Selago thunbergii, from here.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Linaria, Euphrasia, Jamesbrittenia, Ourisia, Penstemon, Cordylanthus, Keckiella, Lindernia, Myoporaceae, Buddlejeae, Scrophularieae.

The plant family Scrophulariaceae has been distinguished in the past by the possession of a type of flower called a 'scroph', possessing bilaterally symmetrical, often tubular flowers, ovaries with axile placentation and numerous ovules, capsular fruits, and seeds with endosperm (Olmstead et al. 2001). However, the molecular analysis of the order Lamiales by Olmstead et al. (2001) indicated that scrophs were either plesiomorphic or homoplasious within a larger lamialean clade, and so Scrophulariaceae in the broad sense was divided between a number of smaller families. Scrophulariaceae sensu stricto was redefined as the most exclusive clade containing Hemimeris sabulosa, Myoporum mauritianum and Scrophularia californica. As well as members of the prior Scrophulariaceae, this clade includes taxa previously treated as the separate families Myoporaceae and Buddlejaceae. Thus circumscribed, the Scrophulariaceae is a primarily Southern Hemisphere family, with the Scrophularieae being the only predominantly northern temperate subgroup (Olmstead et al. 2001). The Hemimerideae are a primarily African group of mostly herbs with quadrangular stems and pedicellate, resupinate flowers.

<==Scrophulariaceae [Pseudosolaneae]
    |--Hemimerideae OP01
    |    |--Hemimeris sabulosa OP01
    |    |--Alonsoa [Alonsoeae] OP01
    |    |    `--A. unilabiata OP01
    |    `--Nemesia OP01
    |         |--N. cheiranthus OP01
    |         |--N. karasbergensis CV06
    |         |--N. melissifolia V09
    |         |--N. strumosa OP01
    |         `--N. violiflora CV06
    `--+--+--Myoporaceae OP01
       |  |--Aptosimum [Aptosimeae] OP01
       |  |    |--A. albomarginatum G05
       |  |    |--A. arenarium CV06
       |  |    `--A. suberosum CV06
       |  `--Leucophylleae OP01
       |       |--Eremogeton OP01
       |       `--Leucophyllum OP01
       |            |--L. fructescens OP01
       |            `--L. leiophyllum SZ03
       `--+--Buddlejeae OP01
          `--+--Scrophularieae OP01
             `--+--Selagineae [Selaginaceae] OP01
                |    |--Dischisma capitatum BR65
                |    `--Selago OP01
                |         |--S. amboensis CV06
                |         |--S. lepida CV06
                |         |--S. nachtigalii CV06
                |         `--S. thunbergii OP01
                `--Manuleae OP01
                     |--Zaluzianskya OP01
                     |    |--Z. divaricata BR65
                     |    `--Z. katherinae OP01
                     `--Manulea CV06
                          |--M. dubia CV06
                          |--M. namibensis CV06
                          `--M. tenella CV06

Scrophulariaceae incertae sedis:
  Linaria H03
  Oftia T00
  Euphrasia BR65
  Lancea tibetica O88
  Oreosolen O88
    |--O. wattii O88
    `--O. williamsii O88
  Cymbalaria Baumgarten 1756 BR65
    |--C. longipes PT98
    `--C. muralis BR65 [incl. Linaria cymbalaria BR65, C. italica C55]
  Parentucellia Viviani 1824 BR65
    |--P. latifolia BR65
    `--P. viscosa BR65
  Kickxia Dumort 1827 BR65
    |--K. commutata PT98
    |--K. elatine (Linnaeus) Dumort 1827 [=Linaria elatine] BR65
    |--K. graeca BR65 (see below for synonymy)
    |--K. sieberi [=Linaria sieberi; incl. L. elatine var. lasiopoda] BR65
    `--K. spuria (Linnaeus) Dumortier 1827 [=Linaria spuria] BR65
  Misopates orontium (Linnaeus) Rafinesque 1840 PL04
  Glossostigma Wight & Arn. 1836 A61
    |--G. diandra PP07
    |--G. drummondii BR65
    |--G. elatinoides Benth. in Hooker 1854 [=Tricholoma elatinoides Benth. in DC. 1846] A61
    |--G. spathulatum BR65
    `--G. submersum Petrie 1891 [=Lobelia submersa Cunningham 1839] A61
  Dopatrium junceum VB02
  Peplidium BR65
    |--P. maritimum PP07
    `--P. muelleri BR65
         |--P. m. var. muelleri BR65
         `--P. m. var. longipes BR65
  Mazus Lour. 1790 A61
    |--M. pumilio Br. 1810 A61
    |--M. radicans (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 A61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--M. rugosus C06
  Celsia [incl. Janthe Grisebach 1844] S06
    `--C. cretica BR65
  Morgania glabra [incl. M. floribunda, Stemodia morgania] BR65
  Bellardia Allioni 1785 BR65
    `--B. trixago [=Bartsia trixago] BR65
  Torenia MH98
    |--T. fournieri MH98
    `--T. parviflora C55
  Manuleopsis dinteri CV06
  Chamaegigas intrepidus CV06
  Dintera pterocaulis CV06
  Jamesbrittenia CV06
  Anticharis PP07
    |--A. ebracteata CV06
    |--A. imbricata CV06
    |--A. inflata CV06
    `--A. senegalensis PP07
  Cromidon pusillum CV06
  Diclis tenuissima CV06
  Phyllopodium hispidulum CV06
  Ourisia A61
  Russelia equisetiformis B00
  Penstemon H93
  Cordylanthus H93
  Galvezia speciosa H93
  Keckiella H93
  Lindernia H93
  Maurandya H93
    |--M. antirrhiniflora H93
    `--M. petrophila H93
  Mohavea H93
    |--M. breviflora H93
    `--M. confertiflora H93
  Nothochelone nemorosa H93
  Orthocarpus H93
    |--O. bracteosus H93
    |--O. cuspidatus H93
    |    |--O. c. ssp. cuspidatus H93
    |    |--O. c. ssp. copelandii H93
    |    `--O. c. ssp. cryptanthus H93
    |--O. imbricatus H93
    |--O. luteus H93
    `--O. pachystachyus H93
  Triphysaria H93
    |--T. eriantha [=Orthocarpus erianthus] H93
    |    |--T. e. ssp. eriantha [incl. Orthocarpus erianthus var. gratiosus] H93
    |    `--T. e. ssp. rosea [=Orthocarpus erianthus var. roseus] H93
    |--T. floribunda [=Orthocarpus floribundus] H93
    |--T. micrantha [=Orthocarpus erianthus var. micranthus] H93
    |--T. pusilla [=Orthocarpus pusillus] H93
    `--T. versicolor H93
         |--T. v. ssp. versicolor [incl. Orthocarpus faucibarbatus var. albidus] H93
         `--T. v. ssp. faucibarbata [=Orthocarpus faucibarbatus] H93
  Peliostomum G05
  Paulownioxylon hondoense Watari 1948 CBH93

Kickxia graeca BR65 [=Linaria graeca Chav. 1933 BR65, Antirrhinum graecum Chaubard 1838 BR65, Kickxia commutata ssp. graeca PT98]

Mazus radicans (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 A61 [=Mimulus radicans Hooker 1854 A61; incl. Ourisia montana Buch. 1887 C06]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G05] Gess, F. W. 2005. Three new species of Masarina Richards, 1962 from southern Africa with a key to all species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Masarinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 7–14.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[S06] Snijman, D. A. 2006. Two new species of Spiloxene (Hypoxidaceae) from the northwestern Cape, South Africa. Bothalia 36 (2): 133–138.

[SZ03] Sobek, E. A., & J. C. Zak. 2003. The Soil FungiLog procedure: method and analytical approaches toward understanding fungal functional diversity. Mycologia 95 (4): 590–602.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

Last updated: 9 September 2019.

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