Broadleaf Griselinia littoralis, photographed by Jon Sullivan.

Belongs within: Campanulidae.
Contains: Pittosporaceae, Araliaceae, Apiaceae.

The Apiales are a clade of flowering plants supported primarily by molecular analyses. Members include Pennantia, an Australasian genus of forest shrubs and trees with small, white flowers and blackish drupes (Kårehed 2003).

Characters (from Kårehed 2003): Flowers choripetalous, corollas developing from ring primordium (early sympetaly) (at least in Apiaceae, Araliaceae and Pittosporaceae). Stamens with free filaments (occasionally basally connate in Pittosporaceae), anthers opening by longitudinal slits (sometimes from apical pore in Pittosporaceae). Ovules anatropous, unitegmic.

Apiales [Araliales, Umbellales]
    |--Pennantia Forster & Forster 1776 A61 [Pennantiaceae K03]
    |    |--*P. corymbosa Forster & Forster 1776 K03, A61 [incl. P. odorata Raoul 1844 C06]
    |    |--P. baylisiana K03
    |    |--P. cunninghamii K03
    |    `--P. endlicheri K03
    `--+--+--Torricellia [Torricelliaceae] K03
       |  |    |--T. angulata K03
       |  |    `--T. tiliifolia K03
       |  `--+--Aralidium [Aralidiaceae] K03
       |     |    `--A. pinnatifidum K03
       |     `--Melanophylla [Melanophyllaceae] K03
       |          |--M. alnifolia K03
       |          |--M. aucubifolia K03
       |          |--M. crenata K03
       |          |--M. madagascariensis K03
       |          `--M. perrieri K03
       `--+--Griselinia Forster 1786 A61 [incl. Scopolia Forster & Forster 1776 non Jaquin 1764 A61; Griseliniaceae K03]
          |    |--G. jodinifolia K03
          |    |--G. littoralis Raoul 1846 [=Pukateria littoralis Raoul 1844] A61
          |    |--G. lucida Forster 1786 [=Scopolia lucida Forster & Forster 1776] A61
          |    `--G. racemosa K03
          `--+--Pittosporaceae K03
             `--+--Araliaceae K03
                |--Apiaceae K03
                `--+--Myodocarpaceae K03
                   |    |--Pseudosciadium T00
                   |    |--Myodocarpus K03
                   |    |    |--M. elegans K03
                   |    |    `--M. pinnatus K03
                   |    `--Delarbrea K03
                   |         |--D. collina Vieill. 1865 [incl. D. lauterbachii Harms 1900] P95
                   |         |--D. michieana K03
                   |         `--D. paradoxa K03
                   `--Mackinlayaceae K03
                        |--Apiopetalum T00
                        |--Micropleura T00
                        |--Spananthe T00
                        |--Centella Linnaeus 1753 K03, A61
                        |    |--C. asiatica (Linnaeus) Urban in Mart. 1879 K03, A61 (see below for synonymy)
                        |    |--C. cordifolia A61 [=Hydrocotyle cordifolia C06]
                        |    `--C. uniflora (Colenso) Nannfeldt 1924 [=Hydrocotyle uniflora Colenso 1885] A61
                        |--Actinotus K03
                        |    |--A. forsythii K03
                        |    |--A. glomeratus GK00
                        |    |--A. helianthi K03
                        |    `--A. minor H87
                        `--Mackinlaya K03
                             |--M. celebica (Harms) Philipson 1951 (see below for synonymy) P95
                             |--M. macrosciadia K03
                             |--M. radiata Philipson 1951 P95
                             `--M. schlechteri (Harms) Philipson 1951 (see below for synonymy) P95

Centella asiatica (Linnaeus) Urban in Mart. 1879 K03, A61 [=Hydrocotyle asiatica Linnaeus 1753 A61]

Mackinlaya celebica (Harms) Philipson 1951 [incl. M. amplifolia Hemsley 1909, Anomopanax arfakensis Gibbs 1917, Polyscias cibaria White & Francis in Lane Poole 1925, A. variabilis White 1929] P95

Mackinlaya schlechteri (Harms) Philipson 1951 [=Anomopanax schlechteri Harms 1905; incl. M. brassii Philipson 1951, M. klossii Philipson 1951, M. subulata Philipson 1951, Anomopanax versteegii Harms 1905, M. versteegii (Harms) Philipson 1951] P95

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[P95] Philipson, W. R. 1995. Araliaceae (excluding Schefflera). In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 1–48. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

Last updated: 3 September 2018.

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