Gunneridae

'Giant rhubarb' Gunnera manicata, from here.


Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Dilleniaceae, Vitaceae, Saxifragales, Malvidae, Fabidae, Santalales, Caryophyllales, Asteridae.

The Gunneridae is a major clade of flowering plants, corresponding to the eudicotyledons minus the basal 'ranunculids' of some classifications. Cantino et al. (2007) defined the Gunneridae as the smallest clade containing Gunnera perpensa and Helianthus annuus. The clade is mostly supported by molecular analyses, but another synapomorphy may be the presence of ellagic acid. The major subclade within the Gunneridae, the Pentapetalae, is characterised by the ancestral possession of pentamerous flowers (altered in many subsidiary lineages) (Cantino et al. 2007). Pentapetalae may be divided between two major lineages centered around the clades Asteridae and Rosidae. The Rosidae, containing more than a quarter of all living angiosperms (Wang et al. 2009), is primarily supported by molecular analyses, though members do share articulated anthers (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). The Saxifragales and Vitaceae are closely related to the Rosidae and have each been included within the latter clade by some classifications. The Asteridae, in turn, are associated by molecular phylogenies with with Santalales and Caryophyllales. The Berberopsidales are a small but divergent clade of trees and woody vines found in eastern Australia and Chile.

The sister group of the Pentapetalae is the Gunnerales, including the two genera Gunnera and Myrothamnus. Gunnera is a genus of small to gigantic herbaceous plants with a mostly southern distribution, at least some species of which host symbiotic cyanobacteria in glands at the base of the leaf.

See also: Flowers from two to five.

Gunneridae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Pentapetalae (see below for synonymy) CD07
    |    |--+--Dilleniaceae MS10
    |    |  `--+--+--Vitaceae MS10
    |    |     |  `--Saxifragales MS10
    |    |     `--Rosidae (see below for synonymy) MS10
    |    |          |  i. s.: Gumillea BB07
    |    |          |--Malvidae WM09
    |    |          `--Fabidae WM09
    |    `--+--Berberidopsidales APG16
    |       |    |--Aextoxicon T00 [Aextoxicaceae CD07]
    |       |    `--Berberidopsis [Berberidopsidaceae] WM09
    |       |         `--B. corallina Hooker 1862 CD07
    |       `--+--Santalales APG16
    |          `--+--Caryophyllales APG16
    |             `--Asteridae APG16
    `--Gunnerales APG16
         |--Myrothamnus T00 [Myrothamnaceae APG16]
         `--Gunnera Linnaeus 1767 WM09, A61 [Gunneraceae, Gunnerineae]
              |  i. s.: G. bracteata P-RG14
              |         G. lobata CL85
              |         G. magellanica D03
              |         G. manicata Linden ex André 1873 CD07
              |         G. perpensa Linnaeus 1767 CD07
              |         G. tinctoria [incl. G. chilensis] H93
              `--G. sect. Milligania [=Milligania Hook. f. in Hook. 1840] A61
                   |--G. cordifolia [=*Milligania cordifolia] A61
                   |--G. albocarpa (Kirk) Ckn. 1909 [=G. monoica var. albocarpa Kirk 1895] A61
                   |--G. arenaria Cheesem. in Kirk 1895 A61
                   |--G. densiflora Hook. f. 1864 A61
                   |--G. dentata Kirk 1895 A61
                   |--G. flavida Col. 1886 A61 [incl. G. ovata Petrie 1893 C06]
                   |--G. hamiltonii Kirk 1895 A61
                   |--G. mixta Kirk 1895 [incl. G. microcarpa Kirk 1895] A61
                   |--G. monoica Raoul 1844 [incl. G. monoica var. ramulosa Kirk 1899] A61
                   |--G. prorepens Hook. f. 1852 A61
                   `--G. strigosa Col. 1883 [=G. monoica var. strigosa (Col.) Kirk 1895] A61

Gunneridae [Balanophorales, Balanophoranae, Corniflorae, Halorageae, Hamamelidanae, Lythrales, Rafflesiales, Rafflesianae, Santalanae, Saxifraganae, Thymelaeales]

Pentapetalae [Calyciflorae, Campanulatae, Myrtiflorae, Olacineae, Sarraceniales, Saxifrageae, Theales, Theiflorae] CD07

Rosidae [Amentiferae, Balanopineae, Daphniphyllanae, Daphniphyllineae, Disciflorae, Geranianae, Geraniiflorae, Hamamelididae, Juglandineae, Linales, Malvanae, Malviflorae, Polygalales, Rhamnanae, Rosanae, Rutales, Rutanae, Rutiflorae, Violiflorae] MS10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BB07] Bhattacharyya, P. K., & K. Bhattacharyya. 2007. A comparison of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification (2003) with system of Takhtajan (1997) and Cronquist (1988). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 95–120.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: new southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311–319.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[MS10] Moore, M. J., P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, J. G. Burleigh & D. E. Soltis. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (10): 4623–4628.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

Last updated: 25 November 2018.

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