Polygonaceae

Double-gee, Emex australis, from here.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Rumex.

The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants found worldwide. Over 1000 species have been assigned to the Polygonaceae (Thorne 2000), with the highest diversity in north temperate regions (Henty 1978). Characteristic of the family is the presence in the majority of species of an ocrea, a nodal sheath at the base of the leaf. Among the commercially significant members of the family are Fagopyrum esculentum, buckwheat, grown for its grain, and Rheum rhaponticum, rhubarb, grown for its edible stems.

Characters (from Henty 1978): Herbs or shrubs, sometimes scandent; stems often swollen at nodes. Leaves simple, spirally arranged; usually sheath present, with ocrea. Flowers axillary and terminal, regular, mostly bisexual, if unisexual the plants monoecious or dioecious; pedicels usually articulate; perianth lobes 4-6, imbricate, free or shortly connate, persistent, often accrescent; stamens 4-9, free or basally connate, anthers two-celled, longitudinally dehiscent; disc often glandular; ovary superior, one-celled, with solitary basal ovule; styles 2-3, free or connate at base. Fruit a nut, trigonous or lenticular, rarely globose, enclosed in persistent perianth or not; embryo excentric, curved or straight, surrounded by mealy endosperm.

<==Polygonaceae [Polygonales]
    |--Rumex H78
    |--Emex australis KM08
    |--Oxygonum YY22
    |--Ruprechtia YY22
    |--Symmeria Y22
    |--Triplaris americana H06
    |--Polygonella YY22
    |--Pteroxygonum YY22
    |--Oxyria digyna O88
    |--Reynoutria japonica TG88
    |--‘Pterococcus’ Pallas 1773 (nom. rej.) non Hasskarl 1842 (nom. cons.) FT93
    |--Antigonon leptopus Hooker & Arnott 1841 H78
    |--Eriogonum CS90 [Eriogonoideae T00]
    |    `--E. tomentosum CS90
    |--Fagopyrum BWT03
    |    |--F. esculentum BWT03
    |    `--F. tataricum BO08
    |--Persicaria GK00
    |    |--P. chinensis D07
    |    |--P. glacialis O88
    |    |--P. hydropiper D07
    |    |--P. nepalensis O88
    |    |--P. polystachya O88
    |    `--P. prostrata GK00
    |--Coccoloba SWK87 [Coccoloboideae T00]
    |    |--C. costata J87
    |    |--C. pauciflora J87
    |    |--C. picardae J87
    |    |--C. rugosa SWK87
    |    `--C. uvifera SWK87
    |--Koenigia O88
    |    |--K. delicatula O88
    |    |--K. forrestii O88
    |    |--K. islandica O88
    |    |--K. nepalensis O88
    |    `--K. nummularifolia O88
    |--Aconogonum O88
    |    |--A. campanulatum O88
    |    |--A. molle O88
    |    |    |--A. m. var. molle O88
    |    |    `--A. m. var. frondosum O88
    |    |--A. rumicifolium O88
    |    |--A. sibiricum O88
    |    `--A. tortuosum O88
    |--Rheum H78
    |    |--R. acuminatum O88
    |    |--R. australe O88
    |    |--R. delavayi O88
    |    |--R. moorcroftianum O88
    |    |--R. nobile O88
    |    |--R. rhaponticum H78
    |    |--R. spiciforme O88
    |    `--R. webbianum O88
    |--Bistorta O88
    |    |--B. affinis O88
    |    |--B. amplexicaulis O88
    |    |    |--B. a. var. amplexicaulis O88
    |    |    `--B. a. var. pendula O88
    |    |--B. emodi O88
    |    |--B. macrophylla O88
    |    |--B. perpusilla O88
    |    |--B. vaccinifolia O88
    |    `--B. vivipara O88
    |--Muehlenbeckia H78
    |    |--M. adpressa GK00
    |    |--M. astonii D95
    |    |--M. australis WH02
    |    |--M. axillaris CA27
    |    |--M. complexa CA27
    |    |--M. debilis D95
    |    |--M. ephedroides CA27
    |    |--M. florulenta EF04
    |    |--M. gracillima Meissn. in DC. 1856 H78
    |    |--M. monticola Pulle 1912 H78
    |    |--M. × muricatula Colenso 1890 [M. axillaris × M. ephedroides] CA27
    |    |--M. platyclada (Muell.) Meissn. 1865 (see below for synonymy) H78
    |    |--M. sagittifolia D95
    |    `--M. zippelii (Meissn.) Danser 1940 (see below for synonymy) H78
    `--Polygonum [Polygonoideae] H78
         |--P. alpinum C55a
         |--P. amphibium C55a
         |--P. arenastrum GK00
         |--P. attenuatum Brown 1810 H78
         |--P. aviculare CA27
         |--P. barbatum Linnaeus 1753 H78
         |--P. benguetense Merr. 1915 H78
         |--P. chilense D03
         |--P. chinense Linnaeus 1753 H78
         |--P. convolvulus C55b
         |--P. cumingianum [incl. P. celebicum] H78
         |--P. decipiens Brown 1810 [=P. minus ssp. decipiens (Brown) Danser 1927] H78
         |--P. dichotomum H78
         |--P. dumetorum C55b
         |--P. emarginatum C55b
         |--P. fagopyrum C55b
         |--P. glabrum VB02
         |--P. hydropiper BB07
         |--P. lapathifolium Linnaeus 1753 H78
         |--P. longisetum DeBr. in Miq. 1854 H78
         |--P. maritimum C55b
         |--P. minus Huds. 1762 H78
         |--P. nepalense Meissn. 1826 (see below for synonymy) H78
         |--P. orientale Linnaeus 1753 H78
         |--P. paniculatum [incl. P. polyanthos] H78
         |--P. perfoliatum Linnaeus 1762 H78
         |--P. persicaria C55b
         |--P. plebeium CA27
         |    |--P. p. var. plebeium PP07
         |    `--P. p. var. indica PP07
         |--P. pubescens H78
         |--P. runcinatum Don 1825 H78
         |--P. sachalinense Schmidt ex Maxim. 1859 CD07
         |--P. senegalense GC05
         |--P. serrulatum A27
         |--P. strigosum Brown 1810 H78
         `--P. tataricum C55b

Nomen nudum: Muehlenbeckia axephedra Cockayne & Allan 1927 CA27

Muehlenbeckia platyclada (Muell.) Meissn. 1865 [=Coccoloba platyclada Muell. 1863, Calacinum platycladum Macbride 1927] H78

Muehlenbeckia zippelii (Meissn.) Danser 1940 [=Polygonum zippelii Meissn. 1865; incl. M. rhyticarpa Muell. 1890, M. rhyticarya Muell. 1866] H78

Polygonum nepalense Meissn. 1826 [incl. P. alatum Buch.-Ham. ex Spreng. 1827, P. microcephalum var. papuanum Warb. 1893] H78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BO08] Bönsel, D., I. Ottich, A. Malten & G. Zizka. 2008. An updated list of the vascular plants of Frankfurt am Main (Pteridophyta & Spermatophyta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 111-121.

[BWT03] Bowie, M., S. Wratten & J. Tylianakis. 2003. An introduction to entomological research on Kowhai Farm – the Heinz Wattie’s Organic Farm at Lincoln University. Weta 25: 18-23.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[CS90] Corey, D. T., & I. J. Stout. 1990. Ground surface arachnids in sandhill communities of Florida. Journal of Arachnology 18: 167-172.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477-487.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997-1008.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[H78] Henty, E. E. 1978. Polygonaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 222-248. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

[W27] Wall, A. 1927. Some problems of distribution of indigenuous plants in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 94-105.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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