Scrophulariaceae

Selago thunbergii, from here.


Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Linaria, Euphrasia, Jamesbrittenia, Myoporaceae, Scrophularieae.

The plant family Scrophulariaceae has been distinguished in the past by the possession of a type of flower called a 'scroph', possessing bilaterally symmetrical, often tubular flowers, ovaries with axile placentation and numerous ovules, capsular fruits, and seeds with endosperm (Olmstead et al. 2001). However, the molecular analysis of the order Lamiales by Olmstead et al. (2001) indicated that scrophs were either plesiomorphic or homoplasious within a larger lamialean clade, and so Scrophulariaceae in the broad sense was divided between a number of smaller families. Scrophulariaceae sensu stricto was redefined as the most exclusive clade containing Hemimeris sabulosa, Myoporum mauritianum and Scrophularia californica. As well as members of the prior Scrophulariaceae, this clade includes taxa previously treated as the separate families Myoporaceae and Buddlejaceae. Thus circumscribed, the Scrophulariaceae is a primarily Southern Hemisphere family, with the Scrophularieae being the only predominantly northern temperate subgroup (Olmstead et al. 2001).

<==Scrophulariaceae [Pseudosolaneae]
    |--Hemimerideae OP01
    |    |--Hemimeris sabulosa OP01
    |    |--Alonsoa [Alonsoeae] OP01
    |    |    `--A. unilabiata OP01
    |    `--Nemesia OP01
    |         |--N. cheiranthus OP01
    |         |--N. karasbergensis CV06
    |         |--N. strumosa OP01
    |         `--N. violiflora CV06
    `--+--+--Myoporaceae OP01
       |  |--Aptosimum [Aptosimeae] OP01
       |  |    |--A. arenarium CV06
       |  |    `--A. suberosum CV06
       |  `--Leucophylleae OP01
       |       |--Eremogeton OP01
       |       `--Leucophyllum OP01
       |            |--L. fructescens OP01
       |            `--L. leiophyllum SZ03
       `--+--Buddlejeae [Buddlejaceae] OP01
          |    |--Emorya OP01
          |    |--Gomphostigma OP01
          |    |--Nicodemia OP01
          |    `--Buddleja OP01
          |         |--B. (sect. Neemda) asiatica Lour. 1790 [incl. B. arfakensis Kan. & Hat. 1942] C95
          |         |--B. crispa O88
          |         |--B. (sect. Chilianthus) davidii Franch. 1887 C95
          |         `--B. domingensis J87
          `--+--Scrophularieae OP01
             `--+--Selagineae [Selaginaceae] OP01
                |    |--Selago OP01
                |    |    |--S. amboensis CV06
                |    |    |--S. lepida CV06
                |    |    |--S. nachtigalii CV06
                |    |    `--S. thunbergii OP01
                |    `--Dischisma capitatum BR65
                `--Manuleae OP01
                     |--Zaluzianskya OP01
                     |    |--Z. divaricata BR65
                     |    `--Z. katherinae OP01
                     `--Manulea CV06
                          |--M. dubia CV06
                          |--M. namibensis CV06
                          `--M. tenella CV06

Scrophulariaceae incertae sedis:
  Heliohebe BG-J01
  Scoparia dulcis ACW01
  Linaria H03
  Oftia T00
  Euphrasia BR65
  Lagotis O88
    |--L. clarkei O88
    |--L. kunawurensis O88
    `--L. nepalensis O88
  Lancea tibetica O88
  Oreosolen O88
    |--O. wattii O88
    `--O. williamsii O88
  Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora O88
  Cymbalaria Baumgarten 1756 BR65
    |--C. longipes PT98
    `--C. muralis BR65 [incl. Linaria cymbalaria BR65, C. italica C55b]
  Parentucellia Viviani 1824 BR65
    |--P. latifolia BR65
    `--P. viscosa BR65
  Kickxia Dumort 1827 BR65
    |--K. commutata PT98
    |--K. elatine (Linnaeus) Dumort 1827 [=Linaria elatine] BR65
    |--K. graeca BR65 (see below for synonymy)
    |--K. sieberi [=Linaria sieberi; incl. L. elatine var. lasiopoda] BR65
    `--K. spuria (Linnaeus) Dumortier 1827 [=Linaria spuria] BR65
  Misopates orontium (Linnaeus) Rafinesque 1840 PL04
  Glossostigma BR65
    |--G. diandrum GK00
    |--G. drummondii BR65
    |--G. elatinoides BR65
    `--G. spathulatum BR65
  Dopatrium junceum VB02
  Limnophila VB02
    |--L. heterophylla VB02
    `--L. serrata C55a
  Peplidium BR65
    |--P. maritimum VB02
    `--P. muelleri BR65
         |--P. m. var. muelleri BR65
         `--P. m. var. longipes BR65
  Mazus BR65
    |--M. pumilio BR65
    `--M. radicans A27
  Celsia [incl. Janthe Grisebach 1844] S06
    `--C. cretica BR65
  Morgania glabra [incl. M. floribunda, Stemodia morgania] BR65
  Bellardia Allioni 1785 BR65
    `--B. trixago [=Bartsia trixago] BR65
  Torenia MH98
    |--T. fournieri MH98
    `--T. parviflora C55b
  Manuleopsis dinteri CV06
  Chamaegigas intrepidus CV06
  Dintera pterocaulis CV06
  Jamesbrittenia CV06
  Anticharis CV06
    |--A. ebracteata CV06
    |--A. imbricata CV06
    |--A. inflata CV06
    `--A. senegalensis PP07
  Cromidon pusillum CV06
  Diclis tenuissima CV06
  Phyllopodium hispidulum CV06
  Lindernia PP07
    |--L. crustacea BB07
    |--L. nummularifolia SR07
    |--L. parviflora PP07
    `--L. pyxidaria C55a

Kickxia graeca BR65 [=Linaria graeca Chav. 1933 BR65, Antirrhinum graecum Chaubard 1838 BR65, Kickxia commutata ssp. graeca PT98]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 376-380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[A27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2. – The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73-89.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BG-J01] Bayly, M. J., P. J. Garnock-Jones, K. A. Mitchell, K. R. Markham & P. J. Brownsey. 2001. Description and flavonoid chemistry of Hebe calcicola (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from north-west Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 39: 55-67.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Buddlejaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 (B. J. Conn, ed.) pp. 127-131. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348-361.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[S06] Snijman, D. A. 2006. Two new species of Spiloxene (Hypoxidaceae) from the northwestern Cape, South Africa. Bothalia 36 (2): 133-138.

[SZ03] Sobek, E. A., & J. C. Zak. 2003. The Soil FungiLog procedure: Method and analytical approaches toward understanding fungal functional diversity. Mycologia 95 (4): 590-602.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

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