29 (11): 455–574.

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G48] Grandjean, F. 1948. Quelques caractères des tétranyques. Bulletin du Muséum, 2e série 20 (6): 517–524.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H23] Hirst, S. 1923. On some new or little-known species of Acari. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1923: 971–1000.

[Ho07] Ho, C.-C. 2007. Crop mite pests of southeast Asia and tropical far east. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 259–266. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[Hof07] Hoffmann, A. 2007. Acarology in Mexico: prehispanic to modern times. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 21–26. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K07] Knapp, M. 2007. Important mite crop pests in Africa. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 267–277. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[KB91] Kreiter, S., F. Brian, C. Magnien, G. Sentenac & G. Valentin. 1991. Spider mites and chemical control of weeds: interactions. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 725–736. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MF07] Moraes, G. J. de, & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites of tropical crops in eastern South America. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 279–288. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[NG96] Navajas, M., & J. Gutierrez. 1996. Molecular phylogeny in spider mites (Tetranychidae). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 305–308. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[NMF07] Navia, D., G. J. de Moraes & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites as invasive alien species: quarantine procedures. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 307–316. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[S91] Sabelis, M. W. 1991. Life-history evolution of spider mites. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 23–49. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197–200.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Ecpleopini

Leposoma nanodactylus, from the Reptile Database.


Belongs within: Gymnophthalmidae.

The Ecpleopini are a clade of microteiid lizards supported by molecular data (Pellegrino et al. 2001).

<==Ecpleopini
    |--Arthrosaura Boulenger 1885 PR01
    |    |--A. kochii PR01
    |    `--A. reticulata PR01
    `--+--Ecpleopus Duméril & Bibron 1839 PR01
       |    `--*E. gaudichaudii PR01
       `--+--+--Colobosauroides Cunha & Lima Verde 1991 PR01
          |  |    `--C. cearensis PR01
          |  `--Anotosaura Amaral 1933 PR01
          |       |--A. collaris PR01
          |       `--A. vanzolinia PR01
          `--+--Amapasaurus Cunha 1970 PR01
             `--Leposoma Spix 1825 PR01
                  |--L. nanodactylus PR01
                  |--L. oswaldoi PR01
                  |--L. parietale DS86
                  `--L. percarinatum PR01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DS86] Dixon, J. R,. & P. Soini. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum: Milwaukee.

[PR01] Pellegrino, K. C. M., M. T. Rodrigues, Y. Yonenaga-Yassuda & J. W. Sites Jr. 2001. A molecular perspective on the evolution of microteiid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae), and a new classification for the family. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 315–338.

Cheyletus

Ventral view of Cheyletus eruditus, photographed by J. Hubert.


Belongs within: Cheyletini.

Cheyletus is a genus of free-living predatory mites. One species, C. eruditus, has been used as a biological control agent for grain mites.

Characters (from Baker 1949): Eyes absent; palpal tarsus with two sickle-like and two comb-like setae; two dorsal shields present; dorsal marginal setae feather-like or pilose; dorsal setae, when present, staghorn-like; leg I with two claws.

<==Cheyletus Latreille 1796 BF01 [=Cheletes B49; incl. Eutarsus Hessling 1852 B49]
    |--*C. eruditus (Schrank 1781) (see below for synonymy) B49
    |--C. acer Oudemans 1904 [=Cheletes acer] B49
    |--C. alacer Oudemans 1904 [=Cheletes alacer] B49
    |--C. audax Oudemans 1904 [=Cheletes audax] B49
    |--C. aversor Rodendorf 1940 B49
    |--C. baloghi BF01
    |--C. beauchampi Baker 1949 B49
    |--C. burmiticus Cockerell 1917 (n. d.) B49
    |--C. butleri Hughes 1948 B49
    |--C. cacahuamilpensis Baker 1949 B49
    |--C. carnifex Zakhvatkin 1940 B49
    |--C. clavispinus Banks 1902 (n. d.) B49
    |--C. cocos H07
    |--C. davisi Baker 1949 B49
    |--C. doddi Baker 1949 B49
    |--C. ferox Trouessart 1889 B49
    |--C. fortis Oudemans 1904 [=Cheletes fortis] B49
    |--C. furibundus Rodendorf 1940 B49
    |--C. hendersoni Baker 1949 B49
    |--C. intrepidus Oudemans 1903 [=Cheletes intrepidus] B49
    |--C. linsdalei Baker 1949 B49
    |--C. malaccensis Oudemans 1903 [=Cheletes malaccensis] H98
    |--C. munroi Hughes 1948 B49
    |--C. parumsetosus Karpelles 1884 B49
    |--C. patagiatus Nordenskiold 1900 (n. d.) B49
    |--C. praedabundus Kuzin in Rodendorf 1940 B49
    |--C. promptus Oudemans 1904 B49
    |--C. rabiosus Rodendorf 1940 B49
    |--C. rapax Oudemans 1903 [=Cheletes rapax] B49
    |--C. saevus Oudemans 1906 (n. d.) [=Cheletes saevus] B49
    |--C. schneideri Oudemans 1904 [=Cheletes schneideri] B49
    |--C. strenuus Oudemans 1904 [=Cheletes strenuus] B49
    |--C. tenuipilis Fain et al. 1980 MR01
    |--C. trouessarti Oudemans 1902 H98 [=Cheletes trouessarti H98; incl. Cheyletus macrocherus Hardy in Andre 1933 B49]
    |--C. trux Rodendorf 1940 B49
    |--C. venator Vitzthum 1920 B49
    `--C. vorax Oudemans 1903 [=Cheltes vorax] B49

*Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank 1781) [=Acarus eruditus; incl. *Eutarsus cancriformis Hessling 1852, Cheyletus eburneus Hardy in Andre 1933, C. ferox Banks 1906 non Trouessart 1889] B49

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267–320.

[BF01] Bochkov, A. V., & A. Fain. 2001. Phylogeny and system of the Cheyletidae (Acari: Prostigmata) with special reference to their host-parasite associations. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique Entomologie 71: 5–36.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H07] Haq, M. A. 2007. Coconut mite tragedy in peninsular India. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 427–432. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[MR01] Morris, M. J. A., & J. Rimmer. 2001. Allergenicity of the predator dust mite Cheyletus tenuipilis (Acari: Cheyletidae): a preliminary study. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 558–564. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Diaspididae

Coconut scales Aspidiotus destructor, photographed by Scot Nelson.


Belongs within: Coccoidea.
Contains: Parlatoriini.

The Diaspididae, armoured scales, are a diverse group of scale insects covered by a wax-like, fibrous scale formed from pygidial secretions, anal excreta and the exuviae of previous instars (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Adult female legless, without antennae; fourth and following segments of abdomen usually fused to form pygidium, marginally bearing complex of tubular ducts, marginal spines, plates and gland spines; operculum absent. Scale incorporating exuviae of first and second instars, adult female sometimes remaining enclosed within exuviae of second instar.

<==Diaspididae T02
    |--Ulucoccus Takagi, Tho & Khoo 1990 [Ulucoccinae] T02
    |    |--U. danumensis T02
    |    `--U. gombakensis T02
    |--Diaspidinae T02
    |    |--Lepidosaphidini [Lepidosaphedini] T02
    |    |    |  i. s.: Mitulaspis malayana T02
    |    |    |--Coccomytilina T02
    |    |    |--Howardiina T02
    |    |    |--Mempelaspis [Mempelaspidina] T02
    |    |    |    `--M. serpentina Takagi 2000 T02
    |    |    `--Lepidosaphes M27 [Lepidosaphidina T02]
    |    |         |--L. beckii ACW01
    |    |         |--L. cordylinidis M27
    |    |         `--L. ulmi WP99
    |    `--Diaspidini T02
    |         |--Kuwanaspidina T02
    |         |--Protodiaspidina T02
    |         |--Fiorinia [Fioriniina] T02
    |         |    `--F. (Adiscofiorinia) pygosema Green & Laing 1923 [=Mongrovaspis pygosema] T02
    |         |--Diaspis G26 [Diaspidina T02]
    |         |    `--D. echinocacti G26
    |         `--Chionaspis G33 [Chionaspidina T02]
    |              |--C. citri G33
    |              `--C. eucalypti G29
    `--Aspidiotinae T02
         |--Parlatoriini T02
         |--Odonaspis [Odonaspidini] T02
         |    `--O. arcusnotata Ben-Dov 1988 T02
         |--Thysanaspis Ferris 1955 [Thysanaspidini] T02
         |    |--*T. acalyptus Ferris 1955 T02
         |    |--T. litseae Takagi 1961 T02
         |    `--T. perkinsi Takagi 1969 T02
         |--Smilacicola Takagi 1969 [Smilacicolini] T02
         |    |--*S. apicalis Takagi 1969 T02
         |    |--S. crenatus Takagi 1983 T02
         |    `--S. heimi (Balachowsky 1947) [=Rugaspidiotus heimi] T02
         |--Leucaspidini T02
         |    |--Leucaspis cordylinidis M27
         |    |--Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell 1897) T02
         |    `--Mongrovaspis Bodenheimer 1951 T02
         |         `--*M. quadrispinosa (Green 1934) [=Leucaspis quadrispinosa] T02
         `--Aspidiotus Bouché 1833 K00 [Aspidiotini T02]
              |--A. destructor S07
              |--A. hederae [incl. A. buddleiae, A. carpodeti, A. epidendri] M27
              |--A. juglansregiae Comstock 1880 S69
              |--A. nerii S07
              |--A. proteus Pampaloni 1902 K00
              |--A. secretus G17
              |--A. uvae B49
              `--A. vitiensis K08

Diaspididae incertae sedis:
  Lapazia Ferris 1937 OK06
  Pinnaspis strachani MHG04
  Aonidiella GE05
    |--A. aurantii C81 [=Aspidiotus aurantii D37]
    `--A. citrina WD04
  Xanthophthalma T02
  Salicicola T02
    |--S. kermanensis (Lindinger 1906) T02
    `--S. vayssierei Balachowsky 1928 T02
  Melanaspis KU07
    |--M. glomerata G01
    `--M. inopinata KU07
  Pseudaulacaspis pentagona KU07
  Chrysomphalus CGW91
    |--C. aonidum CGW91
    |--C. aurantii K08
    |--C. dictyospermi [incl. C. dictyospermi var. pinnulifera] K08
    `--C. ficus WEE70
  Unaspis citri S07
  Quadraspidiotus CGW91
    |--Q. lenticularis CGW91
    |--Q. ostreaeformis CGW91
    |--Q. perniciosus CGW91
    `--Q. pyri WEE70
  Berlesaspis spinifera CGW91
  Maskellia globosa CGW91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267–320.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213–232.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80–101).

[G26] Girault, A. A. 1926. New pests from Australia. II. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 200–202).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262–265).

[G33] Girault, A. A. 1933. Some beauties inhabitant not of commercial boudoirs but of Nature’s bosom, notably new insects. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 299–303).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[KU07] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2007. Natural enemies of the walnut pest Aceria tristriatus (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in western Iran. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 451–453. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[M27] Myers, J. G. 1927. On the nomenclature of New Zealand Homoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 685–690.

[OK06] Özdikmen, H., & A. B. Kury. 2006. Three homonymous generic names in Araneae and Opiliones. Journal of Arachnology 34 (1): 279–280.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[T02] Takagi, S. 2002. One new subfamily and two new tribes of the Diaspididae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Insecta Matsumurana, new series 59: 55–100.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91–101.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.