Euepiproctophora

Epiophlebia superstes, photographed by chochoensis.


Belongs within: Euodonata.
Contains: Stenophlebioptera, Anisoptera.

The odonate clade Euepiproctophora includes the living dragonflies and the Asian relict genus Epiophlebia. The name of the clade is derived from the development of the epiprocts at the end of the male's abdomen to form part of the claspers used in mating. Epiophlebia comprises two species of odonate found in Japan (E. superstes) and the Himalayas (E. laidlawi); though similar to a typical dragonfly in overall appearance, they have petiolate wings more similar to those of the damselflies in the Zygoptera (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

See also: A halfway house, halfway down Honshu island.

Characters (from Fleck et al. 2003; Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Frons bulbous; thoracic interpleural suture dorsally present; epiprocts enlarged in male to form appendage of claspers; naiad with rectal chamber lined with respiratory pads; postdiscoidal area on wing broader than area between MA and RP3/4 along posterior wing margin.

<==Euepiproctophora
    |--Epiophlebia [Epiophlebiidae, Epiophlebioidea, Epiophlebioptera] FB03
    |    |--E. laidlawi GE05
    |    `--E. superstes (Selys 1889) FB03
    `--+--Erichschmidtia Pritykina 1968 [Erichschmidtiidae] FB03
       `--Anisopteromorpha [Heterophlebioidea] FB03
            |--Trigonoptera FB03
            |    |  i. s.: Gondvanogomphus Schlüter & Hartung 1982 [Gondvanogomphidae] FB03
            |    |--Stenophlebioptera FB03
            |    `--Anisoptera FB03
            `--Heterophlebioptera FB03
                 |--Myopophlebiidae FB03
                 |    |--Paraplagiophlebia loneuxi FB03
                 |    `--Paraheterophlebia marci Nel & Henrotay 1993 FB03
                 `--+--Liassophlebia [Liassophlebiidae] FB03
                    |    `--L. magnifica Tillyard 1925 FB03
                    `--+--Juraheterophlebia Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 [Juraheterophlebiidae] FB03
                       |    `--*J. kazakhstanensis Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
                       `--Heterophlebia [Heterophlebiidae] FB03
                            `--H. buckmani (Brodie 1849) FB03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FB03] Fleck, G., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs, E. Jarzembowski, R. Coram & A. Nel. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Stenophlebioptera (Odonata: Epiproctophora). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 39 (1): 55-93.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

Odonatoptera

Reconstruction of Meganeuropsis by Karen Carr.


Belongs within: Pterygota.
Contains: Pandiscoidalia.

The Odonatoptera contain the living Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) plus all fossil taxa more closely related to odonates than other living insects. The earliest known odonatopterans are recorded from the Upper Carboniferous. The best known of the basal odonatopterans are the meganeurids which had the largest wingspans of any known insect, up to about 640 mm in Meganeuropsis permiana (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Wings with anal region reduced; distinctive form of bracing with kink in CuP where it meets AA; only two articular plates at wing base.

<==Odonatoptera [Libellulida, Libellulidea, Meganeurina, Odonatoidea, Odonatomorpha]
    |  i. s.: Hemeroscopus [Hemeroscopidae] R02
    |           `--H. baissicus Pritykina 1977 R02
    |         Eocordulia cretacea R02
    |         Erasipteroides [Erasipteridae] GE05
    |           `--E. valentini GE05
    |         Namurotypus [Namurotypidae] RP02
    |         Titanophasma fayoli RP02
    |         Parahemiphlebia mickoleiti GE05
    |--Eugeropteridae [Geroptera] GE05
    |    |--Eogeropteron lunatum RP02
    |    `--Geropteron arcuatum RP02
    `--Holodonata GE05
         |--Protodonata [Meganeuroidea, Meganeuromorpha] GE05
         |    |--Paralogidae GE05
         |    |--Kohlwaldiidae NB01
         |    |--Kargalotypus Rohdendorf 1962 [Kargalotypidae, Kargalotypinae] NB01
         |    |    `--*K. kargalensis (Martynov 1932) [=Megatypus kargalensis] NB01
         |    `--Meganeuridae GE05
         |         |--Arctotypus sinuatus GE05
         |         |--Meganeuropsis permiana Z02 [incl. M. americana GE05]
         |         |--Meganeura monyi GE05
         |         |--Megatypus schucherti GE05
         |         `--Tupus gracilis GE05
         `--Odonatoclada RP02
              |--Campylopteridae [Campylopterodea] RP02
              `--Panodialata NB01
                   |--Lapeyria [Lapeyriidae] NB01
                   |    `--L. magnifica Nel, Gand & Garric 1999 NB01
                   `--Nodialata RP02
                        |--Pandiscoidalia RP02
                        `--Ditaxineuroidea [Protanisoptera] RP02
                             |  i. s.: Hemizygopteron Zallesskiy 1955 NB01
                             |--Ditaxineuridae GE05
                             |--Permaeschna Martynov 1931 NB01 [Permaeschnidae GE05]
                             |--Polytaxineura Tillyard 1935 NB01 [Polytaxineuridae RP02]
                             |--Callimokaltaniidae RP02
                             `--Kaltanoneuridae RP02

*Type species of generic name indicated

==References==

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[NB01] Nel, A., O. Bethoux, G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs & F. Papier. 2001. The Permo-Triassic Odonatoptera of the “protodonate” grade (Insecta: Odonatoptera). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 37 (4): 501-525.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Special features of the study of fossil insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 8-12. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RP02] Rasnitsyn, A. P., & L. N. Pritykina. 2002. Superorder Libellulidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Odonata Fabricius, 1792. The dragonflies. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 97-104. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Triadophlebiomorpha

Diagram of preserved wing portion of Zygophlebiella curta, showing pattern of basal venation. From Nel et al. (2001).


Belongs within: Pandiscoidalia.

The Triadophlebiomorpha are a clade of Permian and Triassic insects of the odonate stem group, known from central Asia and Russia. Many triadophlebiomorphs have petiolate wings similar to those of modern damselflies; however, Xamenophlebia ornata is notable for its relatively broad wings with a strongly undulated hindwing.

Characters (from Nel et al. 2001): Wing with very long petiolus, with veins MP and Cu basally separated, distally fused together with AA, CuA + CuP + AA separate more distally from MP; MP distinctly curved distad of its origin at distal angle of discoidal cell; very long and oblique discoidal vein MAb; CuA without distal posterior branches.

<==Triadophlebiomorpha
    |  i. s.: Piroutetia Meunier 1907 [Piroutetiidae] NB01
    |           `--*P. liasina Meunier 1907 NB01
    |--Triadophlebiida NB01
    |    |--Mitophlebia [Mitophlebiidae] NB01
    |    `--Triadophlebioidea NB01
    |         |--Paurophlebia Pritykina 1981 [Paurophlebiidae] NB01
    |         |    `--P. lepida NB01
    |         `--Triadophlebiidae NB01
    |              |--Triadophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
    |              `--Cladophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
    |                   `--C. parvula Pritykina 1981 NB01
    `--Zygophlebiida NB01
         |--Xamenophlebioidea NB01
         |    |--Xamenophlebia Pritykina 1981 [Xamenophlebiidae] NB01
         |    |    `--*X. ornata Pritykina 1981 NB01
         |    `--Permophlebia Nel, Bethoux et al. 2001 [Permophlebiidae] NB01
         |         `--*P. uralica Nel, Bethoux et al. 2001 NB01
         `--Zygophlebiidae [Zygophlebioidea] NB01
              |--Zygophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |    `--*Z. ramosa Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |--Zygophlebiella Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |    `--*Z. curta Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |--Mixophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |    `--*M. mixta Pritykina 1981 NB01
              `--Cyrtophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
                   `--*C. sinuosa Pritykina 1981 NB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

==References==

[NB01] Nel, A., O. Bethoux, G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs & F. Papier. 2001. The Permo-Triassic Odonatoptera of the “protodonate” grade (Insecta: Odonatoptera). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 37 (4): 501-525.

Sphagnales

Capsules of Sphagnum fimbriatum, showing ripening specimens as well as a number that have already had their caps thrown off explosively by a build-up of gases within the capsule. Photo from the British Bryological Society.


Belongs within: Bryophyta.

The Sphagnum mosses are, together with the Tasmanian Ambuchanania leucobryoides, the sister group to all other living mosses. They have thalloid protonemata, leafy shoots lacking rhizoids, and the capsules are not held above the gametophytes by a seta but by an extension of the gametophyte itself called the pseudopod. The capsules are globose and open explosively rather than through a peristome (Smith & Smith 2004). The known fossil record of Sphagnales extends back to the Late Permian, where they are represented by the genus Protosphagnum (Bateman et al. 1998). Modern species are all included in the genus Sphagnum, divided between several subgenera. Members of subgenera other than Cymbifolia have the stem leaves bordered (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Leaves unistratose. Antheridia globose, borne singly in axils of branch leaves. Antheridia in groups of one to five at apex of short lateral branch.

<==Sphagnales [Sphagneae]
    |--Protosphagnum BC98
    `--Sphagnum Linnaeus 1753 [Sphagnaceae] SK02
         |  i. s.: S. australe Mitt. 1859 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
         |         S. capillifolium WP05
         |         S. cristatum Hampe 1874 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |         S. dominii Kavina 1916 SK02
         |         S. falcatulum Besch. 1885 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
         |         S. fallax FHH01
         |         S. fuscovinosum Seppelt & Crum 1999 SK02
         |         S. lescurii WM14
         |         S. meridense J87
         |         S. novo-zelandicum Mitt. 1859 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--S. n. var. novo-zelandicum D24
         |           |--S. ‘intermedium’ var. parvifolium D24
         |           |--S. ‘intermedium’ var. pulchrum D24
         |           `--S. ‘molle’ var. tenerum D24
         |         S. perichaetiale Hampe 1847 [incl. S. beccarii Hampe 1872, S. vitjianum Schimp. ex Warnst. 1891] SK02
         |--S. subg. Acutifolia D24
         |    |--S. acutifolium D24
         |    |    |--S. a. var. acutifolium D24
         |    |    |--S. a. var. fuscum D24
         |    |    |--S. a. var. gracile [incl. S. warnstorfii] D24
         |    |    |--S. a. var. quinquefarium D24
         |    |    `--S. a. var. rubellum D24
         |    |--S. fimbriatum D24
         |    |--S. girgensohnii [incl. S. strictum] D24
         |    |    |--S. g. var. girgensohnii D24
         |    |    |--S. g. var. coryphaeum D24
         |    |    `--S. g. var. robustum D24 [=S. fimbriatum var. robustum D03; incl. S. russowii D24]
         |    `--S. subnitens FHH01 [=S. acutifolium var. subnitens D24]
         |--S. subg. Cuspidata D24
         |    |--S. cuspidatum Erhr. ex Hoffm. 1796 D24, SK02
         |    |    |--S. c. var. cuspidatum D03
         |    |    |--S. c. var. brevifolium [incl. S. balticum] D24
         |    |    |--S. c. var. falcatum D24
         |    |    |--S. c. var. microcarpum D03
         |    |    |--S. c. var. plumosum D24
         |    |    `--S. c. var. torreyanum D24
         |    |--S. lindbergii D24
         |    |--S. riparium [=S. intermedium var. riparium; incl. S. spectabile] D24
         |    `--S. tenellum [incl. S. tenellum var. longifolium, S. molluscum] D24
         |--S. subg. Cymbifolia D24
         |--S. subg. Squarrosa D24
         |    |--S. squarrosum D24
         |    |    |--S. s. var. squarrosum D24
         |    |    `--S. s. var. imbricatum D24
         |    `--S. teres [=S. squarrosum var. teres] D24
         |         |--S. t. var. teres D24
         |         `--S. t. var. squarrosulum (see below for synonymy) D24
         |--S. subg. Subsecunda D24
         |    |--S. laricinum D24
         |    |    |--S. l. var. laricinum D24
         |    |    |--S. l. var cyclophyllum D24
         |    |    |--S. l. var. platyphyllum D24
         |    |    `--S. l. var. teretiusculum D24
         |    `--S. subsecundum Nees 1819 D24, SK02 (see below for synonymy)
         |         |--S. s. var. subsecundum SK02
         |         |--S. s. var. obesum D24
         |         |--S. s. var. rufescens (Nees & Hornsch.) Huebener 1833 SK02
         |         |--S. s. var. turgidum D24
         |         `--S. s. var. viride (see below for synonymy) D24
         `--S. subg. Truncata D24
              |--S. compactum DC. 1805 D24, SK02 [=S. rigidum var. compactum SK02]
              `--S. rigidum [=S. compactum var. rigidum] D24
                   |--S. r. var. rigidum D24
                   `--S. r. var. squarrosum non S. squarrosum D24

Nomina nuda: Sphagnum bicolor Hampe ex Broth. & Watts 1912 SK02
             Sphagnum centrale var. flavoglaucescens f. brachyclada Warnst. ex Paris 1900 SK02
             Sphagnum centrale var. flavopallescens f. brachydasyclada Weymouth 1903 non S. medium var. fusco-rubellum f. brachydasyclada [=Sphagnum centrale var. fuscopallescens f. brachydasyclada Weymouth 1903] SK02
             Sphagnum cymbifolium var. carneopallidum Warnst. ex Watts 1899 SK02
             Sphagnum australe var. grandiosum Warnst. ex Weymouth 1903 SK02
             Sphagnum grandifolium var. brachycladium f. laxifolium Warnst. ex Watts 1912 non S. novo-zelandicum var. laxifolium [=S. grandifolium var. laxifolium Warnst. ex Watts 1912] SK02
             Sphagnum subsecundum var. macrophyllum Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 nec S. moorei var. macrophyllum nec S. wattsii var. macrophyllum SK02
             Sphagnum rigescens Warmst. in Dusén 1903 D03

Sphagnum australe Mitt. 1859 SK02 [=S. antarcticum var. australe (nom. illeg.) SK02; incl. S. antarcticum SK02, S. campbellianum (nom. inv.) SK02, S. papillosum var. confertum D24, SK02, S. antarcticum var. densissimum SK02, S. falcirameum (nom. inv.) SK02, S. antarcticum var. fluctuans SK02, S. antarcticum var. macrocephalum SK02, S. macrorigidum SK02, S. orthocladum (nom. inv.) SK02, S. antarcticum var. subsquarrosum SK02, S. weymouthii SK02]

Sphagnum cristatum Hampe 1874 [incl. S. decipiens var. obovatum f. anocladum, S. grandifolium var. brachycladum Warnst. 1911, S. cymbophyllum (nom. inv.), S. decipiens, S. grandifolium var. densum Warnst. 1911, S. grandifolium Warnst. 1900, S. leionotum, S. maximum, S. decipiens var. obovatum, S. pachycladum (n. n.), S. decipiens var. rotundatum, S. decipiens var. obovatum f. squarrulosum, S. subbicolor, S. wardellense, S. whiteleggei, S. wilcoxii] SK02

Sphagnum falcatulum Besch. 1885 SK02 [=S. cuspidatum var. falcatulum D03; incl. S. brotherusii SK02, S. drepanocladum SK02, S. lancifolium SK02, S. wattsii var. leptocladum SK02, S. wattsii var. macrophyllum non S. moorei var. macrophyllum SK02, S. naumannii SK02, S. brotherusii var. plumosulum SK02, S. rodwayi SK02, S. scortechinii SK02, S. serratifolium SK02, S. cuspidatum var. serrulatum D24, S. serratum var. serrulatum SK02, S. trichophyllum SK02, S. wattsii SK02]

Sphagnum novo-zelandicum Mitt. 1859 SK02 [incl. S. novo-zelandicum var. commutatum SK02, S. comosum SK02, S. cymbifolioides Müll.Hal. 1851 (preoc.) SK02, S. pseudorufescens var. fuscorufescens f. dicladum SK02, S. dubiosum SK02, S. pseudorufescens var. flavescens SK02, S. pseudorufescens var. fuscorufescens SK02, S. contortum var. intermedium SK02, S. laticoma SK02, S. novo-zelandicum var. laxifolium SK02, S. contortum var. laxum SK02, S. squarrosum var. laxum D24, S. teres var. laxum D24, S. moorei var. macrophyllum SK02, S. novo-zelandicum var. molle SK02, S. molliculum SK02, S. moorei SK02, S. mossmannianum (nom. inv.) SK02, S. molle var. muelleri D24, S. pseudorufescens var. pallens SK02, S. novo-zelandicum var. pauciporosum SK02, S. pseudorufescens SK02, S. novo-zelandicum var. pulvinatum SK02, S. recurvum D24, S. contortum var. scorpioides SK02, S. subsecundum var. subcontortum SK02, S. submolliculum SK02, S. sullivanii SK02, S. pseudorufescens var. virescens SK02]

Sphagnum subsecundum Nees 1819 D24, SK02 [incl. S. subsecundum var. contortum D24, SK02, S. subsecundum var. simplicissimum D24]

Sphagnum subsecundum var. viride [incl. S. subsecundum var. auriculatum, S. subsecundum var. squarrosulum non S. cymbifolium var. squarrosulum] D24

Sphagnum teres var. squarrosulum nec S. cymbifolium var. squarrosulum nec S. subsecundum var. squarrosulum [=S. squarrosum var. squarrosulum] D24

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC98] Bateman, R. M., P. R. Crane, W. A. DiMichele, P. R. Kenrick, N. P. Rowe, T. Speck & W. E. Stein. 1998. Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 263–292.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.

[WP05] Wikström, N., & K. M. Pryer. 2005. Incongruence between primary sequence data and the distribution of a mitochondrial atp1 group II intron among ferns and horsetails. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 484–493.

Last updated: 24 January 2018.

Polytrichaceae

Polytrichum commune, photographed by James K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Bryophyta.

The Polytrichaceae are a family of mostly relatively large mosses found worldwide. They are distinguished by the presence of a nematodontous peristome around the mouth of the spore capsule: i.e. the opening has a surrounding ring of teeth, but rather than being constructed of reduced cell wall remnants as in the Polytrichaceae's sister group (the Bryopsida), the teeth are composed of entire cells. Species of this family are commonly referred to as 'hair-cap mosses' due to the presence of hair on the calyptrae of many species, though hairs are few in species of Oligotrichum and absent in Catharinea (Dixon 1924). The genus Dawsonia includes the world's tallest moss species, D. superba, reaching 50 cm in height.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Plants large, usually rhizomatous. Stems with central strand with differentiated conductive tissue. Leaves usually differentiated into sheathing base with narrow costa, and blade composed largely of expanded costa bearing longitudinal lamellae on adaxial side, lamina usually narrow, 1-2-stratose; margins toothed or entire, sometimes bordered. Capsules erect to horizontal, spherical to cylindrical, terete or 2-6-angled, hypophysis present or absent; annulus absent; peristome nematodontous with 32-64 teeth; columella expanded at top to membranous epiphragm joined to tips of peristome teeth; calyptrae cucullate, glabrous or hairy.

<==Polytrichaceae [Polytrichales, Polytrichidae]
    |--Dendroligotrichum dendroides FHH01 [=Polytrichum dendroides SK02]
    |--Notoligotrichum Smith 1971 SK02
    |    |--N. australe (Hooker & Wilson) Smith 1971 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--N. crispulum (Hooker & Wilson) Smith 1971 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Psilopilum Brid. 1827 SK02
    |    |--P. bellii A49
    |    |--P. compressum D03b
    |    `--P. pyriforme (Hampe) Jaeger 1879 [=Catharinea pyriformis, Atrichum pyriforme, Oligotrichum pyriforme] SK02
    |--Polytrichadelphus (Müll.Hal.) Mitt. 1859 SK02
    |    |--P. dendroides D03b
    |    |--P. magellanicus (Hedw.) Mitt. 1859 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--P. squamosa D03b
    |--Oligotrichum FHH01
    |    |--O. hercynicum FHH01 [=Catharinea hercynica D24; incl. O. exiguum D24, O. incurvum D24]
    |    |    |--O. h. var. hercynicum D24
    |    |    `--O. h. var. laxum D24
    |    `--O. tenuirostre A49
    |--Catharinea D24
    |    |--C. crispa [=Atrichum crispum] D24
    |    |    |--C. c. var. crispa D24
    |    |    `--C. c. var. densifolia D24
    |    `--C. tenella [=Atrichum tenellum] D24
    |--Polytrichastrum Smith 1971 SK02
    |    |--P. alpinum (Hedw.) Smith 1971 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--P. a. var. alpinum D24
    |    |    |--‘Polytrichum’ a. var. septentrionale D24
    |    |    `--‘Polytrichum’ a. var. silvaticum [incl. Pogonatum alpinum var. arcticum] D24
    |    `--P. formosum (Hedw.) Smith 1971 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Dawsonia Brown 1811 [Dawsoniaceae, Dawsoniales] SK02
    |    |--D. longiseta Hampe 1860 [=D. longisetacea (l. c.); incl. D. appressa, D. victoriae] SK02
    |    |--D. polytrichoides Brown 1811 [=Triplocoma polytrichoides; incl. D. polytrichoides var. minor (n. n.)] SK02
    |    `--D. superba Greville 1847 SK02
    |         |--D. s. var. superba SK02
    |         `--D. s. var. pulchra Zanten 1972 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Atrichum Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
    |    |--A. androgynum (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1875 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--A. angustatum [=Catharinea angustata, Polytrichum angustatum] SK02
    |    |    |--A. a. var. angustatum D24
    |    |    `--‘Catharinea angustata’ var. rhystophylla D24
    |    |--A. flavisetum N02
    |    `--A. undulatum FHH01 [=Bryum undulatum D24, Catharinea undulata] D24
    |         |--A. u. var. undulatum D24
    |         |--‘Catharinea undulata’ var. haussknechtii [=Atrichum haussknechtii] D24
    |         `--‘Catharinea undulata’ var. minor D24
    |--Pogonatum Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
    |    |--P. aloides FHH01 [=Polytrichum aloides D24]
    |    |    |--P. a. var. aloides D24
    |    |    `--‘Polytrichum’ a. var. dicksoni [incl. Pogonatum aloides var. defluens] D24
    |    |--‘Polytrichum’ capillare D24
    |    |--P. dendroides D03a
    |    |--P. graeffeanum B57
    |    |--P. microstomum N02
    |    |--P. nanum [=Polytrichum nanum; incl. Pol. subrotundum] D24
    |    |    |--P. n. var. nanum D24
    |    |    `--‘Polytrichum’ n. var. longisetum D24
    |    |--P. neesii (Müll.Hal.) Dozy 1856 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--P. robustum [incl. P. ekmanii Thériot 1944] J87
    |    |--P. subtortile [incl. P. subtortile var. teysmannianum] SK02
    |    |--P. subulatum (Brid.) Brid. 1827 [incl. Polytrichum nanournigerum, Pog. nanournigerum] SK02
    |    |--P. tortile [=Polytrichum tortile] SK02
    |    |--P. tubulosum Dixon 1941 SK02
    |    `--P. urnigerum [=Polytrichum urnigerum] D24
    |         |--P. u. var. urnigerum D24
    |         `--P. u. var. humile [=Polytrichum urnigerum var. humile] D24
    `--Polytrichum Hedw. 1801 SK02 [incl. P. subg. Eu-Polytrichum D24]
         |--P. brachypelma Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. cataractarum Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. commune Hedw. 1801 CD07
         |    |--P. c. var. commune SK02
         |    |--P. c. var. minus [incl. P. commune var. fastigiatum] D24
         |    |--P. c. var. perigoniale (Michx.) Hampe 1839 SK02
         |    `--P. c. var. trichodes SK02
         |--P. croceum Hampe 1853 SK02
         |--P. elongatum D03b
         |--P. gracile D24
         |--P. hoppei D24
         |--P. juniperinum Hedw. 1801 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. lycopodioides Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. norvegicum SK02
         |--P. novae-hollandiae Jaeger 1875 [incl. P. densifolium (preoc.)] SK02
         |--P. obliquirostre Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. patagonicum D03b
         |--P. piliferum Hedw. 1801 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. recurvipilum Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. sexangulare D24
         |--P. spegazzinii D03b
         |--P. strictum SK02
         |--P. trachynotum D03b
         `--P. uliginosum VHJ03

Nomina nuda: Pogonatum australasicum f. minor Hampe & Geh. 1881 SK02
             Polytrichadelphus stricticaulis Dusén 1903 D03b

Atrichum androgynum (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1875 [incl. Catharinea leptocylindrica, A. leptocylindricum, Polytrichum ligulatum, A. ligulatum, Catharinea ligulata, C. minuta, Atrichum minutum, Oligotrichum minutum, Catharinea muelleri, Atrichum muelleri (preoc.), Polytrichum angustatum var. polysetum, A. angustatum var. polysetum (nom. inv.), Catharinea pusilla, A. pusillum, C. semilamellosa, A. semilamellosum, C. sideroloma, A. sideroloma] SK02

Dawsonia superba var. pulchra Zanten 1972 [incl. D. intermedia, Polytrichum longifolium (nom. rej.), D. longifolia (Bruch & Schimp.) Zanten 1977 (nom. rej.)] SK02

Notoligotrichum australe (Hooker & Wilson) Smith 1971 [=Polytrichum australe non P. juniperinum var. australe Müll.Hal. 1868, Psilopilum australe (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860] SK02

Notoligotrichum crispulum (Hooker & Wilson) Smith 1971 [=Polytrichum crispulum, Catharinea crispula, Psilopilum crispulum (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860] SK02

Pogonatum neesii (Müll.Hal.) Dozy 1856 [incl. Polytrichum australasicum, Pog. australasicum, Pog. baileyi (nom. inv.), Polytrichum brachypodium, Pog. brachypodium (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1902, Pol. camarae, Pog. camarae (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1897, Pol. gippslandiae, Pog. gippslandiae (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900, Pol. nanocarpum, Pog. nanocarpum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900] SK02

Polytrichadelphus magellanicus (Hedw.) Mitt. 1859 [=Polytrichum magellanicum; incl. Catharinea arnoldii, Oligotrichum arnoldii, Polytrichadelphus arnoldii, Catharinea australasica, Oligotrichum australasicum, Polytrichadelphus australasicus, Polytrichum innovans (nom. inv.), Catharinea innovans, Oligotrichum innovans, Polytrichadelphus innovans, Catharinea lagenacea, Polytrichadelphus lagenaceus, C. prolificans, Polytrichadelphus prolificans] SK02

Polytrichastrum alpinum (Hedw.) Smith 1971 SK02 [=Polytrichum alpinum SK02, Pogonatum alpinum SK02; incl. Pog. austroalpinum SK02, Polytrichum austroalpinum (nom. inv.) SK02, Polytrichum alpinum var. campanulatum D24, Polytrichum pseudoalpinum SK02, Pogonatum pseudoalpinum SK02]

Polytrichastrum formosum (Hedw.) Smith 1971 SK02 [=Polytrichum formosum Hedw. 1801 SK02; incl. Polytrichum attenuatum D24]

Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. 1801 [incl. P. juniperinum var. australe Müll.Hal. 1868, P. beccarii, P. cypellomitrium, P. juniperifolium, P. longipilum, P. maoriae, P. nodicoma, P. ryparomitrium, P. tasmaniae, P. tasmanicum (l. c.), P. tysdalei, P. tisdallii (l. c.)] SK02

Polytrichum piliferum Hedw. 1801 [incl. P. pilosum (nom. illeg.), P. sullivanii, Eupolytrichum sullivanii (nom. inv.)] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A49] Allison, K. W. 1949. Description of a new species with notes and localities for some Otago and Southland mosses. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 278–283.

[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03a] Dusén, P. 1903a. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D03b] Dusén, P. 1903b. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VHJ03] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs & A.-L. Jacquemart. 2003. Differentiation in DNA fingerprinting and morphology among species of the pleurocarpous moss genus, Rhytidiadelphus (Hylocomiaceae). Taxon 52: 229–236.

Last updated: 10 January 2018.

Notoungulata

Skull and reproduction of head of Notopithecus, from here.


Belongs within: Pholidotamorpha.

The Notoungulata were a diverse group of herbivorous mammals found in South America from the Palaeocene to the Pleistocene; a single Pleistocene species Mixotoxodon larensis was found in southern North America following the formation of the Central American land bridge. Various forms might be described as convergent on Northern Hemisphere rhinos, pigs, rabbits or hyraxes. The relations of notoungulates within other mammals remain poorly established; various relationships have been suggested with modern afrotherians and euungulates, and it is debated whether or not notoungulates are directly related to other extinct South American 'ungulates' such as litopterns or astrapotheres.

Characters (from Rose 2006): Early forms with dental formula of 3.1.4.3/3.1.4.3; teeth usually closely spaced, diastema absent; cheek teeth lophodont: upper molars with strong, straight ectoloph, oblique protoloph and more transverse metaloph; tendency to develop extra crests running toward centre of upper molar, including 'crochet' extending anterobuccally from metaloph; lower molars with two main crescentic crests, the metalophid and hypolophid, with shorter transverse entolophid derived from entoconid; paraconid typically absent; paracristid short; ectocingulum usually weak or absent on both upper and lower teeth. Skull with postorbital bar absent, zygomatic arch arising high on back of skull. Ear region with tympanic cavity connected to large epitympanic sinus in squamosal, often also to hypotympanic sinus below tympanic cavity; inflated ectotympanic bulla surrounding tympanic cavity, extending laterally as external auditory tube with ventral crest; fossa present behind bulla for projection of the hyoid. Feet mesaxonic; astragalus with moderately long constricted neck, roughly hemispherical head, medial projection on body, prominent dorsal foramen, posterior sulcus, partly confluent sustentacular and navicular facets; astragalar trochlea slightly grooved with high lateral rim; calcaneal peroneal tubercle distally situated.

Notoungulata
    |--Oldfieldthomasia [Acoelodidae] S32
    |    `--O. debilitata [=Acoelodus debilitatus] S32
    |--Notopithecus [Notopithecidae] S32
    |    `--N. adapinus S32
    `--Notostylops Ameghino 1897 [Notostylopidae] D07
         |--N. brachycephalus S32
         `--N. escaridus S32

Notoungulata incertae sedis:
  Simpsonotus praecursor MC00, OB13
  Thomashuxleya Ameghino 1901 D07
    `--T. externa OB13
  Scarrittia Simpson 1934 D07
    |--S. canquelensis D07
    `--S. robusta D07
  Rhynchippus Soria & Alvarenga 1989 D07
    |--R. brasiliensis D07
    |--R. equinus D07
    `--R. pumulis D07
  Pachyrukhos Ameghino 1885 D07
    `--P. moyani D07
  Archaeohyrax Ameghino 1897 D07
    `--A. patagonicus D07
  Protypotherium Ameghino 1882 D07
    |--P. anomopodus D07
    |--P. australe D07
    `--P. minitum D07
  Homalodotherium Riggs 1930 D07
    |--H. crassum D07
    |--H. cunninghami D07
    |--H. excursum D07
    `--H. segoviae D07
  Trigodon Ameghino 1882 D07
    `--T. gaudryi D07
  0--Mixotoxodon larensis FS15
  `--+--Trigonodops lopesi FS15
     `--Toxodon O05
          |--T. burmeisteri O05
          `--T. platensis FS15

Inorganic: Toxodon plateuse minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[MC00] Muizon, C. de, & R. L. Cifelli. 2000. The “condylarths” (archaic Ungulata, Mammalia) from the early Palaeocene of Tiupampa (Bolivia): implications on the origin of the South American ungulates. Geodiversitas 22 (1): 47–150.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[O05] Outes, F. F. 1905. Sobre un instrumento paleolítico de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 169–173.

Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. JHU Press.

[S32] Simpson, G. G. 1932. Skulls and brains of some mammals from the Notostylops beds of Patagonia. American Museum Novitates 578: 1–11.

Last updated: 17 August 2018.

Phenacodontidae

Reconstruction of Phenacodus by Heinrich Harder.


Belongs within: Euungulata.

The Phenacodontidae are a family of herbivorous cursorial mammals from the Palaeocene and Eocene of North America and Europe. Size estimates for phenacodontids range up to over fifty kilos for the larger Phenacodus species (Thewissen 1990), about the size of a small sheep. Thewissen (1990) suggested that Phenacodus may have been sexually dimorphic in the size of the paranasal sinuses and that this dimorphism may have been related to sound production.

Characters (from Thewissen 1990): Teeth bunodont to bunolophodont. P4 with talonid basin and subequal protoconid and metaconid. Paraconid of lower molars absent or small. P3 with small protocone, P4 with paracone, metacone, and protocone. M1-2 with hypocone and often with mesostyle. Dental formula 3.1.4.3 / 3.1.4.3. Humerus with weak deltopectoral crest and supracondylar foramen. Ulna strong with anterior process distally. Five digits in hand and foot. Femur with third trochanter. Fibula complete. Astragalus with convex head.

Phenacodontidae
    |--Lophocion HD04
    |--Meniscotherium Cope 1874 PMF88, C77
    |    |--M. chamense Cope 1874 C77
    |    |--M. priscum Granger 1915 T90
    |    `--M. terraerubrae M94
    `--Phenacodus Cope 1873 [incl. Almogaver Crusafont & Villalta 1955, Eohyus Marsh 1894, Opisthotomus Cope 1875] T90
         |--*P. primaevus Cope 1873 (n. d.) [incl. *Eohyus distans Marsh 1894] T90
         |--P. astutus (Cope 1875) [=Opisthotomus astutus] T90
         |--P. bisonensis Gazin 1956 T90
         |--P. condali (Crusafont & Villalta 1955) [=Almogaver condali] T90
         |--‘Opisthotomus’ flagrans Cope 1875 C77
         |--P. grangeri Simpson 1935 [incl. Tetraclaenodon transitus Dorr 1958] T90
         |--P. hemiconus Cope 1882 (n. d.) [=P. primaevus hemiconus] T90
         |--P. intermedius Granger 1915 T90
         |--P. lemoinei Thewissen 1990 T90
         |--P. magnus Thewissen 1990 T90
         |--P. matthewi Simpson 1935 [incl. P. gidleyi Simpson 1935] T90
         |--P. nuniensis Cope 1885 (n. d.) T90
         |--P. omnivorus Cope 1874 (n. d.) T90
         |--P. sulcatus Cope 1874 C77
         |--P. teilhardi Simpson 1929 [incl. P. europaeus Teilhard de Chardin 1927 non Ruetimeyer 1888] T90
         |--P. trilobatus Cope 1882 [incl. P. primaevus robustus Granger 1915] T90
         |--P. villaltae Crusafont Pairo 1956 T90
         |--P. vortmani (Cope 1880) (see below for synonymy) T90
         `--P. zuniensis D07

Phenacodus vortmani (Cope 1880) [=Hyracotherium vortmani, P. wortmani; incl. P. almiensis Gazin 1942, P. apternus Cope 1882, P. copei Granger 1915] T90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[HD04] Hooker, J. J., & D. Dashzeveg. 2004. The origin of chalicotheres (Perissodactyla, Mammalia). Palaeontology 47 (6): 1363–1386.

[M94] MacPhee, R. D. E. 1994. Morphology, adaptations, and relationships of Plesiorycteropus, and a diagnosis of a new order of eutherian mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 220: 1–214.

[PMF88] Prothero, D. R., E. M. Manning & M. Fischer. 1988. The phylogeny of the ungulates. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 2. Mammals pp. 201–234. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[T90] Thewissen, J. G. M. 1990. Evolution of Paleocene and Eocene Phenacodontidae (Mammalia, Condylarthra). Museum of Paleontology Papers on Paleontology 29: 1–107.

Last updated: 6 August 2018.

Hypnales

Sanionia uncinata, photographed by Algirdas.


Belongs within: Bryidae.
Contains: Ectropothecium, Vesicularia, Isopterygium, Trachylomataceae, Hylocomiaceae, Meteoriaceae, Plagiotheciaceae, Entodontaceae, Sematophyllaceae, Cryphaeaceae, Pterobryaceae, Lembophyllaceae, Neckeraceae, Calliergonaceae, Hypnum, Anomodontaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Amblystegiaceae, Leskeaceae, Thuidiaceae.

The Hypnales are an enormous order of over 4,000 species, over half the pleurocarpous mosses. Members of the order are divided between a large number of families, but the boundaries between many of the families are poorly defined and still being revised. In particular, the previously recognised family Hypnaceae has been indicated by molecular analyses to be widely polyphyletic. Species of the genus Sanionia have a noteworthy distribution, being found in the Arctic and Antarctic but not in the intervening tropics. Other subgroups of the Hypnales include the Leptodontaceae, epiphytic mosses characterised by a distinctive branching pattern with clusters of branches alternating with unbranched intervals bearing inflorescences.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Pleurocarpous. Very slender to robust plants. Primary stems usually creeping, secondary stems procumbent to erect, branching irregular to pinnate or dendroid. Paraphyllia and/or pseudoparaphyllia present or absent. Leaves spirally arranged or complanate, linear-lanceolate to more or less orbicular, apices rounded to longly acuminate; branch leaves similar to and smaller than stem leaves or differing in shape; costa long or short, single, double or absent; cells short to linear-vermicular, usually smooth, alar cells often differentiated. Setae long, smooth or papillose; capsules erect to horizontal, ovoid to cylindrical; lid convex to highly rostrate or subulate; peristome double, perfect or variously reduced, exostome teeth papillose, not furrowed, endostome with or without tall basal membrane, cilia present or absent; calyptrae naked. Chromosome number frequently x = 10 + m or 11.

<==Hypnales [Hypnaceae]
    |--Neckerineae VH02
    |    |--Neckeraceae SK02
    |    `--Leptodontaceae SK02
    |         |--Leptodon Mohr 1803 FHH01, SK02
    |         |    |--L. longisetus FHH01
    |         |    `--L. smithii (Hedw.) Weber & Mohr 1803 SK02 [=Hypnum smithii D24; incl. L. australis SK02]
    |         `--Forsstroemia Lindb. 1863 SK02
    |              |--F. producta (Hornsch.) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |              `--F. trichomitra (Hedw.) Lindb. 1863 SK02
    |                   |--F. t. ssp. trichomitra SK02
    |                   `--F. t. ssp. australis (Müll.Hal.) Stark 1987 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--+--Conardia compacta VH02
       `--+--+--+--Caribaeohypnum polypterum VH02
          |  |  `--Ptilium cristacastrensis VH02 [=Hypnum crista-castrensis D24]
          |  `--+--Calliergonella Loeske 1911 VH02, SK02
          |     |    |--C. cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske 1911 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
          |     |    |    |--C. c. var. cuspidata D24
          |     |    |    |--‘Hypnum cuspidatum’ var. caespitosum non H. cuspidatum D24
          |     |    |    `--‘Hypnum cuspidatum’ var. pungens non H. aduncum var. pungens D24
          |     |    `--C. lindbergii VH02
          |     `--Sanionia Loeske 1907 VH02, SK02
          |          `--S. uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske 1907 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
          |               |  i. s.: ‘Hypnum uncinatum’ var. plumosum non H. plumosum D24
          |               |         ‘Hypnum uncinatum’ var. plumulosum D24
          |               |--S. u. ssp. uncinata D03
          |               `--‘Hypnum uncinatum’ ssp. symmetricum [=Amblystegium uncinatum var. symmetricum] D03
          `--+--+--Calliergonaceae VH02
             |  `--+--Hypnum VH02
             |     `--+--‘Hygrohypnum’ montanum VH02
             |        `--Platydictya jungermannioides VH02
             `--+--+--+--Platygyrium repens VH02
                |  |  `--Anomodontaceae VH02
                |  `--+--Brachytheciaceae VH02
                |     `--Donrichardsia [Donrichardsiaceae] VH02
                |          `--D. macroneuron VH02
                `--+--Amblystegiaceae VH02
                   `--+--+--+--Campylophyllum halleri VH02
                      |  |  `--‘Hygrohypnum’ smithii VH02
                      |  `--Tomentypnum VH02
                      |       |--T. falcifolium VH02
                      |       `--T. nitens VH02
                      `--+--+--Leskeaceae VH02
                         |  `--Thuidiaceae VH02
                         `--Rhytidiaceae N02
                              |--Rhytidium rugosum VH02
                              `--Gollania N02
                                   |--G. clarescens N02
                                   `--G. splendens F01

Hypnales incertae sedis:
  Ectropothecium SK02
  Vesicularia SK02
  Isopterygium SK02
  Trachylomataceae SK02
  Hylocomiaceae SK02
  Pterigynandraceae SK02
    |--Trachyphyllum Gepp 1901 SK02
    |    `--T. inflexum (Harv.) Gepp 1901 [incl. Leptohymenium papuanum, T. papuanum] SK02
    `--Pterigynandrum filiforme D24
         |--P. f. var. filiforme D24
         `--P. f. var. heteropterum [incl. P. filiforme var. decipiens] D24
  Stereophyllaceae SK02
    |--Euglossophyllum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1896 SK02
    `--Stereophyllum Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |--S. fuegianum D03
         |--S. radiculosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. tavoyense (Hooker) Jaeger 1879 [=Hypnum tavoyense Hooker 1836] SG07
         `--S. wightii (Mitt.) Jaeger 1980 [=Hypnum wightii Mitt. 1859] SG07
  Myriniaceae SK02
    |--Macgregorella Bartram 1939 non Seale 1909 (ICZN) SK02
    |    `--M. indica (Broth.) Buck 1980 [=Austinia brotheri, A. luzonensis (n. n.)] SK02
    `--Helicodontium (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
         |--H. capillare (Hedw.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
         `--H. pulvinatum [=Leskea pulvinata, Myrinia pulvinata] D24
  Meteoriaceae SK02
  Plagiotheciaceae SK02
  Entodontaceae SK02
  Climacium Weber & Mohr 1804 [Climaciaceae] SK02
    |--C. americanum VHJ03
    |--C. dendroides (Hedw.) Weber & Mohr 1804 SK02 [=Hypnum dendroides D24; incl. C. epigaeum D24]
    `--C. kindbergii VHJ03
  Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |--C. malacodes J87
    `--C. pubescens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Trachythecium Fleischer 1923 SK02
    `--T. verrucosum (Jaeger) Fleischer 1923 [=Ectropothecium verrucosum] SK02
  Chaetomitrium Dozy & Molk. 1846 [Symphyodontaceae] SK02
    |--C. densum B57
    |--C. depressum B57
    |--C. orthorrhynchum B57
    |    |--C. o. var. orthorrhynchum B57
    |    `--C. o. var. vitiense Bartram 1957 B57
    |--C. rugifolium B57
    |--C. smithii Bartram 1957 [=C. (Leiocarpus) smithii] B57
    `--C. tahitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1873 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Sematophyllaceae SK02
  Myuriaceae SK02
    |--Myurium Schimp. 1860 SK02
    |    `--M. hebridarum [incl. Leucodon lagurus var. borealis, Hypnum hochstetteri] D24
    `--Oedicladium Mitt. 1868 SK02
         `--O. rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Mitt. 1868 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--O. r. ssp. rufescens SK02
              `--‘Myurium’ r. ssp. purpuratum (Mitt.) Maschke 1976 SK02
  Cryphaeaceae SK02
  Pterobryaceae SK02
  Orthorrhynchium Reichardt 1868 [Orthorrhyngiaceae] SK02
    `--O. elegans (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1868 [=Phyllogonium elegans] SK02
         |--O. e. ssp. elegans SK02
         |--O. e. ssp. cymbifolioides (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--O. e. ssp. nietneri (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 SK02
  Lepyrodon Hampe 1865 [Lepyrodontaceae] SK02
    |--L. australis Hampe & Broth. 1906 SK02
    |--L. implexus D03
    |--L. lagurus (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--L. pseudolagurus Allen 1999 SK02
  Echinodium Jur. 1866 [Echinodiaceae] SK02
    |--E. hispidum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--E. umbrosum (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 [incl. E. parvulum] SK02
  Lembophyllaceae SK02
  Sorapilla Spruce & Mitt. 1869 [Sorapillaceae] SK02
    `--S. papuana Broth. & Geh. 1900 SK02
  Taxiphyllum Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |--T. taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--T. wissgrillii M08
  Sciaromium D03
    |--S. confluens D03
    |--S. depastum Dusén 1903 D03
    `--S. gracile Dusén 1903 D03
  Rigodium D03
    |--R. nano-fasciculatum D03
    |--R. tamarix D03
    `--R. toxarion D03
  Mittenothamnium reptans J87
  Chrysohypnum diminutivum J87
  Herzogiella J87
    |--H. cylindricarpa J87
    `--H. seligeri M08
  Pylaisia (nom. cons.) D24, C03 [=Pylaisiella C03]
    `--P. polyantha [=Leskea polyantha, Stereodon polyanthos] D24
  Orthothecium D24
    |--O. intricatum [=Leskea intricata; incl. Stereodon subrufus] D24
    |    |--O. i. var. intricatum D24
    |    |--O. i. var. abbreviatum Dixon 1923 D24
    |    `--O. i. var. binervulum D24
    `--O. rufescens [=Hypnum rufescens, Stereodon rufescens] D24
  Camptothecium D24
    |--C. lutescens [=Hypnum lutescens] D24
    |    |--C. l. var. lutescens D24
    |    `--C. l. var. fallax [=Homalothecium fallax] D24
    `--C. nitens [=Hypnum nitens; incl. H. trichoides] D24
  Hyocomium flagellare [=Hypnum flagellare] D24

Nomina nuda: Hyocomium brachythecioides Broth. ex Burges 1935 SK02
             Pylaisia pseudohomomalla Jaeger 1879 SK02
             Rigodium carnosulum Dusén 1903 D03
             Rigodium pseudo-thuidium Dusén 1903 D03

Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske 1911 SK02 [=Acrocladium cuspidatum SK02, Calliergon cuspidatum SK02, Hypnum cuspidatum D24; incl. Hypnum flexile (nom. illeg.) SK02]

Chaetomitrium tahitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1873 [incl. C. tahitense var. deplanchei (Besch.) Wijk & Margad. 1959, C. geheebii, C. nematosum] SK02

Ctenidium pubescens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 [incl. Hyocomium pilosum (n. n.), Hypnum pilosum (nom. inv.)] SK02

Echinodium hispidum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870 [=Hypnum hispidum, Leskea hispida, Sciaromium hispidum; incl. Echinodium arboreum, S. arboreum] SK02

Forsstroemia producta (Hornsch.) Paris 1896 [incl. Dusenia subproducta, F. subproducta (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1905, Lasia subproducta (n. n.)] SK02

Forsstroemia trichomitra ssp. australis (Müll.Hal.) Stark 1987 [=Lasia australis, Dusenia australis, Forsstroemia australis (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1895; incl. Lasia australis var. stricta, F. australis var. stricta (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1895] SK02

Lepyrodon lagurus (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 [=Leucodon lagurus, Hypnum lagurum Menzies ex Hooker 1819 (nom. inv.), Neckera lagura, Stereodon lagurus] SK02

Oedicladium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Mitt. 1868 [=Myurium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Fleischer 1908] SK02

Orthorrhynchium elegans ssp. cymbifolioides (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 [=Acroceratium cymbifolioides (n. n.), Phyllogonium cymbifolioides; incl. Orthorrhynchium thorpeanum (n. n.)] SK02

Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske 1907 SK02 [=Hypnum uncinatum SK02, Amblystegium uncinatum SK02, Drepanocladus uncinatus (Hedw.) Warnst. 1903 SK02; incl. A. aduncum D24, Hypnum contiguum Hooker & Wilson 1959 (preoc.) SK02, H. pseudouncinatum SK02]

Stereophyllum radiculosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 [incl. Euglossophyllum daemeli Müll.Hal. 1922 (n. n.), S. daemeli Fleischer 1922 (n. n.)] SK02

Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 [=Isopterygium taxirameum; incl. I. robustum, Taxiphyllum robustum, I. teysmannii] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[C03] Compère, P. 2003. Report of the Committee for Algae: 7. Taxon 52: 339–340.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[F01] Furuki, T. 2001. Lethocolea naruto-toganensis, a new hepatic from swamps of Japan. Bryologist 104 (2): 306–309.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SG07] Singh, S. K., & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 155–164.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1–21.

[VHJ03] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs & A.-L. Jacquemart. 2003. Differentiation in DNA fingerprinting and morphology among species of the pleurocarpous moss genus, Rhytidiadelphus (Hylocomiaceae). Taxon 52: 229–236.

Last updated: 9 January 2018.

Plagiotheciaceae

Plagiothecium denticulatum, photographed by Bob Klips.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Plagiotheciaceae are a family of mosses found worldwide, species of which grow in loose to dense mats or tufts. Though currently more diverse in the northern temperate zone, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the family may have originated in the Southern Hemisphere (Pedersen & Hedenäs 2002). Plagiothecium species are irregularly branching mosses with nerveless or two-nerved leaves and slender, oblong-cylindric capsules (Dixon 1924).

Synapomorphies (from Pedersen & Hedenäs 2002): Pseudoparaphyllia absent; rhizoids absent from stem and lowermost abaxial costa; axillary rhizoids purplish and granular-papillose; exostomes with whitish yellow basal part.

<==Plagiotheciaceae [Stereodontaceae]
    |--Catagonium Müll.Hal. 1908 SK02
    |    `--C. nitens (Brid.) Cardot 1915 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Stereodon D03
    |    |--S. lechleri D03
    |    |--S. nitidus D03
    |    `--S. ptychocarpon [=Ptychomnion ptychocarpon, Stereodon ptychomnium (l. c.)] SK02
    |--Acrocladium Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |    |--A. auriculatum [incl. Hypnum auriculatum, Acroceratium auriculatum, Stereodon auriculatus] SK02
    |    |--A. chlamydophyllum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. & Broth. 1900 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--A. morenoi D03
    |    `--A. trichocladium Bosw. 1892 SK02
    `--Plagiothecium Bruch & Schimp. 1851 SK02
         |--P. cavifolium N02
         |--P. denticulatum (Hedw.) Schimp. 1852 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--P. d. var. denticulatum D24
         |    |--P. d. var. aptychus D24
         |    |--P. d. var. densum D24
         |    `--P. d. var. majus [incl. P. rufo-virescens] D24
         |--P. depressum [=Hypnum depressum, Isopterygium depressum, Rhynchostegium depressum] D24
         |--P. elegans [=Hypnum elegans, Isopterygium elegans; incl. Plagiothecium borrerianum] D24
         |    |--P. e. var. elegans D24
         |    `--P. e. var. collinum D24
         |--P. fuegianum D03
         |--P. laetum M08
         |    |--P. l. var. laetum M08
         |    `--P. l. var. curvifolium M08
         |--P. lamprostachys (Hampe) Jaeger 1878 [=Hypnum lamprostachys; incl. P. novae-seelandiae Broth. 1916] SK02
         |--P. latebricola [=Leskea latebricola] D24
         |    |--P. l. f. latebricola D24
         |    `--P. l. f. gemmascens D24
         |--P. leptoplumosum Dusén 1903 D03
         |--P. lucidulum D03
         |--P. lucidum (Hooker & Wilson) Paris 1897 SK02
         |--P. magellanicum D03
         |--P. muehlenbeckii [=Hypnum muehlenbeckii; incl. P. striatellum] D24
         |--P. muellerianum [=Isopterygium muelleri] D24
         |--P. neckeroideum N02
         |--P. nemorale M08
         |--P. piliferum [=Leskea pilifera] D24
         |--P. roeseanum N77
         |--P. silesiacum [=Hypnum silesiacum; incl. Isopterygium repens] D24
         |--P. silvaticum [=Hypnum sylvaticum] D24
         |    |--P. s. var. silvaticum D24
         |    |--P. s. var. orthocladum D24
         |    |--P. s. var. succulentum D24
         |    `--P. s. var. sullivantiae D24
         `--P. undulatum [=Hypnum undulatum] D24

Nomen nudum: Plagiothecium amblyostomum Müll.Hal. ex Burges 1935 SK02
             Stereodon australis Hooker & Wilson ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Stereodon cupressiformis f. robusta Rodway 1914 SK02
             Stereodon wattsii Broth. ex Watts 1899 SK02

Acrocladium chlamydophyllum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. & Broth. 1900 [=Hypnum chlamydophyllum, Coelidium chlamydophyllum, Lembophyllum chlamydophyllum] SK02

Catagonium nitens (Brid.) Cardot 1915 [incl. Phyllogonium elegans var. acuminatum (nom. inv.), Orthorrhynchium hampeanum, Cryptogonium hampeanum, Phyllogonium hampeanum, Orthorrhynchium hampei (n. n.), Hypnum politum, Acroceratium politum, Acrocladium politum, Catagonium politum] SK02

Plagiothecium denticulatum
(Hedw.) Schimp. 1852 SK02 [=Hypnum denticulatum SK02; incl. P. denticuatum var. donii D24, P. donnianum SK02, Stereodon donnianus SK02, P. kinlayanum D24, P. denticulatum var. obtusifolium SK02, P. trichodeum D24]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[N77] Niedbała, W. 1977. Badania biocenotyczne nad mechowcami (Acari, Oribatei) Masywu Ślęży. Badania Fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią, Seria C—Zoologia 30: 47–73.

Pedersen, N., & L. Hedenäs. 2002. Phylogeny of the Plagiotheciaceae based on molecular and morphological evidence. Bryologist 105 (3): 310-324.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Last updated: 7 January 2018.