Banded stilts Cladorhynchus leucocephalus, from here.

Belongs within: Charadriiformes.

The Recurvirostridae is a small family of wading birds with relatively long legs, necks and bills, and usually contrasting black and white or red, black and white plumage (one species, Himantopus novaezelandiae, is entirely black). Recurvirostrids are characterised by having the tarsus at least twice the length of, and the naked portion of the thigh much longer than, the middle toe (Ridgway 1887). Three modern genera are included in the family: Recurvirostra, the avocets, have the bills turned up at the end, while the two genera of stilts, the cosmopolitan Himantopus and the Australian Cladorhynchus, have straight bills. Their long legs and bills allow them to feed on small aquatic invertebrates by wading in up to their belly (Heather & Robertson 1996).

<==Recurvirostridae [Avocettidae]
    |  i. s.: Coltonia recurvirostra FP64
    |--Recurvirostra Linnaeus 1758 M02 [incl. Avocetta Brisson 1760 B94; Recurvirostrinae LZ07]
    |    |--R. americana FP64
    |    |--R. avosetta SU93
    |    |--R. novaehollandiae Vieillot 1816 R85
    |    `--R. sanctaneboulae Mourer-Chauviré 1978 M02
    `--Himantopodinae LZ07
         |--Cladorhynchus [Cladorhynchini] LZ07
         |    `--C. leucocephalus C88
         `--Himantopus Brisson 1760 B94 [Himantopodidae, Himantopodini LZ07]
              |--*H. himantopus (Linnaeus 1758) I92 [incl. H. ceylonensis SU93]
              |    |--H. h. himantopus USDI77
              |    `--H. h. knudseni USDI77
              |--H. leucocephalus Gould 1837 R85 [=H. himantopus leucocephalus HR96]
              |--H. mexicanus A61 [=H. himantopus mexicanus FS55]
              |--H. nigricollis SS66
              `--H. novaezelandiae Gould 1841 WH02

Nomen nudum: Himantopus brevipes Milne-Edwards 1871 M02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[C88] Cracraft, J. 1988. The major clades of birds. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 339-361. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[LZ07] Livezey, B. C., & R. L. Zusi. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149 (1): 1-95.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

Ridgway, R. 1887. A Manual of North American Birds. J. B. Lippincott Company: Philadelphia.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. On some additions to the catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Ucayali. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 566-567.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants - republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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